|Gene:||FAT4; FAT atypical cadherin 4|
|Aliases: || FATJ, FAT-J, CDHF14, CDHR11, HKLLS2, VMLDS2, NBLA00548 |
|Summary:||The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protocadherin family. This gene may play a role in regulating planar cell polarity (PCP). Studies in mice suggest that loss of PCP signaling may cause cystic kidney disease, and mutations in this gene have been associated with Van Maldergem Syndrome 2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]|
|Databases:||OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene|
|Protein:||protocadherin Fat 4|
|Source:||NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019|
What does this gene/protein do?
Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: FAT4 (cancer-related)
BACKGROUND: FAT4 functions as a tumor suppressor, and previous findings have demonstrated that FAT4 can inhibit the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. However, few studies have investigated the role of FAT4 in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The current study aimed to detect the role of FAT4 in the invasion, migration, proliferation and autophagy of CRC and elucidate the probable molecular mechanisms through which FAT4 interacts with these processes.
METHODS: Transwell invasion assays, MTT assays, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and western blotting were performed to evaluate the migration, invasion, proliferation and autophagy abilities of CRC cells, and the levels of active molecules involved in PI3K/AKT signaling were examined through a western blotting analysis. In addition, the function of FAT4 in vivo was assessed using a tumor xenograft model.
RESULTS: FAT4 expression in CRC tissues was weaker than that in nonmalignant tissues and could inhibit cell invasion, migration, and proliferation by promoting autophagy in vitro. Furthermore, the regulatory effects of FAT4 on autophagy and the EMT were partially attributed to the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. The results in vivo also showed that FAT4 modulated CRC tumorigenesis.
CONCLUSION: FAT4 can regulate the activity of PI3K to promote autophagy and inhibit the EMT in part through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathways.
Mucosal melanoma is a rare and poorly characterized subtype of human melanoma. Here we perform a cross-species analysis by sequencing tumor-germline pairs from 46 primary human muscosal, 65 primary canine oral and 28 primary equine melanoma cases from mucosal sites. Analysis of these data reveals recurrently mutated driver genes shared between species such as NRAS, FAT4, PTPRJ, TP53 and PTEN, and pathogenic germline alleles of BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53. We identify a UV mutation signature in a small number of samples, including human cases from the lip and nasal mucosa. A cross-species comparative analysis of recurrent copy number alterations identifies several candidate drivers including MDM2, B2M, KNSTRN and BUB1B. Comparison of somatic mutations in recurrences and metastases to those in the primary tumor suggests pervasive intra-tumor heterogeneity. Collectively, these studies suggest a convergence of some genetic changes in mucosal melanomas between species but also distinctly different paths to tumorigenesis.
microRNAs are key regulators of the human transcriptome across a number of diverse biological processes, such as development, aging and cancer, where particular miRNAs have been identified as tumour suppressive and oncogenic. In this work, we elucidate, in a comprehensive manner, across 15 epithelial cancer types comprising 7316 clinical samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas, the association of miRNA expression and target regulation with the phenotypic hallmarks of cancer. Utilising penalised regression techniques to integrate transcriptomic, methylation and mutation data, we find evidence for a complex map of interactions underlying the relationship of miRNA regulation and the hallmarks of cancer. This highlighted high redundancy for the oncomiR-1 cluster of oncogenic miRNAs, in particular hsa-miR-17-5p. In addition, we reveal extensive miRNA regulation of tumour suppressor genes such as PTEN, FAT4 and CDK12, uncovering an alternative mechanism of repression in the absence of mutation, methylation or copy number changes.
Jin W, Li QZ, Zuo YC, et al.Relationship Between DNA Methylation in Key Region and the Differential Expressions of Genes in Human Breast Tumor Tissue.
DNA Cell Biol. 2019; 38(1):49-62 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Breast cancer has a high mortality rate for females. Aberrant DNA methylation plays a crucial role in the occurrence and progression of breast carcinoma. By comparing DNA methylation differences between tumor breast tissue and normal breast tissue, we calculate and analyze the distributions of the hyper- and hypomethylation sites in different function regions. Results indicate that enhancer regions are often hypomethylated in breast cancer. CpG islands (CGIs) are mainly hypermethylated, while the flanking CGI (shores and shelves) is more easily hypomethylated. The hypomethylation in gene body region is related to the upregulation of gene expression, and the hypomethylation of enhancer regions is closely associated with gene expression upregulation in breast cancer. Some key hypomethylation sites in enhancer regions and key hypermethylation sites in CGIs for regulating key genes are, respectively, found, such as oncogenes ESR1 and ERBB2 and tumor suppressor genes FBLN2, CEBPA, and FAT4. This suggests that the recognizing methylation status of these genes will be useful for the diagnosis of breast cancer.
