Gene Summary

Gene:HDAC4; histone deacetylase 4
Aliases: HD4, AHO3, BDMR, HDACA, HA6116, HDAC-4, HDAC-A
Summary:Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone acetylation/deacetylation alters chromosome structure and affects transcription factor access to DNA. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to class II of the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family. It possesses histone deacetylase activity and represses transcription when tethered to a promoter. This protein does not bind DNA directly, but through transcription factors MEF2C and MEF2D. It seems to interact in a multiprotein complex with RbAp48 and HDAC3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:histone deacetylase 4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: HDAC4 (cancer-related)

Duffy DL, Zhu G, Li X, et al.
Novel pleiotropic risk loci for melanoma and nevus density implicate multiple biological pathways.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4774 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The total number of acquired melanocytic nevi on the skin is strongly correlated with melanoma risk. Here we report a meta-analysis of 11 nevus GWAS from Australia, Netherlands, UK, and USA comprising 52,506 individuals. We confirm known loci including MTAP, PLA2G6, and IRF4, and detect novel SNPs in KITLG and a region of 9q32. In a bivariate analysis combining the nevus results with a recent melanoma GWAS meta-analysis (12,874 cases, 23,203 controls), SNPs near GPRC5A, CYP1B1, PPARGC1B, HDAC4, FAM208B, DOCK8, and SYNE2 reached global significance, and other loci, including MIR146A and OBFC1, reached a suggestive level. Overall, we conclude that most nevus genes affect melanoma risk (KITLG an exception), while many melanoma risk loci do not alter nevus count. For example, variants in TERC and OBFC1 affect both traits, but other telomere length maintenance genes seem to affect melanoma risk only. Our findings implicate multiple pathways in nevogenesis.

Wanek J, Gaisberger M, Beyreis M, et al.
Pharmacological Inhibition of Class IIA HDACs by LMK-235 in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a key role in epigenetic mechanisms in health and disease and their dysfunction is implied in several cancer entities. Analysis of expression patterns in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) indicated HDAC5 to be a potential target for future therapies. As a first step towards a possible treatment, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cellular and molecular effects of HDAC5 inhibition in pNET cells. Two pNET cell lines, BON-1 and QGP-1, were incubated with different concentrations of the selective class IIA HDAC inhibitor, LMK-235. Effects on cell viability were determined using the resazurin-assay, the caspase-assay, and Annexin-V staining. Western Blot and immunofluorescence microscopy were performed to assess the effects on HDAC5 functionality. LMK-235 lowered overall cell viability by inducing apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, acetylation of histone-H3 increased with higher LMK-235 concentrations, indicating functional inhibition of HDAC4/5. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that proliferative activity (phosphohistone H3 and Ki-67) decreased at highest concentrations of LMK-235 while chromogranin and somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) expression increased in a dose-dependent manner. HDAC5 expression was found to be largely unaffected by LMK-235. These findings indicate LMK-235 to be a potential therapeutic approach for the development of an effective and selective pNET treatment.

Cai JY, Xu TT, Wang Y, et al.
Histone deacetylase HDAC4 promotes the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(6):2758-2768 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma is the most lethal type of primary brain tumor characterized by aggressiveness and a poor prognosis. Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. However, its biological functions in the development of glioma are not fully understood. The present study aimed to evaluate HDAC4 expression in human glioma and to elucidate the mechanistic role of HDAC4 in glioma. The results suggested that HDAC4 was significantly upregulated in glioma tissues and a number of glioma cell lines compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues and the non-cancerous human glial cell line SVG p12, respectively (P<0.05). The proliferation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and invasion ability were substantially enhanced in U251 cells with HDAC4 overexpression, and suppressed in U251 cells with a knockdown of HDAC4 compared with that in U251 cells transfected with the negative control. Knockdown of HDAC4 resulted in cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and induced the increase of reactive oxygen species level in U251 cells. Furthermore, HDAC4 overexpression was revealed to substantially inhibit the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27, and the expression of E-cadherin and β‑catenin in glioma U251 cells. Knockdown of HDAC4 substantially promoted the expression of CDK1 and CDK2 and vimentin in glioma U251 cells. Mechanistically, the results of the present study demonstrated that HDAC4 displayed a significant upregulation in glioma, and promoted glioma cell proliferation and invasion mediated through the repression of p21, p27, E-cadherin and β‑catenin, and the potentiation of CDK1, CDK2 and vimentin. Altogether, the present study revealed that HDAC4 overexpression was central for the tumorigenesis of glioma, which may serve as a useful prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for glioma.

