HNF1B

Gene Summary

Gene:HNF1B; HNF1 homeobox B
Aliases: FJHN, HNF2, LFB3, TCF2, HPC11, LF-B3, MODY5, TCF-2, VHNF1, HNF-1B, HNF1beta, HNF-1-beta
Location:17q12
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the homeodomain-containing superfamily of transcription factors. The protein binds to DNA as either a homodimer, or a heterodimer with the related protein hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha. The gene has been shown to function in nephron development, and regulates development of the embryonic pancreas. Mutations in this gene result in renal cysts and diabetes syndrome and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and expression of this gene is altered in some types of cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HNF1B (cancer-related)

Kondratyeva LG, Sveshnikova AA, Grankina EV, et al.
Downregulation of expression of mater genes SOX9, FOXA2, and GATA4 in pancreatic cancer cells stimulated with TGFβ1 epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2016; 469(1):257-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We show characteristic morphological changes corresponding to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program fulfillment in PANC1 cell line stimulated with TGFβ1. Our results support downregulation of E-cadherin protein. We show 5- and 28-fold increase in SNAI1 and SNAI2 expression levels and 25- and 15-fold decrease in CDH1 and KRT8 expression levels, respectively, which confirms the EMT-program fulfillment. We demonstrate downregulation of expression of pancreatic master genes SOX9, FOXA2, and GATA4 (2-, 5-, and 4-fold, respectively) and absence of significant changes in HES1, NR5A2, and GATA6 expression levels in the cells stimulated with TGFβ1. Our results indicate the absence of induction of expression of PTF1A, PDX1, HNF1b, NEUROG3, RPBJL, NKX6.1, and ONECUT1 genes, which are inactive in PANC1 cell line after the EMT stimulated by TGFβ1.

Lopes-Coelho F, Gouveia-Fernandes S, Gonçalves LG, et al.
HNF1β drives glutathione (GSH) synthesis underlying intrinsic carboplatin resistance of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC).
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):4813-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemoresistance to platinum-based antineoplastic agents is a consistent feature among ovarian carcinomas; however, whereas high-grade serous carcinoma (OSC) acquires resistance during chemotherapy, ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is intrinsically resistant. The main objective of this study was to explore, in vitro and in vivo, if hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β (HNF1β) and glutaminolysis contribute for the resistance of OCCC to carboplatin through the intrinsically increased GSH bioavailability. To disclose the role of HNF1β, experiments were also performed in an OSC cell line, which does not express HNF1β. Metabolic profiles, GSH quantification, HNF1β, and γ-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and modifier subunit (GCLM) expression, cell cycle, and death were assessed in ES2 cell line (OCCC) and OVCAR3 cell line (OSC); HNF1β knockdown was performed in ES2 and murine model of subcutaneous and peritoneal OCCC tumors was established to test buthionine sulphoxamine (BSO), as a sensitizer to carboplatin. Glutaminolysis is activated in ES2 and OVCAR3, though ES2 exclusively synthesizes amino acids and GSH. ES2 cells are more resistant to carboplatin than OVCAR3 and the abrogation of GSH production by BSO sensitizes ES2 to carboplatin. HNF1β regulates the expression of GCLC, but not GCLM, and consequently GSH production in ES2. In vivo, BSO prior to carboplatin reduces dramatically subcutaneous tumor size and GSH levels, as well as peritoneal dissemination. Our study discloses HNF1β as the mediator of intrinsic OCCC chemoresistance and sheds a light to re-explore a cancer adjuvant therapeutic approach using BSO to overcome the lack of efficient therapy in OCCC.

Mandai M, Amano Y, Yamaguchi K, et al.
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma meets metabolism; HNF-1β confers survival benefits through the Warburg effect and ROS reduction.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(31):30704-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) constitutes one of the subtypes of ovarian cancers, but it has unique clinical, histological and biological characteristics, one of which is chemo-resistance. It is also known to develop from endometriotic cyst, a benign ovarian tumor, at relatively high frequency. Recently, it is becoming well known that most of OCCCs express HNF1β, a transcription factor, which is closely associated with the development of liver, pancreas and kidney, as well as occurrence of familial forms of type 2 diabetes. Expression of HNF1β is now regarded as a hallmark of this tumor. Nevertheless, exact biological function of this gene in OCCC has not been clarified. We have shown in previous studies that microenvironment in endometriotic cysts contains severe oxidative stress and OCCC develops under such stressful environment as stress-resistant tumor, which may lead to chemo-resistance. We also showed that increased expression of HNF1β facilitates glucose uptake and glycolysis, which is known as Warburg effect. In the previous issue of this journal, by using comprehensive metabolome analysis, we report that HNF1β actually reduces and protects themselves from internal oxidative stress by dramatically changing cellular metabolism. In this article, we review the relevance and significance of cancer-specific metabolism and how they are associated with biological characteristics of OCCC via expression of HNF1β, along with future clinical implications of targeting cancer-specific metabolism.

