IGF1R

Gene Summary

Gene:IGF1R; insulin like growth factor 1 receptor
Aliases: IGFR, CD221, IGFIR, JTK13
Location:15q26.3
Summary:This receptor binds insulin-like growth factor with a high affinity. It has tyrosine kinase activity. The insulin-like growth factor I receptor plays a critical role in transformation events. Cleavage of the precursor generates alpha and beta subunits. It is highly overexpressed in most malignant tissues where it functions as an anti-apoptotic agent by enhancing cell survival. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IGF1R (cancer-related)

Yunusova NV, Spirina LV, Frolova AE, et al.
Association of IGFBP-6 Expression with Metabolic Syndrome and Adiponectin and IGF-IR Receptor Levels in Colorectal Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(8):3963-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To assess IGFBP-6 expression in relation with the presence of the metabolic syndrome, adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) and IGF-IR levels in colorectal adenocarcinoma cases.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: IGFBP-6 mRNA and protein levels were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting in 46 patients. ELISA and ow cytometry were used for evaluation of AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and IGF-IR.
RESULTS: The results showed that IGFBP-6 mRNA expression and the IGFBP-6 content were higher in tumor tissue samples of colorectal cancer patients with and without the metabolic syndrome. In addition, IGFBP-6 mRNA expression was associated with tumor invasion (tumor size) and the IGFBP-6 protein level was associated with nodal status. Positive correlations and positive nonlinear relations were found between the IGFBP-6 level and the AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 contents in colorectal cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The IGFBP-6 mRNA level and protein level were found to be associated with presence of the metabolic syndrome. Positive correlations indicated probable cross-talk between the IGF-IR-mediated and adiponectin-mediated signaling pathways in colorectal carcinomas. IGFBP-6 may be considered as a potential biomarker associated with lymphogenous metastasis and the metabolic syndrome in colorectal cancer.

Yao M, Wang L, Yang J, et al.
IGF-I receptor as an emerging potential molecular-targeted for hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14677-14686 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abnormal expression of insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression with largely unknown mechanisms. In this study, IGF-IR expression among different HCC cell lines and silencing its gene transcription on effects of HCC were investigated by short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Specific shRNA was successfully transfected into Bel-7404 or PLC/PRF/5 cells with 90 or 71 % efficiency. The inhibiting rate of IGF-IR at mRNA level were 54.9 % in Bel-7404 or 59.6 % in PLC/PRF/5 cells in accordance with its protein suppression, with the cell cycles at the G1 phase arrest and decreasing cyclinD1 via promoting apoptosis in vitro. With the xenograft models of PLC/PRF/5 cells inserted specific shRNA in vivo, the tumor-forming time (14.0 ± 1.1 days) or tumor volume (143 ± 24 mm(3)) in the shRNA group was significantly lengthened or smaller than those in the control group (7.2 ± 0.8 days or 372 ± 46 mm(3), P < 0.001) or in the neg-shRNA group (7.5 ± 1.0 days or 350 ± 50 mm(3), P < 0.001). Silencing the IGF-IR gene transcription inhibited cell proliferation or xenograft tumor growth of HCC, suggesting that IGF-IR might be a novel potential target for HCC gene therapy.

Minchenko DO, Kharkova AP, Halkin OV, et al.
Effect of hypoxia on the expression of genes encoding insulin-like growth factors and some related proteins in U87 glioma cells without IRE1 function.
Endocr Regul. 2016; 50(2):43-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the expression of genes encoding insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2), their receptor (IGF1R), binding protein-4 (IGFBP4), and stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) in U87 glioma cells in relation to inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by IRE1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1) for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of tumor growth.
METHODS: The expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGFBP4, and STC2 genes in U87 glioma cells transfected by empty vector pcDNA3.1 (control) and cells without IRE1 signaling enzyme function (transfected by dnIRE1) upon hypoxia was studied by qPCR.
RESULTS: The expression of IGF1 and IGF2 genes is down-regulated in glioma cells without IRE1 signaling enzyme function in comparison with the control cells. At the same time, the expression of IGF1R, IGFBP4, and STC2 genes was up-regulated in glioma cells upon inhibition of IRE1, with more significant changes for IGFBP4 and STC2 genes. We also showed that hypoxia does not change significantly the expression of IGF1, IGF2, and IGF1R genes but up-regulated IGFBP4 and STC2 genes expression in control glioma cells. Moreover, the inhibition of both enzymatic activities (kinase and endoribonuclease) of IRE1 in glioma cells does not change significantly the effect of hypoxia on the expression of IGF1, IGF1R, and IGFBP4 genes but introduces sensitivity of IGF2 gene to hypoxic condition. Thus, the expression of IGF2 gene is resistant to hypoxia only in control glioma cells and significantly down-regulated in cells without functional activity of IRE1 signaling enzyme, which is central mediator of the unfolded protein response and an important component of the tumor growth as well as metabolic diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study demonstrate that the expression of IGF1 and IGF1R genes is resistant to hypoxic condition both in control U87 glioma cells and cells without IRE1 signaling enzyme function. However, hypoxia significantly up-regulates the expression of IGFBP4 gene independently on the inhibition of IRE1 enzyme. These data show that proteins encoded by these genes are resistant to hypoxia except IGFBP4 and participate in the regulation of metabolic and proliferative processes through IRE1 signaling.

