Gene Summary

Gene:CYP1B1; cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1
Aliases: CP1B, GLC3A, CYPIB1, P4501B1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. The enzyme encoded by this gene localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and metabolizes procarcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 17beta-estradiol. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary congenital glaucoma; therefore it is thought that the enzyme also metabolizes a signaling molecule involved in eye development, possibly a steroid. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cytochrome P450 1B1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CYP1B1 (cancer-related)

Liu F, Luo LM, Wei YG, et al.
Polymorphisms of the CYP1B1 gene and hepatocellular carcinoma risk in a Chinese population.
Gene. 2015; 564(1):14-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CYP1B1 is a P450 enzyme which is involved in the activation of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens as well as estrogen metabolism. We hypothesized that genetic variants in CYP1B1 may modify individual susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the associations of three CYP1B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and HCC risk in a case-control study of 468 HCC cases and 515 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method and direct DNA sequencing were performed to detect these polymorphisms.
RESULTS: In overall analysis, we found that only the variant G allele of rs1056836 was associated with a significantly increased risk of HCC among the three SNPs (rs10012, rs1056836 and rs1800440). Moreover, we found that the variant genotypes containing the G allele of rs1056836 were associated with a significantly increased risk of HCC among HbsAg-positive individuals (adjusted OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.18, 3.86), but not among HbsAg-negative individuals. When stratifying by smoking status, we found that the variant GG genotype increased a 13.97-fold (95% CI=1.28, 152.94) risk of HCC among smokers. Furthermore, high risk for liver cirrhosis-positive clinical status was exhibited in HCC patients with rs1056836 CG and GG genotypes as compared with CC homozygotes. For the other two SNPs, we did not find any significant evidence of association with HCC risk in any subgroup.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that CYP1B1 rs1056836 polymorphism may be an important factor contributing to increased susceptibility and pathological development of HCC in Chinese population.

Ishida M, Mikami S, Shinojima T, et al.
Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor promotes invasion of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and is associated with poor prognosis and cigarette smoke.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(2):299-310 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although exposure to environmental pollutants is one of the risk factors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), its relationship with carcinogenesis and the progression of RCC remains unknown. The present study was designed to elucidate the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a major mediator of carcinogenesis caused by environmental pollutants, in the progression of RCC. The expression of AhR was investigated in 120 patients with RCC using immunohistochemistry, and its relationship with clinicopathological parameters and prognoses was statistically analyzed. RCC cell lines were exposed to indirubin or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), AhR ligands, to activate the AhR pathway, or were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for AhR. The expression of the AhR target genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and invasion through Matrigel(TM) were then examined. AhR was predominantly expressed in the nuclei of high-grade clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and its expression levels in cancer cells and TILs correlated with the pathological tumor stage and histological grade. A multivariate Cox analysis revealed that the strong expression of AhR in cancer cells was a significant and independent predictor of disease-specific survival. AhR ligands up-regulated the expression of AhR and CYPs and promoted invasion by up-regulating MMPs. Furthermore, siRNA for AhR down-regulated CYPs, and inhibited cancer cell invasion together with the down-regulation of MMPs. These results suggest that AhR regulates the invasion of ccRCC and may be involved in tumor immunity. Therefore, inhibiting the activation of AhR may represent a potentially attractive therapeutic target for ccRCC patients.

Go RE, Hwang KA, Choi KC
Cytochrome P450 1 family and cancers.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015; 147:24-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor that dimerizes with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). This complex binds to xenobiotics response element (XREs), and then starts the expressions of downstream genes including cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 family members: CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1. Role of CYP1 family is involved in the metabolism of endogenous hormones, xenobiotics and drug. The expression of CYP1 family is regulated by estradiol (E2) or xenobiotics in diverse cancers. In breast cancers expressing estrogen receptors (ERs), level of CYP1B1 is increased by E2 and reversed by an estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780 or 4-hydrotamoxifen, which indicates that the expression of CYP1 family in downstream region of AhR is regulated by an activation of ERα. In metabolic pathways, E2 is converted into 4-hydroxyestradiol by CYP1B1, which can be converted into mainly estradiol-3,4-quinone, a potential carcinogen, by peroxidase. Increased expression of CYP1 family indicates the possibility of carcinogenesis by exposure of xenobiotics in endometrial and ovarian cancers. Apart from roles of CYP1 family in relation with ER pathway, CYP1 family is over-expressed in ER independent cancers. CYP1A1 exhibits hydroxylase activity in oxidation of arachidonic acid, which has been transformed to 12(R)-hydrxyeicosatetraenoic (HETEs), a potent activator of AhR activity. On the basis of results, phytoestrogens and dexamethasone are provided as cancer therapy regulating the expression of CYP1 family. Thus, this review focuses on the role(s) of CYP1 family in ER-dependent or ER-independent cancers and the potential for cancer therapy to target CYP1 family in these cancers.

Spink BC, Bloom MS, Wu S, et al.
Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015; 282(1):30-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC)n, located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC)2 alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC)n alleles with n=2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC)n was n=4>5≫2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC)n alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC)2 was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC)n short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC)2 allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility.

