Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: PDCD2 (cancer-related)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has an established role in the acquisition of therapeutic resistance. Programmed cell death domain 2 (PDCD2) is involved in the progression of multiple types of cancer. However, its mechanism underlying chemoresistance in liver cancer has not been elucidated. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the sorafenib‑resistant HepG2 cell line exhibited EMT and multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotypes, and reduced expression of PDCD2, by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR), western blot analysis and Cell Counting Kit‑8. Annexin V/fluorescein isothiocyanate and cell migration assays further demonstrated that PDCD2 effectively promoted sorafenib‑induced cell apoptosis and reduced cell metastasis. Mechanistically, PDCD2 inhibited the expression of Vimentin and increased the expression of E‑cadherin in a Snail‑dependent manner by RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis. In conclusion, the present study elucidated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that PDCD2 sensitizes sorafenib‑resistant HepG2 cells to sorafenib by the downregulation of EMT. PDCD2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of sorafenib‑resistant liver cancer.
Wang W, Song XW, Bu XM, et al.PDCD2 and NCoR1 as putative tumor suppressors in gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016; 39(2):129-37 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. Previously, PDCD2 (programmed cell death protein 2) has been identified as a putative tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. As yet, however, no reports on PDCD2 expression and its physical interactor NCoR1 (nuclear receptor co-repressor), and their effects in GIST have been reported.
METHODS: The expression of PDCD2 and NCoR1 was assessed in 43 primary gastric GIST and normal gastric tissue samples using Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. Next, associations between PDCD2 and NCoR1 expression and various clinicopathological features, including survival, were determined. To assess the effects of PDCD2 and NCoR1 expression in vitro, two GIST-derived cell lines (GIST-T1 and GIST882) were (co-)transfected with the expression vectors pEGFP-N1-PDCD2 and pcDNA3.1-NCoR1, after which the cells were subjected to CCK-8, PI staining and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining assays, respectively. Finally, the mechanisms of action of PDCD2 and NCoR1 in GIST-derived cells were determined using immunoprecipitation and Western blotting assays.
RESULTS: We found that the PDCD2 and NCoR1 protein levels were lower in gastric GIST tissues than in normal gastric tissues. The PDCD2 and NCoR1 expression levels were found to be significantly associated with the survival of the patients. Through exogenous expression analyses, we found that PDCD2 and NCoR1 can decrease proliferation, and increase apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest, in GIST-derived cells. Furthermore, we found that PDCD2 and NCoR1 can activate Smad2 and Smad3.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that both PDCD2 and NCoR1 may act as tumor suppressors in GIST cells through the Smad signaling pathway.
Gastric cancer was the third cause of death in China. In this study, we found that the APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3) expression was higher in gastric cancer tissues than that in normal tissues and confirmed APOBEC3B expression was correlated with the unfavorable prognosis of the patients with gastric cancer. Furthermore, APOBEC3B expression was associated with gender, tumor size, histological grade, T stage, and TNM staging of the patients with gastric cancer. Down-regulation of APOBEC3B expression in MNK28 cells could enhance the cytotoxicity of PDCD2. No editing took place in PDCD2 positive MKN28 cells with APOBEC3B shRNA. These results indicated that loss of function of PDCD2 may be partly caused by APOBEC3B-induced extensive mutagenesis.
Du Y, Wang D, Luo L, Guo JmiR-129-1-3p promote BGC-823 cell proliferation by targeting PDCD2.
Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2014; 297(12):2273-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the class of small noncoding RNAs, and play an important role in the regulation of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. In this study, we explored the effect of miR-129-1-3p on the growth and cell cycle of human gastric cancer cell line BGC-823. The miR-129-1-3p mimics or inhibitors were transfected into the BGC-823 cell line, and the cell cycle and cell growth was measured by flow cytometry and real-time cell analyzer, respectively. The possible targets of miR-129-1-3p were analyzed by quantitative real time-PCR (QRT-PCR), Western blotting and Luciferase reporter assay. The results showed that miR-129-1-3p could promote the growth and cell cycle of BGC-823 cells. Although protein expression of programmed cell death 2 (PDCD2) was not changed with miR-129-1-3p, QRT-PCR showed that expression of PDCD2 mRNA was negatively related to the miR-129-1-3p. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that PDCD2 is one of the targets of miR-129-1-3p. Our results indicated that miR-129-1-3p might promote proliferation of BGC-823 cells by targeting PDCD2.