Deng Y, Wang Z, Zhang F, et al.
A Blockade of IGF Signaling Sensitizes Human Ovarian Cancer Cells to the Anthelmintic Niclosamide-Induced Anti-Proliferative and Anticancer Activities.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(3):871-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, and there is an unmet clinical need to develop new therapies. Although showing promising anticancer activity, Niclosamide may not be used as a monotherapy. We seek to investigate whether inhibiting IGF signaling potentiates Niclosamide's anticancer efficacy in human ovarian cancer cells.
METHODS: Cell proliferation and migration are assessed. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis are analyzed by flow cytometry. Inhibition of IGF signaling is accomplished by adenovirus-mediated expression of siRNAs targeting IGF-1R. Cancer-associated pathways are assessed using pathway-specific reporters. Subcutaneous xenograft model is used to determine anticancer activity.
RESULTS: We find that Niclosamide is highly effective on inhibiting cell proliferation, cell migration, and cell cycle progression, and inducing apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells, possibly by targeting multiple signaling pathways involved in ELK1/SRF, AP-1, MYC/MAX and NFkB. Silencing IGF-1R exert a similar but weaker effect than that of Niclosamide's. However, silencing IGF-1R significantly sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to Niclosamide-induced anti-proliferative and anticancer activities both in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Niclosamide as a repurposed anticancer agent may be more efficacious when combined with agents that target other signaling pathways such as IGF signaling in the treatment of human cancers including ovarian cancer.

Yamaguchi R, Harada H, Hirota K
VHL-deficient renal cancer cells gain resistance to mitochondria-activating apoptosis inducers by activating AKT through the IGF1R-PI3K pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13295-13306 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously developed (2-deoxyglucose)-(ABT-263) combination therapy (2DG-ABT), which induces apoptosis by activating Bak in the mitochondria of highly glycolytic cells with varied genetic backgrounds. However, the rates of apoptosis induced by 2DG-ABT were lower in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-deficient cancer cells. The re-expression of VHL protein in these cells lowered IGF1R expression in a manner independent of oxygen concentration. Lowering IGF1R expression via small interfering RNA (siRNA) sensitized the cells to 2DG-ABT, suggesting that IGF1R interfered with the activation of apoptosis by the mitochondria. To determine which of the two pathways activated by IGF1R, the Ras-ERK pathway or the PI3K-AKT pathway, was involved in the impairment of mitochondria activation, the cells were treated with a specific inhibitor of either PI3K or ERK, and 2DG-ABT was added to activate the mitochondria. The apoptotic rates resulting from 2DG-ABT treatment were higher in the cells treated with the PI3K inhibitor, while the rates remained approximately the same in the cells treated with the ERK inhibitor. In 2DG-ABT-sensitive cells, a 4-h 2DG treatment caused the dissociation of Mcl-1 from Bak, while ABT treatment alone caused the dissociation of Bcl-xL from Bak without substantially reducing Mcl-1 levels. In 2DG-ABT-resistant cells, Mcl-1 dissociated from Bak only when AKT activity was inhibited during the 4-h 2DG treatment. Thus, in VHL-deficient cells, IGF1R activated AKT and stabilized the Bak-Mcl-1 complex, thereby conferring cell resistance to apoptosis.

Zhao X, Li X, Ren Q, et al.
Calycosin induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells, through modulating the ERβ/MiR-95 and IGF-1R, PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.
Gene. 2016; 591(1):123-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Calycosin, the main component extractable from the herb Radix astragali, has been shown to inhibit cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines, but the underlying mechanisms by the way in which this occurs remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to determine the potential effects of calycosin on proliferation in colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. Colorectal cancer cell lines SW480 and LoVo and cervical cancer cell line HeLa were treated with various concentrations of calycosin or plus ER beta (ERβ) inhibitor PHTPP. The CCK8 assay, flow cytometry, and Hoechst 33258 stain were used to assess the effects on cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The mRNA levels of ERβ and miR-95 were quantified by real-time PCR. The protein expression levels of ERβ, ERα, IGF-1R, and p-Akt were evaluated by Western blot analysis. We demonstrated that calycosin inhibited the proliferation in SW480 and LoVo cells and induced apoptosis, particularly in SW480 cells, but not in HeLa cells. Calycosin increased ERβ expression and reduced the ERα, IGF-1R, and p-Akt expression alongside down-regulation of miR-95 in SW480 cells. Inhibiting ERβ blocked the change of miR-95 and the resulting increase in apoptosis in SW480 cells. Additionally, calycosin significantly suppressed xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. In conclusion, calycosin exerts an inhibitory effect on proliferation of CRC cells in vivo and in vitro, through ERβ-mediated regulation of the IGF-1R, PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and of miR-95 expression.

Huang Q, Li L, Lin Z, et al.
Identification of Preferentially Expressed Antigen of Melanoma as a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Med Sci Monit. 2016; 22:1837-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) is known as a tumor-associated antigen that is altered in a variety of malignancies, including lung cancer. However, the role of PRAME in lung cancer remains unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the expression of PRAME in human lung adenocarcinomas and studied the function of PRAME using small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced gene knockdown in lung cancer cell lines PC9 and A549. RESULTS We found that PRAME expression is down-regulated in lung adenocarcinomas. Knockdown of PRAME promoted proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of PC9 and A549 cells. CONCLUSIONS In line with its roles in controlling cell growth, RPAME regulates multiple critical cell-growth related genes, including IGF1R oncogene. IGF1R up-regulation contributes to increase of cell growth upon the knockdown of PRAME. Taken together, our results suggest that PRAME has inhibitory roles in lung cancer.