This study proposes that a novel developmental hierarchy of breast cancer (BC) cells (BCCs) could predict treatment response and outcome. The continued challenge to treat BC requires stratification of BCCs into distinct subsets. This would provide insights on how BCCs evade treatment and adapt dormancy for decades. We selected three subsets, based on the relative expression of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 A (Oct4A) and then analysed each with Affymetrix gene chip. Oct4A is a stem cell gene and would separate subsets based on maturation. Data analyses and gene validation identified three membrane proteins, TMEM98, GPR64 and FAT4. BCCs from cell lines and blood from BC patients were analysed for these three membrane proteins by flow cytometry, along with known markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs), CD44, CD24 and Oct4, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity and telomere length. A novel working hierarchy of BCCs was established with the most immature subset as CSCs. This group was further subdivided into long- and short-term CSCs. Analyses of 20 post-treatment blood indicated that circulating CSCs and early BC progenitors may be associated with recurrence or early death. These results suggest that the novel hierarchy may predict treatment response and prognosis.
Li L, Zhao J, Huang S, et al.MiR-93-5p promotes gastric cancer-cell progression via inactivation of the Hippo signaling pathway.
Gene. 2018; 641:240-247 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MiR-93-5p has been previously found to be associated with gastric cancer (GC) tumorigenesis; however, the current understanding of its function in this context remains largely incomplete. In the present study, we showed that miR-93-5p was upregulated in GC tissues. We also demonstrated that miR-93-5p overexpression promoted the proliferation, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance of SGC-7901 cells in vitro, and conversely, that endogenously silencing miR-93-5p expression induced the opposite effects in HGC-27 cells. Overexpression of miR-93-5p was found to inactivate the Hippo pathway, and furthermore, miR-93-5p knockdown activated Hippo signaling. MiR-93-5p upregulation was also shown to inhibit the expression of two well-characterized Hippo pathway regulators, protocadherin Fat 4 (FAT4), and large tumor suppressors 2 (LATS2), at both the mRNA and protein level. Additionally, the results of bioinformatics analyses and luciferase reporter assays indicated that miR-93-5p directly targets the 3'-UTR of FAT4 and LATS2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that miR-93-5p promotes GC-cell progression via the inactivation of the Hippo signaling pathway, and thus, represents a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of GC.
Visser E, Franken IA, Brosens LAA, et al.Targeted next-generation sequencing of commonly mutated genes in esophageal adenocarcinoma patients with long-term survival.
Dis Esophagus. 2017; 30(9):1-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Survival of patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma remains poor and individual differences in prognosis remain unexplained. This study investigated whether gene mutations can explain why patients with high-risk (pT3-4, pN+) esophageal adenocarcinoma survive past 5 years after esophagectomy. Six long-term survivors (LTS) (≥5 years survival without recurrence) and six short-term survivors (STS) (<2 years survival due to recurrence) who underwent resection without neoadjuvant therapy for high-risk esophageal adenocarcinoma were included. Targeted next-generation sequencing of 16 genes related to esophageal adenocarcinoma was performed. Mutations were compared between the LTS and STS and described in comparison with literature. A total of 48 mutations in 10 genes were identified. In the LTS, the median number of mutated genes per sample was 5 (range: 0-5) and the samples together harbored 22 mutations in 8 genes: APC (n = 1), CDH11 (n = 2), CDKN2A (n = 2), FAT4 (n = 5), KRAS (n = 1), PTPRD (n = 1), TLR4 (n = 8), and TP53 (n = 2). The median number of mutated genes per sample in the STS was 4 (range: 1-8) and in total 26 mutations were found in six genes: CDH11 (n = 5), FAT4 (n = 7), SMAD4 (n = 1), SMARCA4 (n = 1), TLR4 (n = 7), and TP53 (n = 5). CDH11, CDKN2A, FAT4, TLR4, and TP53 were mutated in at least 2 LTS or STS, exceeding mutation rates in literature. Mutations across the LTS and STS were found in 10 of the 16 genes. The results warrant future studies to investigate a larger range of genes in a larger sample size. This may result in a panel with prognostic genes, to predict individual prognosis and to select effective individualized therapy for patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify potential prostate cancer (PC)-related variations in gene expression profiles.
METHODS: Microarray data from the GSE21032 dataset that contained the whole-transcript and exon-level expression profile (GSE21034) and Agilent 244K array-comparative genomic hybridization data (GSE21035) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and copy-number variations (CNVs) were identified between PC and normal tissue samples. Coexpression interactions of DEGs that contained CNVs (CNV-DEGs) were analyzed. Pathway enrichment analysis of CNV-DEGs was performed. Drugs targeting CNV-DEGs were searched using the Drug-Gene Interaction database.