Graule J, Uth K, Fischer E, et al.
CDX2 in colorectal cancer is an independent prognostic factor and regulated by promoter methylation and histone deacetylation in tumors of the serrated pathway.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):120 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In colorectal cancer, CDX2 expression is lost in approximately 20% of cases and associated with poor outcome. Here, we aim to validate the clinical impact of CDX2 and investigate the role of promoter methylation and histone deacetylation in CDX2 repression and restoration.
METHODS: CDX2 immunohistochemistry was performed on multi-punch tissue microarrays (n = 637 patients). Promoter methylation and protein expression investigated on 11 colorectal cancer cell lines identified two CDX2 low expressors (SW620, COLO205) for treatment with decitabine (DNA methyltransferase inhibitor), trichostatin A (TSA) (general HDAC inhibitor), and LMK-235 (specific HDAC4 and HDAC5 inhibitor). RNA and protein levels were assessed. HDAC5 recruitment to the CDX2 gene promoter region was tested by chromatin immunoprecipitation.
RESULTS: Sixty percent of tumors showed focal CDX2 loss; 5% were negative. Reduced CDX2 was associated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0167), distant metastasis (p = 0.0123), and unfavorable survival (multivariate analysis: p = 0.0008; HR (95%CI) 0.922 (0.988-0.997)) as well as BRAF
CONCLUSION: CDX2 loss is an adverse prognostic factor and linked to molecular features of the serrated pathway. RNA/protein expression is restored in CDX2 low-expressing CRC cell lines by demethylation and HDAC inhibition. Importantly, our data underline HDAC4 and HDAC5 as new epigenetic CDX2 regulators that warrant further investigation.

Kaowinn S, Kaewpiboon C, Koh SS, et al.
STAT1‑HDAC4 signaling induces epithelial‑mesenchymal transition and sphere formation of cancer cells overexpressing the oncogene, CUG2.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(5):2619-2627 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous studies have shown that the novel oncogene, cancer upregulated gene 2 (CUG2), activates STAT1, which is linked to anticancer drug resistance, induces epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell‑like phenotypes as determined by MTT, migration and sphere formation assays. We thus aimed to ascertain whether the activation of STAT1 by CUG2 is involved in these malignant phenotypes besides drug resistance. Here, we showed that STAT1 suppression decreased the expression of N‑cadherin and vimentin, biomarkers of EMT, which led to inhibition of the migration and invasion of human lung A549 cancer cells stably expressing CUG2, but did not recover E‑cadherin expression. STAT1 siRNA also diminished CUG2‑induced TGF‑β signaling, which is critical in EMT, and TGF‑β transcriptional activity. Conversely, inhibition of TGF‑β signaling reduced phosphorylation of STAT1, indicating a crosstalk between STAT1 and TGF‑β signaling. Furthermore, STAT1 silencing diminished sphere formation, which was supported by downregulation of stemness‑related factors such as Sox2, Oct4, and Nanog. Constitutive suppression of STAT1 also inhibited cell migration, invasion and sphere formation. As STAT1 acetylation counteracts STAT1 phosphorylation, acetylation of STAT1 by treatment with trichostatin A, an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), reduced cell migration, invasion, and sphere formation. As HDAC4 is known to target STAT1, its role was investigated under CUG2 overexpression. HDAC4 suppression resulted in inhibition of cell migration, invasion, and sphere formation as HDAC4 silencing hindered TGF‑β signaling and decreased expression of Sox2 and Nanog. Taken together, we suggest that STAT1‑HDAC4 signaling induces malignant tumor features such as EMT and sphere formation in CUG2‑overexpressing cancer cells.

Klieser E, Urbas R, Swierczynski S, et al.
HDAC-Linked "Proliferative" miRNA Expression Pattern in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic factors are essentially involved in carcinogenesis, tumor promotion, and chemoresistance. Two epigenetic key players are miRNAs and histone deacetylases (HDACs). As previously shown by own theoretical databank analysis, the crosstalk between miRNAs and HDACs is relevant in different human chronic diseases and cancerogenic pathways. We aimed to investigate a potential connection between the expression of a well-defined subset of "proliferation-associated" miRNAs and the expression of HDACs as well as clinical parameters in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression levels of miRNA132-3p, miRNA145-5p, miRNA183-5p, miRNA34a-5p, and miRNA449a in 57 pNETs resected between 1997 and 2015 were measured and linked to the immunohistochemical expression pattern of members of the four HDAC classes on human tissue microarrays. All pNET cases were clinically and pathologically characterized according to published guidelines. Correlation analysis revealed a significant association between expression of specific miRNAs and two members of the HDAC family (HDAC3 and HDAC4). Additionally, a linkage between miRNA expression and clinico-pathological parameters like grading, TNM-staging, and hormone activity was found. Moreover, overall and disease-free survival is statistically correlated with the expression of the investigated miRNAs. Overall, we demonstrated that specific miRNAs could be linked to HDAC expression in pNETs. Especially miRNA449a (associated with HDAC3/4) seems to play an important role in pNET proliferation and could be a potential prognostic factor for poor survival. These first data could help, to improve our knowledge of the complex interactions of the epigenetic drivers in pNETs for further therapeutic approaches.

