Gene Summary

Gene:BUB1B; BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B
Aliases: MVA1, SSK1, BUBR1, Bub1A, MAD3L, hBUBR1, BUB1beta
Summary:This gene encodes a kinase involved in spindle checkpoint function. The protein has been localized to the kinetochore and plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), delaying the onset of anaphase and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Impaired spindle checkpoint function has been found in many forms of cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine-protein kinase BUB1 beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (31)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes
  • Spindle Apparatus
  • Urothelium
  • Messenger RNA
  • M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints
  • Chromosomal Instability
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • Genomic Instability
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Up-Regulation
  • Breast Cancer
  • World Health Organization
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Chromosome 15
  • Mutation
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Cell Cycle
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Mad2 Proteins
  • Cancer DNA
  • Signal Transduction
  • BUB1B
  • Mitosis
  • Down-Regulation
  • Genes, Neoplasm
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Aneuploidy
  • Risk Factors
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Protein Kinases
  • Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor
  • Apoptosis
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Repressor Proteins
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BUB1B (cancer-related)

Mansouri N, Movafagh A, Sayad A, et al.
Targeting of BUB1b Gene Expression in Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsies of Invasive Breast Cancer in Iranian Female Patients.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17 Spec No.:317-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Detection of micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is a very useful tool for appropriate assessment of the clinical stage of disease in breast cancer patients. Early identification of clinically relevant disease could lead to early treatment or staging approaches for breast cancer patient. Micrometastases in SLNs of women with invasive breast cancer are of great significance in this context. In this study we examined SLN biopsies considered to have small numbers of cancerous cells by real time RT-PCR. All of the samples underwent immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin for confirmation of the presence or absence of micrometastases. BUB1b expression assay of selected patients with and without metastasis showed overexpression in the former, but not in normal breast and lymph node tissue. Our results may be taken into account in the discussion about the merits of routine use of molecular assessment in pathogenetic studies of SLNs.

Hasanpourghadi M, Karthikeyan C, Pandurangan AK, et al.
Targeting of tubulin polymerization and induction of mitotic blockage by Methyl 2-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylate (MBIC) in human cervical cancer HeLa cell.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Microtubule Targeting Agents (MTAs) including paclitaxel, colchicine and vinca alkaloids are widely used in the treatment of various cancers. As with most chemotherapeutic agents, adverse effects and drug resistance are commonly associated with the clinical use of these agents. Methyl 2-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H- benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylate (MBIC), a benzimidazole derivative displays greater toxicity against various cancer compared to normal human cell lines. The present study, focused on the cytotoxic effects of MBIC against HeLa cervical cancer cells and possible actions on the microtubule assembly.
METHODS: Apoptosis detection and cell-cycle assays were performed to determine the type of cell death and the phase of cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. Tubulin polymerization assay and live-cell imaging were performed to visualize effects on the microtubule assembly in the presence of MBIC. Mitotic kinases and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic proteins were evaluated by Western blot analysis. In addition, the synergistic effect of MBIC with low doses of selected chemotherapeutic actions were examined against the cancer cells.
RESULTS: Results from the present study showed that following treatment with MBIC, the HeLa cells went into mitotic arrest comprising of multi-nucleation and unsegregated chromosomes with a prolonged G2-M phase. In addition, the HeLa cells showed signs of mitochondrial-dependant apoptotic features such as the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspases. MBIC markedly interferes with tubulin polymerization. Western blotting results indicated that MBIC affects mitotic regulatory machinery by up-regulating BubR1, Cyclin B1, CDK1 and down-regulation of Aurora B. In addition, MBIC displayed synergistic effect when given in combination with colchicine, nocodazole, paclitaxel and doxorubicin.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our study demonstrated the distinctive microtubule destabilizing effects of MBIC against cervical cancer cells in vitro. Besides that, MBIC exhibited synergistic effects with low doses of selected anticancer drugs and thus, may potentially reduce the toxicity and drug resistance to these agents.

Ocaña A, Pérez-Peña J, Díez-González L, et al.
Transcriptomic analyses identify association between mitotic kinases, PDZ-binding kinase and BUB1, and clinical outcome in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 156(1):1-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein kinases are important components in oncogenic transformation of breast cancer. Evaluation of upregulated genes that codify for protein kinases could be used as biomarkers to predict clinical outcome. Gene expression and functional analyses using public datasets were performed to identify differential gene expression and functions in basal-like tumors compared with normal breast tissue. Overall survival (OS) associated with upregulated genes was explored using the KM Plotter online tool. The prognostic influence of these genes in luminal tumors and systemically untreated patients was also assessed. Of the 426 transcripts identified in basal-like tumors, 11 genes that coded for components of protein kinases were upregulated with more than a fourfold change. Regulation of cell cycle was an enriched function containing 10 of these 11 identified genes. Among them, expression of four genes, BUB1β, CDC28, NIMA, and PDZ binding kinase, were all associated with improved OS when using at least one probe in the basal-like subtype. Two genes, BUB1β and PDZ binding kinase, showed consistent association with improved OS irrespective of the gene probe used for the analysis. No association was observed for these genes with relapse-free survival. In contrast, both BUB1β and PDZ binding kinase showed worse OS in luminal tumors and in a cohort of systemically untreated patients. BUB1β and PDZ binding kinase are associated with improved OS in basal-like tumors and worse OS in luminal and untreated patients. The association with a better outcome in basal-like tumors could be due to a more favorable response to chemotherapy.