Amano Y, Mandai M, Yamaguchi K, et al.
Metabolic alterations caused by HNF1β expression in ovarian clear cell carcinoma contribute to cell survival.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):26002-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HNF1β is expressed exclusively in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) and not in other ovarian cancers, regarded as a hallmark of this tumor. This implies its central role in the unique character of OCCC, including resistance to chemotherapy, but its exact role and influence in cancer biology or the molecular bases of its function are largely unknown. Using comprehensive metabolome analysis of HNF1β_shRNA-stable cell lines, we show here that HNF1β drastically alters intracellular metabolism, especially in direction to enhance aerobic glycolysis, so called the "Warburg effect". The consequence of the metabolic change contributed cell survival under stresses such as hypoxia and chemo-reagent, only when sufficient glucose supply was available. Augmented cell survival was based on the reduced ROS activity derived from metabolic alteration such as shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and increased intracellular anti-oxidant, glutathione (GSH). One of the cystine transporters, rBAT is likely to play a major role in this GSH increase. These data suggest that HNF1β, possibly induced by stressful microenvironment in the endometriotic cyst, confers survival advantage to the epithelial cells, which leads to the occurrence of OCCC, a chemo-resistant phenotype of ovarian cancer.

Yu DD, Jing YY, Guo SW, et al.
Overexpression Of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1beta Predicting Poor Prognosis Is Associated With Biliary Phenotype In Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:13319 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1B) is involved in the hepatobiliary specification of hepatoblasts to cholangiocytes during liver development, and is strongly expressed throughout adult biliary epithelium. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of HNF-1B in different pathologic subtypes of primary liver cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), and the relationship between HNF-1B expression, clinicopathological features and prognosis. We retrospectively investigated 2 cohorts of patients, including 183 HCCs and 69 ICCs. The expression of HNF-1B was examined by immunohistochemistry. We found that HNF-1B expression was associated with pathological subtype of primary tumor, and HNF-1B expression in HCC tissue may be associated with the change of phenotype on recurrence. The HNF-1B expression was positively correlated with biliary/HPC (hepatic progenitor cell) markers expression. Further, multivariable analysis showed that HNF-1B expression was an independent prognostic factor for both overall survival and disease-free survival of HCC patients. However, no correlation between HNF-1B expression and survival was found in ICC patients. In summary, HCC with high HNF-1B expression displayed biliary phenotype and tended to show poorer prognosis. HNF-1B-positive malignant cells could be bipotential cells and give rise to both hepatocytic and cholangiocytic lineages during tumorigenesis.

Gounaris I, Brenton JD
Molecular pathogenesis of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
Future Oncol. 2015; 11(9):1389-405 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma is a distinct subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer, characterized by an association with endometriosis, glycogen accumulation and resistance to chemotherapy. Key driver events, including ARID1A mutations and HNF1B overexpression, have been recently identified and their functional characterization is ongoing. Additionally, the role of glycogen in promoting the malignant phenotype is coming under scrutiny. Appreciation of the notion that ovarian clear cell carcinoma is essentially an ectopic uterine cancer will hopefully lead to improved animal models of the disease, in turn paving the way for effective treatments.

Mandato VD, Farnetti E, Torricelli F, et al.
HNF1B polymorphism influences the prognosis of endometrial cancer patients: a cohort study.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:229 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: HNF1B (formerly known as TCF2) gene encodes for a transcription factor that regulates gene expression involved in normal mesodermal and endodermal developments. A close association between rs4430796 polymorphism of HNF1B gene and decreased endometrial cancer (EC) risk has been demonstrated. The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that rs4430796 polymorphism can influence the prognosis of EC patients.
METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. Clinical and pathological data were extrapolated and genotypes were assessed on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded non-tumour tissues. The influence of patients' genotype on overall survival and progression free survival were our main outcome measures.
RESULTS: A total of 191 EC patients were included in the final analysis. Overall survival differed significantly (P = 0.003) among genotypes. At multivariate analysis, a significant (P < 0.05) effect on overall survival was detected for FIGO stage, and rs4430796 polymorphism of HNF1B gene. After grouping EC patients according to adjuvant treatment, rs4430796 polymorphism resulted significantly (P < 0.001) related to overall survival only in subjects who received radiotherapy plus chemotherapy. A significant (P = 0.014) interaction between rs4430796 polymorphism and chemo-radiotherapy was also detected. Finally, only a trend (P = 0.090) towards significance was observed for rs4430796 polymorphism effect on progression free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: rs4430796 polymorphism of HNF1B gene influences independently the prognosis of EC patients with a potential effect on tumor chemo-sensitivity.

Kristiansen W, Karlsson R, Rounge TB, et al.
Two new loci and gene sets related to sex determination and cancer progression are associated with susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumor.
Hum Mol Genet. 2015; 24(14):4138-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have reported 19 distinct susceptibility loci for testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT). A GWA study for TGCT was performed by genotyping 610 240 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1326 cases and 6687 controls from Sweden and Norway. No novel genome-wide significant associations were observed in this discovery stage. We put forward 27 SNPs from 15 novel regions and 12 SNPs previously reported, for replication in 710 case-parent triads and 289 cases and 290 controls. Predefined biological pathways and processes, in addition to a custom-built sex-determination gene set, were subject to enrichment analyses using Meta-Analysis Gene Set Enrichment of Variant Associations (M) and Improved Gene Set Enrichment Analysis for Genome-wide Association Study (I). In the combined meta-analysis, we observed genome-wide significant association for rs7501939 on chromosome 17q12 (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72-0.84, P = 1.1 × 10(-9)) and rs2195987 on chromosome 19p12 (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69-0.84, P = 3.2 × 10(-8)). The marker rs7501939 on chromosome 17q12 is located in an intron of the HNF1B gene, encoding a member of the homeodomain-containing superfamily of transcription factors. The sex-determination gene set (false discovery rate, FDRM < 0.001, FDRI < 0.001) and pathways related to NF-κB, glycerophospholipid and ether lipid metabolism, as well as cancer and apoptosis, was associated with TGCT (FDR < 0.1). In addition to revealing two new TGCT susceptibility loci, our results continue to support the notion that genes governing normal germ cell development in utero are implicated in the development of TGCT.