Jin K, Zhao W, Xie X, et al.
MiR-520b restrains cell growth by targeting HDAC4 in lung cancer.
Thorac Cancer. 2018; 9(10):1249-1254 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as tumor promoting or tumor suppressing factors in many cancers. MiR-520b contributes to progression in head-neck and liver cancers, spinal osteosarcoma, and glioma; however, the association of miR-520b with lung cancer progression remains unknown. In this investigation, we explore the effect of miR-520b targeting HDAC4 on lung cancer growth.
METHODS: The regulation of miR-520b or its inhibitor on HDAC4 expression was analyzed using Western blot analysis. After treatment of miR-520b or its inhibitor, miR-520b and HDAC4 levels were examined using quantitative real time-PCR. The modulation of miR-520b on HDAC4 was investigated by luciferase reporter gene assay. Cell proliferation evaluation was performed using colony formation and methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium assays. The correlation between miR-520b and HDAC4 in human clinical samples was verified using Pearson's correlation coefficient.
RESULTS: An obvious decrease in HDAC4 expression was observed in lung cancer A549 cells treated with different doses of miR-520b. The miR-520b inhibitor enhanced HDAC4 expression in lung cancer cells. Bioinformatics predicted the targeting of miR-520b on HDAC4. MiR-520b directly targeted the 3' untranslated region of HDAC4. The introduction of miR-520b obviously inhibited cell proliferation in vitro. Anti-miR-520b was capable of accelerating lung cancer cell proliferation; however, HDAC4 knockdown destroyed anti-miR-520b-induced cell proliferation. Finally, a negative correlation between miR-520b and HDAC4 was observed in clinical human lung cancer samples.
CONCLUSION: MiR-520b decreases HDAC4 expression to control cell proliferation in lung cancer.

Kaletsch A, Pinkerneil M, Hoffmann MJ, et al.
Effects of novel HDAC inhibitors on urothelial carcinoma cells.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10(1):100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are promising anti-cancer drugs that could also be employed for urothelial carcinoma (UC) therapy. It is unclear, however, whether inhibition of all 11 zinc-dependent HDACs or of individual enzymes is more efficacious and specific. Here, we investigated the novel HDACi 19i (LMK235) with presumed preferential activity against class IIA HDAC4/5 in comparison to the pan-HDACi vorinostat (SAHA) and the HDAC4-specific HDACi TMP269 in UC cell lines with basal expression of HDAC4 and characterized two HDAC4-overexpressing UC cell lines.
METHODS: Cytotoxic concentrations 50% (CC
RESULTS: In UC cell lines, 19i CC
CONCLUSIONS: Anti-neoplastic effects of 19i on UC cells appear to be exerted by targeting class I HDACs. In fact, HDAC4 may rather impede UC growth. Our results suggest that targeting of class IIA HDACs 4/5 may not be optimal for UC therapy. Moreover, our investigation provides further evidence for cross-regulation of class IIA HDACs by class I HDACs.

Guo Y, Fang Q, Ma D, et al.
Up-regulation of HO-1 promotes resistance of B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia cells to HDAC4/5 inhibitor LMK-235 via the Smad7 pathway.
Life Sci. 2018; 207:386-394 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: HDAC4/5 and Smad7 are potential therapeutic targets for the onset and progression of B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) and indices for clinical prognosis. In contrast, HO-1 (heat shock protein 32) plays a key role in protecting tumor cells from apoptosis.
METHODS: HDAC4/5, HO-1 and Smad7 expressions in 34 newly diagnosed B-ALL cases were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot. Lentivirus and small interference RNA were used to transfect B-ALL cells. The expression of Smad7 was detected after treatment with LMK-235 or Hemin and ZnPP. Apoptosis and proliferation were evaluated by flow cytometry, CCK-8 assay and Western blot.
RESULTS: HDAC4/5 was overexpressed in B-ALL patients with high HO-1 levels. Increasing the concentration of HDAC4/5 inhibitor LMK-235 induced the decrease of Smad7 and HO-1 expressions and the apoptosis of B-ALL cells by suppressing the phosphorylation of AKT (Protein kinase B). Up-regulating HO-1 alleviated the decrease of Smad7 expression and enhanced B-ALL resistance to LMK-235 by activating p-AKT which reduced the apoptosis of B-ALL cells and influenced the survival of leukemia patients. Silencing Smad7 also augmented the apoptosis rate of B-ALL cells by suppressing p-AKT.
CONCLUSION: HO-1 played a key role in protecting tumor cells from apoptosis, and HDAC4/5 were related with the apoptosis of B-ALL cells. LMK-235 may be able to improve the poor survival of leukemia patients.

Liu Y, Liu Y, Wu J, et al.
Innate responses to gene knockouts impact overlapping gene networks and vary with respect to resistance to viral infection.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(14):E3230-E3237 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Analyses of the levels of mRNAs encoding IFIT1, IFI16, RIG-1, MDA5, CXCL10, LGP2, PUM1, LSD1, STING, and IFNβ in cell lines from which the gene encoding LGP2, LSD1, PML, HDAC4, IFI16, PUM1, STING, MDA5, IRF3, or HDAC 1 had been knocked out, as well as the ability of these cell lines to support the replication of HSV-1, revealed the following: (

Tarumoto Y, Lu B, Somerville TDD, et al.
LKB1, Salt-Inducible Kinases, and MEF2C Are Linked Dependencies in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Mol Cell. 2018; 69(6):1017-1027.e6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The lineage-specific transcription factor (TF) MEF2C is often deregulated in leukemia. However, strategies to target this TF have yet to be identified. Here, we used a domain-focused CRISPR screen to reveal an essential role for LKB1 and its Salt-Inducible Kinase effectors (SIK3, in a partially redundant manner with SIK2) to maintain MEF2C function in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A key phosphorylation substrate of SIK3 in this context is HDAC4, a repressive cofactor of MEF2C. Consequently, targeting of LKB1 or SIK3 diminishes histone acetylation at MEF2C-bound enhancers and deprives leukemia cells of the output of this essential TF. We also found that MEF2C-dependent leukemias are sensitive to on-target chemical inhibition of SIK activity. This study reveals a chemical strategy to block MEF2C function in AML, highlighting how an oncogenic TF can be disabled by targeting of upstream kinases.