Chou YC, Chang MY, Wang MJ, et al.
Phenethyl isothiocyanate alters the gene expression and the levels of protein associated with cell cycle regulation in human glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells.
Environ Toxicol. 2017; 32(1):176-187 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a member of the isothiocyanate family, can induce apoptosis in many human cancer cells. Our previous study disclosed that PEITC induces apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway, dysfunction of mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway in human brain glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) 8401 cells. To the best of our knowledge, we first investigated the effects of PEITC on the genetic levels of GBM 8401 cells in vitro. PEITC may induce G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest through affecting the proteins such as cdk2, cyclin E, and p21 in GBM 8401 cells. Many genes associated with cell-cycle regulation of GBM 8401 cells were changed after PEITC treatment: 48 genes were upregulated and 118 were downregulated. The cell-division cycle protein 20 (CDC20), Budding uninhibited by benzimidazole 1 homolog beta (BUB1B), and cyclin B1 were downregulated, and clusterin was upregulated in GBM 8401 cells treated with PEITC. These changes of gene expression can provide the effects of PEITC on the genetic levels and potential biomarkers for glioblastoma. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 176-187, 2017.

Qu Z, Zou X, Zhang X, et al.
Chelidonine induces mitotic slippage and apoptotic-like death in SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(2):1336-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chelidonine on mitotic slippage and apoptotic-like death in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. The MTT assay was performed to detect the antiproliferative effect of chelidonine. Following treatment with chelidonine (10 µmol/l), the ultrastructure changes in SGC-7901, MCF-7 and HepG2 cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of chelidonine on G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells were determined by flow cytometry. Indirect immunofluorescence assay and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were used to detect the phosphorylation level of histone H3 (Ser10) and microtubule formation was detected using LSCM following immunofluorescent labeling. Subsequent to treatment with chelidonine (10 µmol/l), expression levels of mitotic slippage-associated proteins, including BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B (BubR1), cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and cyclin B1, and apoptosis-associated protein, caspase-3 were examined by western blotting at 24, 48 and 72 h. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of chelidonine was 23.13 µmol/l over 48 h and chelidonine induced G2/M phase arrest of cells. The phosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10 was significantly increased following treatment with chelidonine for 24 h, indicating that chelidonine arrested the SGC-7901 cells in the M phase. Chelidonine inhibited microtubule polymerization, destroyed microtubule structures and induced cell cycle arrest in the M phase. Giant cells were observed with multiple micronuclei of varying sizes, which indicated that following a prolonged arrest in the M phase, the cells underwent mitotic catastrophe. Western blotting demonstrated that the protein expression levels of BubR1, cyclin B1 and Cdk1 decreased significantly between 48 and 72 h. Low expression levels of BubR1 and inactivation of the cyclin B1-Cdk1 complex results in the cells being arrested at mitosis and leads to mitotic slippage. In addition, apoptotic morphological changes in multinucleated cells were observed, the apoptosis rates increased gradually with administration of chelidonine in a time-dependent manner and the protein levels of caspase-3 increased significantly between 24 and 72 h. Thus, chelidonine induces mitotic slippage, and apoptotic-like death occurs in SGC-7901 cells undergoing mitotic catastrophe. Gastric cancer is a common malignancy, and ranks second in overall cancer-associated mortalities worldwide. The present study demonstrated that chelidonine induces M phase arrest and mitotic slippage of SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells via downregulating the expression of BubR1, Cdk1 and cyclin B1 proteins. With the prolongation of chelidonine treatment, the giant cells with multiple micronuclei underwent mitotic slippage and were maintained in the G1 phase and did not survive. A number of multinucleated cells underwent apoptosis via a caspase-dependent signaling pathway. The current study proposes that chelidonine induces mitotic slippage and apoptotic-like death of SGC-7901 cells.

Goswami S, Sharma-Walia N
Osteoprotegerin secreted by inflammatory and invasive breast cancer cells induces aneuploidy, cell proliferation and angiogenesis.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:935 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a glycoprotein that has multifaceted role and is associated with several cancer malignancies like that of bladder carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, prostate cancer, multiple myeloma and breast cancer. Also OPG has been associated with several organ pathologies. The widespread expression of OPG suggests that OPG may have multiple biological activities that are yet to be explored.
METHODS: The anchorage-independent sphere cultures of the adherent cells were instrumental in our study as it provided a deeper insight into the complexity of a 3D tumor. Cytokine profiling was performed for OPG's detection in the microenvironment. ELISA and western blotting were performed to quantify the OPG secretion and measure the protein levels respectively. OPG expression was detected in human breast cancer tissue samples by IHC. To decipher OPG's role in tumor aggressiveness both recombinant human OPG as well as OPG rich and depleted breast cancer cell conditioned media were tested. Western blotting and MTT assay were performed to detect changes in signaling pathways and proliferation that were induced in presence of OPG. Onset of aneuploidy, in presence of OPG, was measured by cell cycle analysis and western blotting. Finally, human Breast Cancer qBiomarker Copy Number PCR Array was used to detect how OPG remarkably induced gene copy numbers for oncogenic pathway regulators.
RESULTS: SUM149PT and SUM1315M02 cells secrete high levels of the cytokine OPG compared to primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). High expression of OPG was also detected in human breast cancer tissue samples compared to the uninvolved tissue from the same patient. OPG induced proliferation of control HMEC spheres and triggered the onset of aneuploidy in HMEC sphere cultures. OPG induced the expression of aneuploidy related kinases Aurora-A Kinase (IAK-1), Bub1 and BubR1 probably through the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and syndecan-1 receptors via the Erk, AKT and GSK3(3 signaling pathway. Gene copy numbers for oncogenic pathway regulators such AKT1, Aurora-A Kinase (AURKA or IAK-1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and MYC with a reduction in the copy numbers of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), PTEN and DNA topoisomerase 2 alpha (TOP2A) were induced in presence of OPG.
CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the role of OPG in reprogramming normal mammary epithelial cells to a tumorigenic state and suggest promising avenues for treating inflammatory breast cancer as well as highly invasive breast cancer with new therapeutic targets.