Pamuła-Piłat J, Rubel T, Rzepecka IK, et al.
Gene expression profiles in three histologic types, clear-cell, endometrioid and serous ovarian carcinomas.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2014 Oct-Dec; 28(4):659-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal type of gynecologic malignancy in the Western world. Majority of early stage ovarian cancers are asymptomatic and this is the main reason that more than two-thirds of patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. Ovarian tumors are heterogeneous and the different histologic subtypes are further classified as benign, borderline (low-grade) and malignant (high-grade) to reflect their behavior. The aim of the study was to analyze gene expression profiles in three histologic types of ovarian carcinoma in an attempt to find the molecular differences among serous, endometrioid and clear cell subtypes. The analysis of gene expression was performed on 57 samples of ovarian carcinoma. RNA was isolated from the ovarian cancer tissues. The gene expression changes were determined by microarray analysis and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Measurement of relative gene expression levels was used to identify molecular differences among three histologic types of ovarian carcinoma (clear-cell, endometrioid and serous). Unsupervised statistical analysis revealed four biological subtypes among three histotypes under study. The endometrioid ovarian carcinoma was divided into two molecular subtypes. The biggest molecular differences were observed between clear-cell and serous carcinomas (1070 genes, FDR 0.05), the smallest between endometrioid and serous carcinomas (81 genes, FDR 0.05). The biggest group of differentially expressed genes was involved in transport and metabolism. This finding can explain the differences in the response to chemotherapy observed among different histologic types of ovarian carcinomas. In conclusion, we found TCF2 (HNF1B) gene as a suitable marker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Gene expression profiling also shed light on the molecular mechanisms of different chemoresistance among the analyzed histotypes.

Listing H, Mardin WA, Wohlfromm S, et al.
MiR-23a/-24-induced gene silencing results in mesothelial cell integration of pancreatic cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(1):131-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Invasion of the surrounding tissue is part of the metastatic cascade. Here, we examined the invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells into the mesothelial barrier and identified the related microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles.
METHODS: The interactions between PDAC cells and mesothelial monolayers were characterised and quantified using a specific time-lapse videomicroscopy assay. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells were further evaluated using the adhesion assay, and miRNA, mRNA and protein expressions were determined using microarray, q-RT-PCR and western blots, respectively. These data were correlated with in vivo dissemination scores.
RESULTS: Two groups of PDAC cell lines were distinguished by their integration capacity into the mesothelial monolayer using mean elongation factors (MEFs). Adhesion assays showed a concordant relation between adhesive properties and integration capacity. The distant metastases scores were reverse correlated with MEFs. Microarray analysis of these groups revealed that miR-23a and/or miR-24 target for FZD5, HNF1B and/or TMEM92, respectively, and that they are significantly deregulated.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-23a and/or miR-24 overexpression leads to gene silencing of FZD5, TMEM92 and/or HNF1B. Their downregulation induces deregulated expression and degradation of E-cadherin and β-catenin causing destabilisation of the cadherin/catenin complex, and altered the expression of Wnt-related genes. We propose a molecular (epi)genetic mechanism by which increased EMT-like cell shape transformation and integration into mesothelial monolayers of PDAC cells can be observed.

Painter JN, O'Mara TA, Batra J, et al.
Fine-mapping of the HNF1B multicancer locus identifies candidate variants that mediate endometrial cancer risk.
Hum Mol Genet. 2015; 24(5):1478-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Common variants in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1B) gene are associated with the risk of Type II diabetes and multiple cancers. Evidence to date indicates that cancer risk may be mediated via genetic or epigenetic effects on HNF1B gene expression. We previously found single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the HNF1B locus to be associated with endometrial cancer, and now report extensive fine-mapping and in silico and laboratory analyses of this locus. Analysis of 1184 genotyped and imputed SNPs in 6608 Caucasian cases and 37 925 controls, and 895 Asian cases and 1968 controls, revealed the best signal of association for SNP rs11263763 (P = 8.4 × 10(-14), odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.89), located within HNF1B intron 1. Haplotype analysis and conditional analyses provide no evidence of further independent endometrial cancer risk variants at this locus. SNP rs11263763 genotype was associated with HNF1B mRNA expression but not with HNF1B methylation in endometrial tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genetic analyses prioritized rs11263763 and four other SNPs in high-to-moderate linkage disequilibrium as the most likely causal SNPs. Three of these SNPs map to the extended HNF1B promoter based on chromatin marks extending from the minimal promoter region. Reporter assays demonstrated that this extended region reduces activity in combination with the minimal HNF1B promoter, and that the minor alleles of rs11263763 or rs8064454 are associated with decreased HNF1B promoter activity. Our findings provide evidence for a single signal associated with endometrial cancer risk at the HNF1B locus, and that risk is likely mediated via altered HNF1B gene expression.