Li Y, Wang K, Wei Y, et al.
lncRNA-MIAT regulates cell biological behaviors in gastric cancer through a mechanism involving the miR-29a-3p/HDAC4 axis.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(6):3465-3472 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignant diseases worldwide. Although significant progress has been made in the early detection and treatment of GC over the past decades, the prognosis is still not satisfactory and the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. Long non-coding RNA MIAT has been established as a key player in the regulation of various biological and pathological processes including chronic lymphocytic leukemias, acute myocardial infarction and neuroendocrine prostate cancer. However, the function of MIAT in GC remains largely unknown. The expressions of lncRNA MIAT, miR-29a-3p and HDAC4 mRNA were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). RNA interference approach was used to investigate the cellular functions of MIAT and miR-29a-3p. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry assay were performed to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cell migration and invasion abilities were evaluated by Transwell assays. In the present study, we first confirmed the high expression level of MIAT in GC tissues and cell lines. In addition, knockdown of MIAT suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of GC cells in vitro. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that MIAT competitively binds to miR-29a-3p and consequently upregulates the expression of HDAC4, which is a downstream target of miR-29a-3p. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the involvement of the MIAT/miR-29a-3p/HDAC4 axis in the development of GC, which provided potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for GC.

Bhutani M, Zhang Q, Friend R, et al.
Investigation of a gene signature to predict response to immunomodulatory derivatives for patients with multiple myeloma: an exploratory, retrospective study using microarray datasets from prospective clinical trials.
Lancet Haematol. 2017; 4(9):e443-e451 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory derivatives (IMiDs), along with proteasome inhibitors, are key components of treatment regimens for multiple myeloma. Nonetheless, outcomes vary among treated individuals. Drug-specific gene-expression profile (GEP) signatures that aid the prediction of favourable and unfavourable outcomes can provide patients with the most effective therapy for their individual disease. We aimed to develop and validate a gene expression signature to suggest which patients would benefit most from IMiD-based therapies.
METHODS: For this exploratory retrospective study, we selected a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who were treated in clinical trials with IMiD-containing regimens. Cohorts were eligible if they had publicly available GEP data from patients' bone marrow plasma cells, with long-term follow-up and clinicopathological data. In the development stage of the model, we identified 176 IMiD response genes that were differentially expressed before and after IMiD exposure using pharmacogenomic GEP data from patients who had bone marrow samples taken before and 48 h after a test dose exposure with thalidomide (n=42), lenalidomide (n=18), or pomalidomide (n=18). 14 of these genes had p values less than 0·05 for associations with progression-free survival in patients who received thalidomide in induction and maintenance therapy in the Total Therapy (TT) 2 trial (ie, the training cohort). We combined the 14 genes to create a continuous IMiD-14 score and an optimal cutoff. The subgroup with an IMiD-14 score higher than the cutoff was deemed to be IMiD-resistant. We obtained validation cohorts from four studies of IMiD combination regimens: the TT3a trial (thalidomide in induction and maintenance), the TT3b trial (thalidomide in induction and lenalidomide in maintenance), the TT6 trial (thalidomide in induction and lenalidomide in maintenance), and the vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (VAD) group of the HOVON65/GMMG-HD4 trial (thalidomide in maintenance). The primary endpoint was to show the prognostic value of the IMiD-14 gene signature for progression-free survival.
FINDINGS: In the training cohort, progression-free survival was significantly shorter in the 83 patients with IMiD-14 high scores than in the 92 patients with IMiD-14 low scores; 3 year progression-free survival was 52% (95% CI 42-64) for the IMiD-14 high group versus 85% (78-92) for the IMiD-14 low group, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2·51 (95% CI 1·72-3·66; p<0·0001). These findings were supported by the results in the validation cohorts, TT3a (115 patients with IMiD-14 high vs 160 patients with IMiD-14 low; 3 year progression-free survival 63% [95% CI 55-73] vs 87% [82-92]; HR 1·54 [1·11-2·15], p=0·010), TT3b (77 patients with IMiD-14 high vs 89 patients with IMiD-14 low; 62% [52-74] vs 80% [72-89]; HR 2·07 [1·28-3·34], p=0·0024), TT6 (20 patients with IMiD-14 high vs 36 patients with IMiD-14 low; 39% [22-68] vs 74% [61-90]; HR 2·40 [1·09-5·30], p=0·026), and the VAD group of HOVON65/GMMG-HD4 (65 patients with IMiD-14 high vs 77 patients with IMiD-14 low; 16% [9-28] vs 54% [44-67]; HR 2·29 [1·52-3·45], p<0·0001).
INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that the IMiD-14 model has prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma who are treated with IMiDs. Some genes in the model could provide novel targets for IMiD resistance and therapeutic intervention. The IMiD-14 model warrants evaluation in prospective studies.
FUNDING: Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Young Investigator Award and the Carolinas Myeloma Research Fund.