Das F, Dey N, Bera A, et al.
MicroRNA-214 Reduces Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Receptor Expression and Downstream mTORC1 Signaling in Renal Carcinoma Cells.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(28):14662-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/07/2017 Related Publications
Elevated IGF-1/insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) autocrine/paracrine signaling in patients with renal cell carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis of the disease independent of their von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) status. Increased expression of IGF-1R in renal cancer cells correlates with their potency of tumor development and progression. The mechanism by which expression of IGF-1R is increased in renal carcinoma is not known. We report that VHL-deficient and VHL-positive renal cancer cells possess significantly decreased levels of mature, pre-, and pri-miR-214 than normal proximal tubular epithelial cells. We identified an miR-214 recognition element in the 3'UTR of IGF-1R mRNA and confirmed its responsiveness to miR-214. Overexpression of miR-214 decreased the IGF-1R protein levels, resulting in the inhibition of Akt kinase activity in both types of renal cancer cells. IGF-1 provoked phosphorylation and inactivation of PRAS40 in an Akt-dependent manner, leading to the activation of mTORC1 signal transduction to increase phosphorylation of S6 kinase and 4EBP-1. Phosphorylation-deficient mutants of PRAS40 and 4EBP-1 significantly inhibited IGF-1R-driven proliferation of renal cancer cells. Expression of miR-214 suppressed IGF-1R-induced phosphorylation of PRAS40, S6 kinase, and 4EBP-1, indicating inhibition of mTORC1 activity. Finally, miR-214 significantly blocked IGF-1R-forced renal cancer cell proliferation, which was reversed by expression of 3'UTR-less IGF-1R and constitutively active mTORC1. Together, our results identify a reciprocal regulation of IGF-1R levels and miR-214 expression in renal cancer cells independent of VHL status. Our data provide evidence for a novel mechanism for IGF-1R-driven renal cancer cell proliferation involving miR-214 and mTORC1.

Merritt MA, Strickler HD, Einstein MH, et al.
Insulin/IGF and sex hormone axes in human endometrium and associations with endometrial cancer risk factors.
Cancer Causes Control. 2016; 27(6):737-48 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/07/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Experimental and observational data link insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and estrogens to endometrial tumorigenesis. However, there are limited data regarding insulin/IGF and sex hormone axes protein and gene expression in normal endometrial tissues, and very few studies have examined the impact of endometrial cancer risk factors on endometrial tissue biology.
METHODS: We evaluated endometrial tissues from 77 premenopausal and 30 postmenopausal women who underwent hysterectomy for benign indications and had provided epidemiological data. Endometrial tissue mRNA and protein levels were measured using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
RESULTS: In postmenopausal women, we observed higher levels of phosphorylated IGF-I/insulin receptor (pIGF1R/pIR) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women (p value =0.02), while women who reported regular nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use versus no use had higher levels of insulin and progesterone receptors (both p values ≤0.03). We also noted differences in pIGF1R/pIR staining with OC use (postmenopausal women only), and the proportion of estrogen receptor-positive tissues varied by the number of live births and PTEN status (premenopausal only) (p values ≤0.04). Compared to premenopausal proliferative phase women, postmenopausal women exhibited lower mRNA levels of IGF1, but higher IGFBP1 and IGFBP3 expression (all p values ≤0.004), and higher protein levels of the receptors for estrogen, insulin, and IGF-I (all p values ≤0.02). Conversely, pIGF1R/pIR levels were higher in premenopausal proliferative phase versus postmenopausal endometrium (p value =0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight links between endometrial cancer risk factors and mechanistic factors that may contribute to early events in the multistage process of endometrial carcinogenesis.

Chien SW, Kuo DY, Liao JM, et al.
Growth Modulation of Diabetic Factors and Antidiabetic Drugs on Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.
Chin J Physiol. 2016; 59(2):109-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa) include age, hormones, race, family history and diet. Recently, epidemiologic evidence has indicated that history of diabetes mellitus (DM) is inversely associated with risk of PCa. However, epidemiological investigations have yielded inconsistent results. Hence, the exact mechanism of DM-induced reduction in the incidence of PCa has yet to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DM factors, including glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), on the proliferation of PCa cell lines in vitro. Cell proliferation and expression of hormone receptors was examined in MTT assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. The results showed that DM factors did not affect the viability of androgen receptor (AR)-expressing PCa cell lines. However, cell proliferation increased after treatment with DM factors in androgen-independent PCa cell lines. On PCa tissue arrays, intensities of total AR and nuclear IGF-1R were higher in malignant tissues than in normal prostate glands. In terms of hormonal receptors, androgen-dependent LNCaP cells treated with insulin and IGF-1 in a low-serum medium showed decreased expression of insulin receptor beta (IRβ) and elevated expression of IGF-1 receptor beta (IGF-1Rβ). Moreover, expression of AR was upregulated after insulin and IGF-1 treatment in LNCaP cells, but not in the other PCa cell lines. Most of the studied antidiabetic drugs promoted the viability of PCa cells. However, metformin decreased the viability of AR-expressing PCa cells. These results suggest that diabetic factors modify the expression of AR, IR and IGF-1R to increase cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, the growth suppressing effects of metformin on PCa may be via the regulation of the AR signaling pathway.