RESULTS: In total, 679 DEGs were obtained, including 182 upregulated genes and 497 downregulated genes. A total of 48 amplified CNV regions and 45 deleted regions were determined. The number of CNVs at 8q and 8p was relatively higher in PC tissue. Only 16 DEGs, including 4 upregulated and 12 downregulated genes, showed a positive correlation with CNVs. In the coexpression network, 3 downregulated CNV-DEGs, including FAT4 (FAT atypical cadherin 4), PDE5A (phosphodiesterase 5A, cGMP-specific), and PCP4 (Purkinje cell protein 4), had a higher degree, and were enriched in specific pathways such as the calmodulin signaling pathway. Five of the 16 CNV-DEGs (e.g., PDE5A) were identified as drug targets.
CONCLUSION: The identified CNV-DEGs could be implicated in the progression of human PC. The findings could lead to a better understanding of PC pathogenesis.
8-Oxoguanine, a common mutagenic DNA lesion, generates G:C>T:A transversions via mispairing with adenine during DNA replication. When operating normally, the MUTYH DNA glycosylase prevents 8-oxoguanine-related mutagenesis by excising the incorporated adenine. Biallelic MUTYH mutations impair this enzymatic function and are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in MUTYH-Associated Polyposis (MAP) syndrome. Here, we perform whole-exome sequencing that reveals a modest mutator phenotype in MAP CRCs compared to sporadic CRC stem cell lines or bulk tumours. The excess G:C>T:A transversion mutations in MAP CRCs exhibits a novel mutational signature, termed Signature 36, with a strong sequence dependence. The MUTYH mutational signature reflecting persistent 8-oxoG:A mismatches occurs frequently in the APC, KRAS, PIK3CA, FAT4, TP53, FAT1, AMER1, KDM6A, SMAD4 and SMAD2 genes that are associated with CRC. The occurrence of Signature 36 in other types of human cancer indicates that DNA 8-oxoguanine-related mutations might contribute to the development of cancer in other organs.
E-cadherin (CDH1) is a glycoprotein that mediates adhesion between epithelial cells and also suppresses cancer invasion. Mutation or deletion of the CDH1 gene has been reported in 30-60% cases of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). However, little is known about genomic differences between ILC with and without a CDH1 alteration. Therefore, we analyzed whole genome sequencing data of 169 ILC cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to address this deficiency. Our study shows that CDH1 gene was altered in 59.2% (100/169) of ILC. No significant difference was identified between CDH1-altered and -unaltered ILC cases for any of the examined demographic, clinical or pathologic characteristics, including histologic grade, tumor stage, lymph node metastases, or ER/PR/HER2 states. Seven recurrent mutations (PTEN, MUC16, ERBB2, FAT4, PCDHGA2, HERC1 and FLNC) and four chromosomal changes with recurrent copy number variation (CNV) (11q13, 17q12-21, 8p11 and 8q11) were found in ILC, which correlated with a positive or negative CDH1 alteration status, respectively. The prevalence of the most common breast cancer driver abnormalities including TP53 and PIK3CA mutations and MYC and ERBB2 amplifications showed no difference between the two groups. However, CDH1-altered ILC with an ERBB2 mutation shows a significantly worse prognosis compared to its counterparts without such a mutation. Our study suggests that CDH1-altered ILC patients with ERBB2 mutations may represent an actionable group of patients who could benefit from targeted breast cancer therapy.
Endogenous bornavirus-like nucleoprotein elements (EBLNs) have been discovered in the genomes of various animals including humans, whose functions have been seldom studied. To explore the biological functions of human EBLNs, we constructed a lentiviral vector expressing a short-hairpin RNA against human EBLN1, which successfully inhibited EBLN1 expression by above 80% in infected human oligodendroglia cells (OL cells). We found that EBLN1 silencing suppressed cell proliferation, induced G2/M phase arrest, and promoted apoptosis in OL cells. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that 1067 genes were up-regulated, and 2004 were down-regulated after EBLN1 silencing. The top 10 most upregulated genes were PI3, RND3, BLZF1, SOD2, EPGN, SBSN, INSIG1, OSMR, CREB3L2, and MSMO1, and the top 10 most-downregulated genes were KRTAP2-4, FLRT2, DIDO1, FAT4, ESCO2, ZNF804A, SUV420H1, ZC3H4, YAE1D1, and NCOA5. Pathway analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in pathways related to the cell cycle, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, p53 signaling, and apoptosis. The gene expression profiles were validated by using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting these 20 most-changed genes. Three genes closely related to glioma, RND3, OSMR, and CREB3L2, were significantly upregulated and might be the key factors in EBLN1 regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of OL cells. This study provides evidence that EBLN1 plays a key role in regulating cell life and death, thereby opening several avenues of investigation regarding EBLN1 in the future.
Yoshida S, Yamashita S, Niwa T, et al.Epigenetic inactivation of FAT4 contributes to gastric field cancerization.
Gastric Cancer. 2017; 20(1):136-145 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is highly influenced by aberrant methylation, and accumulation of aberrant methylation in gastric mucosae produces an epigenetic field for cancerization. Nevertheless, the individual driver genes involved in such field cancerization are still unclear. Here, we aimed to demonstrate that FAT4, a novel tumor suppressor identified by exome sequencing of GC, is methylation-silenced and that such methylation is involved in epigenetic field cancerization for GC.
