EGLN3

Gene Summary

Gene:EGLN3; egl-9 family hypoxia inducible factor 3
Aliases: PHD3, HIFPH3, HIFP4H3
Location:14q13.1
Summary:-
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:egl nine homolog 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EGLN3 (cancer-related)

Adam MG, Matt S, Christian S, et al.
SIAH ubiquitin ligases regulate breast cancer cell migration and invasion independent of the oxygen status.
Cell Cycle. 2015; 14(23):3734-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Seven-in-absentia homolog (SIAH) proteins are evolutionary conserved RING type E3 ubiquitin ligases responsible for the degradation of key molecules regulating DNA damage response, hypoxic adaptation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation. Many studies suggest a tumorigenic role for SIAH2. In breast cancer patients SIAH2 expression levels correlate with cancer aggressiveness and overall patient survival. In addition, SIAH inhibition reduced metastasis in melanoma. The role of SIAH1 in breast cancer is still ambiguous; both tumorigenic and tumor suppressive functions have been reported. Other studies categorized SIAH ligases as either pro- or antimigratory, while the significance for metastasis is largely unknown. Here, we re-evaluated the effects of SIAH1 and SIAH2 depletion in breast cancer cell lines, focusing on migration and invasion. We successfully knocked down SIAH1 and SIAH2 in several breast cancer cell lines. In luminal type MCF7 cells, this led to stabilization of the SIAH substrate Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain protein 3 (PHD3) and reduced Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF1α) protein levels. Both the knockdown of SIAH1 or SIAH2 led to increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation, with comparable effects. These results point to a tumor promoting role for SIAH1 in breast cancer similar to SIAH2. In addition, depletion of SIAH1 or SIAH2 also led to decreased cell migration and invasion in breast cancer cells. SIAH knockdown also controlled microtubule dynamics by markedly decreasing the protein levels of stathmin, most likely via p27(Kip1). Collectively, these results suggest that both SIAH ligases promote a migratory cancer cell phenotype and could contribute to metastasis in breast cancer.

Högel H, Miikkulainen P, Bino L, Jaakkola PM
Hypoxia inducible prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 maintains carcinoma cell growth by decreasing the stability of p27.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:143 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia can halt cell cycle progression of several cell types at the G1/S interface. The arrest needs to be overcome by cancer cells. We have previously shown that the hypoxia-inducible cellular oxygen sensor PHD3/EGLN3 enhances hypoxic cell cycle entry at the G1/S boundary.
METHODS: We used PHD3 knockdown by siRNA and shRNA in HeLa and 786-0 renal cancer cells. Flow cytometry with cell synchronization was used to study cell growth at different cell cycle phases. Total and phosphospecific antibodies together with cycloheximide chase were used to study p27/CDKN1B expression and fractionations for subcellular protein localization.
RESULTS: Here we show that PHD3 enhances cell cycle by decreasing the expression of the CDK inhibitor p27/CDKN1B. PHD3 reduction led to increased p27 expression under hypoxia or VHL mutation. p27 was both required and sufficient for the PHD3 knockdown induced cell cycle block. PHD3 knockdown did not affect p27 transcription and the effect was HIF-independent. In contrast, PHD3 depletion increased the p27 half-life from G0 to S-phase. PHD3 depletion led to an increase in p27 phosphorylation at serine 10 without affecting threonine phosphorylation. Intact serine 10 was required for normal hypoxic and PHD3-mediated degradation of p27.
CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrates that PHD3 can drive cell cycle entry at the G1/S transition through decreasing the half-life of p27 that occurs by attenuating p27S10 phosphorylation.

Fu L, Minton DR, Zhang T, et al.
Genome-Wide Profiling of TRACK Kidneys Shows Similarity to the Human ccRCC Transcriptome.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(5):870-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common cancer arising from the kidney in adults, with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) representing the majority of all RCCs. Expression of a human HIF1α triple-mutant (P402A, P564A, and N803A) construct in the proximal tubule cells of C57BL/6 mice [TRAnsgenic model of Cancer of the Kidney (TRACK); ref. 1] mimics the histologic changes found in early stage human ccRCC. To better understand the genomic landscape, a high-throughput sequence analysis was performed with cDNA libraries (RNAseq) derived from TRACK transgenic positive (TG(+)) kidney cortex along with human ccRCC transcripts from the Oncomine and The Cancer Genome Atlas databases. Importantly, the expression profiles of TRACK TG(+) kidneys show significant similarities with those observed in human ccRCC, including increased expression of genes involved in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Some of the transcripts overexpressed in both the TRACK mouse model and human ccRCC include ANKRD37, CA9, EGLN3, HK2, NDUFA4L2, and SLC16A3. These data suggest that constitutive activation of HIF1α in kidney proximal tubule cells transcriptionally reprograms the regulation of metabolic pathways in the kidney and that HIF1α is a major contributor to the altered metabolism observed in human ccRCC.
IMPLICATIONS: TRACK (GGT-HIF1αM3) kidney mRNA profiles show similarities to human ccRCC transcriptome and phenotypes associated with the Warburg effect.

Henze AT, Garvalov BK, Seidel S, et al.
Loss of PHD3 allows tumours to overcome hypoxic growth inhibition and sustain proliferation through EGFR.
Nat Commun. 2014; 5:5582 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Solid tumours are exposed to microenvironmental factors such as hypoxia that normally inhibit cell growth. However, tumour cells are capable of counteracting these signals through mechanisms that are largely unknown. Here we show that the prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 restrains tumour growth in response to microenvironmental cues through the control of EGFR. PHD3 silencing in human gliomas or genetic deletion in a murine high-grade astrocytoma model markedly promotes tumour growth and the ability of tumours to continue growing under unfavourable conditions. The growth-suppressive function of PHD3 is independent of the established PHD3 targets HIF and NF-κB and its hydroxylase activity. Instead, loss of PHD3 results in hyperphosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Importantly, epigenetic/genetic silencing of PHD3 preferentially occurs in gliomas without EGFR amplification. Our findings reveal that PHD3 inactivation provides an alternative route of EGFR activation through which tumour cells sustain proliferative signalling even under conditions of limited oxygen availability.