Maoa R, Zou F, Yang L, et al.
The loss of MiR-139-5p promotes colitis-associated tumorigenesis by mediating PI3K/AKT/Wnt signaling.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015; 69:153-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
MiR-139-5p down-regulation has frequently been implicated in colorectal carcinoma. However, there is little known about its biological function between inflammation and cancer in vivo. Here, a transgenic murine model of colorectal carcinoma was used to investigate pathogenetic role of miR-139-5p in colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis. We showed that miR-139-5p knockout mice were higher sensitive to DSS-induced colitis and enhanced formation of intestinal neoplasia was observed when mice were exposed to AOM/DSS treatment. MiR-139-5p knockout mice exhibited an increased expression of genes involved in Wnt pathway. Such genes are closely associated with cell proliferation and differentiation, promoting the β-catenin nuclear accumulation. Furthermore, biochemical studies in HCT-116 cells revealed that the over-expression of miR-139-5p inhibited the crosstalk between PI3K/AKT and Wnt pathway mediated by IGF-1R. Collectively, these findings indicate that miR-139-5p plays a crucial role in the development and progression of colitis-associated tumorigenesis and suggest that miR-139-5p may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of colitis-associated cancer in the future.

Dong X, Fernandez-Salas E, Li E, Wang S
Elucidation of Resistance Mechanisms to Second-Generation ALK Inhibitors Alectinib and Ceritinib in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.
Neoplasia. 2016; 18(3):162-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/07/2017 Related Publications
Crizotinib is the first anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor to have been approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring an ALK fusion gene, but it has been found that, in the clinic, patients develop resistance to it. Alectinib and ceritinib are second-generation ALK inhibitors which show remarkable clinical responses in both crizotinib-naive and crizotinib-resistant NSCLC patients harboring an ALK fusion gene. Despite their impressive activity, clinical resistance to alectinib and ceritinib has also emerged. In the current study, we elucidated the resistance mechanisms to these second-generation ALK inhibitors in the H3122 NSCLC cell line harboring the EML4-ALK variant 1 fusion in vitro. Prolonged treatment of the parental H3122 cells with alectinib and ceritinib led to two cell lines which are 10 times less sensitive to alectinib and ceritinib than the parental H3122 cell line. Although mutations of ALK in its kinase domain are a common resistance mechanism for crizotinib, we did not detect any ALK mutation in these resistant cell lines. Rather, overexpression of phospho-ALK and alternative receptor tyrosine kinases such as phospho-EGFR, phospho-HER3, and phospho-IGFR-1R was observed in both resistant cell lines. Additionally, NRG1, a ligand for HER3, is upregulated and responsible for resistance by activating the EGFR family pathways through the NRG1-HER3-EGFR axis. Combination treatment with EGFR inhibitors, in particular afatinib, was shown to be effective at overcoming resistance. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into adaptive resistance to second-generation ALK inhibitors and suggests a potential clinical strategy to combat resistance to these second-generation ALK inhibitors in NSCLC.

Becker MA, Ibrahim YH, Oh AS, et al.
Insulin Receptor Substrate Adaptor Proteins Mediate Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0150564 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 08/07/2017 Related Publications
Therapies targeting the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) have not been developed with predictive biomarkers to identify tumors with receptor activation. We have previously shown that the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) adaptor proteins are necessary for linking IGF1R to downstream signaling pathways and the malignant phenotype in breast cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to identify gene expression profiles downstream of IGF1R and its two adaptor proteins. IRS-null breast cancer cells (T47D-YA) were engineered to express IRS-1 or IRS-2 alone and their ability to mediate IGF ligand-induced proliferation, motility, and gene expression determined. Global gene expression signatures reflecting IRS adaptor specific and primary vs. secondary ligand response were derived (Early IRS-1, Late IRS-1, Early IRS-2 and Late IRS-2) and functional pathway analysis examined. IRS isoforms mediated distinct gene expression profiles, functional pathways, and breast cancer subtype association. For example, IRS-1/2-induced TGFb2 expression and blockade of TGFb2 abrogated IGF-induced cell migration. In addition, the prognostic value of IRS proteins was significant in the luminal B breast tumor subtype. Univariate and multivariate analyses confirmed that IRS adaptor signatures correlated with poor outcome as measured by recurrence-free and overall survival. Thus, IRS adaptor protein expression is required for IGF ligand responses in breast cancer cells. IRS-specific gene signatures represent accurate surrogates of IGF activity and could predict response to anti-IGF therapy in breast cancer.

Vornicova O, Bar-Sela G
Investigational therapies for Ewing sarcoma: a search without a clear finding.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2016; 25(6):679-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are a group of aggressive diseases, characterized histologically by small, round, blue cells and genetically by translocation involving EWS and ETS partner genes. The current treatment of localized Ewing sarcoma (ES) requires a multi-disciplinary approach, including multidrug chemotherapy, administrated before and after local treatment, surgery and radiation therapy. Unfortunately, the cure rate of metastatic or refractory/recurrent disease is still very poor.
AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors summarize the new types of therapy and strategies aimed to improve the prognosis or cure ES. Herein, the authors discuss several preclinical and phase I-II studies with new-targeted therapies. The most studied therapies are insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) inhibitors but have limited efficacy. Other strategies include Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibition, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibition, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and telomerase inhibitors, all with limited effectiveness.
EXPERT OPINION: Future treatment strategies should combine one or more targeted therapies with conventional chemotherapy. Some combined modality treatments are under clinical study. However, treatment breakthroughs are still needed to improve the relatively poor prognosis of recurrent/metastatic ESFT.