Wu L, Zhang X, Zhao Z, et al.
Full-length single-cell RNA-seq applied to a viral human cancer: applications to HPV expression and splicing analysis in HeLa S3 cells.
Gigascience. 2015; 4:51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Viral infection causes multiple forms of human cancer, and HPV infection is the primary factor in cervical carcinomas. Recent single-cell RNA-seq studies highlight the tumor heterogeneity present in most cancers, but virally induced tumors have not been studied. HeLa is a well characterized HPV+ cervical cancer cell line.
RESULT: We developed a new high throughput platform to prepare single-cell RNA on a nanoliter scale based on a customized microwell chip. Using this method, we successfully amplified full-length transcripts of 669 single HeLa S3 cells and 40 of them were randomly selected to perform single-cell RNA sequencing. Based on these data, we obtained a comprehensive understanding of the heterogeneity of HeLa S3 cells in gene expression, alternative splicing and fusions. Furthermore, we identified a high diversity of HPV-18 expression and splicing at the single-cell level. By co-expression analysis we identified 283 E6, E7 co-regulated genes, including CDC25, PCNA, PLK4, BUB1B and IRF1 known to interact with HPV viral proteins.
CONCLUSION: Our results reveal the heterogeneity of a virus-infected cell line. It not only provides a transcriptome characterization of HeLa S3 cells at the single cell level, but is a demonstration of the power of single cell RNA-seq analysis of virally infected cells and cancers.

Mongan AM, Lynam-Lennon N, Casey R, et al.
Visceral obesity stimulates anaphase bridge formation and spindle assembly checkpoint dysregulation in radioresistant oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
Clin Transl Oncol. 2016; 18(6):632-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Oesophageal adenocarcinoma is an exemplar model of obesity-associated cancer. Locally advanced disease is treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and survival rates are highest in patients demonstrating a pathological response following neoadjuvant therapy. Given that 55 % of oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients are obese, uncovering the effect of adipose tissue on radioresponse is clinically relevant. This study investigates if adipose tissue activates genomic instability events in radioresponsive (OE33P) and radioresistant (OE33R) oesophageal cancer cell lines and tumour samples.
METHODS: OE33R and OE33P were cultured with adipose-conditioned media derived from oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients (n = 10). Anaphase bridges, a marker of genomic instability, were enumerated in both cell lines following treatment with adipose media, and normalised to cell number. Genomic instability is regulated by the spindle assembly complex. Expression of two spindle assembly complex genes (MAD2L2, BUB1B) was assessed using qPCR, and validated in patient tumour specimens from viscerally obese (n = 46) and nonobese patients (n = 41).
RESULTS: Adipose-conditioned media increased anaphase bridging in OE33R (p < 0.0001), with a threefold increase in OE33R compared to OE33P (p < 0.01). Levels of anaphase bridges in OE33R cells correlated with visceral obesity status as measured by waist circumference (R = 0.709, p = 0.03) and visceral fat area (R = 0.794, p = 0.006). Adipose tissue altered expression of MAD2L2 in vitro. In vivo, MAD2L2 expression was higher in viscerally obese oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients compared with nonobese patients (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Anaphase bridge levels are influenced by obesity and radiosensitivity status in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, visceral adipose-conditioned media stimulates dysregulation of the spindle assembly complex in oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients.

Chang IC, Chiang TI, Lo C, et al.
Anemone altaica Induces Apoptosis in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.
Am J Chin Med. 2015; 43(5):1031-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the past decade, no significant improvement has been made in chemotherapy for osteosarcoma (OS). To develop improved agents against OS, we screened 70 species of medicinal plants and treated two human OS cell lines with different agent concentrations. We then examined cell viability using the MTT assay. Results showed that a candidate plant, particularly the rhizomes of Anemone altaica Fisch. ex C. A. Mey aqueous extract (AAE), suppressed the viability of HOS and U2OS cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that AAE significantly increased the amount of cell shrinkage (Sub-G1 fragments) in HOS and U2OS cells. Moreover, AAE increased cytosolic cytochrome c and Bax, but decreased Bcl-2. The amount of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) were significantly increased. AAE suppressed the growth of HOS and U2OS through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Data suggest that AAE is cytotoxic to HOS and U2OS cells and has no significant influence on human osteoblast hFOB cells. The high mRNA levels of apoptosis-related factors (PPP1R15A, SQSTM1, HSPA1B, and DDIT4) and cellular proliferation markers (SKA2 and BUB1B) were significantly altered by the AAE treatment of HOS and U2OS cells. Results show that the anticancer activity of AAE could up-regulate the expression of a cluster of genes, especially those in the apoptosis-related factor family and caspase family. Thus, AAE has great potential as a useful therapeutic drug for human OS.

Pierantoni GM, Conte A, Rinaldo C, et al.
Deregulation of HMGA1 expression induces chromosome instability through regulation of spindle assembly checkpoint genes.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(19):17342-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is an essential control system of the cell cycle that contributes to mantain the genomic stability of eukaryotic cells. SAC genes expression is often deregulated in cancer cells, leading to checkpoint impairment and chromosome instability. The mechanisms responsible for the transcriptional regulation and deregulation of these genes are still largely unknown. Herein we identify the nonhistone architectural nuclear proteins High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1), whose overexpression is a feature of several human malignancies and has a key role in cancer progression, as transcriptional regulators of SAC genes expression. In particular, we show that HMGA1 proteins are able to increase the expression of the SAC genes Ttk, Mad2l1, Bub1 and Bub1b, binding to their promoter regions. Consistently, HMGA1-depletion induces SAC genes downregulation associated to several mitotic defects. In particular, we observed a high number of unaligned chromosomes in metaphase, a reduction of prometaphase time, a delay of anaphase, a higher cytokinesis time and a higher percentage of cytokinesis failure by using live-cell microscopy. Finally, a significant direct correlation between HMGA1 and SAC genes expression was detected in human colon carcinomas indicating a novel mechanism by which HMGA1 contributes to cancer progression.