He Q, Li G, Wang X, et al.
A Decrease of Histone Deacetylase 6 Expression Caused by Helicobacter Pylori Infection is Associated with Oncogenic Transformation in Gastric Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017; 42(4):1326-1335 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) plays a role in the progression of many tumors. However, the relationship between the level of HDAC6 expression and gastric tumorigenesis is still unclear. Here, we illustrate the potential correlation between Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and the variation of HDAC6 expression in different gastric lesions, as well as the clinical significance of HDAC6 expression in gastric cancer (GC) patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2011 and 2016, 364 patients with different types of gastric lesions were enrolled in Baotou City Central Hospital. Immunostaining of HDAC6 expression and HP infection were performed in the following cohort including 21 normal tissues (Normal); 40 samples with chronic superficial gastritis (CSG); 106 with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG); 94 with intestinal metaplasia (IM); 64 with dysplasia (DYS) and 39 with gastric cancer (GC). Survival analysis was performed in another 80 GC patients using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression analyses. The level of HDAC6 expression was determined by Real-time PCR, Western blotting and IHC staining in gastric cell lines and tissues. Furthermore, the correlation between HDAC6 expression and clinicopathological features and prognosis was analyzed in the GC cohort. HP strains were lavaged into Kunming mice to investigate the effects of HP infection on the expression of different HDAC members in this mouse model.
RESULTS: Higher levels of HDAC6 expression were detected in normal and premalignant lesions than in the GC tissues (p<0.01), and decreased HDAC6 expression was associated with HP infection and TNM stage (p<0.01 and p=0.048, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that HDAC6 expression was an independent predictor of the outcome of GC patients (p=0.04). HP mediated HDAC6 expression in the cell lines and KM mice. HP infection could promote HDAC1 and HDAC4 expression as determined by Western blotting.
CONCLUSIONS: HDAC6 is a promising biomarker for early diagnosis and prognosis during the oncogenic transformation of gastric cancer.

Di Giorgio E, Franforte E, Cefalù S, et al.
The co-existence of transcriptional activator and transcriptional repressor MEF2 complexes influences tumor aggressiveness.
PLoS Genet. 2017; 13(4):e1006752 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The contribution of MEF2 TFs to the tumorigenic process is still mysterious. Here we clarify that MEF2 can support both pro-oncogenic or tumor suppressive activities depending on the interaction with co-activators or co-repressors partners. Through these interactions MEF2 supervise histone modifications associated with gene activation/repression, such as H3K4 methylation and H3K27 acetylation. Critical switches for the generation of a MEF2 repressive environment are class IIa HDACs. In leiomyosarcomas (LMS), this two-faced trait of MEF2 is relevant for tumor aggressiveness. Class IIa HDACs are overexpressed in 22% of LMS, where high levels of MEF2, HDAC4 and HDAC9 inversely correlate with overall survival. The knock out of HDAC9 suppresses the transformed phenotype of LMS cells, by restoring the transcriptional proficiency of some MEF2-target loci. HDAC9 coordinates also the demethylation of H3K4me3 at the promoters of MEF2-target genes. Moreover, we show that class IIa HDACs do not bind all the regulative elements bound by MEF2. Hence, in a cell MEF2-target genes actively transcribed and strongly repressed can coexist. However, these repressed MEF2-targets are poised in terms of chromatin signature. Overall our results candidate class IIa HDACs and HDAC9 in particular, as druggable targets for a therapeutic intervention in LMS.

Olbryt M, Rusin A, Fokt I, et al.
Bis-anthracycline WP760 abrogates melanoma cell growth by transcription inhibition, p53 activation and IGF1R downregulation.
Invest New Drugs. 2017; 35(5):545-555 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Anthracycline chemotherapeutics, e.g. doxorubicin and daunorubicin, are active against a broad spectrum of cancers. Their cytotoxicity is mainly attributed to DNA intercalation, interference with topoisomerase activity, and induction of double-stranded DNA breaks. Since modification of anthracyclines can profoundly affect their pharmacological properties we attempted to elucidate the mechanism of action, and identify possible molecular targets, of bis-anthracycline WP760 which previously demonstrated anti-melanoma activity at low nanomolar concentrations. We studied the effect of WP760 on several human melanoma cell lines derived from tumors in various development stages and having different genetic backgrounds. WP760 inhibited cell proliferation (IC

Zhang Y, Ren YJ, Guo LC, et al.
Nucleus accumbens-associated protein-1 promotes glycolysis and survival of hypoxic tumor cells via the HDAC4-HIF-1α axis.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(29):4171-4181 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nucleus accumbens-associated protein-1 (NAC1), a nuclear factor of the BTB/POZ gene family, has emerging roles in cancer. In this study, we identified the NAC1-HDAC4-HIF-1α axis as an important pathway in regulating glycolysis and hypoxic adaptation in tumor cells. We show that nuclear NAC1 binds to histone deacetylase type 4 (HDAC4), hindering phosphorylation of HDAC4 at Ser