PDCD2 is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein with unknown function. The Drosophlia PDCD2 ortholog Zfrp8 has an essential function in fly hematopoiesis. Zfrp8 mutants exhibit marked lymph gland hyperplasia that results from increased proliferation of partially differentiated hemocytes, suggesting Zfrp8 may participate in cell growth. Based on the above observations we have focused on the role of PDCD2 in human cancer cell proliferation and hypothesized that aberrant PDCD2 expression may be characteristic of human malignancies. We report that PDCD2 is highly expressed in human acute leukemia cells as well as in normal hematopoietic progenitors. PDCD2 knockdown in cancer cells impairs their proliferation, but not viability relative to parental cells, supporting the notion that PDCD2 overexpression facilitates cancer cell growth. Prospective analysis of PDCD2 in acute leukemia patients indicates PDCD2 RNA expression correlates with disease status and is a significant predictor of clinical relapse. PDCD2's role in cell proliferation and its high expression in human malignancies make it an attractive, novel potential molecular target for new anti-cancer therapies.
Kokorina NA, Granier CJ, Zakharkin SO, et al.PDCD2 knockdown inhibits erythroid but not megakaryocytic lineage differentiation of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.
Exp Hematol. 2012; 40(12):1028-1042.e3 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Programmed cell death-2 (PDCD2) protein is enriched in embryonic, hematopoietic, and neural stem cells, however, its function in stem/progenitor cell differentiation is unclear. We investigated the effects of PDCD2 knockdown on the development and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). CD34(+) cells derived from normal human bone marrow and K562 leukemic cells were effectively transduced with short-hairpin RNA to knockdown PDCD2. Colony-forming assays were used to investigate the effects of PDCD2 loss on HPC clonogenic potential and on 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-and arabinofuranosylcytosine-induced terminal differentiation. In CD34(+) clonogenic progenitors, PDCD2 knockdown decreased the total number of colony-forming units, increased the number of colony-forming units-granulocyte-erythroid-macrophage-megakaryocyte and burst-forming unit-erythroid primitive colonies, and decreased the number of burst-forming unit-erythroid mature colonies. Similar results were observed in K562 cells, suggesting that PDCD2 is important for HPC differentiation and/or survival, and for erythroid lineage commitment. Furthermore, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-induced megakaryocytic differentiation and proliferation of K562 cells was not affected by PDCD2 knockdown. In contrast, arabinofuranosylcytosine-induced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was significantly reduced with PDCD2 knockdown, with no effect on cell proliferation. The effects of PDCD2 knockdown were attributed to a cell cycle arrest at G(0)/G(1), along with increased messenger RNA expression of early progenitor factors c-MYB and GATA-2, and decreased expression of erythroid factors GATA-1, EpoR, and γ-globin. We conclude that PDCD2 loss of function(s) impedes erythroid differentiation by inducing cell cycle arrest and increasing expression of early hematopoietic progenitor factors. These findings suggest that PDCD2 has a novel regulatory role in human hematopoiesis and is essential for erythroid development.