Hoang LN, McConechy MK, Meng B, et al.
Targeted mutation analysis of endometrial clear cell carcinoma.
Histopathology. 2015; 66(5):664-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Endometrial clear cell carcinomas (CCC) constitute fewer than 5% of all carcinomas of the endometrium. Currently, little is known regarding the genetic basis of endometrial CCC.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed genomic and immunohistochemical analyses on 14 rigorously reviewed pure endometrial CCC. The genomic analysis consisted of sequencing the coding regions of 26 genes implicated previously in endometrial carcinoma. Twelve of 14 tumours displayed a prototypical CCC immunophenotype [napsin A+, hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF1β(+) ) and oestrogen receptor(-) ] and all showed intact mismatch repair protein expression. We detected mutations in 11 of 14 tumours, and there was a predominance of mutations involving genes that are mutated more frequently in endometrial serous carcinomas than in endometrioid carcinomas. Two tumours displayed a prototypical serous carcinoma mutation profile (concurrent TP53 and PPP2R1A mutations, without PTEN, CTNNB1 or ARID1A mutation). No mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1 or POLE were identified.
CONCLUSIONS: The overall mutation profile of this cohort of endometrial CCC appears to be more serous-like than endometrioid-like, with a minor subset in the TP53-mutated CCC showing serous carcinoma profile. These findings provide new insights into the molecular features of morphologically prototypical endometrial CCC, and underscore the need for further investigations into the oncogenesis of endometrial CCC.

Xiang YZ, Jiang SB, Zhao J, et al.
Racial disparities in the association between diabetes mellitus-associated polymorphic locus rs4430796 of the HNF1β gene and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(3):6582-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polymorphism 17q12 rs4430796 within HNF1β is a genetic variant associated with both diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer, but findings on the correlations of rs4430796 with prostate cancer risk specifically are not in agreement, especially among diverse populations. To shed some light on the contradictory findings, therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis by pooling the odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all currently available case-control studies located within PubMed and Embase databases up to December 2012. A total of 16 studies comprising 30 datasets that collectively involved 25,535 prostate cancer patients and 25,726 controls were ultimately included in this analysis. The meta-analysis of all the studies revealed that the rs4430796 polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in all contrast models (ORA vs G = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.21-1.30, POR < 0.001; ORAA vs GG = 1.53, 95%CI = 1.45-1.62, POR < 0.001; ORAG vs GG = 1.24, 95%CI = 1.16-1.34, POR < 0.001; ORAA vs AG+GG = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.30-1.42, POR < 0.001; ORAA+AG vs GG = 1.37, 95%CI = 1.30-1.44, POR < 0.001). After subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, however, the rs4430796 polymorphism was significantly associated with prostate cancer in both Caucasians and Asians but not in African-Americans. In conclusion, our meta-analysis identified a significant association between the 17q12 rs4430796 polymorphism and prostate cancer risk, although the degree of this association and frequency of the causative allele varied among men of different races.

Choi SH, Chung AR, Kang W, et al.
Silencing of hypoxia-inducible factor-1β induces anti-tumor effects in hepatoma cell lines under tumor hypoxia.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e103304 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dimerization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 beta (HIF-1β) [aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)] with HIF-1α is involved in various aspects of cancer biology, including proliferation and survival under hypoxic conditions. We investigated the in vitro mechanism by which silencing of HIF-1β leads to the suppression of tumor cell growth and cellular functions. Various hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines (Huh-7, Hep3B, and HepG2) were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against HIF-1β (siHIF-1β) and cultured under hypoxic conditions (1% O2 for 24 h). The expression levels of HIF-1β, HIF-1α, and growth factors were examined by immunoblotting. Tumor growth was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and tumor activity was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, tumor cell invasion, and migration assays. Under hypoxic conditions, silencing of HIF-1β expression suppressed tumor cell growth and regulated the expression of tumor growth-related factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor. Suppression of tumor cell invasion and migration was also demonstrated in HIF-1β-silenced HCC cell lines. Silencing of HIF-1β expression may induce anti-tumor effects under hypoxic conditions in HCC cell lines.

Li J, Zhang Y, Gao Y, et al.
Downregulation of HNF1 homeobox B is associated with drug resistance in ovarian cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(3):979-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
The expression of HNF1 homeobox B (HNF1B) is associated with cancer risk in several tumors, including ovarian cancer, and its decreased expression play roles in cancer development. However, the study of HNF1B and cancer is limited, and its association with drug resistance in cancer has never been reported. On the basis of array data retrieved from Oncomine and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) online database, we found that the mRNA expression of HNF1B in 586 ovarian serous cystadenocarcinomas and in platinum-resistant A2780 epithelial ovarian cancer cells was significantly decreased, indicating a potential role of HNF1B in drug resistance in ovarian cancer. Based on this finding, comprehensive bioinformatics analyses, including protein/gene interaction, protein-small molecule/chemical interaction, biological process annotation, gene co-occurrence and pathway enrichment analysis and microRNA-mRNA interaction, were performed to illustrate the association of HNF1B with drug resistance in ovarian cancer. We found that among the proteins/genes, small molecules/chemicals and microRNAs which directly interacted with HNF1B, the majority was associated with drug resistance in cancer, particularly in ovarian cancer. Biological process annotation revealed that HNF1B closely related to 24 biological processes which were all notably associated with ovarian cancer and drug resistance. These results indicated that the downregulation of HNF1B may contribute to drug resistance in ovarian cancer, via its direct interactions with these drug resistance-related proteins/genes, small molecules/chemicals and microRNAs, and via its regulations on the drug resistance-related biological processes. Pathway enrichment analysis of 36 genes which co-occurred with HNF1B, ovarian cancer and drug resistance indicated that the HNF1B may perform its drug resistance-related functions through 4 pathways including ErbB signaling, focal adhesion, apoptosis and p53 signaling. Collectively, in this study, we illustrated for the first time that HNF1B may contribute to drug resistance in ovarian cancer, potentially through the 4 pathways. The present study may pave the way for further investigation of the drug resistance-related functions of HNF1B in ovarian cancer.