Hevir-Kene N, Rižner TL
The endometrial cancer cell lines Ishikawa and HEC-1A, and the control cell line HIEEC, differ in expression of estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic genes, and in androstenedione and estrone-sulfate metabolism.
Chem Biol Interact. 2015; 234:309-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogens have important roles in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer. They can have carcinogenic effects through stimulation of cell proliferation or formation of DNA-damaging species. To characterize model cell lines of endometrial cancer, we determined the expression profiles of the estrogen receptors (ERs) ESR1, ESR2 and GPER, and 23 estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic genes, and investigated estrogen biosynthesis in the control HIEEC cell line and the Ishikawa and HEC-1A EC cell lines. HIEEC and Ishikawa expressed all ERs to different extents, while HEC-1A cells lacked expression of ESR1. Considering the estrogen biosynthetic and metabolic enzymes, these cells showed statistically significant different gene expression profiles for SULT2B1, HSD3B2, CYP19A1, AKR1C3, HSD17B1, HSD17B7, HSD17B12, CYP1B1, CYP3A5, COMT, SULT1A1, GSTP1 and NQO2. In these cells, E2 was formed from E1S and E1, while androstenedione was not converted to estrogens. HIEEC and Ishikawa had similar profiles of androstenedione and E1 metabolism, but hydrolysis of E1S to E1 was weaker in Ishikawa cells. HEC-1A cells were less efficient for activation of E1 into the potent E2, but metabolized androstenedione to other androgenic metabolites better than HIEEC and Ishikawa cells. This study reveals that HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells can all form estrogens only via the sulfatase pathway. HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells expressed all the major genes in the production of hydroxyestrogens and estrogen quinones, and in their conjugation. Significantly higher CYP1B1 mRNA levels in Ishikawa cells compared to HEC-1A cells, together with lack of UGT2B7 expression, indicate that Ishikawa cells can accumulate more toxic estrogen-3,4-quinones than HEC-1A cells, as also for HIEEC cells. This study provides further characterization of HIEEC, Ishikawa, and HEC-1A cells, and shows that they differ greatly in expression of the genes investigated and in their capacity for E2 formation, and thus they represent different in vitro models.

Habib CN, Al-Abd AM, Tolba MF, et al.
Leptin influences estrogen metabolism and accelerates prostate cell proliferation.
Life Sci. 2015; 121:10-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of leptin on estrogen metabolism in prostatic cells.
MAIN METHODS: Malignant (PC-3) and benign (BPH-1) human prostate cells were treated with 17-β-hydroxyestradiol (1 μM) alone or in combination with leptin (0.4, 4, 40 ng/ml) for 72 h. Cell proliferation assay, immunocytochemical staining of estrogen receptor (ER), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS) and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used.
KEY FINDINGS: Cell proliferation assay demonstrated that leptin caused significant growth potentiation in both cells. Immunocytochemical staining showed that leptin significantly increased the expression of ER-α and decreased that of ER-β in PC-3 cells. LC-MS method revealed that leptin increased the concentration 4-hydroxyestrone and/or decreased that of 2-methoxyestradiol, 4-methoxyestradiol and 2-methoxyestrone. Interestingly, RT-PCR showed that leptin significantly up-regulated the expression of aromatase and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) enzymes; however down-regulated the expression of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme.
SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that leptin-induced proliferative effect in prostate cells might be partly attributed to estrogen metabolism. Thus, leptin might be a novel target for therapeutic intervention in prostatic disorders.

Maurya SS, Katiyar T, Dhawan A, et al.
Gene-environment interactions in determining differences in genetic susceptibility to cancer in subsites of the head and neck.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2015; 56(3):313-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic differences in susceptibility to cancer in subsites of the head and neck were investigated in a case-control study involving 750 cases of cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, or pharynx, and an equal number of healthy controls. The prevalence of variant genotypes of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1B1, 2E1, or glutathione-S-transferase M1 (null) in cases suggests that polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) modify cancer risk within subsites of the head and neck. Tobacco or alcohol use was found to increase the risk in cases of laryngeal, pharyngeal, or oral cavity cancers. Interaction between genetic variation in DMEs and tobacco smoke (or smoking) exposures conferred significant risk for laryngeal cancer. Likewise, strong associations of the polymorphic genotypes of DMEs with cases of pharyngeal and oral cavity cancer who were tobacco chewers or alcohol users demonstrate that gene-environment interactions may explain differences in genetic susceptibility for cancers of the oral cavity, larynx, and pharynx.

Son BH, Kim MK, Yun YM, et al.
Genetic polymorphism of ESR1 rs2881766 increases breast cancer risk in Korean women.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(4):633-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We performed a case-control study to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms of estrogen-metabolizing enzyme genes and estrogen receptor genes with breast cancer risk according to age group and subtypes in Korean women.
METHODS: Breast cancer patients (n = 830) and the hospital healthy controls (n = 390) with both clinical information and SNP data were included in the study. Age was divided into three groups: premenopausal under 35 years (n = 64), premenopausal over 35 years (n = 456), and postmenopausal women (n = 310), respectively. Tumor subtype was classified into four subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, HER2-overexpressing, and triple-negative, respectively. Genotyping of the selected SNPs in ESR1, ESR2, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and COMT was conducted using the VeraCode Golden Gate Genotyping Assay Technology. Multiple logistic regression models (dominant, recessive, and additive) were applied to determine the odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and p value.
RESULTS: ESR1, rs2881766, rs2077647, rs926778, and rs2273206 polymorphisms increased breast cancer risk, and rs3798377 decreased the risk in overall patients. The association between SNP genotype and breast cancer risk was varied according to age groups and tumor subtypes. For age subgroups, rs2881766 increased breast cancer risk in the all three age groups, and rs926778 increased the risk in premenopausal over 35 years women and in postmenopausal women. For the tumor subtypes, rs2881766 increased breast cancer risk manly in luminal A, HER2-overexpressing, and triple-negative subtypes except for luminal B subtype, and rs926778 increased the risk in luminal A and triple-negative subtypes. Rs3798577 decreased the risk in luminal B and triple-negative subtypes.
CONCLUSION: The results showed that ESR1 rs2881766 polymorphism increased breast cancer risk and rs3798377 decreased the risk in Korean women. Because of wide variation of the association between SNP genotype and breast cancer risk according to age group and tumor subtypes, further studies such as a large-scale cohort study need for validation and test of biologic significance.