Usset JL, Raghavan R, Tyrer JP, et al.
Assessment of Multifactor Gene-Environment Interactions and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Candidate Genes, Obesity, and Hormone-Related Risk Factors.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016; 25(5):780-90 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk factors relate to hormone exposure and elevated estrogen levels are associated with obesity in postmenopausal women. Therefore, we hypothesized that gene-environment interactions related to hormone-related risk factors could differ between obese and non-obese women.
METHODS: We considered interactions between 11,441 SNPs within 80 candidate genes related to hormone biosynthesis and metabolism and insulin-like growth factors with six hormone-related factors (oral contraceptive use, parity, endometriosis, tubal ligation, hormone replacement therapy, and estrogen use) and assessed whether these interactions differed between obese and non-obese women. Interactions were assessed using logistic regression models and data from 14 case-control studies (6,247 cases; 10,379 controls). Histotype-specific analyses were also completed.
RESULTS: SNPs in the following candidate genes showed notable interaction: IGF1R (rs41497346, estrogen plus progesterone hormone therapy, histology = all, P = 4.9 × 10(-6)) and ESR1 (rs12661437, endometriosis, histology = all, P = 1.5 × 10(-5)). The most notable obesity-gene-hormone risk factor interaction was within INSR (rs113759408, parity, histology = endometrioid, P = 8.8 × 10(-6)).
CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated the feasibility of assessing multifactor interactions in large genetic epidemiology studies. Follow-up studies are necessary to assess the robustness of our findings for ESR1, CYP11A1, IGF1R, CYP11B1, INSR, and IGFBP2 Future work is needed to develop powerful statistical methods able to detect these complex interactions.
IMPACT: Assessment of multifactor interaction is feasible, and, here, suggests that the relationship between genetic variants within candidate genes and hormone-related risk factors may vary EOC susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 780-90. ©2016 AACR.

El Tayebi HM, Abdelaziz AI
Epigenetic regulation of insulin-like growth factor axis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2016; 22(9):2668-77 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway is an important pathway in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis, and the IGF network is clearly dysregulated in many cancers and developmental abnormalities. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), only a minority of patients are eligible for curative treatments, such as tumor resection or liver transplant. Unfortunately, there is a high recurrence of HCC after surgical tumor removal. Recent research efforts have focused on targeting IGF axis members in an attempt to find therapeutic options for many health problems. In this review, we shed lights on the regulation of members of the IGF axis, mainly by microRNAs in HCC. MicroRNAs in HCC attempt to halt the aberrant expression of the IGF network, and a single microRNA can have multiple downstream targets in one or more signaling pathways. Targeting microRNAs is a relatively new approach for identifying an efficient radical cure for HCC.

Kekeeva T, Tanas A, Kanygina A, et al.
Novel fusion transcripts in bladder cancer identified by RNA-seq.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 374(2):224-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common type of bladder cancer and is the second most frequently diagnosed genitourinary tumor. The identification of fusion genes in bladder cancer might provide new perspectives for its classification and significance. In this study, we present a thorough search on three UC samples for novel fusion transcripts in bladder cancer using high-throughput RNA sequencing. We used stringent requirements for 819 fusion candidates and nominated 10 candidate fusion transcripts. Among them four novel fusion genes SEPT9/CYHR, IGF1R/TTC23, SYT8/TNNI2 and CASZ1/DFFA were validated and characterized in 48 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens of bladder cancer. Chromosomal rearrangements of regions 17q25, 15q26.3 and 1p36.22 resulting in the fusion transcripts SEPT9/CYHR, IGF1R/TTC23 and CASZ1/DFFA, appeared to be rare or unique events because they were not detected in the 48 UC samples. In contrast, the SYT8/TNNI2 fusion transcript resulting from transcription-induced chimerism by read-through mechanisms was a rather common and tumor-specific event occurring in 37.5% (18/48) of the UC specimens. Further investigation of functional and clinical relevance of novel fusion genes remains to be elucidated to reveal their role in bladder carcinogenesis.

Guo F, Chen H, Chang J, Zhang L
Mutation R273H confers p53 a stimulating effect on the IGF-1R-AKT pathway via miR-30a suppression in breast cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 78:335-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
p53 is the most highly mutated tumor suppressor in human malignancies. A wide array of p53 mutations has been revealed to play pivotal roles during cancer progression, which abolish anti-tumor functions of wild type p53 but also elicit tumorigenic effects by activating a diverse subset of downstream molecules. R273H mutation of p53 has been closely implicated in human cancer. Here we report miR-30a as a novel downstream target of p53 R273H mutant, which binds to the promoter region to repress miR-30a expression. Consequently, p53 R273H mutant enhances the migratory capabilities of tumor cells that are compromised by exogenous miR-30a over-expression. Our further investigation indicates that p53 R273H mutation unleashes the inhibition effect of miR-30a on IGF-1R expression, thus leading to elevated activation of IGF-1R-AKT signaling cascade in tumor cells.