Garvalov BK, Foss F, Henze AT, et al.
PHD3 regulates EGFR internalization and signalling in tumours.
Nat Commun. 2014; 5:5577 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumours exploit their hypoxic microenvironment to induce a more aggressive phenotype, while curtailing the growth-inhibitory effects of hypoxia through mechanisms that are poorly understood. The prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 is regulated by hypoxia and plays an important role in tumour progression. Here we identify PHD3 as a central regulator of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity through the control of EGFR internalization to restrain tumour growth. PHD3 controls EGFR activity by acting as a scaffolding protein that associates with the endocytic adaptor Eps15 and promotes the internalization of EGFR. In consequence, loss of PHD3 in tumour cells suppresses EGFR internalization and hyperactivates EGFR signalling to enhance cell proliferation and survival. Our findings reveal that PHD3 inactivation provides a novel route of EGFR activation to sustain proliferative signalling in the hypoxic microenvironment.

Perisé-Barrios AJ, Gómez R, Corbí AL, et al.
Use of carbosilane dendrimer to switch macrophage polarization for the acquisition of antitumor functions.
Nanoscale. 2015; 7(9):3857-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor microenvironment favors the escape from immunosurveillance by promoting immunosuppression and blunting pro-inflammatory responses. Since most tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) exhibit an M2-like tumor cell growth promoting polarization, we have studied the role of 2G-03NN24 carbosilane dendrimer in M2 macrophage polarization to evaluate the potential application of dendrimers in tumor immunotherapy. We found that the 2G-03NN24 dendrimer decreases LPS-induced IL-10 production from in vitro generated monocyte-derived M2 macrophages, and also switches their gene expression profile towards the acquisition of M1 polarization markers (INHBA, SERPINE1, FLT1, EGLN3 and ALDH1A2) and the loss of M2 polarization-associated markers (EMR1, IGF1, FOLR2 and SLC40A1). Furthermore, 2G-03NN24 dendrimer decreases STAT3 activation. Our results indicate that the 2G-03NN24 dendrimer can be a useful tool for antitumor therapy by virtue of its potential ability to limit the M2-like polarization of TAM.

Tóth K, Chintala S, Rustum YM
Constitutive expression of HIF-α plays a major role in generation of clear-cell phenotype in human primary and metastatic renal carcinoma.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2014; 22(9):642-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The extensive lipid accumulation occurring in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) results in a clear-cell cytoplasm. Hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) is constitutively expressed in many ccRCC and transcriptionally regulates >100 genes. In a recent breakthrough study, HIF-1α induced ccRCC in transgenic mice. On the basis of these findings, we developed a hypothesis that accounted for HIF-α generation of the clear-cell phenotype. The aim of the present study was to use immunohistochemical staining methods in tissue microarray to determine the extent to which the clear-cell phenotype coincided with HIF-α expression in primary and metastatic ccRCC. In addition, we studied whether the prolyl-hydroxylases (PHD2,3) play a role in promoting the elevated expression of HIF-α in tumor cells. The clear-cell phenotype was observed in all primary and metastatic cases of ccRCC examined. A total of 168 renal cell carcinomas were evaluated by immunohistochemical methods; 141 of the 168 (84%) tumors expressed HIF-α (HIF-1α and/or HIF-2α). In contrast, HIF-α was expressed in only 1 of the 23 (4%) non-ccRCCs. These data supported the hypothesis that in the majority of the tumors HIF-α expression overlapped with the clear-cell phenotype and was indicative of an HIF-α-mediated lipid accumulation. In a smaller percentage of ccRCC cases (16%), HIF-α was not detected in the tumor cells and suggested that lipid accumulation by HIF-α-lipid-independent process. PHD3 was undetectable in both primary and metastatic ccRCC cases. We concluded that the undetectable PHD3 could contribute to the higher HIF-α expression in ccRCC.

Yang W, Wang X, Li X, et al.
The specific methylation characteristics of cancer related genes in Chinese colorectal cancer patients.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(8):8267-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant DNA methylation at CpG islands has been implicated as a critical player in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its biological role and clinical significance in carcinogenesis have not been clearly clarified in Chinese CRC patients. In order to examine the methylation status of cancer-related genes in CRC progression, 184 tumor tissues were collected from Chinese patients diagnosed with CRC during 2008-2011. Promoter methylation was assessed by combined bisulphite-restriction analysis, methylation-specific PCR, and bisulphite sequencing PCR . The relationship between the gene promoter methylation status and clinicopathological factors/CRC mortality was examined by using the chi-square test/Cox-proportional hazards models. Promoter hypermethylation of MLH1, p16, SFRP2, PHD3, KLOTHO, and IGFBP7 was observed in 1.6, 10.9, 97.3, 44.0, 59.8, and 88.6 % of CRC samples, respectively. KLOTHO promoter methylation reduced with age (P = 0.018) whereas p16 promoter methylation increased with age (P = 0.044) and was more frequent among males (P = 0.017). Tumor tissues (73.9 %) had concurrent methylation of two or more genes, with the most frequent combination as KLOTHO and IGFBP7 (53.8 %). Concurrent methylation of KLOTHO and IGFBP7 occurred more frequently among patients less than 70 years old (P = 0.035) and those with poor differentiation (P = 0.024). CRC-specific mortality was not associated with promoter methylation and clinicopathological features except for age (P = 0.038; risk ratio (RR), 1.96; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.04-3.70) and TNM stage (P = 0.034; RR, 3.47; 95 % CI, 1.10-10.92). Methylation frequencies of MLH1, p16, PHD3, KLOTHO, and IGFBP7 in CRC tissues were significantly higher than that in the paired normal tissues, while promoter hypermethylation of SFRP2 was widespread in normal tissues. In conclusion, we suggest that methylation of some genes (MLH1, PHD3, KLOTHO, p16, and IGFBP7) is important in CRC progression whereas SFRP2 methylation is unlikely to contribute to CRC development in Chinese patients. Besides, by identifying the characteristics of concordant methylation, we confirm the multifactorial nature of tumor progression.