METHODS: A transcription start site was determined by the 5' rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends method. DNA methylation was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing with use of a next-generation sequencer or quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR.
RESULTS: A single transcription start site was identified for FAT4 in gastric epithelial cells, and a CpG island was located in the FAT4 promoter region. FAT4 was highly methylated in two of 13 GC cell lines and was not expressed in them. Removal of FAT4 methylation by a DNA demethylating agent (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) restored its expression in the two cell lines. In primary GC samples, FAT4 was methylated in 12 of 82 GCs (14.6 %). FAT4 methylation was associated with the presence of the CpG island methylator phenotype but not with prognosis, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, or histological types. In noncancerous gastric mucosae, high FAT4 methylation levels were associated with the presence of GC and Helicobacter pylori infection.
CONCLUSIONS: FAT4 was methylation-silenced in GCs. Its methylation in gastric mucosae was associated with H. pylori infection and likely contributed to epigenetic field cancerization.
Dobashi A, Tsuyama N, Asaka R, et al.Frequent BCOR aberrations in extranodal NK/T-Cell lymphoma, nasal type.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(5):460-71 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is a rare subtype of lymphoma. Recurrent mutations in the JAK-STAT pathway, recently reported in ENKTL cases, are interesting in terms of both pathogenesis and inhibitor therapy. However, the frequencies of these mutations are low and variable among reports, and other pathognomonic mutations in ENKTL remain to be elucidated. In the present study, targeted capture sequencing of 602 cancer-related genes from 25 frozen ENKTL samples was performed, 11 of which were matched to normal samples. Several recurrent somatic mutations involving BCOR (32%), TP53 (16%), DDX3X (12%), FAT4 (8%), NRAS (8%), MLL3 (12%), and MIR17HG (8%) were identified. The pattern of BCOR aberrations (1 nonsense and 5 frame-shift mutations, a mutation leading to a splicing error, and gene loss) suggested that loss of function of BCOR was the functionally important outcome of such changes. The literature was reviewed and the public data on BCOR aberrations was reanalyzed and it was found that the aberrations were frequently found in myeloid neoplasms, but, interestingly, were highly specific to ENKTL among lymphoid malignancies. Given the high frequency and pattern of aberration, BCOR is likely to play an important role in ENKTL pathogenesis as a tumor suppressor gene.
Multifocal tumors developed either as independent tumors or as intrahepatic metastases, are very common in primary liver cancer. However, their molecular pathogenesis remains elusive. Herein, a patient with synchronous two hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, designated as HCC-A and HCC-B) and one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), as well as two postoperative recurrent tumors, was enrolled. Multiregional whole-exome sequencing was applied to these tumors to delineate the clonality and heterogeneity. The three primary tumors showed almost no overlaps in mutations and copy number variations. Within each tumor, multiregional sequencing data showed varied intratumoral heterogeneity (21.6% in HCC-A, 20.4% in HCC-B, 53.2% in ICC). The mutational profile of two recurrent tumors showed obvious similarity with HCC-A (86.7% and 86.6% respectively), rather than others, indicating that they originated from HCC-A. The evolutionary history of the two recurrent tumors indicated that intrahepatic micro-metastasis could be an early event during HCC progression. Notably, FAT4 was the only gene mutated in two primary HCCs and the recurrences. Mutation prevalence screen and functional experiments showed that FAT4, harboring somatic coding mutations in 26.7% of HCC, could potently inhibit growth and invasion of HCC cells. In HCC patients, both FAT4 expression and FAT4 mutational status significantly correlated with patient prognosis. Together, our findings suggest that spatial and temporal dissection of genomic alterations during the progression of multifocal liver cancer may help to elucidate the basis for its dismal prognosis. FAT4 acts as a putative tumor suppressor that is frequently inactivated in human HCC.
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a hematologic malignancy nearly confined to the elderly. Previous studies to determine incidence and prognostic significance of somatic mutations in CMML have relied on candidate gene sequencing, although an unbiased mutational search has not been conducted. As many of the genes commonly mutated in CMML were recently associated with age-related clonal hematopoiesis (ARCH) and aged hematopoiesis is characterized by a myelomonocytic differentiation bias, we hypothesized that CMML and aged hematopoiesis may be closely related. We initially established the somatic mutation landscape of CMML by whole exome sequencing followed by gene-targeted validation. Genes mutated in ⩾10% of patients were SRSF2, TET2, ASXL1, RUNX1, SETBP1, KRAS, EZH2, CBL and NRAS, as well as the novel CMML genes FAT4, ARIH1, DNAH2 and CSMD1. Most CMML patients (71%) had mutations in ⩾2 ARCH genes and 52% had ⩾7 mutations overall. Higher mutation burden was associated with shorter survival. Age-adjusted population incidence and reported ARCH mutation rates are consistent with a model in which clinical CMML ensues when a sufficient number of stochastically acquired age-related mutations has accumulated, suggesting that CMML represents the leukemic conversion of the myelomonocytic-lineage-biased aged hematopoietic system.