Weng JR, Bai LY, Lin WY, et al.
A Flavone Constituent from Myoporum bontioides Induces M-Phase Cell Cycle Arrest of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.
Molecules. 2017; 22(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myoporum bontioides is a traditional medicinal plant in Asia with various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial characteristics. To identify the bioactive constituents from M. bontioides, a newly-identified flavone, 3,4'-dimethoxy-3',5,7-trihydroxyflavone (compound 1), along with eight known compounds, were investigated in human MCF-7 breast cancer, SCC4 oral cancer, and THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells. Among these compounds, compound 1 exhibited the strongest antiproliferative activity with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC

Oya Y, Mondal A, Rawangkan A, et al.
Down-regulation of histone deacetylase 4, -5 and -6 as a mechanism of synergistic enhancement of apoptosis in human lung cancer cells treated with the combination of a synthetic retinoid, Am80 and green tea catechin.
J Nutr Biochem. 2017; 42:7-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, acts as a synergist with various anticancer drugs, including retinoids. Am80 is a synthetic retinoid with a different structure from all-trans-retinoic acid: Am80 is now clinically utilized as a new drug for relapsed and intractable acute promyelocytic leukemia patients. Our experiments showed that the combination of EGCG and Am80 synergistically induced both apoptosis in human lung cancer cell line PC-9 and up-regulated expressions of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), death receptor 5, and p21

Sundar IK, Rahman I
Gene expression profiling of epigenetic chromatin modification enzymes and histone marks by cigarette smoke: implications for COPD and lung cancer.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016; 311(6):L1245-L1258 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromatin-modifying enzymes mediate DNA methylation and histone modifications on recruitment to specific target gene loci in response to various stimuli. The key enzymes that regulate chromatin accessibility for maintenance of modifications in DNA and histones, and for modulation of gene expression patterns in response to cigarette smoke (CS), are not known. We hypothesize that CS exposure alters the gene expression patterns of chromatin-modifying enzymes, which then affects multiple downstream pathways involved in the response to CS. We have, therefore, analyzed chromatin-modifying enzyme profiles and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). We also performed immunoblot analysis of targeted histone marks in C57BL/6J mice exposed to acute and subchronic CS, and of lungs from nonsmokers, smokers, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We found a significant increase in expression of several chromatin modification enzymes, including DNA methyltransferases, histone acetyltransferases, histone methyltransferases, and SET domain proteins, histone kinases, and ubiquitinases. Our qPCR validation data revealed a significant downregulation of Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Hdac2, Hdac4, Hat1, Prmt1, and Aurkb We identified targeted chromatin histone marks (H3K56ac and H4K12ac), which are induced by CS. Thus CS-induced genotoxic stress differentially affects the expression of epigenetic modulators that regulate transcription of target genes via DNA methylation and site-specific histone modifications. This may have implications in devising epigenetic-based therapies for COPD and lung cancer.

Xiao Q, Huang L, Zhang Z, et al.
Overexpression of miR-140 Inhibits Proliferation of Osteosarcoma Cells via Suppression of Histone Deacetylase 4.
Oncol Res. 2017; 25(2):267-275 [PubMed] Related Publications
miRNAs play a pivotal role in the development and progression of osteosarcoma (OS). Previous studies indicated that miR-140 acts as a tumor suppressor in many cancers. However, its accurate expression and exact function in OS cells remain unknown. Herein, we demonstrated the lower expression of miR-140 in 40 paired OS tissues. Restoring miR-140 expression in OS cells had a marked effect on inhibiting cell proliferation and invasion, inducing cell apoptosis in vitro, and suppressing tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, a bioinformatics prediction indicated that the histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is a target gene of miR-140 and is involved in miR-140-mediated suppressive effects. In conclusion, our findings show that miR-140 acts as a tumor suppressor in OS by targeting HDAC4.

Ciesla M, Marona P, Kozakowska M, et al.
Heme Oxygenase-1 Controls an HDAC4-miR-206 Pathway of Oxidative Stress in Rhabdomyosarcoma.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(19):5707-5718 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive soft tissue cancer characterized by disturbed myogenic differentiation. Here we report a role for the oxidative stress response factor HO-1 in progression of RMS. We found that HO-1 was elevated and its effector target miR-206 decreased in RMS cell lines and clinical primary tumors of the more aggressive alveolar phenotype (aRMS). In embryonal RMS (eRMS), HO-1 expression was induced by Pax3/7-FoxO1, an aRMS hallmark oncogene, followed by a drop in miR-206 levels. Inhibition of HO-1 by tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) or siRNA downregulated Pax3/7-FoxO1 target genes and induced a myogenic program in RMS. These effects were not mediated by altered myoD expression; instead, cells with elevated HO-1 produced less reactive oxygen species, resulting in nuclear localization of HDAC4 and miR-206 repression. HO-1 inhibition by SnPP reduced growth and vascularization of RMS tumors in vivo accompanied by induction of miR-206. Effects of SnPP on miR-206 expression and RMS tumor growth were mimicked by pharmacologic inhibition of HDAC. Thus, HO-1 inhibition activates an miR-206-dependent myogenic program in RMS, offering a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of this malignancy. Cancer Res; 76(19); 5707-18. ©2016 AACR.