Kinoshita R, Iwadate M, Umeyama H, Taguchi YH
Genes associated with genotype-specific DNA methylation in squamous cell carcinoma as candidate drug targets.
BMC Syst Biol. 2014; 8 Suppl 1:S4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA methylation is often associated with cancers. Thus, screening genes with cancer-associated aberrant DNA methylation is a useful method to identify candidate cancer-causing genes. Aberrant DNA methylation is also genotype dependent. Thus, the selection of genes with genotype-specific aberrant DNA methylation in cancers is potentially important for tailor-made medicine. The selected genes are important candidate drug targets.
RESULTS: The recently proposed principal component analysis based selection of genes with aberrant DNA methylation was applied to genotype and DNA methylation patterns in squamous cell carcinoma measured using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. SNPs that are frequently found in cancers are usually highly methylated, and the genes that were selected using this method were reported previously to be related to cancers. Thus, genes with genotype-specific DNA methylation patterns will be good therapeutic candidates. The tertiary structures of the proteins encoded by the selected genes were successfully inferred using two profile-based protein structure servers, FAMS and Phyre2. Candidate drugs for three of these proteins, tyrosine kinase receptor (ALK), EGLN3 protein, and NUAK family SNF1-like kinase 1 (NUAK1), were identified by ChooseLD.
CONCLUSIONS: We detected genes with genotype-specific DNA methylation in squamous cell carcinoma that are candidate drug targets. Using in silico drug discovery, we successfully identified several candidate drugs for the ALK, EGLN3 and NUAK1 genes that displayed genotype-specific DNA methylation.

Tanaka T, Torigoe T, Hirohashi Y, et al.
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-independent expression mechanism and novel function of HIF prolyl hydroxylase-3 in renal cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(3):503-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We previously found that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase-3 (PHD3) was frequently overexpressed in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), unlike in normal tissues, and therefore, we studied the mechanism and role of PHD3 expression in RCC.
METHODS: The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-gene-mutant RCC cell lines SMKT-R2 and SMKT-R3 and wild-type VHL cell lines Caki-1 and ACHN were used. Associations of the expression of PHD3 with HIF-α proteins and signal transduction pathways were evaluated under normoxic conditions. The effect of PHD3 on cell proliferation was also examined by small interference RNA and cDNA transfection. Moreover, the prognostic impact of PHD3 expression in clear cell RCC (CCRCC) was evaluated using primary cancer tissues.
RESULTS: In SMKT-R2 and SMKT-R3, HIF-α proteins were expressed and PHD3 was highly expressed. On the other hand, ACHN had low expression of HIF-α proteins and PHD3. However, Caki-1 had high expression of PHD3 even though there was no distinct expression of HIF-α proteins. PHD3 expression was inhibited by blockade of Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), but not by HIF-1α and HIF-2α double knockdown. In addition, PHD3 knockdown resulted in the promotion of cell proliferation in SMKT-R2, SMKT-R3 and Caki-1. On the other hand, forced expression of PHD3 reduced cell proliferation in ACHN. In immunohistochemistry, PHD3 expression was a significant factor for better recurrence-free survival in patients with CCRCC.
CONCLUSIONS: PHD3 expression can be induced by the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway in RCC independently of HIF proteins. Furthermore, PHD3 has an antiproliferative function independent of HIF protein status in RCC, indicating a novel expression mechanism and function of PHD3.

He TL, Zheng KL, Li G, et al.
Identification of typical miRNAs and target genes in hepatocellular carcinoma by DNA microarray technique.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2014; 18(1):108-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify featured miRNAs of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by comparing normal and cancer cell line samples and find potential utility as biomarkers for early diagnosis and treatment of HCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We downloaded the gene expression profile GSE41077 from Gene Expression Omnibus database which included 6 HCC cell lines samples and 2 controls. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified by multtest package in R language after the data normalization. The selected differentially expressed miRNAs were further analyzed using bioinformatics methods. Target genes of these miRNAs were predicted using miRTarBase and miRecords databases. STRING software was used to construct the interaction network of target genes. Finally, we made module analysis by using Cytoscape software and its plugins--MCODE and BiNGO.
RESULTS: A total of 40 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and the remarkably down-regulated miRNA was hsa-miR-122 which included 29 high confident target genes. The interaction network of target genes was constructed among 629 interaction pairs. Four functional modules in the network were obtained, from which EGLN3, ALDOA, NCAM1 and AACS were the high confident target genes, respectively. Genes in the modules most related to biological functions of signal transmission, regulation of macromolecule metabolic process.
CONCLUSIONS: Low level of expression of hsa-miR-122 in HCC cell line is consistent with the existed previous studies. It is not only confirm the importance role of such miRNA in HCC cells, but also provide important help in identifying specific biomarker of HCC cells.