Ichikawa W, Terashima M, Ochiai A, et al.
Impact of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and amphiregulin expression on survival in patients with stage II/III gastric cancer enrolled in the Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer.
Gastric Cancer. 2017; 20(2):263-273 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Exploratory biomarker analysis was conducted to identify factors related to the outcomes of patients with stage II/III gastric cancer using data from the Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer, which was a randomized controlled study comparing the administration of an orally active combination of tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil with surgery alone.
METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded surgical specimens from 829 patients were retrospectively examined, and 63 genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR after TaqMan assay-based pre-amplification. Gene expression was normalized to the geometric mean of GAPDH, ACTB, and RPLP0 as reference genes, and categorized into low and high values based on the median. The impact of gene expression on survival was analyzed using 5-year survival data. The Benjamini and Hochberg procedure was used to control the false discovery rate.
RESULTS: IGF1R and AREG were most strongly correlated with overall survival, which was significantly worse in high IGF1R patients than low IGF1R patients, but better in high AREG patients than low AREG patients. The hazard ratio for death in the analysis of overall survival (S-1 vs. surgery alone) was reduced in the high IGF1R group compared with the low IGF1R group and in the low AREG group compared with the high AREG group. There were no significant interaction effects.
CONCLUSION: IGF1R gene expression was associated with poor outcomes after curative resection of stage II/III gastric cancer, whereas AREG gene expression was associated with good outcomes. No significant interaction effect on survival was evident between S-1 treatment and gene expression.

Triplett TA, Cardenas KT, Lancaster JN, et al.
Endogenous dendritic cells from the tumor microenvironment support T-ALL growth via IGF1R activation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(8):E1016-25 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2017 Related Publications
Primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells require stromal-derived signals to survive. Although many studies have identified cell-intrinsic alterations in signaling pathways that promote T-ALL growth, the identity of endogenous stromal cells and their associated signals in the tumor microenvironment that support T-ALL remains unknown. By examining the thymic tumor microenvironments in multiple murine T-ALL models and primary patient samples, we discovered the emergence of prominent epithelial-free regions, enriched for proliferating tumor cells and dendritic cells (DCs). Systematic evaluation of the functional capacity of tumor-associated stromal cells revealed that myeloid cells, primarily DCs, are necessary and sufficient to support T-ALL survival ex vivo. DCs support T-ALL growth both in primary thymic tumors and at secondary tumor sites. To identify a molecular mechanism by which DCs support T-ALL growth, we first performed gene expression profiling, which revealed up-regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (Pdgfrb) and insulin-like growth factor I receptor (Igf1r) on T-ALL cells, with concomitant expression of their ligands by tumor-associated DCs. Both Pdgfrb and Igf1r were activated in ex vivo T-ALL cells, and coculture with tumor-associated, but not normal thymic DCs, sustained IGF1R activation. Furthermore, IGF1R signaling was necessary for DC-mediated T-ALL survival. Collectively, these studies provide the first evidence that endogenous tumor-associated DCs supply signals driving T-ALL growth, and implicate tumor-associated DCs and their mitogenic signals as auspicious therapeutic targets.

Chen G, Fang T, Huang Z, et al.
MicroRNA-133a Inhibits Osteosarcoma Cells Proliferation and Invasion via Targeting IGF-1R.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 38(2):598-608 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by repressing translation or cleaving RNA transcripts in a sequence-specific manner. Downregulated microRNAs and their roles in cancer development have attracted much attention. A growing body of evidence showed that microRNA-133a (miR-133a) has inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of osteosarcoma.
METHODS: MiR-133a expression in human osteosarcoma cell lines and human normal osteoblastic cell line hFOB was investigated by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The role of miR-133a in human osteosarcoma growth and invasion was assessed in cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Then, luciferase reporter assay validated IGF-1R as a downstream and functional target of miR-133a, and functional studies revealed that the anti-tumor effect of miR-133a was probably due to targeting and repressing of IGF-1R expression.
RESULTS: MiR-133a was lower expressed in human osteosarcoma cell lines than human normal osteoblastic cell line hFOB and its effect on inhibiting proliferation, invasion and metastasis is mediated by its direct interaction with the IGF-1R. Furthermore, the tumour-suppressive function of miR-133a probably contributed to inhibiting the activation AKT and ERK signaling pathway.
CONCLUSION: MiR-133a suppresses osteosarcoma progression and metastasis by targeting IGF-1R in human osteosarcoma cells, providing a novel candidate prognostic factor and a potential anti-metastasis therapeutic target in osteosarcoma.

Yao C, Su L, Shan J, et al.
IGF/STAT3/NANOG/Slug Signaling Axis Simultaneously Controls Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Stemness Maintenance in Colorectal Cancer.
Stem Cells. 2016; 34(4):820-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Discovery of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) are two milestones in people exploring the nature of malignant tumor in recent decades. Although some studies have presented the potential connections between them, the link details, underneath their superficial correlation, are largely unknown. In this study, we identified a small subpopulation of NANOG-positive colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, and demonstrated that they exhibited characteristics of CSCs and EMT traits simultaneously. Furthermore, we found that NANOG was a core factor in regulating both of EMT and stemness in CRC cells, NANOG modulate EMT and metastasis by binding to Slug promoter and transcriptionally regulate Slug expression. For the first time, we demonstrated that NANOG was regulated by extracellular IGF signaling pathway via STAT3 phosphorylation in CRC. This coincides with that IGF receptor IGF-1R is often increasing expressed in malignant metastasis colon cancer. Taken together, our data define the crucial functions of IGF/STAT3/NANOG/Slug signaling axis in the progression of CRC by operating EMT and CSCs properties, which make them served as potential therapeutic targets for treatment of CRC.