Andreassen OA, Zuber V, Thompson WK, et al.
Shared common variants in prostate cancer and blood lipids.
Int J Epidemiol. 2014; 43(4):1205-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest comorbidity between prostate cancer (PCA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. However, the relationship between these two phenotypes is still not well understood. Here we sought to identify shared genetic loci between PCA and CVD risk factors.
METHODS: We applied a genetic epidemiology method based on conjunction false discovery rate (FDR) that combines summary statistics from different genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and allows identification of genetic overlap between two phenotypes. We evaluated summary statistics from large, multi-centre GWA studies of PCA (n=50 000) and CVD risk factors (n=200 000) [triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist-hip ratio and type 2 diabetes (T2D)]. Enrichment of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PCA and CVD risk factors was assessed with conditional quantile-quantile plots and the Anderson-Darling test. Moreover, we pinpointed shared loci using conjunction FDR.
RESULTS: We found the strongest enrichment of P-values in PCA was conditional on LDL and conditional on TG. In contrast, we found only weak enrichment conditional on HDL or conditional on the other traits investigated. Conjunction FDR identified altogether 17 loci; 10 loci were associated with PCA and LDL, 3 loci were associated with PCA and TG and additionally 4 loci were associated with PCA, LDL and TG jointly (conjunction FDR <0.01). For T2D, we detected one locus adjacent to HNF1B.
CONCLUSIONS: We found polygenic overlap between PCA predisposition and blood lipids, in particular LDL and TG, and identified 17 pleiotropic gene loci between PCA and LDL, and PCA and TG, respectively. These findings provide novel pathobiological insights and may have implications for trials using targeting lipid-lowering agents in a prevention or cancer setting.

Debiais-Delpech C, Godet J, Pedretti N, et al.
Expression patterns of candidate susceptibility genes HNF1β and CtBP2 in prostate cancer: association with tumor progression.
Urol Oncol. 2014; 32(4):426-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies have identified variants at multiple loci associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Some of these loci include candidate susceptibility genes, such as MSMB, HNF1β, and C-terminal-binding protein (CtBP2). Except for MSMB, the clinicopathological significance of these genes has not been investigated. We therefore aimed to analyze their expression in PCa tissues, in relation with tumor progression and aggressiveness.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing samples from normal prostate (NL, n = 91), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN, n = 61), clinically localized PCa (CLC, n = 434), PCa metastases (M, n = 28), and castration-resistant PCa (CRC, n = 49). Moreover, mRNA expression for each marker was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, on 53 frozen samples of NL, CLC, and CRC.
RESULTS: These genes were differentially expressed at the different stages of PCa natural history. MSMB expression decreased with disease development and progression. In contrast, nuclear HNF1β and CtBP2 staining significantly increased in the CRC and M groups when compared with CLC, together with the transcripts levels. In patients with CLC, HNF1β and CtBP2 nuclear expressions were strongly associated with cancer cell proliferation. After adjusting for the Gleason score and the pathological stage, none of the candidate genes was significantly predictive of recurrence after radical prostatectomy. In patients with CRC, CtBP2 nuclear staining was associated with shorter overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: The decrease of MSMB expression during tumor progression strongly supports its role as a tumor-suppressor gene. Although its functions remain to be clarified in PCa cells, HNF1β and CtBP2 are associated with cancer cell proliferation, tumor progression, and castration-resistant disease.

Tanabe A, Konno J, Tanikawa K, Sahara H
Transcriptional machinery of TNF-α-inducible YTH domain containing 2 (YTHDC2) gene.
Gene. 2014; 535(1):24-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously demonstrated that a cellular factor, cyclosporin A (CsA) associated helicase-like protein (CAHL) that is identical to YTH domain containing 2 (YTHDC2), forms trimer complex with cyclophilin B and NS5B of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and facilitates HCV genome replication. Gene expression of YTHDC2 was shown in tumor cell lines and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-treated hepatocytes, but not in untreated. However, the function of YTHDC2 in the tumor cells and the mechanism by which the YTHDC2 gene is transcribed in these cells is largely unknown. We first evaluated that the role of YTHDC2 in the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line Huh7 using RNA interference and found that YTHDC2-downregulated Huh7 were significantly decreased cell growth as compared to control. We next demonstrated that the cAMP response element (CRE) site in the promoter region of the YTHDC2 gene is critical for YTHDC2 transcription. To further investigate the transcription factors bound to the CRE site, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our findings demonstrate that c-Jun and ATF-2 bind to the CRE site in Huh7, and that TNF-α induces the biological activity of these transcription factors in hepatocytes as well as Huh7. Moreover, treatment with the HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), reduces YTHDC2 expression in Huh7 and in TNF-α-stimulated hepatocytes. Collectively, these data show that YTHDC2 plays an important role in tumor cells growth and activation/recruitment of c-Jun and ATF-2 to the YTHDC2 promoter is necessary for the transcription of YTHDC2, and that HDAC activity is required for the efficient expression of YTHDC2 in both of hepatocyte and HCC cells.