Klein BJ, Piao L, Xi Y, et al.
The histone-H3K4-specific demethylase KDM5B binds to its substrate and product through distinct PHD fingers.
Cell Rep. 2014; 6(2):325-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The histone lysine demethylase KDM5B regulates gene transcription and cell differentiation and is implicated in carcinogenesis. It contains multiple conserved chromatin-associated domains, including three PHD fingers of unknown function. Here, we show that the first and third, but not the second, PHD fingers of KDM5B possess histone binding activities. The PHD1 finger is highly specific for unmodified histone H3 (H3K4me0), whereas the PHD3 finger shows preference for the trimethylated histone mark H3K4me3. RNA-seq analysis indicates that KDM5B functions as a transcriptional repressor for genes involved in inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Biochemical analysis reveals that KDM5B associates with components of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex and may cooperate with the histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in gene repression. KDM5B is downregulated in triple-negative breast cancer relative to estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. Overexpression of KDM5B in the MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells suppresses cell migration and invasion, and the PHD1-H3K4me0 interaction is essential for inhibiting migration. These findings highlight tumor-suppressive functions of KDM5B in triple-negative breast cancer cells and suggest a multivalent mechanism for KDM5B-mediated transcriptional regulation.

Place TL, Nauseef JT, Peterson MK, et al.
Prolyl-4-hydroxylase 3 (PHD3) expression is downregulated during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83021 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prolyl-4-hydroxylation by the intracellular prolyl-4-hydroxylase enzymes (PHD1-3) serves as a master regulator of environmental oxygen sensing. The activity of these enzymes is tightly tied to tumorigenesis, as they regulate cell metabolism and angiogenesis through their control of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stability. PHD3 specifically, is gaining attention for its broad function and rapidly accumulating array of non-HIF target proteins. Data from several recent studies suggest a role for PHD3 in the regulation of cell morphology and cell migration. In this study, we aimed to investigate this role by closely examining the relationship between PHD3 expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); a transcriptional program that plays a major role in controlling cell morphology and migratory capacity. Using human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cell lines and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, we examined the correlation between several markers of EMT and PHD3 expression. We demonstrated that loss of PHD3 expression in PDA cell lines is highly correlated with a mesenchymal-like morphology and an increase in cell migratory capacity. We also found that induction of EMT in MDCK cells resulted in the specific downregulation of PHD3, whereas the expression of the other HIF-PHD enzymes was not affected. The results of this study clearly support a model by which the basal expression and hypoxic induction of PHD3 is suppressed by the EMT transcriptional program. This may be a novel mechanism by which migratory or metastasizing cells alter signaling through specific pathways that are sensitive to regulation by O2. The identification of downstream pathways that are affected by the suppression of PHD3 expression during EMT may provide important insight into the crosstalk between O2 and the migratory and metastatic potential of tumor cells.

Zodro E, Jaroszewski M, Ida A, et al.
FUT11 as a potential biomarker of clear cell renal cell carcinoma progression based on meta-analysis of gene expression data.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(3):2607-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this paper, we provide a comprehensive summary of available clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) microarray data in the form of meta-analysis of genes differentially regulated in tumors as compared to healthy tissue, using effect size to measure the strength of a relationship between the disease and gene expression. We identified 725 differentially regulated genes, with a number of interesting targets, such as TMEM213, SMIM5, or ATPases: ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1G3, of which limited or no information is available in terms of their function in ccRCC pathology. Downregulated genes tended to represent pathways related to tissue remodeling, blood clotting, vasodilation, and energy metabolism, while upregulated genes were classified into pathways generally deregulated in cancers: immune system response, inflammatory response, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. One hundred fifteen deregulated genes were included in network analysis, with EGLN3, AP-2, NR3C1, HIF1A, and EPAS1 (gene encoding HIF2-α) as points of functional convergence, but, interestingly, 610 genes failed to join previously identified molecular networks. Furthermore, we validated the expression of 14 top deregulated genes in independent sample set of 32 ccRCC tumors by qPCR and tested if it could serve as a marker of disease progression. We found a correlation of high fucosyltransferase 11 (FUT11) expression with non-symptomatic course of the disease, which suggests that FUT11's expression might be potentially used as a biomarker of disease progression.

Zhang T, Niu X, Liao L, et al.
The contributions of HIF-target genes to tumor growth in RCC.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e80544 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Somatic mutations or loss of expression of tumor suppressor VHL happen in the vast majority of clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma, and it's causal for kidney cancer development. Without VHL, constitutively active transcription factor HIF is strongly oncogenic and is essential for tumor growth. However, the contribution of individual HIF-responsive genes to tumor growth is not well understood. In this study we examined the contribution of important HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, CCND1, ANGPTL4, EGLN3, ENO2, GLUT1 and IGFBP3 to tumor growth in a xenograft model using immune-compromised nude mice. We found that the suppression of VEGF or CCND1 impaired tumor growth, suggesting that they are tumor-promoting genes. We further discovered that the lack of ANGPTL4, EGLN3 or ENO2 expression did not change tumor growth. Surprisingly, depletion of GLUT1 or IGFBP3 significantly increased tumor growth, suggesting that they have tumor-inhibitory functions. Depletion of IGFBP3 did not lead to obvious activation of IGFIR. Unexpectedly, the depletion of IGFIR protein led to significant increase of IGFBP3 at both the protein and mRNA levels. Concomitantly, the tumor growth was greatly impaired, suggesting that IGFBP3 might suppress tumor growth in an IGFIR-independent manner. In summary, although the overall transcriptional activity of HIF is strongly tumor-promoting, the expression of each individual HIF-responsive gene could either enhance, reduce or do nothing to the kidney cancer tumor growth.