Kars MD, Işeri OD, Gündüz UA microarray based expression profiling of paclitaxel and vincristine resistant MCF-7 cells.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2011; 657(1-3):4-9 [PubMed
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Resistance to the broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cell lines and tumors has been called multiple drug resistance (MDR). In this study, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to two anticancer agents (paclitaxel and vincristine) in mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7 were investigated. Drug resistant sublines to paclitaxel (MCF-7/Pac) and vincristine (MCF-7/Vinc) that were developed from sensitive MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/S) were used. cDNA microarray analysis was performed for the RNA samples of sensitive and resistant cells in duplicate experiments. GeneSpring GX 7.3.1 Software was used in data analysis. The results indicated that the upregulation of MDR1 gene is the dominating mechanism of the paclitaxel and vincristine drug resistance. Additionally the upregulation of the genes encoding the detoxifying enzymes (i.e. GSTP1) was observed. Significant downregulation of apoptotic genes (i.e. PDCD2/4/6/8) and upregulation of some cell cycle regulatory genes (CDKN2A, CCNA2 etc.) was seen which may be in close relation to MDR in breast cancer. Drug resistant cancer cells exhibit different gene expression patterns depending on drug treatment, and each drug resistance phenotype is probably genetically different. Further functional studies are needed to demonstrate the complete set of genes contributing to the drug resistance phenotype in breast cancer cells.
Baron BW, Hyjek E, Gladstone B, et al.PDCD2, a protein whose expression is repressed by BCL6, induces apoptosis in human cells by activation of the caspase cascade.
Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2010; 45(2):169-75 [PubMed
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We have previously reported that the human programmed cell death-2 gene (PDCD2), a target of BCL6 repression, is likely to be important in the pathogenesis of certain human lymphomas. We now demonstrate that transfection of a construct expressing PDCD2 induces apoptosis in human cell lines, that this occurs, at least in part, through activation of the caspase cascade, and, furthermore, that caspase inhibitors block this effect. Immunohistochemical studies in human benign lymphoid and lymphoma tissues support these findings. In addition, transfection of a VP16-BCL6 zinc fingers fusion protein, which competes with the binding of endogenous BCL6 in a Burkitt lymphoma cell line, increases PDCD2 protein expression and apoptosis, and knockdown of the PDCD2 protein in this cell line by PDCD2-specific small interfering RNA duplexes inhibits apoptosis. These studies indicate that one function of PDCD2 is to promote apoptosis in several human and mammalian cell lines and tissues, including lymphoma. Although the pathways involved in lymphomagenesis are likely to be multiple and complex, it is plausible that repression of PDCD2 expression by BCL6, which, in turn, leads to downregulation of apoptosis, is one mechanism involved in BCL6-associated lymphomatous transformation. The usefulness of increasing PDCD2 expression in the treatment of certain lymphomas merits further investigation.
Jiang H, Xia J, Kang J, et al.Short hairpin RNA targeting beta-catenin suppresses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cells.
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009; 44(12):1452-62 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Aberrant activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is involved in various cancers, including human gastric cancer. Here we investigate the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in regulating gastric cancer cell apoptosis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Expression of beta-catenin was investigated after transfection with beta-catenin short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in gastric cancer cells by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. beta-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity was also investigated by using a luciferase reporter assay. Next, the effects of beta-catenin shRNA on cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay and flow cytometric analysis. To investigate the precise mechanism of these effects, a comprehensive analysis was performed using a cDNA microarray.
RESULTS: shRNA targeting beta-catenin resulted in a significant decrease in beta-catenin expression, and its nuclear localization and cell proliferation. Meanwhile, increased cell apoptosis was confirmed. The comprehensive analysis showed that shRNA targeting beta-catenin upregulated 26 apoptosis-related genes (including PERP, TRAF3, PDCD2, TNFRSF25, AKT2 and YWHAZ) and downregulated 48 apoptosis-related genes (including MALT1, IRAK1, TNFAIP3, PPP1R13L, TRIP and YWHAB) in gastric cancer cells. Pathway analysis suggested that the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway was involved in beta-catenin knockdown-induced apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Attenuation of beta-catenin by shRNA resulted in suppressed cell proliferation and apparent apoptosis, suggesting that beta-catenin may be a target for therapy of gastric cancer.