Jin J, Lin F, Liao S, et al.
Effects of SNPs (CYP1B1*2 G355T, CYP1B1*3 C4326G, and CYP2E1*5 G-1293C), smoking, and drinking on susceptibility to laryngeal cancer among Han Chinese.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e106580 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to explore the effects of genetic polymorphisms (CYP1B1*2 G355T, CYP1B1*3 C4326G, and CYP2E1*5 G-1293C) and environmental factors (smoking and drinking) on susceptibility to laryngeal cancer in a Han Chinese study group.
METHODS: This case-control study included 552 Han Chinese patients diagnosed with laryngeal cancer and 666 healthy control subjects of the same ethnicity, similar age, and gender. Genetic polymorphisms were examined using multi-PCR and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF MS) methodology. The association of these genetic and environmental factors with susceptibility to laryngeal cancer was evaluated using a statistical approach.
RESULTS: The frequencies of all three polymorphisms in the patient cohort were significantly different from those in the control cohort. Compared to the control cohort, carriers of variant alleles of CYP1B1*2 355T and CYP2E1*5 -1293C showed a higher risk for developing laryngeal cancer (for CYP1B1*2 355T, adjusted OR = 2.657, P <0.001; for CYP2E1*5 -1293C, adjusted OR = 1.938, P <0.001), while carriers of mutation allele CYP1B1*3 4326G showed a lower risk (adjusted OR = 0.562, P <0.001). Joint effects of these polymorphisms were observed. When compared to haplotype G355C4326G-1293, haplotypes T355C4326G-1293 (adjusted OR = 1.809, P <0.001), G355C4326C-1293 (adjusted OR = 1.644, P = 0.044), and T355C4326C-1293 (adjusted OR = 3.104, P <0.001) were associated with a significantly higher laryngeal cancer risk. The adjusted ORs for non-smokers, non-drinkers, smokers, and drinkers with the GT/TT genotype at CYP1B1*2 G355T were 2.190 (P = 0.006), 2.008 (P = 0.001), 5.875 (P <0.001), and 4.518 (P <0.001), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: CYP1B1*2 355T and CYP2E1*5 -1293C are associated with an increased laryngeal cancer risk, while CYP1B1*3 4326G is associated with a decreased risk. These polymorphisms showed joint effects on laryngeal cancer risk. Smoking and drinking showed collaborative effects with two high risk alleles (CYP1B1*2 355T and CYP1B1*3 4326G) for promoting laryngeal cancer risk.

L'Héritier F, Marques M, Fauteux M, Gaudreau L
Defining molecular sensors to assess long-term effects of pesticides on carcinogenesis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(9):17148-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
The abundance of dioxins and dioxin-like pollutants has massively increased in the environment due to human activity. These chemicals are particularly persistent and accumulate in the food chain, which raises major concerns regarding long-term exposure to human health. Most dioxin-like pollutants activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcription factor, which regulates xenobiotic metabolism enzymes that belong to the cytochrome P450 1A family (that includes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1). Importantly, a crosstalk exists between estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR. More specifically, ERα represses the expression of the CYP1A1 gene, which encodes an enzyme that converts 17β-estradiol into 2-hydroxyestradiol. However, (ERα) does not repress the CYP1B1 gene, which encodes an enzyme that converts 17β-estradiol into 4-hydroxyestradiol, one of the most genotoxic estrogen metabolites. In this review, we discuss how chronic exposure to xenobiotic chemicals, such as pesticides, might affect the expression of genes regulated by the AhR-ERα crosstalk. Here, we focus on recent advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms that mediate this crosstalk repression, and particularly on how ERα represses the AhR target gene CYP1A1, and could subsequently promote breast cancer. Finally, we propose that genes implicated in this crosstalk could constitute important biomarkers to assess long-term effects of pesticides on human health.

Smerdová L, Šmerdová J, Kabátková M, et al.
Upregulation of CYP1B1 expression by inflammatory cytokines is mediated by the p38 MAP kinase signal transduction pathway.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(11):2534-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is an enzyme that has a unique tumor-specific pattern of expression and is capable of bioactivating a wide range of carcinogenic compounds. We have reported previously that coordinated upregulation of CYP1B1 by inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands, may increase bioactivation of promutagens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in epithelial cells. Here, we extend those studies by describing a novel mechanism participating in the regulation of CYP1B1 expression, which involves activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1). Using inhibitors of p38 and MSKs, as well as mouse embryonic cells derived from p38α-deficient and MSK1/2 double knockout mice, we show here that TNF-α potentiates CYP1B1 upregulation via the p38/MSK1 kinase cascade. Effects of this inflammatory cytokine on CYP1B1 expression further involve the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). The inhibition of the P-TEFb subunit, cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), which phosphorylates RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), prevented the enhanced CYP1B1 induction by a combination of BaP and inflammatory cytokine. Furthermore, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found that cotreatment of epithelial cells with TNF-α and BaP resulted in enhanced recruitment of both CDK9 and RNAPII to the Cyp1b1 gene promoter. Overall, these results have implications concerning the contribution of inflammatory factors to carcinogenesis, since enhanced CYP1B1 induction during inflammation may alter metabolism of exogenous carcinogens, as well as endogenous CYP1B1 substrates playing role in tumor development.