Peruzzo P, Comelli M, Di Giorgio E, et al.
Transformation by different oncogenes relies on specific metabolic adaptations.
Cell Cycle. 2016; 15(19):2656-2668 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metabolic adaptations are emerging as common traits of cancer cells and tumor progression. In vitro transformation of NIH 3T3 cells allows the analysis of the metabolic changes triggered by a single oncogene. In this work, we have compared the metabolic changes induced by H-RAS and by the nuclear resident mutant of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). RAS-transformed cells exhibit a dominant aerobic glycolytic phenotype characterized by up-regulation of glycolytic enzymes, reduced oxygen consumption and a defect in complex I activity. In this model of transformation, glycolysis is strictly required for sustaining the ATP levels and the robust cellular proliferation. By contrast, in HDAC4/TM transformed cells, glycolysis is only modestly up-regulated, lactate secretion is not augmented and, instead, mitochondrial oxygen consumption is increased. Our results demonstrate that cellular transformation can be accomplished through different metabolic adaptations and HDAC4/TM cells can represent a useful model to investigate oncogene-driven metabolic changes besides the Warburg effect.

Zeng LS, Yang XZ, Wen YF, et al.
Overexpressed HDAC4 is associated with poor survival and promotes tumor progression in esophageal carcinoma.
Aging (Albany NY). 2016; 8(6):1236-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) mediate histone deacetylation, leading to transcriptional repression, which is involved in many diseases, including age-related tissue degeneration, heart failure and cancer. In this study, we were aimed to investigate the expression, clinical significance and biological function of HDAC4 in esophageal carcinoma (EC). We found that HDAC4 mRNA and protein are overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and cell lines. HDAC4 overexpression is associated with higher tumor grade, advanced clinical stage and poor survival. Mechanistically, HDAC4 promotes proliferation and G1/S cell cycle progression in EC cells by inhibiting cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27 and up-regulating CDK2/4 and CDK-dependent Rb phosphorylation. HDAC4 also enhances ESCC cell migration. Furthermore, HDAC4 positively regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by increasing the expression of Vimentin and decreasing the expression of E-Cadherin/α-Catenin. Together, our study shows that HDAC4 overexpression is important for the oncogenesis of EC, which may serve as a useful prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for this malignancy.

Amodio N, Stamato MA, Gullà AM, et al.
Therapeutic Targeting of miR-29b/HDAC4 Epigenetic Loop in Multiple Myeloma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(6):1364-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic abnormalities are common in hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma, and their effects can be efficiently counteracted by a class of tumor suppressor miRNAs, named epi-miRNAs. Given the oncogenic role of histone deacetylases (HDAC) in multiple myeloma, we investigated whether their activity could be antagonized by miR-29b, a well-established epi-miRNA. We demonstrated here that miR-29b specifically targets HDAC4 and highlighted that both molecules are involved in a functional loop. In fact, silencing of HDAC4 by shRNAs inhibited multiple myeloma cell survival and migration and triggered apoptosis and autophagy, along with the induction of miR-29b expression by promoter hyperacetylation, leading to the downregulation of prosurvival miR-29b targets (SP1, MCL-1). Moreover, treatment with the pan-HDAC inhibitor SAHA upregulated miR-29b, overcoming the negative control exerted by HDAC4. Importantly, overexpression or inhibition of miR-29b, respectively, potentiated or antagonized SAHA activity on multiple myeloma cells, as also shown in vivo by a strong synergism between miR-29b synthetic mimics and SAHA in a murine xenograft model of human multiple myeloma. Altogether, our results shed light on a novel epigenetic circuitry regulating multiple myeloma cell growth and survival and open new avenues for miR-29b-based epi-therapeutic approaches in the treatment of this malignancy. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1364-75. ©2016 AACR.

Su YH, Huang WC, Huang TH, et al.
Folate deficient tumor microenvironment promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem-like phenotypes.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(22):33246-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clinically, serum level of folate has been negatively correlated to the stage and progression of liver cancer. Nevertheless, the functional consequence of folate deficiency (FD) in malignancy has not been fully investigated. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells (as study model) and other cancer types such as lung and glioma were cultured under folate deficient (FD) and folate complete (FD) conditions. Molecular characterization including intracellular ROS/RNS (reactive oxygen/nitrogen species), viability, colony formation, cancer stem-like cell (CSC) phenotype analyses were performed. In vivo tumorigenesis under FD and FC conditions were also examined. FD induced a significant increase in ROS and RNS, suppressing proliferative ability but inducing metastatic potential. Mesenchymal markers such as Snail, ZEB2, and Vimentin were significantly up-regulated while E-cadherin down-regulated. Importantly, CSC markers such as Oct4, β-catenin, CD133 were induced while PRRX1 decreased under FD condition. Furthermore, FD-conditioned HCC cells showed a decreased miR-22 level, leading to the increased expression of its target genes including HDAC4, ZEB2 and Oct4. Finally, xenograft mouse model demonstrated that FD diet promoted tumorigenesis and metastasis as compared to their FC counterparts. Our data provides rationales for the consideration of folate supplement as a metastasis preventive measure.