BACKGROUND: FAT4, a cadherin-related protein, was shown to function as a tumour suppressor; however, its role in human gastric cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of FAT4 in gastric cancer and examined the underlying molecular mechanisms.
METHODS: The expression of FAT4 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and qRT-PCR in relation to the clinicopathological characteristics of gastric cancer patients. The effects of FAT4 silencing on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were assessed by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium) assay, and migration and invasion assays in gastric cancer cell lines in vitro and in a mouse xenograft model in vivo.
RESULTS: Downregulation of FAT4 expression in gastric cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues was correlated with lymph-node metastasis and poor survival. Knockdown of FAT4 promoted the growth and invasion of gastric cancer cells via the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling, and induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastric cancer cells, as demonstrated by the upregulation and downregulation of mesenchymal and epithelial markers. Silencing of FAT4 promoted tumour growth and metastasis in a gastric cancer xenograft model in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: FAT4 has a tumour suppressor role mediated by the modulation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling, providing potential novel targets for the treatment of gastric cancer.
Fat4 functions as a Hippo signaling regulator which is involved in mammalian tissue development, differentiation and tumorigenesis. Loss of Fat4 due to frequent gene mutation was detected in a variety of tumors including gastric cancer, where Fat4 was recognized as a tumor suppressor, repressing cancer cell proliferation and adhesion. However, the detailed mechanisms linking Fat4 to its diverse functions and clinicopathological characteristics in gastric cancer remain unclear. Here, we silenced Fat4 using Fat4-shRNA in gastric cancer cells and found that this suppression led to the increase in phosphorylated Yap and nuclear accumulation of Yap, which associated to the promoted proliferation, migration and cell cycle progression. Then we transfected a full-length Fat4 into the Fat4-silenced cells, and found the decrease in phosphorylated Yap and inhibition of the cell cycle progression. Intriguingly, Fat4 reduction also leads to the accumulation of cytoplasmic β-catenin via the loss of restraining to cytoplasmic Yap instead of β-catenin transcription promotion. The Fat4-silenced cells which were treated with 5-FU, Cisplatin, Oxaliplatin and Paclitaxel individually demonstrated less sensitivities to these chemotherapy drugs compared with the control cells. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Fat4 expression was significantly reduced in gastric cancer tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues, and negatively correlated with tumor infiltration, lymph node metastasis and cumulative survival rate. In conclusion, Fat4 expression is deceased in gastric cancer cells, leading to nuclear translocation of Yap and correlates with poor prognosis.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation is an aggressive hematologic malignancy with a grave prognosis. To identify the mutational spectrum associated with relapse, whole-exome sequencing was performed on 13 matched diagnosis, relapse, and remission trios followed by targeted sequencing of 299 genes in 67 FLT3-ITD patients. The FLT3-ITD genome has an average of 13 mutations per sample, similar to other AML subtypes, which is a low mutation rate compared with that in solid tumors. Recurrent mutations occur in genes related to DNA methylation, chromatin, histone methylation, myeloid transcription factors, signaling, adhesion, cohesin complex, and the spliceosome. Their pattern of mutual exclusivity and cooperation among mutated genes suggests that these genes have a strong biological relationship. In addition, we identified mutations in previously unappreciated genes such as MLL3, NSD1, FAT1, FAT4, and IDH3B. Mutations in 9 genes were observed in the relapse-specific phase. DNMT3A mutations are the most stable mutations, and this DNMT3A-transformed clone can be present even in morphologic complete remissions. Of note, all AML matched trio samples shared at least 1 genomic alteration at diagnosis and relapse, suggesting common ancestral clones. Two types of clonal evolution occur at relapse: either the founder clone recurs or a subclone of the founder clone escapes from induction chemotherapy and expands at relapse by acquiring new mutations. Relapse-specific mutations displayed an increase in transversions. Functional assays demonstrated that both MLL3 and FAT1 exert tumor-suppressor activity in the FLT3-ITD subtype. An inhibitor of XPO1 synergized with standard AML induction chemotherapy to inhibit FLT3-ITD growth. This study clearly shows that FLT3-ITD AML requires additional driver genetic alterations in addition to FLT3-ITD alone.
The Hippo pathway regulates tissue growth and cell fate. In colon cancer, Hippo pathway deregulation promotes cellular quiescence and resistance to 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu). In this study, 14 polymorphisms in 8 genes involved in the Hippo pathway (MST1, MST2, LATS1, LATS2, YAP, TAZ, FAT4 and RASSF1A) were evaluated as recurrence predictors in 194 patients with stages II/III colon cancer treated with 5-Fu-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with a RASSF1A rs2236947 AA genotype had higher 3-year recurrence rate than patients with CA/CC genotypes (56 vs 33%, hazard ratio (HR): 1.87; P=0.017). Patients with TAZ rs3811715 CT or TT genotypes had lower 3-year recurrence rate than patients with a CC genotype (28 vs 40%; HR: 0.66; P=0.07). In left-sided tumors, this association was stronger (HR: 0.29; P=0.011) and a similar trend was found in an independent Japanese cohort. These promising results reveal polymorphisms in the Hippo pathway as biomarkers for stages II and III colon cancer.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 15 September 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.64.