Taghavi N, Yazdi I
Prognostic factors of survival rate in oral squamous cell carcinoma: clinical, histologic, genetic and molecular concepts.
Arch Iran Med. 2015; 18(5):314-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents 95% of all forms of head and neck cancers. The five-year survival rate of OSCC patients has been reported approximately 50%, which is not satisfactory despite new treatment modalities. The aim of the current review is to present factors (histologic, clinical, genetic and molecular biomarkers) correlated with survival rate in OSCC patients. A web-based search for all types of articles published was initiated using MEDLINE/PubMed. The search was restricted to articles focusing on relevant clinical, histologic, genetic and molecular factors of survival rate in OSCC and presenting new concepts in this field. Mode of invasion, presence of lymph node metastasis, extra-capsular spread, surgical margins and invasive tumor front grade are clinical and histologic parameters, which are strongly associated with survival rate. Focusing on selected proteins, wide range of molecular markers and gene alterations involving in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell migration, cell adhesion and tumor microenvironment have been documented. Among well-known molecular markers, cyclin dependent kinase, survivin, CD44, BUBR1, and heat shock proteins (27,70) can be considered as independent prognostic factors of survival rate. The identified prognostic factors imply a relatively comprehensive understanding of factors related to survival rate in OSCC patients, and provide an additional tool for selecting patients who need more aggressive treatment design.

Mikulenkova E, Neradil J, Zitterbart K, et al.
Overexpression of the ∆Np73 isoform is associated with centrosome amplification in brain tumor cell lines.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(10):7483-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
The p73 protein is a member of the p53 family, and this protein is known to be essential for the maintenance of genomic stability, DNA repair, and apoptosis regulation. Transcription from two promoters leads to two main N-terminal isoforms: the TAp73 isoform is reported to have tumor suppressor function, whereas the ΔNp73 isoform likely has oncogenic potential. The present study is focused on the investigation of a possible role of both these p73 N-terminal isoforms in the process of centrosome amplification. HGG-02 and GM7 glioblastoma cell lines and the Daoy medulloblastoma cell line were used in this study. The cells were analyzed using indirect immunofluorescence to determine TAp73 and ΔNp73 expression patterns and possible co-localization with the BubR1 protein, as well as the number of centrosomes. A transiently transfected GM7 cell line was used to verify the results concerning the N-terminal isoforms in relation to centrosome amplification. We found that increased immunoreactivity for the ΔNp73 isoform is associated with the occurrence of an abnormal number of centrosomes in particular cells. Using the transiently transfected GM7 cell line, we confirmed that centrosome amplification is present in cells with overexpression of the ΔNp73 isoform. In contrast, the immunoreactivity for the TAp73 isoform was weak or medium in most of the cells with an aberrant number of centrosomes. To determine the putative counterpart of the p73 N-terminal isoforms among spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins, we also evaluated possible interactions between the N-terminal isoforms and BubR1 protein, but no co-localization of these proteins was observed.

Tan CL, Teissier S, Gunaratne J, et al.
Stranglehold on the spindle assembly checkpoint: the human papillomavirus E2 protein provokes BUBR1-dependent aneuploidy.
Cell Cycle. 2015; 14(9):1459-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E2 protein, which inhibits the E6 and E7 viral oncogenes, is believed to have anti-oncogenic properties. Here, we challenge this view and show that HPV-18 E2 over-activates the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) and induces DNA breaks in mitosis followed by aneuploidy. This phenotype is associated with interaction of E2 with the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex (MCC) proteins Cdc20, MAD2 and BUBR1. While BUBR1 silencing rescues the mitotic phenotype induced by E2, p53 silencing or presence of E6/E7 (inactivating p53 and increasing BUBR1 levels respectively) both amplify it. This work pinpoints E2 as a key protein in the initiation of HPV-induced cervical cancer and identifies the SAC as a target for oncogenic pathogens. Moreover, our results suggest a role of p53 in regulating the mitotic process itself and highlight SAC over-activation in a p53-negative context as a highly pathogenic event.

Teixeira JH, Silva P, Faria J, et al.
Clinicopathologic significance of BubR1 and Mad2 overexpression in oral cancer.
Oral Dis. 2015; 21(6):713-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: BubR1 and Mad2 are central components of the mitotic checkpoint complex that inhibits anaphase onset until all chromosomes are correctly aligned at the metaphase plate. We propose to analyse the combined expression of BubR1 and Mad2 and assess its significance to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) diagnosis and prognosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: BubR1 and Mad2 expression was assessed by real-time PCR in OSCC cell lines and in normal human oral keratinocytes, and by immunohistochemistry in 65 patients with OSCC. The results were compared regarding clinicopathological parameters, proliferative activity and survival.
RESULTS: BubR1 and Mad2 transcripts were overexpressed in OSCC cell lines which also exhibited attenuated spindle assembly checkpoint activity. BubR1 and Mad2 were also overexpressed in patients with OSCC. BubR1 expression was associated with advanced stages and larger tumour size in univariate analysis, and with shorter overall survival both in univariate and multivariate analysis. Mad2 overexpression was associated with that of BubR1 and, importantly, high expression of Mad2 and BubR1 was associated with increased cellular proliferation.
CONCLUSION: Our data propose a role for BubR1 and Mad2 in OSCC cellular proliferation, progression and prognosis.