Rawluszko AA, Bujnicka KE, Horbacka K, et al.
Expression and DNA methylation levels of prolyl hydroxylases PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and asparaginyl hydroxylase FIH in colorectal cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:526 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and comprehensively studied malignancies. Hypoxic conditions during formation of CRC may support the development of more aggressive cancers. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), a major player in cancerous tissue adaptation to hypoxia, is negatively regulated by the family of prolyl hydroxylase enzymes (PHD1, PHD2, PHD3) and asparaginyl hydroxylase, called factor inhibiting HIF (FIH).
METHODS: PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and FIH gene expression was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting in primary colonic adenocarcinoma and adjacent histopathologically unchanged colonic mucosa from patients who underwent radical surgical resection of the colon (n=90), and the same methods were used for assessment of PHD3 gene expression in HCT116 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines. DNA methylation levels of the CpG island in the promoter regulatory region of PHD1, PHD2, PHD3 and FIH were assessed using bisulfite DNA sequencing and high resolution melting analysis (HRM) for patients and HRM analysis for CRC cell lines.
RESULTS: We found significantly lower levels of PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3 transcripts (p=0.00026; p<0.00001; p<0.00001) and proteins (p=0.004164; p=0.0071; p<0.00001) in primary cancerous than in histopathologically unchanged tissues. Despite this, we did not observe statistically significant differences in FIH transcript levels between cancerous and histopathologically unchanged colorectal tissue, but we found a significantly increased level of FIH protein in CRC (p=0.0169). The reduced PHD3 expression was correlated with significantly increased DNA methylation in the CpG island of the PHD3 promoter regulatory region (p<0.0001). We did not observe DNA methylation in the CpG island of the PHD1, PHD2 or FIH promoter in cancerous and histopathologically unchanged colorectal tissue. We also showed that 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine induced DNA demethylation leading to increased PHD3 transcript and protein level in HCT116 cells.
CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that reduced PHD3 expression in cancerous tissue was accompanied by methylation of the CpG rich region located within the first exon and intron of the PHD3 gene. The diminished expression of PHD1 and PHD2 and elevated level of FIH protein in cancerous tissue compared to histopathologically unchanged colonic mucosa was not associated with DNA methylation within the CpG islands of the PHD1, PHD2 and FIH genes.

Yeh IJ, Ogba N, Bensigner H, et al.
HEXIM1 down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α protein stability.
Biochem J. 2013; 456(2):195-204 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have previously reported on the inhibition of HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor α)-regulated pathways by HEXIM1 [HMBA (hexamethylene-bis-acetamide)-inducible protein 1]. Disruption of HEXIM1 activity in a knock-in mouse model expressing a mutant HEXIM1 protein resulted in increased susceptibility to the development of mammary tumours, partly by up-regulation of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) expression, HIF-1α expression and aberrant vascularization. We now report on the mechanistic basis for HEXIM1 regulation of HIF-1α. We observed direct interaction between HIF-1α and HEXIM1, and HEXIM1 up-regulated hydroxylation of HIF-1α, resulting in the induction of the interaction of HIF-1α with pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau protein) and ubiquitination of HIF-1α. The up-regulation of hydroxylation involves HEXIM1-mediated induction of PHD3 (prolyl hydroxylase 3) expression and interaction of PHD3 with HIF-1α. Acetylation of HIF-1α has been proposed to result in increased interaction of HIF-1α with pVHL and induced pVHL-mediated ubiquitination, which leads to the proteasomal degradation of HIF-1α. HEXIM1 also attenuated the interaction of HIF-1α with HDAC1 (histone deacetylase 1), resulting in acetylation of HIF-1α. The consequence of HEXIM1 down-regulation of HIF-1α protein expression is attenuated expression of HIF-1α target genes in addition to VEGF and inhibition of HIF-1α-regulated cell invasion.

Garcia-Donas J, Leandro-García LJ, González Del Alba A, et al.
Prospective study assessing hypoxia-related proteins as markers for the outcome of treatment with sunitinib in advanced clear-cell renal cell carcinoma.
Ann Oncol. 2013; 24(9):2409-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that expression of hypoxia markers may be associated with response to antiangiogenic drugs. Thus, we aimed to identify predictors of sunitinib outcome in clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of eight key proteins related to hypoxia (CAIX, HIF1A, HIF2A, VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3 and PDGFRB) and P-glycoprotein were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 67 primary ccRCC samples from prospectively recruited patients treated with first-line sunitinib. The proteins expression, VHL inactivation and EGLN3 mRNA content were compared with the patients' response to sunitinib.
RESULTS: High expression of HIF2A and PDGFRB was associated with better sunitinib RECIST objective response (P = 0.024 and P = 0.026; respectively) and increased VEGFR3 expression was associated with longer progression-free survival (P = 0.012). VEGFR3 overexpression showed a negative correlation with VEGFR3 polymorphism rs307826 (P = 0.002), a sunitinib resistance predictor. With respect to overall survival (OS), high VEGFA was associated with short (P = 0.009) and HIF2A with long (P = 0.048) survival times. High EGLN3 mRNA content was associated with shorter OS (P = 0.023).
CONCLUSIONS: We found an association between several proteins involved in hypoxia and sunitinib efficacy. In addition, low VEGFR3 expression was associated with worse outcome and with VEGFR3 rs307826 variant allele, reinforcing VEGFR3 as a marker of sunitinib resistance.