Murayama T, Nakaoku T, Enari M, et al.
Oncogenic Fusion Gene CD74-NRG1 Confers Cancer Stem Cell-like Properties in Lung Cancer through a IGF2 Autocrine/Paracrine Circuit.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(4):974-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
The CD74-Neuregulin1 (NRG1) fusion gene was recently identified as novel driver of invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma, a malignant form of lung cancer. However, the function of the CD74-NRG1 fusion gene in adenocarcinoma pathogenesis and the mechanisms by which it may impart protumorigenic characteristics to cancer stem cells (CSC) is still unclear. In this study, we found that the expression of the CD74-NRG1 fusion gene increased the population of lung cancer cells with CSC-like properties. CD74-NRG1 expression facilitated sphere formation not only of cancer cells, but also of nonmalignant lung epithelial cells. Using a limiting dilution assay in a xenograft model, we further show that the CD74-NRG1 fusion gene enhanced tumor initiation. Mechanistically, we found that CD74-NRG1 expression promoted the phosphorylation of ErbB2/3 and activated the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, the expression of the secreted insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and phosphorylation of its receptor, IGF1R, were enhanced in an NF-κB-dependent manner in cells expressing CD74-NRG1. These findings suggest that CD74-NRG1-induced NF-κB activity promotes the IGF2 autocrine/paracrine circuit. Moreover, inhibition of ErbB2, PI3K, NF-κB, or IGF2 suppressed CD74-NRG1-induced tumor sphere formation. Therefore, our study provides a preclinical rationale for developing treatment approaches based on these identified pathways to suppress CSC properties that promote tumor progression and recurrence.

Jin K, Sukumar S
HOX genes: Major actors in resistance to selective endocrine response modifiers.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1865(2):105-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Long term treatment with therapies aimed at blocking the estrogen- (ER) or androgen receptor (AR) action often leads to the development of resistance to selective modulators of the estrogen receptor (SERMs) in ERα-positive breast cancer, or of the androgen receptor (SARMs) in AR-positive prostate cancer. Many underlying molecular events that confer resistance are known, but a unifying theme is yet to be revealed. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such EGFR, ERBB2 and IGF1R are major mediators that can directly alter cellular response to the SERM, tamoxifen, but the mechanisms underlying increased expression of RTKs are not clear. A number of HOX genes and microRNAs and non-coding RNAs residing in the HOX cluster, have been identified as important independent predictors of endocrine resistant breast cancer. Recently, convincing evidence has accumulated that several members belonging to the four different HOX clusters contribute to endocrine therapy resistant breast cancer, but the mechanisms remain obscure. In this article, we have reviewed recent progress in understanding of the functioning of HOX genes and regulation of their expression by hormones. We also discuss, in particular, the contributions of several members of the HOX gene family to endocrine resistant breast cancer.

Zhao S, Chen SS, Gu Y, et al.
Expression and Clinical Significance of Sushi Domain- Containing Protein 3 (SUSD3) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Receptor (IGF-IR) in Breast Cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(18):8633-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To investigate the expression of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) and sushi domaincontaining protein 3 (SUSD3) in breast cancer tissue, and analyze their relationship with clinical parameters and the correlation betweenthe two proteins.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of IGF-IR and SUSD3 in 100 cases of breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal breast tissues after surgery was detected by immunohistochemical technique MaxVisionTM, and the relationship with clinical pathological features was further analyzed.
RESULTS: The positive rate of IGF-IR protein was 86.0% in breast cancer, higher than 3.0% in adjacent normalbreast tissue (P<0.05) .The positive expression rate of SUSD3 protein was 78.0% in breast cancer, higher than 2.0% in adjacent normal breast tissue (P<0.05). The expression of IGF-IR and SUSD3 was related to estrogen receptor and pathological types (P<0.05),but not with age, stage, the expression of HER-2 and Ki-67 (P>0. 05). The expression of IGF-IR and SUSD3 in breast cancer tissue was positively related (r= 0.553, P<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: The expression of IGF-IR and SUSD3 may be correlated to the occurrence and development of breast cancer. The combined detection of IGF-IR, SUSD3 and ER may play an important role in judging prognosis and guiding adjuvant therapy after surgery of breast cancer.