Brauze D, Fijalkiewicz K, Szaumkessel M, et al.
Diversified expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor dependent genes in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell lines treated with β-naphthoflavone.
Toxicol Lett. 2014; 231(1):99-107 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates a variety of biological responses to ubiquitous environmental pollutants. In this study the effect of administration of β-naphthoflavone (BNF), potent AhR ligand, on the expression of AhR, AhRR, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, NQO1, GSTA1, ALDH3A1 and UGT1A genes encoding the enzymes controlled by AhR were examined in thirteen laryngeal tumor cell lines and in HepaRG cell line. The analyzed cell lines were derived from patients with squamous laryngeal cancer, with history of cigarette smoking and without signs of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 infection in investigated cells. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed huge interindividual differences in expression of genes from AhR regulatory network. Our results strongly suggest predominant effect of DNA methylation on induction of CYP1A1 expression by AhR ligands as well. Our results indicate that differentiated HepaRG cell line appeared to be very good substitute for human liver in studies on xenobiotic metabolism by AhR regulated enzymes.

Do MT, Kim HG, Tran TT, et al.
Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014; 280(1):138-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer.

Cotterchio M, Mirea L, Ozcelik H, Kreiger N
Active cigarette smoking, variants in carcinogen metabolism genes and breast cancer risk among pre- and postmenopausal women in Ontario, Canada.
Breast J. 2014 Sep-Oct; 20(5):468-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with various diseases including many cancers; however, evidence regarding breast cancer risk remains inconclusive with some studies reporting no association, and others an increased risk with long duration and early initiation of smoking. Genetic variation in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes may modify these associations. Breast cancer cases were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) during 2003-2004 and population controls through random digit dialing methods. All subjects completed self-administered questionnaires. Subsequently, saliva samples were obtained from cases (N = 1,776) and controls (N = 1,839) for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for active smoking variables, and interactions were assessed between smoking and 36 carcinogen-metabolizing candidate gene variants. No statistically significant association was found between active smoking and breast cancer risk among all women nor when stratified by menopausal status; however, nonsignificant increased premenopausal breast cancer risk was observed among current smokers and women smoking before first pregnancy. Several statistically significant interactions were observed between smoking and genetic variants (CYP1A2 1548C>T, CYP1A1 3801T>C, CYP1B1 4326G>C, NAT1 c.-85-1014T>A, UGT1A7 W208R 622T>C, SOD2 c.47T>C, GSTT1 deletion). However, in analyses stratified by these genotypes, smoking ORs had wide confidence intervals (and with few exceptions included 1.0) making interpretations difficult. Active smoking was not associated with breast cancer risk, although several significant interactions were observed between smoking, carcinogen-metabolizing genetic variants, and breast cancer risk.

Chang I, Fukuhara S, Wong DK, et al.
Cytochrome P450 1B1 polymorphisms and risk of renal cell carcinoma in men.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(10):10223-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) enzyme activates xenobiotics to reactive forms as well as convert estradiol to 4-hydroxy-estradiol that has been shown to play a role in the carcinogenesis process of the kidney in male but not female animals. Prior reports show polymorphic variants of CYP1B1 to alter catalytic activity, and thus, we hypothesize that polymorphisms of the CYP1B1 gene are involved in the malignant transformation of the renal cell in men. The genetic distributions of five CYP1B1 polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 480 normal healthy subjects and 403 sporadic renal cell carcinoma cases. All subjects were Caucasian men. The sites evaluated were codons 48 (C → G, Arg → Gly, rs10012), 119 (G → T, Ala → Ser, rs1056827), 432 (C → G, Leu → Val, rs1056836), 449 (C → T, Asp, rs1056837), and 453 (A → G, Asn → Ser, rs1800440). A trend was demonstrated for the 432 Val/Val (χ2, P = 0.06) and 449 T/T (χ2, P = 0.1) genotypes to play a protective role against renal cancer. Odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) for Val/Val compared to Leu/Leu at codon 432 was 0.65 (0.44-0.95) and T/T compared to C/C at codon 449 was 0.67 (0.45-0.99). Codons 432 and 449 were observed to be linked (D = 0.24), and haplotype involving 432 Val and 449 T was significantly reduced in cancer cases (P = 0.04). No association was found, however, when analyzing polymorphic sites with clinical stage of cancer. These results demonstrate polymorphisms of CYP1B1 to be associated with renal carcinogenesis and are of importance in understanding their role in the pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma.

Isaksson HS, Sorbe B, Nilsson TK
Whole genome expression profiling of blood cells in ovarian cancer patients -prognostic impact of the CYP1B1, MTSS1, NCALD, and NOP14.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(12):4040-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Ovarian cancer patients with different tumor stages and cell differentiation might be distinguished from each other by gene expression profiles in whole blood cell mRNA by the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Array. We also examined if there is any association with other clinical variables, response to therapy, and residual tumor burden after surgery. Patients were divided into two groups, one with poor prognosis, advanced stage and poorly differentiated tumors (n = 22), and one group with good prognosis, early stage and well- to medium differentiated tumors (n = 11). Six genes were found to be differentially expressed: the PDIA3, LYAR, NOP14, NCALD and MTSS1 genes were down-regulated and the CYP1B1 gene expression was up-regulated in the poor prognosis group, all with p value <0.05, adjusted for mass comparison. In survival analyses, CYP1B1, MTSS1, NCALD and NOP14 remained significantly different (p<0.05). Patient groups did not differ in any transcript related to acute phase or immune responses. This minimal gene expression signature of prognostic ovarian cancer-related genes opens up an avenue for more practicable monitoring of ovarian cancer patients by simple peripheral blood tests, which may evolve into a tool to guide selection of curative and postoperative supportive therapies.