Lu N, Hui H, Yang H, et al.
Gambogic acid inhibits angiogenesis through inhibiting PHD2-VHL-HIF-1α pathway.
Eur J Pharm Sci. 2013; 49(2):220-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous studies revealed that gambogic acid (GA), the major active ingredient of gamboge, possessed antiangiogenic activities. In this study, we further explored the mechanism of inhibition effects of GA in tumor angiogenesis. The results of luciferase, RT-PCR, and ELISA assays indicated that GA significantly decreased transcription activation, mRNA expression, and secretion of VEGF in hypoxia. We detected that GA had no effect on mRNA level of HIF-1α which targets VEGF gene, but the increase of HIF-1α protein expression in hypoxia was repressed by GA, which can be reversed by proteasomal inhibitor MG132 and siRNA of VHL. But GA exhibited no effect on expression of VHL both in normoxia and hypoxia. HIF prolyl hydroxylases (PHD enzymes) act as oxygen sensors regulating HIF, and hence angiogenesis. Our results showed that GA potentially enhanced level of PHD2, the most important HIF hydroxylase, and showed no effect on PHD1 and PHD3. Transient transfection of siRNA of PHD2 could eliminate GA-induced VEGF secretion increase. Growth of HepG2 xenografts in BALB/cA nude mice was inhibited by GA and angiogenesis was repressed significantly in tumor xenografts by immunohistochemical staining of CD-31, a vascular endothelial marker, accompanied with decrease of HIF-1α and increase of PHD2 expression in tissue extracts. This work provides the demonstration that GA shows anti-angiogenic effects via inhibiting PHD2-VHL-HIF-1α pathway.

Casetti L, Martin-Lannerée S, Najjar I, et al.
Differential contributions of STAT5A and STAT5B to stress protection and tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance of chronic myeloid leukemia stem/progenitor cells.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(7):2052-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
STAT5 fulfills essential roles in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a prototypical stem cell malignancy. However, the specific contributions of the two related genes STAT5A and STAT5B have not been determined. In this study, we used a RNAi-based strategy to establish participation of these genes to CML disease and persistence following targeted therapy. We showed that STAT5A/STAT5B double-knockdown triggers CML cell apoptosis and suppresses both normal and CML HSC long-term clonogenic potential. STAT5A and STAT5B exhibited similar prosurvival activity, but STAT5A attenuation alone was ineffective at impairing growth of normal and CML CD34(+) cells isolated at diagnosis. In contrast, STAT5A attenuation was sufficient to enhance basal oxidative stress and DNA damage of normal CD34(+) and CML cells. Furthermore, it weakened the ability to manage exogenous oxidative stress, increased p53 (TRP53)/CHK-2 (CHEK2) stress pathway activation, and enhanced prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-3 (EGLN3) mRNA expression. Only STAT5A and its transactivation domain-deficient mutant STAT5AΔ749 specifically rescued these activities. STAT5A attenuation was also active at inhibiting growth of CML CD34(+) cells from patients with acquired resistance to imatinib. Our findings show that STAT5A has a selective role in contributing to stress resistance through unconventional mechanisms, offering new opportunities to eradicate the most primitive and tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant CML cells with an additional potential to eradicate persistent stem cell populations.

Sciorra VA, Sanchez MA, Kunibe A, Wurmser AE
Suppression of glioma progression by Egln3.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e40053 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Grade IV astrocytoma or glioblastoma has a poor clinical outcome that can be linked to hypoxia, invasiveness and active vascular remodeling. It has recently been suggested that hypoxia-inducible factors, Hifs, increase glioma growth and aggressiveness [1], [2], [3]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Egl 9 homolog 3 (Egln3), a prolyl-hydroxylase that promotes Hif degradation, suppresses tumor progression of human and rodent glioma models. Through intracranial tumorigenesis and in vitro assays, we demonstrate for the first time that Egln3 was sufficient to decrease the kinetics of tumor progression and increase survival. We also find that Klf5, a transcription factor important to vascular remodeling, was regulated by hypoxia in glioma. An analysis of the tumor vasculature revealed that elevated Egln3 normalized glioma capillary architecture, consistent with a role for Egln3 in eliciting decreases in the production of Hif-regulated, angiogenic factors. We also find that the hydroxylase-deficient mutant, Egln3(H196A) partially maintained tumor suppressive activity. These results highlight a bifurcation of Egln3 signaling and suggest that Egln3 has a non-hydroxylase-dependent function in glioma. We conclude that Egln3 is a critical determinant of glioma formation and tumor vascular functionality.

Liang QL, Li ZY, Zhou Y, et al.
Construction of a recombinant eukaryotic expression vector containing PHD3 gene and its expression in HepG2 cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 31:64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prolyl hydroxylase domain 3 (PHD3) is a hypoxia inducible factor-α (HIFα) regulator; it degrades HIFα in the presence of oxygen. Recently, there have been an increasing number of studies about the role of PHD3 in proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells. However, most of the evidence for the role of PHD3 is observational, and little is known of the molecular mechanism. In our current study, we constructed a recombinant eukaryotic expression vector containing the PHD3 gene and detected its biological activity in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells). We successfully constructed a recombinant pcDNA 3.1(+)-PHD3 plasmid; the results showed that PHD3 overexpression could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells and induce apoptosis by activating caspase-3 activity. Our study has provided preliminary materials and data for further investigation of the effect of PHD3 on HepG2 cells.