Jin B, Wang W, Du G, et al.
Identifying hub genes and dysregulated pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(4):592-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the hub genes and dysregulated pathways of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and explore the molecular mechanism of the biological process associated with HCC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microarray data were got from NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The most significant top 100 up-regulated gene signatures and top 100 down-regulated gene signatures were identified by integrated analysis of the multiple microarray datasets using a novel model genome-wide relative significance (GWRS) and genome-wide global significance (GWGS). Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and pathway analysis of those genes were performed based on Gene Ontology website and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using Cytoscape 2.1. In addition, we analysed the significantly dysregulated signaling pathways across the PPI network and KEGG pathway analysis.
RESULTS: We screened 2920 up-regulated and 2231 down-regulated gene signatures across multiple studies by GWRS and GWGS. The top 100 up-regulated and top 100 down-regulated gene signatures were selected for further research. GO enrichment analysis showed that these genes significantly enriched in terms of mitosis (p = 5.83×10-20), nuclear division (p = 5.83×10-20) and M phase of mitotic cell cycle (p = 9.39×10-20). The most significant terms of KEGG pathway included cell cycle (p = 1.33×10-8), oocyte meiosis (p = 1.41×10-4), drug metabolism (p = 2.15×10-4) and p53 signaling pathway (p = 3.57×10-4). PPI network suggested that BIRC5, CDC20, CCNB1, BUB1B, MAD2L1 and CDK1 were important significant genes which were considered as hub genes. Across the PPI and pathway, cell cycle, oocyte meiosis and p53 signaling pathway were the significantly dysregulated pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study displayed robust gene signatures in HCC. It showed that the dysregulations of cell cycle, oocyte meiosis, p53 signaling pathway and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway were closely associated to the development and progression of HCC. Besides, genes BIRC5, CDC20, CCNB1, BUB1B, MAD2L1 and CDK1 as the hub genes might play important roles for diagnosing and therapy of HCC.

Yang Y, Gu C, Luo C, et al.
BUB1B promotes multiple myeloma cell proliferation through CDC20/CCNB axis.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(3):81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematopoietic malignancy characterized by plasma cell proliferative disorder. In this study, we disclosed that expression of BUB1B significantly increased in high-risk myeloma patients especially in the most aggressive myeloma genetic subgroups of proliferation. Increased BUB1B expression promotes MM cell proliferation. Mechanism study showed that BUB1B expression was highly correlated to CDC20 and CCNB1/2 expression in MM cells, leading to increased MM cell proliferation. Therefore, BUB1B may be a potential target for MM treatment especially for high-risk MM patients.

Yang S, Zhang L, Chen X, et al.
Oncoprotein YAP regulates the spindle checkpoint activation in a mitotic phosphorylation-dependent manner through up-regulation of BubR1.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(10):6191-202 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcriptional co-activator YAP (Yes-associated protein) functions as an oncogene; however, it is largely unclear how YAP exerts its oncogenic role. In this study, we further explored the functional significance of YAP and its mitotic phosphorylation in the spindle checkpoint. We found that the dynamic mitotic phosphorylation of YAP was CDC14-dependent. We also showed that YAP was required for the spindle checkpoint activation induced by spindle poisons. Mitotic phosphorylation of YAP was required for activation of the spindle checkpoint. Furthermore, enhanced expression of active YAP hyperactivated the spindle checkpoint and induced mitotic defects in a mitotic phosphorylation-dependent manner. Mechanistically, we documented that mitotic phosphorylation of YAP controlled transcription of genes associated with the spindle checkpoint. YAP constitutively associated with BubR1 (BUB1-related protein kinase), and knockdown of BubR1 relieved YAP-driven hyperactivation of the spindle checkpoint. Finally, we demonstrated that YAP promoted epithelial cell invasion via both mitotic phosphorylation and BubR1-dependent mechanisms. Together, our results reveal a novel link between YAP and the spindle checkpoint and indicate a potential mechanism underlying the oncogenic function of YAP through dysregulation of the spindle checkpoint.

Majuelos-Melguizo J, Rodríguez MI, López-Jiménez L, et al.
PARP targeting counteracts gliomagenesis through induction of mitotic catastrophe and aggravation of deficiency in homologous recombination in PTEN-mutant glioma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(7):4790-803 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults and one of the most aggressive cancers. PARP-1 is a nuclear protein involved in multiple facets of DNA repair and transcriptional regulation. In this study we dissected the action of PARP inhibition in different GBM cell lines with either functional or mutated PTEN that confers resistance to diverse therapies. In PTEN mutant cells, PARP inhibition induced a severe genomic instability, exacerbated homologous recombination repair (HR) deficiency and down-regulated the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) factor BUBR1, leading to mitotic catastrophe (MC). EGFR gene amplification also represents a signature of genetic abnormality in GBM. To more effectively target GBM cells, co-treatment with a PARP inhibitor and an EGFR blocker, erlotinib, resulted in a strong suppression of ERK1/2 activation and in vivo the combined effect elicited a robust reduction in tumour development. In conclusion, PARP inhibition targets PTEN-deficient GBM cells through accentuation of SAC repression and aggravation of HR deficiency, leading to the induction of genomic instability and eventually deriving to mitotic catastrophe (MC); the inhibition of PARP and co-treatment with an inhibitor of pro-survival pathways strongly retarded in vivo gliomagenesis.