Brinkman AM, Wu J, Ersland K, Xu W
Estrogen receptor α and aryl hydrocarbon receptor independent growth inhibitory effects of aminoflavone in breast cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:344 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have implicated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as a potential therapeutic target for several human diseases, including estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) positive breast cancer. Aminoflavone (AF), an activator of AhR signaling, is currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of solid tumors. Of particular interest is the potential treatment of triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), which are typically more aggressive and characterized by poorer outcomes. Here, we examined AF's effects on two TNBC cell lines and the role of AhR signaling in AF sensitivity in these model cell lines.
METHODS: AF sensitivity in MDA-MB-468 and Cal51 was examined using cell counting assays to determine growth inhibition (GI50) values. Luciferase assays and qPCR of AhR target genes cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1B1 were used to confirm AF-mediated AhR signaling. The requirement of endogenous levels of AhR and AhR signaling for AF sensitivity was examined in MDA-MB-468 and Cal51 cells stably harboring inducible shRNA for AhR. The mechanism of AF-mediated growth inhibition was explored using flow cytometry for markers of DNA damage and apoptosis, cell cycle analysis, and β-galactosidase staining for senescence. Luciferase data was analyzed using Student's T test. Three-parameter nonlinear regression was performed for cell counting assays.
RESULTS: Here, we report that ERα-negative TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-468 and Cal51 are sensitive to AF. Further, we presented evidence suggesting that neither endogenous AhR expression levels nor downstream induction of AhR target genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 is required for AF-mediated growth inhibition in these cells. Between these two ERα negative cell lines, we showed that the mechanism of AF action differs slightly. Low dose AF mediated DNA damage, S-phase arrest and apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 cells, while it resulted in DNA damage, S-phase arrest and cellular senescence in Cal51 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this work provides evidence against the simplified view of AF sensitivity, and suggests that AF could mediate growth inhibitory effects in ERα-positive and negative breast cancer cells, as well as cells with impaired AhR expression and signaling. While AF could have therapeutic effects on broader subtypes of breast cancer, the mechanism of cytotoxicity is complex, and likely, cell line- and tumor-specific.

Sharma KL, Rai R, Srivastava A, et al.
A multigenic approach to evaluate genetic variants of PLCE1, LXRs, MMPs, TIMP, and CYP genes in gallbladder cancer predisposition.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):8597-606 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a violent neoplasm associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment, and poor prognosis. The disease shows complex interplay between multiple genetic variants. We analyzed 15 polymorphisms in nine genes involved in various pathways to find out combinations of genetic variants contributing to GBC risk. The genes included in the study were matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-2), cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, CYP1B1, phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1), liver X receptor (LXR)-alpha, and LXR-beta. Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP and TaqMan probes. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS version 16. Multilocus analysis was performed by Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) to gene-gene interactions in modifying GBC risk. In silico analysis was done using various bioinformatics tools (F-SNP, FAST-SNP). Single locus analysis showed association of MMP-2 (-735 C > T, -1306 C > T), MMP-7 - 181 A > G, MMP-9 (P574R, R668Q), TIMP-2 - 418 G > C, CYP1A1-MspI, CYP1A1-Ile462Val, PLCE1 (rs2274223 A > G, rs7922612 T > C) and LXR-beta T > C (rs3546355 G > A, rs2695121 T > C) polymorphisms with GBC risk (p < 0.05) whereas CYP1B1 and LXR-α variants were not associated with GBC risk. Multidimensional reduction analysis revealed LXR-β (rs3546355 G > A, rs2695121 T > C), MMP-2 (-1306 C > T), MMP-9 (R668Q), and PLCE1 rs2274223 A > G to be key players in GBC causation (p < 0.001, CVC = 7/10). The results were further supported by independent CART analysis (p < 0.001). In silico analysis of associated variants suggested change in splicing or transcriptional regulation. Interactome and STRING analysis showed network of associated genes. The study found PLCE1 and LXR-β network interactions as important contributory factors for genetic predisposition in gallbladder cancer.

Shen Y, Ren ML, Xu J, et al.
A multicenter case-control study on screening of single nucleotide polymorphisms in estrogen-metabolizing enzymes and susceptibility to uterine leiomyoma in han chinese.
Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2014; 77(4):224-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine leiomyoma (UL) is an estrogen-responsive benign tumor in the female reproductive system and the main risk of hysterectomy for women. However, gene polymorphism of estrogen-metabolizing enzymes may lead to the different susceptibility to UL. We detected 10 single mucleotide polymorphisms in three key estrogen metabolite enzymes (COMT, CYP1A1, CYP1B1) in a Chinese Han population consisting of 800 patients and 800 healthy women from five different medical centers. The genetic polymorphism of rs3087869 (IVS1+2329C>T) (OR 3.200, 95% CI 1.614-6.345) and rs4680 (Val158Met) (OR 5.675, 95% CI 2.696-11.942) loci on COMT, rs1048943 (Ile462Val) (OR 4.629, 95% CI 2.216-9.672) and rs4646422 (Gly45Asp) (OR 3.240, 95% CI 1.624-6.461) loci on CYP1A1 and rs1065827 (Ala119Ser) (OR 5.635, 95% CI 2.990-10.619) locus on CYP1B1 were the risk factors to UL development and rs1056836 (Leu432Val) (OR 0.188, 95% CI 0.061-0.575) locus on CYB1B1 may be the protective factor to UL. The results provide a theoretical basis for genetic screening and early intervention to UL-susceptible populations.