The human BCL6 gene on chromosome 3 band q27, which encodes a transcriptional repressor, is implicated in the pathogenesis of human lymphomas, especially the diffuse large B-cell type. We previously identified the human PDCD2 (programmed cell death-2) gene as a target of BCL6 repression. PDCD2 encodes a protein that is expressed in many human tissues, including lymphocytes, and is known to interact with corepressor complexes. We now show that BCL6 can bind directly to the PDCD2 promoter, repressing its transcription. Knockdown of endogenous BCL6 in a human B cell lymphoma line by introduction of small interfering RNA duplexes increases PDCD2 protein expression. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between the expression levels of the BCL6 and PDCD2 proteins in the lymphoid tissues of mice overexpressing human BCL6 (high BCL6 levels, minimal PDCD2) and controls (minimal BCL6, high PDCD2) as well as in tissues examined from some human B and T cell lymphomas. These data confirm PDCD2 as a target of BCL6 and support the concept that repression of PDCD2 by BCL6 is likely important in the pathogenesis of certain human lymphomas.
Fan CW, Chan CC, Chao CC, et al.Expression patterns of cell cycle and apoptosis-related genes in a multidrug-resistant human colon carcinoma cell line.
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2004; 39(5):464-9 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: An in vitro multidrug resistance (MDR) system from a human colonic cancer cell line (SW620-MDR) has been established. To further study the mechanisms at molecular level and prevention of multidrug resistance in clinical practice, it was demonstrated that the expressions of several apoptosis-related and cell cycle regulator genes were changed in the cells.
METHODS: A multidrug-resistant colonic cell line (SW620-MDR) was established, and the Atlas human cDNA expression array was used for studying the pattern of gene expression in this cell line. Furthermore, Northern hybridization or real-time PCR analysis confirmed the pattern of gene expression.
RESULTS: In the SW620-MDR cell line the pro-apoptosis genes, CASP4, BIK, PDCD2, and TACE were expressed with decreased levels, and the antiapoptosis genes CD27-L and IGFBP2 were over-expressed. Furthermore, the cell cycle regulator genes such as CDK6, CCND1, CDC27HS, CDC16HS, Wee1Hu, MAPKK1, and IGFBP6 were expressed with decreased levels in the drug-resistant cell line.
CONCLUSIONS: It is worthwhile investigating whether the differentially expressed pattern of the aforementioned genes exists in the drug-resistant cancer specimens, and to further understand their functions in the cancer drug-resistance mechanism.
Kusam S, Vasanwala FH, Dent ALTranscriptional repressor BCL-6 immortalizes germinal center-like B cells in the absence of p53 function.
Oncogene. 2004; 23(3):839-44 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Chromosomal rearrangements in non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma implicate BCL-6 as an oncogene, yet direct evidence for BCL-6 acting as an oncogene in B cells has been lacking. Here, we show that BCL-6 can immortalize primary B cells, but only in the absence of p53 tumor suppressor function. The expression of BCL-6 led to greatly increased B-cell proliferation, particularly in response to CD40 stimulation. Furthermore, BCL-6-infected p53-deficient B cells gave rise to immortalized cell lines that could be maintained by CD40 stimulation. We found that in primary mouse B cells, BCL-6 repressed expression of the Blimp-1, p27kip1, and cyclin D2 target genes. BCL-6 did not markedly repress the PDCD2 and BCL-XL target genes. The BCL-6 immortalized cell lines had a phenotype consistent with germinal center B cells, they expressed the germinal center-specific M17 gene, and a significant fraction of the cells stained positive with PNA. Our data indicate that BCL-6 may act to maintain B cells in a germinal center-like state, and repression of Blimp-1 by BCL-6 may be particularly crucial for stabilization of the germinal center phenotype. Our data also suggest that disruption of the p53 pathway may be crucial for the development of BCL-6-expressing B-cell lymphomas.