Magrangeas F, Kuiper R, Avet-Loiseau H, et al.
A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies a Novel Locus for Bortezomib-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in European Patients with Multiple Myeloma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(17):4350-4355 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Painful peripheral neuropathy is a frequent toxicity associated with bortezomib therapy. This study aimed to identify loci that affect susceptibility to this toxicity.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 370,605 SNPs was performed to identify risk variants for developing severe bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BiPN) in 469 patients with multiple myeloma who received bortezomib-dexamethasone therapy prior to autologous stem cell in randomized clinical trials of the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome (IFM) and findings were replicated in 114 patients with multiple myeloma of the HOVON-65/GMMG-HD4 clinical trial.
RESULTS: An SNP in the PKNOX1 gene was associated with BiPN in the exploratory cohort [rs2839629; OR, 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45-2.44; P = 7.6 × 10(-6)] and in the replication cohort (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, = 1.11-3.33; P = 8.3 × 10(-3)). In addition, rs2839629 is in strong linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.87) with rs915854, located in the intergenic region between PKNOX1 and cystathionine-ß-synthetase (CBS) Expression quantitative trait loci mapping showed that both rs2839629 and rs915854 genotypes have an impact on PKNOX1 expression in nerve tissue, whereas rs2839629 affects CBS expression in skin and blood.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of GWAS in multiple myeloma pharmacogenomics has identified a novel candidate genetic locus mapping to PKNOX1 and in the immediate vicinity of CBS at 21q22.3 associated with the severe bortezomib-induced toxicity. The proximity of these two genes involved in neurologic pain whose tissue-specific expression is modified by the two variants provides new targets for neuroprotective strategies. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4350-5. ©2016 AACR.

Li W, Pung D, Su ZY, et al.
Epigenetics Reactivation of Nrf2 in Prostate TRAMP C1 Cells by Curcumin Analogue FN1.
Chem Res Toxicol. 2016; 29(4):694-703 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It has previously been shown that curcumin can effectively inhibit prostate cancer proliferation and progression in TRAMP mice, potentially acting through the hypomethylation of the Nrf2 gene promoter and hence activation of the Nrf2 pathway to enhance cell antioxidative defense. FN1 is a synthetic curcumin analogue that shows stronger anticancer activity than curcumin in other reports. We aimed to explore the epigenetic modification of FN1 that restores Nrf2 expression in TRAMP-C1 cells. Stably transfected HepG2-C8 cells were used to investigate the effect of FN1 on the Nrf2- antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were applied to study the influence of FN1 on endogenous Nrf2 and its downstream genes. Bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS) and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) were then performed to examine the methylation profile of the Nrf2 promoter. An anchorage-independent colony-formation analysis was conducted to examine the tumor inhibition activity of FN1. Epigenetic modification enzymes, including DNMTs and HDACs, were investigated by Western blotting. The luciferase reporter assay indicated that FN1 was more potent than curcumin in activating the Nrf2-ARE pathway. FN1 increased the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream detoxifying enzymes. FN1 significantly inhibited the colony formation of TRAMP-C1 cells. BGS and MeDIP assays revealed that FN1 treatment (250 nM for 3 days) reduced the percentage of CpG methylation of the Nrf2 promoter. FN1 also downregulated epigenetic modification enzymes. In conclusion, our results suggest that FN1 is a novel anticancer agent for prostate cancer. In the TRAMP-C1 cell line, FN1 can increase the level of Nrf2 and downstream genes via activating the Nrf2-ARE pathway and inhibit the colony formation potentially through the decreased expression of keap1 coupled with CpG demethylation of the Nrf2 promoter. This CpG demethylation effect may come from decreased epigenetic modification enzymes, such as DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, and HDAC4.

Davidson B
Recently identified drug resistance biomarkers in ovarian cancer.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2016; 16(5):569-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer, consisting mainly of ovarian carcinoma, is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Improvements in outcome for patients with advanced-stage disease are limited by intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance and by tumor heterogeneity at different anatomic sites and along disease progression. Molecules and cellular pathways mediating chemoresistance appear to be different for the different histological types of ovarian carcinoma, with most recent research focusing on serous and clear cell carcinoma. This review discusses recent data implicating various biomarkers in chemoresistance in this cancer, with focus on studies in which clinical specimens have been central.

Di Giorgio E, Brancolini C
Regulation of class IIa HDAC activities: it is not only matter of subcellular localization.
Epigenomics. 2016; 8(2):251-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
In response to environmental cues, enzymes that influence the functions of proteins, through reversible post-translational modifications supervise the coordination of cell behavior like orchestral conductors. Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) belong to this category. Even though in vertebrates these deacetylases have discarded the core enzymatic activity, class IIa HDACs can assemble into multiprotein complexes devoted to transcriptional reprogramming, including but not limited to epigenetic changes. Class IIa HDACs are subjected to variegated and interconnected layers of regulation, which reflect the wide range of biological responses under the scrutiny of this gene family. Here, we discuss about the key mechanisms that fine tune class IIa HDACs activities.

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