Okamoto T, Mandai M, Matsumura N, et al.
Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF-1β) promotes glucose uptake and glycolytic activity in ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
Mol Carcinog. 2015; 54(1):35-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is a morphologically and biologically distinct subtype of ovarian carcinomas that often arises in ovarian endometriosis. We previously reported that a unique carcinogenic environment, especially iron-induced oxidative stress in endometriotic cysts may promote development of OCCC. We also identified a gene expression profile characteristic of OCCC (the "OCCC signature"). This 320-gene OCCC signature is enriched in genes associated with stress response and sugar metabolism. However, the biological implication of this profile is unclear. In this study, we have focused on the biological role of the HNF-1β gene within the OCCC signature, which was previously shown to be overexpressed in OCCC. Suppression of HNF-1β in the HNF-1β-overexpressing human ovarian cancer cell line RMG2 using short hairpin RNA resulted in a significant increase in proliferation. It also facilitated glucose uptake, glycolytic activity, and lactate secretion along with increased expression of the glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) gene and several key enzymes in the glycolytic process. Conversely, forced expression of HNF-1β in the serous ovarian cancer cell line, Hey, resulted in slowed cellular growth and repressed glycolytic activity. These data suggest that HNF-1β represses cell growth, and at the same time, it promotes aerobic glycolysis which is known as the "Warburg effect." As the Warburg effect is regarded as a characteristic metabolic process in cancer which may contribute to cell survival under hypoxic conditions or in a stressful environment, overexpression of HNF-1β may play an inevitable role in the occurrence of OCCC in stressful environment.

Cuff J, Salari K, Clarke N, et al.
Integrative bioinformatics links HNF1B with clear cell carcinoma and tumor-associated thrombosis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74562 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) is a histologically distinct carcinoma subtype that arises in several organ systems and is marked by cytoplasmic clearing, attributed to abundant intracellular glycogen. Previously, transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1B) was identified as a biomarker of ovarian CCC. Here, we set out to explore more broadly the relation between HNF1B and carcinomas with clear cell histology. HNF1B expression, evaluated by immunohistochemistry, was significantly associated with clear cell histology across diverse gynecologic and renal carcinomas (P<0.001), as was hypomethylation of the HNF1B promoter (P<0.001). From microarray analysis, an empirically-derived HNF1B signature was significantly enriched for computationally-predicted targets (with HNF1 binding sites) (P<0.03), as well as genes associated with glycogen metabolism, including glucose-6-phophatase, and strikingly the blood clotting cascade, including fibrinogen, prothrombin and factor XIII. Enrichment of the clotting cascade was also evident in microarray data from ovarian CCC versus other histotypes (P<0.01), and HNF1B-associated prothrombin expression was verified by immunohistochemistry (P = 0.015). Finally, among gynecologic carcinomas with cytoplasmic clearing, HNF1B immunostaining was linked to a 3.0-fold increased risk of clinically-significant venous thrombosis (P = 0.043), and with a 2.3-fold increased risk (P = 0.011) in a combined gynecologic and renal carcinoma cohort. Our results define HNF1B as a broad marker of clear cell phenotype, and support a mechanistic link to glycogen accumulation and thrombosis, possibly reflecting (for gynecologic CCC) derivation from secretory endometrium. Our findings also implicate a novel mechanism of tumor-associated thrombosis (a major cause of cancer mortality), based on the direct production of clotting factors by cancer cells.

Anglesio MS, Wiegand KC, Melnyk N, et al.
Type-specific cell line models for type-specific ovarian cancer research.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e72162 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: OVARIAN CARCINOMAS CONSIST OF AT LEAST FIVE DISTINCT DISEASES: high-grade serous, low-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid, and mucinous. Biomarker and molecular characterization may represent a more biologically relevant basis for grouping and treating this family of tumors, rather than site of origin. Molecular characteristics have become the new standard for clinical pathology, however development of tailored type-specific therapies is hampered by a failure of basic research to recognize that model systems used to study these diseases must also be stratified. Unrelated model systems do offer value for study of biochemical processes but specific cellular context needs to be applied to assess relevant therapeutic strategies.
METHODS: We have focused on the identification of clear cell carcinoma cell line models. A panel of 32 "ovarian cancer" cell lines has been classified into histotypes using a combination of mutation profiles, IHC mutation-surrogates, and a validated immunohistochemical model. All cell lines were identity verified using STR analysis.
RESULTS: Many described ovarian clear cell lines have characteristic mutations (including ARID1A and PIK3CA) and an overall molecular/immuno-profile typical of primary tumors. Mutations in TP53 were present in the majority of high-grade serous cell lines. Advanced genomic analysis of bona-fide clear cell carcinoma cell lines also support copy number changes in typical biomarkers such at MET and HNF1B and a lack of any recurrent expressed re-arrangements.
CONCLUSIONS: As with primary ovarian tumors, mutation status of cancer genes like ARID1A and TP53 and a general immuno-profile serve well for establishing histotype of ovarian cancer cell We describe specific biomarkers and molecular features to re-classify generic "ovarian carcinoma" cell lines into type specific categories. Our data supports the use of prototype clear cell lines, such as TOV21G and JHOC-5, and questions the use of SKOV3 and A2780 as models of high-grade serous carcinoma.