Steinemann D, Gesk S, Zhang Y, et al.Identification of candidate tumor-suppressor genes in 6q27 by combined deletion mapping and electronic expression profiling in lymphoid neoplasms.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2003; 37(4):421-6 [PubMed
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Deletions in the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q) are among the most frequent chromosome aberrations in lymphoid neoplasms. Recently, the region of minimal deletion (RMD1) in 6q27 was narrowed down to 5-9 Mb. In the present study, we aimed to define the distal border of the commonly lost region in 6q27 more precisely and to identify and investigate tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) from this region. Twenty-nine cases, in which our previous fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) screening that used a set of 36 YAC probes revealed loss in 6q25-27, were further investigated by means of FISH. In all cases, deletions of 6q27 extended from yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) 977e10 spanning the proximal border of RMD1 to the most telomeric YAC 933f7 within the recently established YAC-contig of this region. An interstitial homozygous deletion, flanked by the telomeric probe TelVysion6q and YAC 971g12, was detected, which substantially narrows down the RMD1. To identify candidate TSGs down-regulated in malignant lymphomas from this region of homozygous loss, we performed electronic profiling of expressed sequences mapped to this region. This analysis suggested the gene PDCD2 originally thought to be involved in programmed cell death to be probably down-regulated in malignant B-cell lymphomas compared to normal B lymphocytes. Nevertheless, mutation analyses failed to identify mutations in the coding region of PDCD2 in nine lymphomas with FISH-proved 6q27 deletions. Furthermore, epigenetic studies in these nine and an additional 48 lymphomas did not show altered methylation of the PDCD2 locus in these tumors. Possibly haploinsufficiency is effectual in accelerating tumor progression.
Rohlff C, Glazer RIRegulation of multidrug resistance through the cAMP and EGF signalling pathways.
Cell Signal. 1995; 7(5):431-43 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The development of cross-resistance to many natural product anticancer drugs, termed multidrug resistance (MDR), is a serious limitation to cancer chemotherapy. MDR is often associated with overexpression of the MDR1 gene product, P-glycoprotein, a multifunctional drug transporter. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate the transcriptional activation of MDR1 may afford a means of reducing or eliminating MDR. We have found that MDR1 expression can be modulated by type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). This suggests that MDR may be modulated by selectively downregulating PKA activity to effect inhibition of PKA-dependent trans-activating factors which may be involved in MDR1 transcription. High levels of type I PKA occur in primary breast carcinomas and patients exhibiting this phenotype show decreased survival. The selective type I PKA inhibitors, 8-Cl-cAMP and Rp8-Cl-cAMP[S], may be particularly useful for downregulating PKA, and inhibit transient expression of a reporter gene under the control of MDR1 promoter elements. Thus, investigations of the signalling pathways involved in transcriptional regulation of MDR1 may lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms governing the expression of MDR and provide a focus for pharmacological intervention.
Glazer RI, Rohlff CTranscriptional regulation of multidrug resistance in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1994; 31(2-3):263-71 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The development of cross-resistance to many natural product anticancer drugs, termed multidrug resistance (MDR), is one of the major reasons why cancer chemotherapy ultimately fails. This type of MDR is often associated with over-expression of the MDR1 gene product, P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a multifunctional drug transporter. The expression of MDR in breast tumors is related to their origination from a tissue that constitutively expresses Pgp as well as to the development of resistance during successive courses of chemotherapy. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate the transcriptional activation of MDR1 may afford a means of reducing or eliminating MDR. We have found that MDR1 expression can be modulated by type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), opening up the possibility of modulating MDR by selectively down-regulating the activity of PKA-dependent transcription factors which upregulate MDR1 expression. High levels of type I PKA occurs in primary breast carcinomas and patients exhibiting this phenotype show decreased survival. The selective type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitors, 8-Cl-cAMP and Rp8-Cl-cAMP[S] may be particularly useful for downregulating PKA-dependent MDR-associated transcription factors, and we have found these compounds to downregulate transient expression of a reporter gene under the control of several MDR1 promoter elements. Thus, investigations of this nature should not only lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms governing the expression of MDR, but also provide a focus for pharmacologic intervention by a new class of inhibitors.