Lin Y, Wu Z, Guo W, Li JGene mutations in gastric cancer: a review of recent next-generation sequencing studies.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(10):7385-94 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although some driver genes have been identified in GC, the molecular compositions of GC have not been fully understood. The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a high-throughput and systematic method to identify all genetic alterations in the cancer genome, especially in the field of mutation detection. NGS studies in GC have discovered some novel driver mutations. In this review, we focused on novel gene mutations discovered by NGS studies, along with some well-known driver genes in GC. We organized mutated genes from the perspective of related biological pathways. Mutations in genes relating to genome integrity (TP53, BRCA2), chromatin remodeling (ARID1A), cell adhesion (CDH1, FAT4, CTNNA1), cytoskeleton and cell motility (RHOA), Wnt pathway (CTNNB1, APC, RNF43), and RTK pathway (RTKs, RAS family, MAPK pathway, PIK pathway) are discussed. Efforts to establish a molecular classification based on NGS data which is valuable for future targeted therapy for GC are introduced. Comprehensive dissection of the molecular profile of GC cannot only unveil the molecular basis for GC but also identify genes of clinical utility, especially potential and specific therapeutic targets for GC.
Cancer development and progression result from somatic evolution by an accumulation of genomic alterations. The effects of those alterations on the fitness of somatic cells lead to evolutionary adaptations such as increased cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and altered anticancer drug responses. However, there are few general mathematical models to quantitatively examine how perturbations of a single gene shape subsequent evolution of the cancer genome. In this study, we proposed the gene gravity model to study the evolution of cancer genomes by incorporating the genome-wide transcription and somatic mutation profiles of ~3,000 tumors across 9 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas into a broad gene network. We found that somatic mutations of a cancer driver gene may drive cancer genome evolution by inducing mutations in other genes. This functional consequence is often generated by the combined effect of genetic and epigenetic (e.g., chromatin regulation) alterations. By quantifying cancer genome evolution using the gene gravity model, we identified six putative cancer genes (AHNAK, COL11A1, DDX3X, FAT4, STAG2, and SYNE1). The tumor genomes harboring the nonsynonymous somatic mutations in these genes had a higher mutation density at the genome level compared to the wild-type groups. Furthermore, we provided statistical evidence that hypermutation of cancer driver genes on inactive X chromosomes is a general feature in female cancer genomes. In summary, this study sheds light on the functional consequences and evolutionary characteristics of somatic mutations during tumorigenesis by propelling adaptive cancer genome evolution, which would provide new perspectives for cancer research and therapeutics.
Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis. Compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, its molecular features are poorly known. We studied a total of 11 acinar cell carcinomas, including 3 by exome and 4 by target sequencing. Exome sequencing revealed 65 nonsynonymous mutations and 22 indels with a mutation rate of 3.4 mutations/Mb per tumor, on average. By accounting for not only somatic but also germline mutations with loss of the wild-type allele, we identified recurrent mutations of BRCA2 and FAT genes. BRCA2 showed somatic or germline premature termination mutations, with loss of the wild-type allele in 3 of 7 tumors. FAT1, FAT3, and FAT4 showed somatic or germline missense mutations in 4 of 7 tumors. The germline FAT mutations were with loss of the wild-type allele. Loss of BRCA2 expression was observed in 5 of 11 tumors. One patient with a BRCA2-mutated tumor experienced complete remission of liver metastasis following cisplatinum chemotherapy. In conclusion, acinar cell carcinomas show a distinct mutation pattern and often harbor somatic or germline mutations of BRCA2 and FAT genes. This result may warrant assessment of BRCA2 abrogation in patients with the carcinoma to determine their sensitivity to chemotherapy.
Oncogenic transformation is characterized by morphological changes resulting from alterations in actin dynamics and adhesive activities. Emerging evidence suggests that the protocadherin FAT4 acts as a tumor suppressor in humans, and reduced FAT4 gene expression has been reported in breast and lung cancers and melanoma. However, the mechanism controlling FAT4 gene expression is poorly understood. In this study, we show that transient activation of the Src oncoprotein represses FAT4 mRNA expression through actin depolymerization in the immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Src activation causes actin depolymerization via the MEK/Erk/Cofilin cascade. The MEK inhibitor U0126 blocks the inhibitory effect of Src on FAT4 mRNA expression and Src-induced actin depolymerization. To determine whether actin dynamics act on the regulation of FAT4 mRNA expression, we treated MCF-10A cells with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. Y-27632 treatment decreased FAT4 mRNA expression. This suppressive effect was blocked by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cofilin1. Furthermore, simultaneous administration of Latrunculin A (an actin depolymerizing agent), Y-27632, and Cofilin1 siRNA to the cells resulted in a marked reduction of FAT4 mRNA expression. Intriguingly, we also found that FAT4 mRNA expression was reduced under both low cell density and low stiffness conditions, which suggests that mechanotransduction affects FAT4 mRNA expression. Additionally, we show that siRNA-mediated FAT4 knockdown induced the activity of the Hippo effector YAP/TAZ in MCF-10A cells. Taken together, our results reveal a novel inhibitory mechanism of FAT4 gene expression through actin depolymerization during Src-induced carcinogenesis in human breast cells.