Richmond O, Ghotbaddini M, Allen C, et al.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is constitutively active in advanced prostate cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e95058 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Distant prostate cancers are commonly hormone refractory and exhibit increased growth no longer inhibited by androgen deprivation therapy. Understanding all molecular mechanisms contributing to uncontrolled growth is important to obtain effective treatment strategies for hormone refractory prostate cancers (HRPC). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) affects a number of biological processes including cell growth and differentiation. Several studies have revealed that exogenous AhR ligands inhibit cellular proliferation but recent evidence suggests AhR may possess intrinsic functions that promote cellular proliferation in the absence of exogenous ligands.
METHODS/RESULTS: qRT-PCR and western blot analysis was used to determine AhR mRNA and protein expression in hormone sensitive LNCaP cells as well as hormone refractory DU145, PC3 and PC3M prostate cancer cell lines. LNCaP cells express AhR mRNA and protein at a much lower level than the hormone refractory cell models. Cellular fractionation and immunocytochemistry revealed nuclear localization of AhR in the established hormone refractory cell lines while LNCaP cells are devoid of nuclear AhR protein. qRT-PCR analysis used to assess basal CYP1B1 levels and a xenobiotic responsive element binding assay confirmed ligand independent transcriptional activity of AhR in DU145, PC3 and PC3M cells. Basal CYP1B1 levels were decreased by treatment with specific AhR inhibitor, CH223191. An in vitro growth assay revealed that CH223191 inhibited growth of DU145, PC3 and PC3M cells in an androgen depleted environment. Immunohistochemical staining of prostate cancer tissues revealed increased nuclear localization of AhR in grade 2 and grade 3 cancers compared to the well differentiated grade 1 cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results show that AhR is constitutively active in advanced prostate cancer cell lines that model hormone refractory prostate cancer. Chemical ablation of AhR signaling can reduce the growth of advanced prostate cancer cells, an effect not achieved with androgen receptor inhibitors or growth in androgen depleted media.

Kochhar A, Kopelovich L, Sue E, et al.
p53 modulates Hsp90 ATPase activity and regulates aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014; 7(6):596-606 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a client protein of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays a role in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced carcinogenesis. Tobacco smoke activates AhR signaling leading to increased transcription of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which encode proteins that convert PAHs to mutagens. Recently, p53 was found to regulate Hsp90 ATPase activity via effects on activator of Hsp90 ATPase (Aha1). It is possible, therefore, that AhR-dependent expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 might be affected by p53 status. The main objective of this study was to determine whether p53 modulated AhR-dependent gene expression and PAH metabolism. Here, we show that silencing p53 led to elevated Aha1 levels, increased Hsp90 ATPase activity, and enhanced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. Overexpression of wild-type p53 suppressed levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. The significance of Aha1 in mediating these p53-dependent effects was determined. Silencing of Aha1 led to reduced Hsp90 ATPase activity and downregulation of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. In contrast, overexpressing Aha1 was associated with increased Hsp90 ATPase activity and elevated levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Using p53 heterozygous mutant epithelial cells from patients with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, we show that monoallelic mutation of p53 was associated with elevated levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 under both basal conditions and following treatment with benzo[a]pyrene. Treatment with CP-31398, a p53 rescue compound, suppressed benzo[a]pyrene-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and the formation of DNA adducts. Collectively, our results suggest that p53 affects AhR-dependent gene expression, PAH metabolism, and possibly carcinogenesis.

Tulsyan S, Chaturvedi P, Singh AK, et al.
Assessment of clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with taxanes: multi-analytical approach.
Gene. 2014; 543(1):69-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphisms in genes encoding CYPs (Phase I) and ABCB1 (Phase III) enzymes may attribute to variability of efficacy of taxanes. The present study aims to find the influence of CYP and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms on taxanes based clinical outcomes. 132 breast cancer patients treated with taxanes based chemotherapy were genotyped for CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3, CYP1B1*3, CYP2C8*3, ABCB1 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP. Associations of genetic variants with clinical outcomes in terms of response in 58 patients receiving neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), and chemo-toxicity in 132 patients were studied. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis was performed to evaluate higher order gene-gene interactions with clinical outcomes. Pathological response to taxane based NACT was associated with GA genotype as well as A allele of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.0465). Similarly, association was found in dominant model of CYP3A5*3 polymorphism with responders (Pcorr=0.0465). Haplotype analysis further revealed ACYP3A4-ACYP3A5 haplotype to be significantly associated with responders (Pcorr=0.048). In assessing toxicity, significant association of variant (TT) genotype and T allele of ABCB1 2677G>T/A polymorphism, was found with 'grade 1 or no leucopenia' (Pcorr=0.0465, Pcorr=0.048). On evaluating higher order gene-gene interaction models by MDR analysis, CYP3A5*3; ABCB11236C>T and ABCB1 2677G>T/A; ABCB1 3435C>T and CYP1B1*3 showed significant association with treatment response, grade 2-4 anemia and dose delay/reduction due to neutropenia (P=0.024, P=0.004, P=0.026), respectively. Multi-analytical approaches may provide a better assessment of pharmacogenetic based treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients treated with taxanes.

Molina-Ortiz D, Camacho-Carranza R, González-Zamora JF, et al.
Differential expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes in normal and tumor tissues from childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e93261 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Intratumoral expression of genes encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) might play a critical role not only in cancer development but also in the metabolism of anticancer drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression patterns of seven representative CYPs in paired tumor and normal tissue of child patients with rabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Using real time quantitative RT-PCR, the gene expression pattern of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, CYP2W1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were analyzed in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 13 child RMS patients. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot. The expression levels were tested for correlation with the clinical and pathological data of the patients. Our data showed that the expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were negligible. Elevated expression of CYP1B1 mRNA and protein was detected in most RMS tumors and adjacent normal tissues. Most cancerous samples exhibit higher levels of both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 compared with normal tissue samples. Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA was found to be significantly higher in tumor tissue, however no relation was found with protein levels. CYP2W1 mRNA and/or protein are mainly expressed in tumors. In conclusion, we defined the CYP gene expression profile in tumor and paired normal tissue of child patients with RMS. The overexpression of CYP2W1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in tumor tissues suggests that they may be involved in RMS chemoresistance; furthermore, they may be exploited for the localized activation of anticancer prodrugs.