de Groot S, Charehbili A, van Laarhoven HW, et al.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor expression and IGF1R 3129G > T polymorphism are associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: results from the NEOZOTAC trial (BOOG 2010-01).
Breast Cancer Res. 2016; 18(1):3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) pathway is involved in cell growth and proliferation and is associated with tumorigenesis and therapy resistance. This study aims to elucidate whether variation in the IGF-1 pathway is predictive for pathologic response in early HER2 negative breast cancer (BC) patients, taking part in the phase III NEOZOTAC trial, randomizing between 6 cycles of neoadjuvant TAC chemotherapy with or without zoledronic acid.
METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of pre-chemotherapy biopsies and operation specimens were collected for analysis of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression (n = 216) and for analysis of 8 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the IGF-1 pathway (n = 184) using OpenArray® RealTime PCR. Associations with patient and tumor characteristics and chemotherapy response according to Miller and Payne pathologic response were performed using chi-square and regression analysis.
RESULTS: During chemotherapy, a significant number of tumors (47.2 %) showed a decrease in IGF-1R expression, while in a small number of tumors an upregulation was seen (15.1 %). IGF-1R expression before treatment was not associated with pathological response, however, absence of IGF-1R expression after treatment was associated with a better response in multivariate analysis (P = 0.006) and patients with a decrease in expression during treatment showed a better response to chemotherapy as well (P = 0.020). Moreover, the variant T allele of 3129G > T in IGF1R (rs2016347) was associated with a better pathological response in multivariate analysis (P = 0.032).
CONCLUSIONS: Absent or diminished expression of IGF-1R after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a better pathological response. Additionally, we found a SNP (rs2016347) in IGF1R as a potential predictive marker for chemotherapy efficacy in BC patients treated with TAC.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01099436 . Registered April 6, 2010.

Bianconi F, Patiti F, Baldelli E, et al.
An approach for optimally extending mathematical models of signaling networks using omics data.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015; 2015:6501-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mathematical modeling is a key process in Systems Biology and the use of computational tools such as Cytoscape for omics data processing, need to be integrated in the modeling activity. In this paper we propose a new methodology for modeling signaling networks by combining ordinary differential equation models and a gene recommender system, GeneMANIA. We started from existing models, that are stored in the BioModels database, and we generated a query to use as input for the GeneMANIA algorithm. The output of the recommender system was then led back to the kinetic reactions that were finally added to the starting model. We applied the proposed methodology to EGFR-IGF1R signal transduction network, which plays an important role in translational oncology and cancer therapy of non small cell lung cancer.

Du Y, Li Y, Lv H, et al.
miR-98 suppresses tumor cell growth and metastasis by targeting IGF1R in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):12252-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Increasing evidences indicate that dysregulation of miRNAs contributes to the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, little is known about the potential role of miR-98 in OSCC. Here, we found that miR-98 was downregulated in OSCC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-98 inhibited proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion of OSCC cells. IGF1R was identified as the potential target of miR-98 using dual luciferase assay, qRT-PCR and western blot. Furthermore, restoration of IGF1R remarkably reversed the tumor-suppressive effects of miR-98 on OSCC cells. Moreover, miR-98 expression was inversely correlated with IGF1R expression in 19 cases of OSCC. These findings suggest that miR-98 inhibits cancer cell growth and metastasis by direct targeting IGF1R, implicating miR-98 as a novel potential therapeutic target for OSCC.

Isozaki H, Ichihara E, Takigawa N, et al.
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Acquire Resistance to the ALK Inhibitor Alectinib by Activating Alternative Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(6):1506-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Crizotinib is the standard of care for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene, but resistance invariably develops. Unlike crizotinib, alectinib is a selective ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with more potent antitumor effects and a favorable toxicity profile, even in crizotinib-resistant cases. However, acquired resistance to alectinib, as for other TKIs, remains a limitation of its efficacy. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms by which human NSCLC cells acquire resistance to alectinib. We established two alectinib-resistant cell lines that did not harbor the secondary ALK mutations frequently occurring in crizotinib-resistant cells. One cell line lost the EML4-ALK fusion gene, but exhibited increased activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3), and overexpressed the HER3 ligand neuregulin 1. Accordingly, pharmacologic inhibition of IGF1R and HER3 signaling overcame resistance to alectinib in this cell line. The second alectinib-resistant cell line displayed stimulated HGF autocrine signaling that promoted MET activation and remained sensitive to crizotinib treatment. Taken together, our findings reveal two novel mechanisms underlying alectinib resistance that are caused by the activation of alternative tyrosine kinase receptors rather than by secondary ALK mutations. These studies may guide the development of comprehensive treatment strategies that take into consideration the various approaches ALK-positive lung tumors use to withstand therapeutic insult.

Li J, Li D, Zhang W
Tumor suppressor role of miR-217 in human epithelial ovarian cancer by targeting IGF1R.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(3):1671-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence shows that microRNA-217 (miR-217) is frequently dysregulated in various cancers, and plays crucial roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis; however, the role and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-217 in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. Here, we report that miR-217 expression was downregulated in EOC tissue and inversely correlated with advanced FIGO stage, high histological grading and lymph node metastasis (P<0.01). Function analysis revealed that the ectopic expression of miR-217 in EOC cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro, as well as suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase assays identified insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) as a direct target of miR-217 in EOC cells. Western blot assay showed that overexpression of miR-217 in EOC cells inhibited IGF1R expression. In addition, downregulation of IGF1R mimicked the tumor-suppressive effects of miR-217 in EOC cells, whereas the reintroduction of IGF1R partially abrogated the suppression effect induced by miR-217 on EOC cells. Collectively, these results demonstrated that miR-217 plays a tumor suppressor role in human epithelial ovarian cancer by directly targeting IGF1R gene, suggesting a new potential therapeutic target in EOC.

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