Shim JH, Kang HJ, Han S, et al.
Prognostic value of hepatocyte nuclear factors 4α and 1α identified by tissue microarray in resectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014; 29(3):524-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of expression of hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNFs) involved in hepatic gene transcription in patients undergoing curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical analyses on microarrays of the tumors and matched adjacent tissue using antibodies against HNF1α, HNF1β, HNF4α, and α-fetoprotein (AFP). We evaluated the prognostic value of biomarker expression using Cox regression and the Kaplan-Meier method in a training cohort of 220 patients and conducted an independent validation in 232 patients. We also determined whether measurement of HNFs improved risk prediction beyond the use of established factors, using net reclassification improvement (NRI).
RESULTS: Post-surgical recurrence and hepatic death were predicted by intratumoral HNF4α underexpression in both cohorts. In the training cohort they were also predicted by peritumoral HNF1α positivity. A pooled cohort analysis showed that these predictors were independently associated with early but not late-phase recurrence, and resultant mortality. Intratumoral expression levels of HNF4α were correlated with those of HNF1α, HNF1β, and AFP (P < 0.05). Similarly, HNF1α expression in peritumoral tissue was correlated with that of other markers (P < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between expression of HNF4α in tumors and HNF1α in peritumoral tissue. Adding combinations of intratumoral HNF4α and peritumoral HNF1α to 2-year recurrence and 5-year mortality models including known clinicopathological prognostic factors significantly improved the NRI indexes (39% and 44%, respectively; P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistological activation of intratumoral HNF4α and depletion of peritumoral HNF1α have prognostic significance for delayed recurrence and death after HCC resection.

Willson JS, Godwin TD, Wiggins GA, et al.
Primary hepatocellular neoplasms in a MODY3 family with a novel HNF1A germline mutation.
J Hepatol. 2013; 59(4):904-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Maturity onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) and hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) are associated with mutations in the HNF1A gene. HNF1A codes for the transcription factor HNF1α, which interacts with DNA as a homodimer or a heterodimer with HNF1β, to regulate multiple cellular functions including glucidic metabolism, lipidic transport, and detoxication. We report three members of one family with a novel germline in-frame deletion of HNF1A exons 2-3 identified initially using array CGH and direct sequence analysis. All three family members have MODY3 in association with primary liver cell tumours (HCA, liver adenomatosis (LA), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)). Additionally, a high rate of infant mortality was observed in the family. The described family demonstrates a novel HNF1A mutation associated with both benign and malignant primary liver cell tumours and MODY3.

Qu Y, Dang S, Hou P
Gene methylation in gastric cancer.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 424:53-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field.

Hu YL, Zhong D, Pang F, et al.
HNF1b is involved in prostate cancer risk via modulating androgenic hormone effects and coordination with other genes.
Genet Mol Res. 2013; 12(2):1327-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed male malignancies. Genome wide association studies have revealed HNF1b to be a major risk gene for prostate cancer susceptibility. We examined the mechanisms of involvement of HNF1b in prostate cancer development. We integrated data from Gene Expression Omnibus prostate cancer genes from the Dragon Database of Genes Implicated in Prostate Cancer, and used meta-analysis data to generate a panel of HNF1b-associated prostate cancer risk genes. An RT-PCR was used to assess expression levels in DU145, PC3, LNCaP, and RWEP-1 cells. Twelve genes (BAG1, DDR1, ERBB4, ESR1, HSPD1, IGFBP2, IGFBP5, NR4A1, PAWR, PIK3CG, RAP2A, and TPD52) were found to be associated with both HNF1b and prostate cancer risk. Six of them (BAG1, ERBB4, ESR1, HSPD1, NR4A1, and PIK3CG) were mapped to the KEGG pathway, and submitted to further gene expression assessment. HNF1b, NR4A1, and HSPD1 were found to be highly expressed in the LNCaP androgenic hormone-dependent cell line. Compared to expression levels in wild-type prostate cancer cells, NR4A1, HSPD1, ERBB4, and ESR1 expression levels were also found to be significantly increased in the HNF1b-transfected cells. We conclude that the mechanism of action of HNF1b in prostate cancer involves modulation of the association between androgenic hormone and prostate cancer cells. Gene-gene interaction and coordination should be taken into account to determine relationships between specific loci and diseases.

Shen H, Fridley BL, Song H, et al.
Epigenetic analysis leads to identification of HNF1B as a subtype-specific susceptibility gene for ovarian cancer.
Nat Commun. 2013; 4:1628 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HNF1B is overexpressed in clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer, and we observed epigenetic silencing in serous epithelial ovarian cancer, leading us to hypothesize that variation in this gene differentially associates with epithelial ovarian cancer risk according to histological subtype. Here we comprehensively map variation in HNF1B with respect to epithelial ovarian cancer risk and analyse DNA methylation and expression profiles across histological subtypes. Different single-nucleotide polymorphisms associate with invasive serous (rs7405776 odds ratio (OR)=1.13, P=3.1 × 10(-10)) and clear cell (rs11651755 OR=0.77, P=1.6 × 10(-8)) epithelial ovarian cancer. Risk alleles for the serous subtype associate with higher HNF1B-promoter methylation in these tumours. Unmethylated, expressed HNF1B, primarily present in clear cell tumours, coincides with a CpG island methylator phenotype affecting numerous other promoters throughout the genome. Different variants in HNF1B associate with risk of serous and clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer; DNA methylation and expression patterns are also notably distinct between these subtypes. These findings underscore distinct mechanisms driving different epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes.