Litzenburger UM, Opitz CA, Sahm F, et al.
Constitutive IDO expression in human cancer is sustained by an autocrine signaling loop involving IL-6, STAT3 and the AHR.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(4):1038-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors have entered clinical trials based on their ability to restore anti-tumor immunity in preclinical studies. However, the mechanisms leading to constitutive expression of IDO in human tumors are largely unknown. Here we analyzed the pathways mediating constitutive IDO expression in human cancer. IDO-positive tumor cells and tissues showed basal phosphorylation and acetylation of STAT3 as evidenced by western blotting and immunoprecipitation. Inhibition of IL-6 or STAT3 using siRNA and/or pharmacological inhibitors reduced IDO mRNA and protein expression as well as kynurenine formation. In turn, IDO enzymatic activity activated the AHR as shown by the induction of AHR target genes. IDO-mediated AHR activation induced IL-6 expression, while inhibition or knockdown of the AHR reduced IL-6 expression. IDO activity thus sustains its own expression via an autocrine AHR-IL-6-STAT3 signaling loop. Inhibition of the AHR-IL-6-STAT3 signaling loop restored T-cell proliferation in mixed leukocyte reactions performed in the presence of IDO-expressing human cancer cells. Identification of the IDO-AHR-IL-6-STAT3 signaling loop maintaining IDO expression in human cancers reveals novel therapeutic targets for the inhibition of this core pathway promoting immunosuppression of human cancers. The relevance of the IDO-AHR-IL-6-STAT3 transcriptional circuit is underscored by the finding that high expression of its members IDO, STAT3 and the AHR target gene CYP1B1 is associated with reduced relapse-free survival in lung cancer patients.

Borland MG, Krishnan P, Lee C, et al.
Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent signaling by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) in keratinocytes.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(7):1602-12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) reduces skin tumorigenesis by altering aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent activities was examined. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) increased expression of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1B1 and phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in wild-type skin and keratinocytes. Surprisingly, this effect was not found in Pparβ/δ-null skin and keratinocytes. Pparβ/δ-null keratinocytes exhibited decreased AHR occupancy and histone acetylation on the Cyp1a1 promoter in response to a PAH compared with wild-type keratinocytes. Bisulfite sequencing of the Cyp1a1 promoter and studies using a DNA methylation inhibitor suggest that PPARβ/δ promotes demethylation of the Cyp1a1 promoter. Experiments with human HaCaT keratinocytes stably expressing shRNA against PPARβ/δ also support this conclusion. Consistent with the lower AHR-dependent activities in Pparβ/δ-null mice compared with wild-type mice, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin tumorigenesis was inhibited in Pparβ/δ-null mice compared with wild-type. Results from these studies demonstrate that PPARβ/δ is required to mediate complete carcinogenesis by DMBA. The mechanisms underlying this PPARβ/δ-dependent reduction of AHR signaling by PAH are not due to alterations in the expression of AHR auxiliary proteins, ligand binding or AHR nuclear translocation between genotypes, but are likely influenced by PPARβ/δ-dependent demethylation of AHR target gene promoters including Cyp1a1 that reduces AHR accessibility as shown by reduced promoter occupancy. This PPARβ/δ/AHR crosstalk is unique to keratinocytes and conserved between mice and humans.

Khanal T, Kim HG, Do MT, et al.
Leptin induces CYP1B1 expression in MCF-7 cells through ligand-independent activation of the ERα pathway.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014; 277(1):39-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Leptin, a hormone with multiple biological actions, is produced predominantly by adipose tissue. Among its functions, leptin can stimulate tumour cell growth. Oestrogen receptor α (ERα), which plays an essential role in breast cancer development, can be transcriptionally activated in a ligand-independent manner. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on CYP1B1 expression and its mechanism in breast cancer cells. Leptin induced CYP1B1 protein, messenger RNA expression and promoter activity in ERα-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 cells. Also, ERα knockdown by siRNA significantly blocked the induction of CYP1B1 expression by leptin, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression via an ERα-dependent mechanism. Transient transfection with CYP1B1 deletion promoter constructs revealed that the oestrogen response element (ERE) plays important role in the up-regulation of CYP1B1 by leptin. Furthermore, leptin stimulated phosphorylation of ERα at serine residues 118 and 167 and increased ERE-luciferase activity, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression by ERα activation. Finally, we found that leptin activated ERK and Akt signalling pathways, which are upstream kinases related to ERα phosphorylation induced by leptin. Taken together, our results indicate that leptin-induced CYP1B1 expression is mediated by ligand-independent activation of the ERα pathway as a result of the activation of ERK and Akt in MCF-7 cells.