Rajan P, Stockley J, Sudbery IM, et al.
Identification of a candidate prognostic gene signature by transcriptome analysis of matched pre- and post-treatment prostatic biopsies from patients with advanced prostate cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:977 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although chemotherapy for prostate cancer (PCa) can improve patient survival, some tumours are chemo-resistant. Tumour molecular profiles may help identify the mechanisms of drug action and identify potential prognostic biomarkers. We performed in vivo transcriptome profiling of pre- and post-treatment prostatic biopsies from patients with advanced hormone-naive prostate cancer treated with docetaxel chemotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with an aim to identify the mechanisms of drug action and identify prognostic biomarkers.
METHODS: RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on biopsies from four patients before and ~22 weeks after docetaxel and ADT initiation. Gene fusion products and differentially-regulated genes between treatment pairs were identified using TopHat and pathway enrichment analyses undertaken. Publically available datasets were interrogated to perform survival analyses on the gene signatures identified using cBioportal.
RESULTS: A number of genomic rearrangements were identified including the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion and 3 novel gene fusions involving the ETS family of transcription factors in patients, both pre and post chemotherapy. In total, gene expression analyses showed differential expression of at least 2 fold in 575 genes in post-chemotherapy biopsies. Of these, pathway analyses identified a panel of 7 genes (ADAM7, FAM72B, BUB1B, CCNB1, CCNB2, TTK, CDK1), including a cell cycle-related geneset, that were differentially-regulated following treatment with docetaxel and ADT. Using cBioportal to interrogate the MSKCC-Prostate Oncogenome Project dataset we observed a statistically-significant reduction in disease-free survival of patients with tumours exhibiting alterations in gene expression of the above panel of 7 genes (p = 0.015).
CONCLUSIONS: Here we report on the first "real-time" in vivo RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of clinical PCa from pre- and post-treatment TRUSS-guided biopsies of patients treated with docetaxel chemotherapy plus ADT. We identify a chemotherapy-driven PCa transcriptome profile which includes the down-regulation of important positive regulators of cell cycle progression. A 7 gene signature biomarker panel has also been identified in high-risk prostate cancer patients to be of prognostic value. Future prospective study is warranted to evaluate the clinical value of this panel.

Bargiela-Iparraguirre J, Prado-Marchal L, Pajuelo-Lozano N, et al.
Mad2 and BubR1 modulates tumourigenesis and paclitaxel response in MKN45 gastric cancer cells.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(22):3590-601 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN) are common features of gastric cancer (GC), but their contribution to carcinogenesis and antitumour therapy response is still poorly understood. Failures in the mitotic checkpoint induced by changes in expression levels of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins cause the missegregation of chromosomes in mitosis as well as aneuploidy. To evaluate the possible contribution of SAC to GC, we analyzed the expression levels of proteins of the mitotic checkpoint complex in a cohort of GC cell lines. We found that the central SAC proteins, Mad2 and BubR1, were the more prominently expressed members in disseminated GC cell lines. Silencing of Mad2 and BubR1 in MKN45 and ST2957 cells decreased their cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities, indicating that Mad2 and BubR1 could contribute to cellular transformation and tumor progression in GC. We next evaluated whether silencing of SAC proteins could affect the response to microtubule poisons. We discovered that paclitaxel treatment increased cell survival in MKN45 cells interfered for Mad2 or BubR1 expression. However, apoptosis (assessed by caspase-3 activation, PARP proteolysis and levels of antiapoptotic Bcl 2-family members), the DNA damage response (assessed by H2Ax phosphorylation) and exit from mitosis (assessed by Cyclin B degradation and Cdk1 regulation) were activated equally between cells, independently of Mad2 or BubR1-protein levels. In contrast, we observed that the silencing of Mad2 or BubR1 in MKN45 cells showed the induction of a senescence-like phenotype accompanied by cell enlargement, increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and increased IL-6 and IL-8 expression. In addition, the senescent phenotype is highly increased after treatment with PTX, indicating that senescence could prevent tumorigenesis in GC. In conclusion, the results presented here suggest that Mad2 and BubR1 could be used as prognostic markers of tumor progression and new pharmacological targets in the treatment for GC.

Brownlow N, Pike T, Zicha D, et al.
Mitotic catenation is monitored and resolved by a PKCε-regulated pathway.
Nat Commun. 2014; 5:5685 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Exit from mitosis is controlled by silencing of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). It is important that preceding exit, all sister chromatid pairs are correctly bioriented, and that residual catenation is resolved, permitting complete sister chromatid separation in the ensuing anaphase. Here we determine that the metaphase response to catenation in mammalian cells operates through PKCε. The PKCε-controlled pathway regulates exit from the SAC only when mitotic cells are challenged by retained catenation and this delayed exit is characterized by BubR1-high and Mad2-low kinetochores. In addition, we show that this pathway is necessary to facilitate resolution of retained catenanes in mitosis. When delayed by catenation in mitosis, inhibition of PKCε results in premature entry into anaphase with PICH-positive strands and chromosome bridging. These findings demonstrate the importance of PKCε-mediated regulation in protection from loss of chromosome integrity in cells failing to resolve catenation in G2.

Li L, Tan Y, Chen X, et al.
MDM4 overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia patients with complex karyotype and wild-type TP53.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e113088 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia patients with complex karyotype (CK-AML) account for approximately 10-15% of adult AML cases, and are often associated with a poor prognosis. Except for about 70% of CK-AML patients with biallelic inactivation of TP53, the leukemogenic mechanism in the nearly 30% of CK-AML patients with wild-type TP53 has remained elusive. In this study, 15 cases with complex karyotype and wild-type TP53 were screened out of 140 de novo AML patients and the expression levels of MDM4, a main negative regulator of p53-signaling pathway, were detected. We ruled out mutations in genes associated with a poor prognosis of CK-AML, including RUNX1 or FLT3-ITD. The mRNA expression levels of the full-length of MDM4 (MDM4FL) and short isoform MDM4 (MDM4S) were elevated in CK-AML relative to normal karyotype AML (NK-AML) patients. We also explored the impact of MDM4 overexpression on the cell cycle, cell proliferation and the spindle checkpoint of HepG2 cells, which is a human cancer cell line with normal MDM4 and TP53 expression. The mitotic index and the expression of p21, BubR1 and Securin were all reduced following Nocodazole treatment. Moreover, karyotype analysis showed that MDM4 overexpression might lead to aneuploidy or polyploidy. These results suggest that MDM4 overexpression is related to CK-AML with wild-type TP53 and might play a pathogenic role by inhibiting p53-signal pathway.