Chintala S, Najrana T, Toth K, et al.
Prolyl hydroxylase 2 dependent and Von-Hippel-Lindau independent degradation of Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and 2 alpha by selenium in clear cell renal cell carcinoma leads to tumor growth inhibition.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:293 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounts for more than 80% of the cases of renal cell carcinoma. In ccRCC deactivation of Von-Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene contributes to the constitutive expression of hypoxia inducible factors 1 and 2 alpha (HIF-α), transcriptional regulators of several genes involved in tumor angiogenesis, glycolysis and drug resistance. We have demonstrated inhibition of HIF-1α by Se-Methylselenocysteine (MSC) via stabilization of prolyl hydroxylases 2 and 3 (PHDs) and a significant therapeutic synergy when combined with chemotherapy. This study was initiated to investigate the expression of PHDs, HIF-α, and VEGF-A in selected solid cancers, the mechanism of HIF-α inhibition by MSC, and to document antitumor activity of MSC against human ccRCC xenografts.
METHODS: Tissue microarrays of primary human cancer specimens (ccRCC, head & neck and colon) were utilized to determine the incidence of PHD2/3, HIF-α, and VEGF-A by immunohistochemical methods. To investigate the mechanism(s) of HIF-α inhibition by MSC, VHL mutated ccRCC cells RC2 (HIF-1α positive), 786-0 (HIF-2α positive) and VHL wild type head & neck cancer cells FaDu (HIF-1α) were utilized. PHD2 and VHL gene specific siRNA knockdown and inhibitors of PHD2 and proteasome were used to determine their role in the degradation of HIF-1α by MSC.
RESULTS: We have demonstrated that ccRCC cells express low incidence of PHD2 (32%), undetectable PHD3, high incidence of HIF-α (92%), and low incidence of VEGF-A compared to head & neck and colon cancers. This laboratory was the first to identify MSC as a highly effective inhibitor of constitutively expressed HIF-α in ccRCC tumors. MSC did not inhibit HIF-1α protein synthesis, but facilitated its degradation. The use of gene knockdown and specific inhibitors confirmed that the inhibition of HIF-1α was PHD2 and proteasome dependent and VHL independent. The effects of MSC treatment on HIF-α were associated with significant antitumor activity against ccRCC xenograft.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the role of PHD2/3 in stable expression of HIF-α in human ccRCC. Furthermore, HIF-1α degradation by MSC is achieved through PHD2 dependent and VHL independent pathway which is unique for HIF-α regulation. These data provide the basis for combining MSC with currently used agents for ccRCC.

Koivunen P, Lee S, Duncan CG, et al.
Transformation by the (R)-enantiomer of 2-hydroxyglutarate linked to EGLN activation.
Nature. 2012; 483(7390):484-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The identification of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), fumarate hydratase (FH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations in human cancers has rekindled the idea that altered cellular metabolism can transform cells. Inactivating SDH and FH mutations cause the accumulation of succinate and fumarate, respectively, which can inhibit 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent enzymes, including the EGLN prolyl 4-hydroxylases that mark the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor for polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Inappropriate HIF activation is suspected of contributing to the pathogenesis of SDH-defective and FH-defective tumours but can suppress tumour growth in some other contexts. IDH1 and IDH2, which catalyse the interconversion of isocitrate and 2-OG, are frequently mutated in human brain tumours and leukaemias. The resulting mutants have the neomorphic ability to convert 2-OG to the (R)-enantiomer of 2-hydroxyglutarate ((R)-2HG). Here we show that (R)-2HG, but not (S)-2HG, stimulates EGLN activity, leading to diminished HIF levels, which enhances the proliferation and soft agar growth of human astrocytes. These findings define an enantiomer-specific mechanism by which the (R)-2HG that accumulates in IDH mutant brain tumours promotes transformation and provide a justification for exploring EGLN inhibition as a potential treatment strategy.

Lichner Z, Mejia-Guerrero S, Ignacak M, et al.
Pleiotropic action of renal cell carcinoma-dysregulated miRNAs on hypoxia-related signaling pathways.
Am J Pathol. 2012; 180(4):1675-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene is lost in ≈ 70% of all renal cell carcinomas (RCCs); however, increasing evidence supports the involvement of alternative mechanisms in the regulation of VHL expression, including suppression by microRNAs (miRNAs). miRNAs are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression through binding to target mRNAs. In this study, we found that miRNAs, which are dysregulated in cases of RCC, can target multiple members of RCC-related signaling pathways. Importantly, both VHL and the hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α gene are experimentally validated and are likely direct targets of miR-17-5p and miR-224, as shown by both luciferase assay and Western blot analysis. We found a negative correlation between miR-17-5p and its two predicted targets, VEGF-A and EGLN3, and between miR-224 and its targets SMAD4 and SMAD5 in RCC specimens, suggesting that downstream signaling pathways are also modulated by clear cell RCC-dysregulated miRs. Results from our bioinformatics analysis show that a single miRNA molecule can target multiple components of the same pathway and that multiple miRNAs can target the same molecule. Our results also indicate that miRNAs represent a mechanism for the inactivation of VHL in cases of RCC and can elucidate a new dimension in cancer pathogenesis. As such, miRNAs exemplify new potential therapeutic targets with a significant effect on both tumor growth and metastatic potential.

Högel H, Rantanen K, Jokilehto T, et al.
Prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 enhances the hypoxic survival and G1 to S transition of carcinoma cells.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e27112 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia restricts cell proliferation and cell cycle progression at the G1/S interface but at least a subpopulation of carcinoma cells can escape the restriction. In carcinoma hypoxia may in fact select for cells with enhanced hypoxic survival and increased aggressiveness. The cellular oxygen sensors HIF proline hydroxylases (PHDs) adapt the cellular functions to lowered environmental oxygen tension. PHD3 isoform has shown the strongest hypoxic upregulation among the family members. We detected a strong PHD3 mRNA expression in tumors of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The PHD3 expression associated with expression of hypoxic marker gene. Using siRNA in cell lines derived from HNSCC we show that specific inhibition of PHD3 expression in carcinoma cells caused reduced cell survival in hypoxia. The loss of PHD3, but not that of PHD2, led to marked cell number reduction. Although caspase-3 was activated at early hypoxia no induction of apoptosis was detected. However, hypoxic PHD3 inhibition caused a block in cell cycle progression. Cell population in G1 phase was increased and the population in S phase reduced demonstrating a block in G1 to S transition under PHD3 inhibition. In line with this, the level of hyperphosphorylated retinoblastoma protein Rb was reduced by PHD3 knock-down in hypoxia. PHD3 loss led to increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 expression but not that of p21 or p16. The data demonstrated that increased PHD3 expression under hypoxia enhances cell cycle progression and survival of carcinoma cells.