Shao DD, Tsherniak A, Gopal S, et al.
ATARiS: computational quantification of gene suppression phenotypes from multisample RNAi screens.
Genome Res. 2013; 23(4):665-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-scale RNAi libraries enable the systematic interrogation of gene function. However, the interpretation of RNAi screens is complicated by the observation that RNAi reagents designed to suppress the mRNA transcripts of the same gene often produce a spectrum of phenotypic outcomes due to differential on-target gene suppression or perturbation of off-target transcripts. Here we present a computational method, Analytic Technique for Assessment of RNAi by Similarity (ATARiS), that takes advantage of patterns in RNAi data across multiple samples in order to enrich for RNAi reagents whose phenotypic effects relate to suppression of their intended targets. By summarizing only such reagent effects for each gene, ATARiS produces quantitative, gene-level phenotype values, which provide an intuitive measure of the effect of gene suppression in each sample. This method is robust for data sets that contain as few as 10 samples and can be used to analyze screens of any number of targeted genes. We used this analytic approach to interrogate RNAi data derived from screening more than 100 human cancer cell lines and identified HNF1B as a transforming oncogene required for the survival of cancer cells that harbor HNF1B amplifications. ATARiS is publicly available at http://broadinstitute.org/ataris.

Wang CC, Mao TL, Yang WC, Jeng YM
Underexpression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.
Histopathology. 2013; 62(4):589-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is an uncommon malignant renal neoplasm with a generally indolent clinical behaviour. Previous studies revealed biallelic inactivation of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF1β) gene in several patients with ChRCC. The aims of this study were to determine HNF1β expression in renal neoplasms and the potential of HNF1β as a diagnostic marker for ChRCC.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed immunohistochemical staining of 79 samples taken from patients with primary renal neoplasm [19 renal oncocytomas, 18 ChRCCs, 24 clear cell renal cell carcinomas (CCRCCs), and 18 papillary renal cell carcinomas]. HNF1β was underexpressed in 16 of 18 cases of ChRCC (88.9%). By contrast, HNF1β expression was preserved in the majority of renal oncocytoma (94.7%, 18/19) and CCRCC (95.8%, 23/24) cases. The combined use of HNF1β and cytokeratin 7 (CK7) further increased the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity; the profile of HNF1β positivity and CK7 negativity was not visible in any ChRCC sample, but was common in both renal oncocytoma (94.7%, 18/19) and CCRCC (91.7%, 22/24) samples.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that a lack of HNF1β expression might play an important role in the pathogenesis of ChRCC, and may serve as a good diagnostic marker for this neoplasm.

Pilato B, Pinto R, De Summa S, et al.
HOX gene methylation status analysis in patients with hereditary breast cancer.
J Hum Genet. 2013; 58(1):51-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer development is related not only to genetic alterations but also to aberrant epigenetic changes that could lead to heritable gene patterns critical for neoplastic initiation and progression. Knowledge of epigenetic regulation in cancer cells is useful for both the understanding of carcinogenesis and for the possibility of using epigenetic drugs. HOX genes deregulation have a crucial role in oncogenesis process and tumor suppression. In this report, the methylation of HOXA1, HOXA9, HOXA10, HOXB13, HNF1B, OTX1, TLX1 genes have been analyzed in patients with hereditary breast cancer. This is the first study analyzing BRCA mutational status of patients with respect to methylation of HOX genes. HOXA10 has been found to be methylated in all patients analyzed but never in healthy subjects. With respect to clinical pathological information, hypermethylation of all studied genes, with the exception of OTX1, was significantly associated with absence of HER2 neu expression (P<0.05). Moreover, hypermethylation of HOXB13, HOXA10 and HOXA1 was associated with a high proliferation index (Mib1≥10%, P<0.05) and hypermethylation of HOXB13 and HOXA10 also with high expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. These preliminary data suggest a possible involvement of HOX genes in familial breast cancer as marker helpful to identify high-risk patients.

Grisanzio C, Werner L, Takeda D, et al.
Genetic and functional analyses implicate the NUDT11, HNF1B, and SLC22A3 genes in prostate cancer pathogenesis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(28):11252-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
One of the central goals of human genetics is to discover the genes and pathways driving human traits. To date, most of the common risk alleles discovered through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) map to nonprotein-coding regions. Because of our relatively poorer understanding of this part of the genome, the functional consequences of trait-associated variants pose a considerable challenge. To identify the genes through which risk loci act, we hypothesized that the risk variants are regulatory elements. For each of 12 known risk polymorphisms, we evaluated the correlation between risk allele status and transcript abundance for all annotated protein-coding transcripts within a 1-Mb interval. A total of 103 transcripts were evaluated in 662 prostate tissue samples [normal (n = 407) and tumor (n = 255)] from 483 individuals [European Americans (n = 233), Japanese (n = 127), and African Americans (n = 123)]. In a pooled analysis, 4 of the 12 risk variants were strongly associated with five transcripts (NUDT11, MSMB, NCOA4, SLC22A3, and HNF1B) in histologically normal tissue (P ≤ 0.001). Although associations were also observed in tumor tissue, they tended to be more attenuated. Previously, we showed that MSMB and NCOA4 participate in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Suppressing the expression of NUDT11, SLC22A3, and HNF1B influences cellular phenotypes associated with tumor-related properties in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, the data suggest that these transcripts contribute to prostate cancer pathogenesis.

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