Zhao Y, Ando K, Oki E, et al.
Aberrations of BUBR1 and TP53 gene mutually associated with chromosomal instability in human colorectal cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(10):5421-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Defects in mitotic checkpoint and p53-dependent pathways associate with chromosomal instability. In the present study, we investigated the interplay between BUBR1 and p53 and their association with genetic instability in colorectal cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: 139 colorectal cases were examined for BUBR1, p53 and genetic instability indicators. BUBR1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TP53 gene was directly sequenced. DNA ploidy was studied by laser scanning cytometry; MSI and TP53 loss of heterozygosity was also examined.
RESULTS: 64% of cases had high BUBR1 expression and were associated with the TP53 mutation. High BUBR1 expression and TP53 mutation associated with DNA aneuploidy and showed an inverse association with MSI. Cases with high BUBR1 expression and TP53 mutation had profound aneuploidy phenotypes and less frequent MSI compared to cases with one or neither aberration.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated an interplay between BUBR1 and p53 in colorectal cancer. Altered expression of both molecules was associated with chromosomal instability.

Lin CC, Chao PY, Shen CY, et al.
Novel target genes responsive to apoptotic activity by Ocimum gratissimum in human osteosarcoma cells.
Am J Chin Med. 2014; 42(3):743-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a type of bone cancer. Eighty percent of this tumor will metastasize to the lungs or liver, and as a result, patients generally need chemotherapy to improve survival possibility. Recently, antitumor activity has been reported in Ocimum gratissimum aqueous extract (OGE), which has been the focus of recent extensive studies on therapeutic strategies due to its antioxidant properties. We performed pharmacogenomics analyses for the effect of OGE on human osteosarcoma U2-OS and HOS cell growth. Cell viability, Western blot and flow cytometry analysis were performed before performing pharmacogenomics analyses for the effect of OGE on human osteosarcoma U2-OS and HOS cell growth, including cDNA microarray and RT-PCR assays. Cell viability assays revealed that OGE significantly and dose-dependently decreased the viability of U2-OS and HOS cells. Increases in cell shrinkage, Sub-G1 fragments and the activation of caspase 3 indicated that OGE induced cell apoptosis in U2-OS and HOS cells. There was no change in human osteoblast hFOS cells. cDNA microarray assay demonstrated that the expression of cell cycle regulators, apoptosis-related factors and cell proliferation markers were all modified by OGE treatment. RT-PCR analysis also confirmed the down-regulation of SKA2 and BUB1B, and the up-regulation of PPP1R15A, SQSTM1, HSPA1B, and DDIT4 by OGE treatment. The finding of anticancer activity in OGE and the identification of some potential target genes raise the expectation that OGE may become a useful therapeutic drug for human OS.

Singh CK, George J, Nihal M, et al.
Novel downstream molecular targets of SIRT1 in melanoma: a quantitative proteomics approach.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(7):1987-99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma is one of the most lethal forms of skin cancer and its incidence is continuing to rise in the United States. Therefore, novel mechanism and target-based strategies are needed for the management of this disease. SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent class III histone deacetylase, has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes and pathological conditions. We recently demonstrated that SIRT1 is upregulated in melanoma and its inhibition by a small-molecule, tenovin-1, inhibits cell proliferation and clonogenic survival of melanoma cells, possibly via activating p53. Here, we employed a gel free quantitative proteomics approach to identify the downstream effectors and targets of SIRT1 in melanoma. The human malignant melanoma, G361 cells were treated with tenovin-1 followed by protein extraction, in liquid trypsin digestion, and peptide analyses using nanoLC-MS/MS. A total of 1091 proteins were identified, of which 20 proteins showed significant differential expression with 95% confidence interval. These proteins were subjected to gene ontology and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to obtain the information regarding their biological and molecular functions. Real-Time qRT-PCR validation showed that five of these (PSAP, MYO1B, MOCOS, HIS1H4A and BUB3) were differentially expressed at mRNA levels. Based on their important role in cell cycle regulation, we selected to focus on BUB family proteins (BUB3, as well as BUB1 and BUBR1) for subsequent validation. The qRT-PCR and immunoblot analyses showed that tenovin-1 inhibition of SIRT1 resulted in a downregulation of BUB3, BUB1 and BUBR1 in multiple melanoma cell lines. Since tenovin-1 is an inhibitor of both SIRT1 and SIRT2, we employed lentivirus mediated silencing of SIRT1 and SIRT2 in G361 cells to determine if the observed effects on BUB family proteins are due to SIRT1- or SIRT2- inhibition. We found that only SIRT1 inhibition resulted in a decrease in BUB3, BUB1 and BUBR1. Our study identified the mitotic checkpoint regulator BUB family proteins as novel downstream targets of SIRT1. However, further validation is needed in appropriate models to confirm our findings and expand on our observations.

Miao S, Wu K, Zhang B, et al.
Synuclein γ compromises spindle assembly checkpoint and renders resistance to antimicrotubule drugs.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(3):699-713 [PubMed] Related Publications
Defects in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) have been proposed to contribute to the chromosomal instability in human cancers. One of the major mechanisms underlying antimicrotubule drug (AMD) resistance involves acquired inactivation of SAC. Synuclein γ (SNCG), previously identified as a breast cancer-specific gene, is highly expressed in malignant cancer cells but not in normal epithelium. Here, we show that SNCG is sufficient to induce resistance to AMD-caused apoptosis in breast cancer cells and cancer xenografts. SNCG binds to spindle checkpoint kinase BubR1 and inhibits its kinase activity. Specifically, the C-terminal (Gln106-Asp127) of SNCG binds to the N-terminal TPR (tetratricopeptidelike folds) motif of BubR1. SNCG-BubR1 interaction induces a structure change of BubR1, attenuates its interaction with other key checkpoint proteins of Cdc20, and thus compromises SAC function. SNCG expression in breast cancers from patients with a neoadjuvant clinical trial showed that SNCG-positive tumors are resistant to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. These data show that SNCG renders AMD resistance by inhibiting BubR1 activity and attenuating SAC function.