Wollenick K, Hu J, Kristiansen G, et al.
Synthetic transactivation screening reveals ETV4 as broad coactivator of hypoxia-inducible factor signaling.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2012; 40(5):1928-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins 1-3 are known as cellular oxygen sensors, acting via the degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) α-subunits. PHD2 and PHD3 genes are inducible by HIFs themselves, suggesting a negative feedback loop that involves PHD abundance. To identify novel regulators of the PHD2 gene, an expression array of 704 transcription factors was screened by a method that allows distinguishing between HIF-dependent and HIF-independent promoter regulation. Among others, the E-twenty six transcription factor ETS translocation variant 4 (ETV4) was found to contribute to PHD2 gene expression particularly under hypoxic conditions. Mechanistically, complex formation between ETV4 and HIF-1/2α was observed by mammalian two-hybrid and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis. HIF-1α domain mapping, CITED2 overexpression and factor inhibiting HIF depletion experiments provided evidence for cooperation between HIF-1α and p300/CBP in ETV4 binding. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed ETV4 and HIF-1α corecruitment to the PHD2 promoter. Of 608 hypoxically induced transcripts found by genome-wide expression profiling, 7.7% required ETV4 for efficient hypoxic induction, suggesting a broad role of ETV4 in hypoxic gene regulation. Endogenous ETV4 highly correlated with PHD2, HIF-1/2α and several established markers of tissue hypoxia in 282 human breast cancer tissue samples, corroborating a functional interplay between the ETV4 and HIF pathways.

Peurala E, Koivunen P, Bloigu R, et al.
Expressions of individual PHDs associate with good prognostic factors and increased proliferation in breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 133(1):179-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) overexpression often associates with a poor prognosis. Stability of the HIF-α subunits is regulated by HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases, PHD1-3. We assessed here immunohistochemical expression of PHD1-3 and HIF-1α and 2α in patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma (n = 102) and correlated their expression levels with main clinical prognostic factors and survival. PHD1 expression correlated with high proliferation, and these tumors were mainly estrogen receptor-negative. PHD3 expression declined in tumors of large size, poor differentiation, and high proliferation. There was a tendency for increased breast cancer-specific survival and longer disease-free survival among patients with high tumor PHD2 expression. Surprisingly, PHD1-3 expression did not correlate with HIF-1α or HIF-2α downregulation. However, HIF-2α expression correlated independently with low tumor stage and HIF-1α expression had a tendency for decreased breast cancer-specific survival. PHD1 and 3 appear to be HIF-independent factors in breast cancer. Not all PHD1 associated proliferation is estrogen-dependent and it is associated with a poor prognosis of cancer. PHD3 may be an important regulator of apoptosis and it is mainly found in tumors with good prognosis. PHD2 expression is likely to be involved in increased survival.

Semenza GL
Regulation of metabolism by hypoxia-inducible factor 1.
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2011; 76:347-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
The maintenance of oxygen homeostasis is critical for survival, and the master regulator of this process in metazoan species is hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), which controls both O(2) delivery and utilization. Under conditions of reduced O(2) availability, HIF-1 activates the transcription of genes, whose protein products mediate a switch from oxidative to glycolytic metabolism. HIF-1 is activated in cancer cells as a result of intratumoral hypoxia and/or genetic alterations. In cancer cells, metabolism is reprogrammed to favor glycolysis even under aerobic conditions. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been implicated in cancer growth and metabolism, although the mechanism by which it exerts these effects is unclear. Recent studies indicate that PKM2 interacts with HIF-1α physically and functionally to stimulate the binding of HIF-1 at target genes, the recruitment of coactivators, histone acetylation, and gene transcription. Interaction with HIF-1α is facilitated by hydroxylation of PKM2 at proline-403 and -408 by PHD3. Knockdown of PHD3 decreases glucose transporter 1, lactate dehydrogenase A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 expression; decreases glucose uptake and lactate production; and increases O(2) consumption. The effect of PKM2/PHD3 is not limited to genes encoding metabolic enzymes because VEGF is similarly regulated. These results provide a mechanism by which PKM2 promotes metabolic reprogramming and suggest that it plays a broader role in cancer progression than has previously been appreciated.

Chen S, Zhang J, Li X, et al.
The expression of prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes are up-regulated and negatively correlated with Bcl-2 in non-small cell lung cancer.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2011; 358(1-2):257-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs) play the most notable role in cellular oxygen sensing and oxygen homeostasis, the transcription of PHD genes are involved in the protection against hypoxia and oxidative stress. Intratumoral hypoxia exists in malignant solid tumors primarily due to rapid cancer cell proliferation with high metabolic demands and defective structural and functional vasculature. Previous studies have demonstrated that all the three PHDs have the ability to hydroxylate hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) polypeptides, which are the key molecules in maintaining the oxygen homeostasis. However, PHDs play multiple physiological and pathological roles. There is scant data regarding expression of PHDs genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues. In Addition, the relationship between PHDs and apoptosis has never been explored in NSCLC. In this article, we examined the expression of PHD genes and their relationship with the tumor behavior and apoptosis-associated factors in NSCLC. Our results indicated that the expression of PHDs was much higher in lung cancer tissue than that of adjacent normal tissue, and the high expression of PHD3 was associated with early tumor stage and well differentiation in NSCLC. Moreover, increased PHD3 expression was significantly correlated with the low expression of Bcl-2, suggesting its potential role in inducing apoptosis.

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