Ghisari M, Eiberg H, Long M, Bonefeld-Jørgensen EC
Polymorphisms in phase I and phase II genes and breast cancer risk and relations to persistent organic pollutant exposure: a case-control study in Inuit women.
Environ Health. 2014; 13(1):19 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported that chemicals belonging to the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as perfluorinated compounds (PFAS) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are risk factors in Breast Cancer (BC) development in Greenlandic Inuit women. The present case-control study aimed to investigate the main effect of polymorphisms in genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and estrogen biosynthesis, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, COMT and CYP17, CYP19 and the BRCA1 founder mutation in relation to BC risk and to explore possible interactions between the gene polymorphisms and serum POP levels on BC risk in Greenlandic Inuit women.
METHODS: The study population consisted of 31 BC cases and 115 matched controls, with information on serum levels of POPs. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1A1 (Ile462Val; rs1048943), CYP1B1 (Leu432Val; rs1056836), COMT (Val158Met; rs4680), CYP17A1 (A1> A2; rs743572); CYP19A1 (C> T; rs10046) and CYP19A1 ((TTTA)n repeats) polymorphisms and BRCA1 founder mutation using TaqMan allelic discrimination method and polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism. The χ2 -test was used to compare categorical variables between cases and controls and the odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression models.
RESULTS: We found an independent association of CYP1A1 (Val) and CYP17 (A1) with BC risk.Furthermore, an increased BC risk was observed for women with high serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and carriers of at least: one CYP1A1 variant Val allele; one variant COMT Met allele; or the common CYP17 A1 allele. No combined effects were seen between PFAS exposure and CYP1B1 and CYP19 polymorphisms. The risk of BC was not found significantly associated with exposure to PCBs and OCPs, regardless of genotype for all investigated SNPs. The frequency of the Greenlandic founder mutation in BRCA1 was as expected higher in cases than in controls.
CONCLUSIONS: The BRCA1 founder mutation and polymorphisms in CYP1A1 (Val) and CYP17 (A1) can increase the BC risk among Inuit women and the risk increases with higher serum levels of PFOS and PFOA. Serum PFAS levels were a consistent risk factor of BC, but inter-individual polymorphic differences might cause variations in sensitivity to the PFAS/POP exposure.

Chuturgoon AA, Phulukdaree A, Moodley D
Fumonisin B₁ modulates expression of human cytochrome P450 1b1 in human hepatoma (Hepg2) cells by repressing Mir-27b.
Toxicol Lett. 2014; 227(1):50-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), a common mycotoxin contaminant of maize, is known to inhibit sphingolipid biosynthesis and has been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma promoting activity in humans and animals. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression via translational repression. Human cytochrome P450 (CYP1B1) is highly expressed in oestrogen target tissues and catalyzes the metabolic activation of many procarcinogens. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of FB₁ on miR-27b suppression and its effect on CYP1B1 modulation in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). MiR27b and CYP1B1 expressions were evaluated in HepG2 cells by quantitative PCR. In order to directly assess the effect of miR-27b on CYP1B1 mRNA levels, cells were transfected with the mimic to miR-27b. CYP1B1 protein expression was measured using Western blot. FB₁ significantly down-regulated (11-fold) expression of miR-27b in HepG2 cells; whilst CYP1B1 mRNA and protein expression was significantly upregulated by 1.8-fold and 2.6-fold, respectively. CYP1B1 is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR-27b after HepG2 exposure to FB₁. FB₁-induced modulation of miR-27b in hepatic cells may be an additional mode of hepatic neoplastic transformation.

Maurya SS, Anand G, Dhawan A, et al.
Polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes and risk to head and neck cancer: evidence for gene-gene and gene-environment interaction.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2014; 55(2):134-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
A case-control study involving 750 cases with squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and an equal number of healthy controls was initiated to investigate the association of polymorphisms in the drug metabolizing genes cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1B1, CYP2E1 and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) with the risk of developing cancer. Attempts were also made to identify the role and nature of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in modifying the susceptibility to HNSCC. Polymorphisms in drug metabolizing CYPs or GSTM1 showed modest associations with cancer risk. However, cases carrying haplotypes with variant alleles of both CYP1A1*2A and *2C or CYP1B1*2 and *3 or CYP2E1*5B and *6 were at significant risk of developing HNSCC. Likewise, cases carrying a combination of variant genotypes of CYPs and GSM1 (null) were at higher risk (up to 5-fold) of developing HNSCC. HNSCC risk also increased several-fold in cases carrying variant genotypes of CYPs who were regular tobacco smokers (8-18-fold), tobacco chewers (3-7-fold), or alcohol users (2-4-fold). Statistical analysis revealed a more than multiplicative interaction between combinations of the variant genotypes of CYPs and GSTM1 (null) and between variant genotypes and tobacco smoking or chewing or alcohol consumption, in both case-control and case-only designs. The data thus suggest that although polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing CYPs may be a modest risk factor for developing HNSCC, gene-gene, and gene-environment interactions play a significant role in modifying the susceptibility to HNSCC.

Liu Y, Lin CS, Zhang AM, et al.
The CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism and risk of urinary system cancers.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4719-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) gene plays a key role in the metabolism of various carcinogens. The CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism leads to leucine to valine substitution at codon 432. A lot of studies have shown that the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism was associated with urinary system cancers, especially prostate cancer. However, the results were still inconclusive. In this meta-analysis, by searching online databases and references of related reviews, we identified 17 eligible studies to assess the relationship between CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism and urinary system cancers, including 7,783 cancer cases and 7,238 controls. By pooling all eligible studies, we found that the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism was not associated with overall urinary system cancers. However, in subgroup analyses, we found that the variant 432Val allele significantly increased the risk of prostate cancer (Val vs. Leu, odds ratio (OR) = 1.064, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.981-1.154; Pheterogeneity = 0.002), while no association was found for bladder cancer (Val vs. Leu, OR = 0.942, 95% CI 0.853-1.041; Pheterogeneity = 0.504). No evidence of publication bias was found (Begg's test, P = 0.053; Egger's test, P = 0.073). In conclusion, based on 17 eligible studies, we found that the CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, while no association of bladder cancer was observed.

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