Salsi V, Ferrari S, Gorello P, et al.
NUP98 fusion oncoproteins promote aneuploidy by attenuating the mitotic spindle checkpoint.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(4):1079-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
NUP98 is a recurrent fusion partner in chromosome translocations that cause acute myelogenous leukemia. NUP98, a nucleoporin, and its interaction partner Rae1, have been implicated in the control of chromosome segregation, but their mechanistic contributions to tumorigenesis have been unclear. Here, we show that expression of NUP98 fusion oncoproteins causes mitotic spindle defects and chromosome missegregation, correlating with the capability of NUP98 fusions to cause premature securin degradation and slippage from an unsatisfied spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). NUP98 fusions, unlike wild-type NUP98, were found to physically interact with the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)(Cdc20) and to displace the BubR1 SAC component, suggesting a possible mechanistic basis for their interference with SAC function. In addition, NUP98 oncoproteins displayed a prolonged half-life in cells. We found that NUP98 stability is controlled by a PEST sequence, absent in NUP98 oncoproteins, whose deletion reproduced the aberrant SAC-interfering activity of NUP98 oncoproteins. Together, our findings suggest that NUP98 oncoproteins predispose myeloid cells to oncogenic transformation or malignant progression by promoting whole chromosome instability.

Xie C, Powell C, Yao M, et al.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C: a potential cancer biomarker.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 47:113-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes 2C (UBE2C) is an integral component of the ubiquitin proteasome system. UBE2C consists of a conserved core domain containing the catalytic Cys residue and an N-terminal extension. The core domain is required for ubiquitin adduct formation by interacting with the ubiquitin-fold domain in the E1 enzyme, and contributes to the E3 enzyme binding. UBE2C N-terminal extension regulates E3 enzyme activity as a part of an intrinsic inhibitory mechanism. UBE2C is required for the destruction of mitotic cyclins and securin, which are essential for spindle assembly checkpoint and mitotic exit. The UBE2C mRNA and/or protein levels are aberrantly increased in many cancer types with poor clinical outcomes. Accumulation of UBE2C stimulates cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. UBE2C transgenic mice are prone to develop spontaneous tumors and carcinogen-induced tumor with evidence of chromosome aneuploidy.

Ikawa-Yoshida A, Ando K, Oki E, et al.
Contribution of BubR1 to oxidative stress-induced aneuploidy in p53-deficient cells.
Cancer Med. 2013; 2(4):447-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA aneuploidy is observed in various human tumors and is associated with the abnormal expression of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins. Oxidative stress (OS) causes DNA damage and chromosome instability that may lead to carcinogenesis. OS is also suggested to contribute to an increase in aneuploid cells. However, it is not clear how OS is involved in the regulation of SAC and contributes to carcinogenesis associated with aneuploidy. Here we show that an oxidant (KBrO3) activated the p53 signaling pathway and suppressed the expression of SAC factors, BubR1, and Mad2, in human diploid fibroblast MRC5 cells. This suppression was dependent on functional p53 and reactive oxygen species. In p53 knockdown cells, KBrO3 did not suppress BubR1 and Mad2 expression and increased both binucleated cells and cells with >4N DNA content. BubR1 and not Mad2 downregulation suppressed KBrO3-induced binucleated cells and cells with >4N DNA content in p53 knockdown cells, suggesting that BubR1 contributes to enhanced polyploidization by a mechanism other than its SAC function. In analysis of 182 gastric cancer specimens, we found that BubR1 expression was significantly high when p53 was positively stained, which indicates loss of p53 function (P = 0.0019). Moreover, positive staining of p53 and high expression of BubR1 in tumors were significantly correlated with DNA aneuploidy (P = 0.0065). These observations suggest that p53 deficiency may lead to the failure of BubR1 downregulation by OS and that p53 deficiency and BubR1 accumulation could contribute to gastric carcinogenesis associated with aneuploidy.

Schnerch D, Schmidts A, Follo M, et al.
BubR1 is frequently repressed in acute myeloid leukemia and its re-expression sensitizes cells to antimitotic therapy.
Haematologica. 2013; 98(12):1886-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spindle poison-based therapy is of only limited benefit in acute myeloid leukemia while lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma responds well. In this study, we demonstrated that the spindle assembly checkpoint protein BubR1 was down-regulated in the vast majority of cases of acute myeloid leukemia whereas its expression was high in lymphoblastic cells. Correct function of the spindle assembly checkpoint is pivotal in mediating mitotic delay in response to spindle poisons. Mitotic delay by the spindle assembly checkpoint is achieved by inhibition of anaphase-promoting complex-dependent proteolysis of cyclin B and securin. We demonstrated a link between the repression of the spindle assembly checkpoint protein BubR1 in acute myeloid leukemia and the limited response to spindle poison. In accordance with its established role as an anaphase-promoting complex-inhibitor, we found that repression of BubR1 was associated with enhanced anaphase-promoting complex activity and cyclin B and securin degradation, which leads to premature sister-chromatid separation and failure to sustain a mitotic arrest. This suggests that repression of BubR1 in acute myeloid leukemia renders the spindle assembly checkpoint-mediated inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex insufficient, which facilitates completion of mitosis in the presence of spindle poison. As both direct and BubR1-mediated restoration of cyclin B expression enhanced response to spindle poison, we propose that the downstream axis of the spindle assembly checkpoint is a promising target for tailored therapies for acute myeloid leukemia.

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