Crobach S, Ruano D, van Eijk R, et al.Target-enriched next-generation sequencing reveals differences between primary and secondary ovarian tumors in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.
J Mol Diagn. 2015; 17(2):193-200 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Differentiating primary endometrioid or mucinous ovarian tumors from secondary ovarian tumors can be challenging. We compared somatic mutation profiles of primary and secondary ovarian cancers to investigate if these profiles can help diagnose ovarian tumors. Cancer-related genes (n = 115) were screened by target-enriched next-generation sequencing in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue from 43 primary endometrioid and mucinous ovarian carcinomas and 28 proven colorectal cancer metastases to the ovary. Results were validated by high-resolution melting curve analysis and Sanger sequencing. TP53, NOTCH1, PIK3CA, and FAT4 versus APC, TP53, KRAS, and FAT4 mutations were the most common in the primary ovarian tumors and ovarian colorectal cancer metastases, respectively. An inactivating APC mutation was found in 4.7% of primary ovarian tumors (2 of 43; 95% CI, 1.6%-10.9%). In contrast, inactivating APC mutations were identified in 71% of colorectal cancer metastases (20 of 28; 95% CI, 55%-88%) (P < 0.001; sensitivity: 71.4%, 95% CI, 51.1%-86.0%; specificity: 95.4%, 95% CI, 82.9%-99.1%). Loss of heterozygosity and APC promoter hypermethylation did not differ significantly between the primary and secondary ovarian tumors. NOTCH1 mutations were observed specifically in primary ovarian tumors, although at a low frequency, but not in metastases (6 of 41; 14.6%; 95% CI, 3.8%-25.4%). APC mutation analysis can be used to differentiate primary endometrioid and mucinous ovarian tumors from colorectal cancer metastases to the ovary.
Gao YB, Chen ZL, Li JG, et al.Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(10):1097-102 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications.
BACKGROUND: Characterisation of colorectal cancer (CRC) genomes by next-generation sequencing has led to the discovery of novel recurrently mutated genes. Nevertheless, genomic data has not yet been used for CRC prognostication.
OBJECTIVE: To identify recurrent somatic mutations with prognostic significance in patients with CRC.
METHOD: Exome sequencing was performed to identify somatic mutations in tumour tissues of 22 patients with CRC, followed by validation of 187 recurrent and pathway-related genes using targeted capture sequencing in additional 160 cases.
RESULTS: Seven significantly mutated genes, including four reported (APC, TP53, KRAS and SMAD4) and three novel recurrently mutated genes (CDH10, FAT4 and DOCK2), exhibited high mutation prevalence (6-14% for novel cancer genes) and higher-than-expected number of non-silent mutations in our CRC cohort. For prognostication, a five-gene-signature (CDH10, COL6A3, SMAD4, TMEM132D, VCAN) was devised, in which mutation(s) in one or more of these genes was significantly associated with better overall survival independent of tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging. The median survival time was 80.4 months in the mutant group versus 42.4 months in the wild type group (p=0.0051). The prognostic significance of this signature was successfully verified using the data set from the Cancer Genome Atlas study.
CONCLUSIONS: The application of next-generation sequencing has led to the identification of three novel significantly mutated genes in CRC and a mutation signature that predicts survival outcomes for stratifying patients with CRC independent of TNM staging.
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. There is an increasing understanding of the roles that genetic and epigenetic alterations play in GCs. Recent studies using next-generation sequencing (NGS) have revealed a number of potential cancer-driving genes in GC. Whole-exome sequencing of GC has identified recurrent somatic mutations in the chromatin remodeling gene ARID1A and alterations in the cell adhesion gene FAT4, a member of the cadherin gene family. Mutations in chromatin remodeling genes (ARID1A, MLL3 and MLL) have been found in 47% of GCs. Whole-genome sequencing and whole-transcriptome sequencing analyses have also discovered novel alterations in GC. Recent studies of cancer epigenetics have revealed widespread alterations in genes involved in the epigenetic machinery, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs and microRNAs. Recent advances in molecular research on GC have resulted in the introduction of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies into clinical settings. The anti-human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2) antibody trastuzumab has led to an era of personalized therapy in GC. In addition, ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, is the first biological treatment that showed survival benefits as a single-agent therapy in patients with advanced GC who progressed after first-line chemotherapy. Using NGS to systematically identify gene alterations in GC is a promising approach with remarkable potential for investigating the pathogenesis of GC and identifying novel therapeutic targets, as well as useful biomarkers. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of GC, focusing on the potential use of these genetic and epigenetic alterations as diagnostic biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets.
The pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) remains largely unknown. Recent high-throughput sequencing studies have identified recurrent mutations in key pathways, most notably NOTCH2 mutations in >25% of patients. These studies are based on small, heterogeneous discovery cohorts, and therefore only captured a fraction of the lesions present in the SMZL genome. To identify further novel pathogenic mutations within related biochemical pathways, we applied whole exome sequencing (WES) and copy number (CN) analysis to a biologically and clinically homogeneous cohort of seven SMZL patients with 7q abnormalities and IGHV1-2*04 gene usage. We identified 173 somatic non-silent variants, affecting 160 distinct genes. In additional to providing independent validation of the presence of mutation in several previously reported genes (NOTCH2, TNFAIP3, MAP3K14, MLL2 and SPEN), our study defined eight additional recurrently mutated genes in SMZL; these genes are CREBBP, CBFA2T3, AMOTL1, FAT4, FBXO11, PLA2G4D, TRRAP and USH2A. By integrating our WES and CN data we identified three mutated putative candidate genes targeted by 7q deletions (CUL1, EZH2 and FLNC), with FLNC positioned within the well-characterized 7q minimally deleted region. Taken together, this work expands the reported directory of recurrently mutated cancer genes in this disease, thereby expanding our understanding of SMZL pathogenesis. Ultimately, this work will help to establish a stratified approach to care including the possibility of targeted therapy.
With the intent of dissecting the molecular complexity of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), we designed a target enrichment panel to explore, using next-generation sequencing (NGS), the mutational status of an extensive list of 2000 cancer-associated genes and microRNAs. The genomic DNA of granulocytes and in vitro-expanded CD3+T-lymphocytes, as a germline control, was target-enriched and sequenced in a learning cohort of 20 MPN patients using Roche 454 technology. We identified 141 genuine somatic mutations, most of which were not previously described. To test the frequency of the identified variants, a larger validation cohort of 189 MPN patients was additionally screened for these mutations using Ion Torrent AmpliSeq NGS. Excluding the genes already described in MPN, for 8 genes (SCRIB, MIR662, BARD1, TCF12, FAT4, DAP3, POLG and NRAS), we demonstrated a mutation frequency between 3 and 8%. We also found that mutations at codon 12 of NRAS (NRASG12V and NRASG12D) were significantly associated, for primary myelofibrosis (PMF), with highest dynamic international prognostic scoring system (DIPSS)-plus score categories. This association was then confirmed in 66 additional PMF patients composing a final dataset of 168 PMF showing a NRAS mutation frequency of 4.7%, which was associated with a worse outcome, as defined by the DIPSS plus score.
Murphy AJ, Pierce J, de Caestecker C, et al.Aberrant activation, nuclear localization, and phosphorylation of Yes-associated protein-1 in the embryonic kidney and Wilms tumor.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014; 61(2):198-205 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Yes-associated-protein-1 (YAP1) is a novel, direct regulator of stem cell genes both in development and cancer. FAT4 is an upstream regulator that induces YAP1 cytosolic sequestering by phosphorylation (p-Ser 127) and therefore inhibits YAP1-dependent cellular proliferation. We hypothesized that loss of FAT4 signaling would result in expansion of the nephron progenitor population in kidney development and that YAP1 subcellular localization would be dysregulated in Wilms tumor (WT), an embryonal malignancy that retains gene expression profiles and histologic features reminiscent of the embryonic kidney.
METHODS: Fetal kidneys from Fat4(-/-) mice were harvested at e18.5 and markers of nephron progenitors were investigated using immunohistochemical analysis. To examine YAP1 subcellular localization in WT, a primary WT cell line (VUWT30) was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Forty WT specimens evenly distributed between favorable and unfavorable histology (n = 20 each), and treatment failure or success (n = 20 each) was analyzed for total and phosphorylated YAP1 using immunohistochemistry and Western blot.
RESULTS: Fat4(-/-) mouse fetal kidneys exhibit nuclear YAP1 with increased proliferation and expansion of nephron progenitor cells. In contrast to kidney development, subcellular localization of YAP1 is dysregulated in WT, with a preponderance of nuclear p-YAP1. By Western blot, median p-YAP1 quantity was 5.2-fold greater in unfavorable histology WT (P = 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Fetal kidneys in Fat4(-/-) mice exhibit a phenotype reminiscent of nephrogenic rests, a WT precursor lesion. In WT, YAP1 subcellular localization is dysregulated and p-YAP1 accumulation is a novel biomarker of unfavorable histology.