Gene Summary

Gene:PARK7; parkinson protein 7
Aliases: DJ1, DJ-1, HEL-S-67p
Summary:The product of this gene belongs to the peptidase C56 family of proteins. It acts as a positive regulator of androgen receptor-dependent transcription. It may also function as a redox-sensitive chaperone, as a sensor for oxidative stress, and it apparently protects neurons against oxidative stress and cell death. Defects in this gene are the cause of autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease 7. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein deglycase DJ-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PARK7 (cancer-related)

Ismail IA, Abdel Shakor AB, Hong SH
DJ-1 Protects Breast Cancer Cells Against 2'-Benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde-induced Oxidative Stress Independent of Nrf2.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(9):2262-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
2'-Benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde (BCA) is a promising antitumor agent. BCA effectively inhibited proliferation of MDA-MB-435 more than in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Our recent findings showed that DJ-1 protects MCF7 cells from BCA-induced oxidative stress via its mitochondrial translocation and inhibition of the mitochondrial perturbation (Ismail et al., 2012). In this study, we addressed the question of whether Nrf2 works downstream to DJ-1 in mediating differential antiproliferation effects in MCF-7 and MDAMB-435 breast cancer cells induced by BCA treatment. BCA upregulated the expression and induced nuclear translocalization of DJ-1 and Nrf2 in only MCF-7 cells. However, in MDA-MB-435, BCA increased only Nrf2 expression without inducing DJ-1 and/or Nrf2 protein translocalization to the nucleus. Furthermore, DJ-1 knockdown decreased DJ-1 expression in both cells without affecting Nrf2 and its downstream target γ-GCS, suggesting that DJ-1-induced cell protection and works independent of Nrf2 signaling pathway.

Cao J, Lou S, Ying M, Yang B
DJ-1 as a human oncogene and potential therapeutic target.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2015; 93(3):241-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
DJ-1 is a cancer- and Parkinson's disease-associated protein that participates in different intracellular signaling pathways to protect cells from toxic stresses. DJ-1 expression, oxidation, localization, and phosphorylation are often altered in human tumors, and DJ-1 has been implicated in various aspects of transformation, including uncontrolled proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and apoptosis. Despite the strong relationship between DJ-1 and cancer, which made it a particularly attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment, the detailed mechanisms of how this oncogene coordinates altered signaling with cell survival remains elusive. In this commentary, we discuss the role of DJ-1 in transformation, highlight some of the significant aspects of and prospects for therapeutically targeting the DJ-1 signaling in cancer, and describe what the future may hold.

Liu S, Long G, Wei H, et al.
DJ-1 knockdown inhibits growth and xenograft‑induced tumor generation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(1):201-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to identify potential downstream effectors of the oncogene DJ-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, and examine its role in the Akt signaling pathway and HCC oncogenesis. Expression of the DJ-1 protein was assessed by immunoblotting in several human HCC cell lines. Knockdown of DJ-1 was achieved by transfecting DJ-1-specific short hairpin RNAs into the HepG2 HCC cell line. The effect of DJ-1 downregulation on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and phosphorylated Akt was evaluated. In addition, cell cycle, proliferation, adhesion and invasion were analyzed in the DJ-1 knockdown of HepG2 cells. The growth of HepG2‑induced tumor was evaluated in a nude mouse model after DJ-1 silencing. Stable DJ-1 knockdown was achieved in HepG2 cells using a shRNA eukaryotic expression vector. Downregulation of DJ-1 increased PTEN expression but decreased phosphorylation of Akt in HepG2 cells. In addition, DJ-1 knockdown resulted in the decreased proliferation, adhesion and invasion of HepG2 cells in vitro, and inhibited the growth of HepG2-induced tumor in vivo. DJ-1 knockdown altered the malignant behavior of HepG2 cells, potentially through the Akt signaling pathway, suggesting a crucial role for DJ-1 in the oncogenesis of HCC.

Parsanejad M, Zhang Y, Qu D, et al.
Regulation of the VHL/HIF-1 pathway by DJ-1.
J Neurosci. 2014; 34(23):8043-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
DJ-1 (PARK7) is a gene linked to autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We showed previously that DJ-1 loss sensitizes neurons in models of PD and stroke. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying this protective role are not completely clear. Here, we identify Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein as a critical DJ-1-interacting protein. We provide evidence that DJ-1 negatively regulates VHL ubiquitination activity of the α-subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α) by inhibiting HIF-VHL interaction. Consistent with this observation, DJ-1 deficiency leads to lowered HIF-1α levels in models of both hypoxia and oxidative stress, two stresses known to stabilize HIF-1α. We also demonstrate that HIF-1α accumulation rescues DJ-1-deficient neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced toxicity. Interestingly, lymphoblast cells extracted from DJ-1-related PD patients show impaired HIF-1α stabilization when compared with normal individuals, indicating that the DJ-1-VHL link may also be relevant to a human context. Together, our findings delineate a model by which DJ-1 mediates neuronal survival by regulation of the VHL-HIF-1α pathway.

Ismail IA, Kang HS, Lee HJ, et al.
DJ-1 upregulates breast cancer cell invasion by repressing KLF17 expression.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(5):1298-306 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DJ-1 (PARK7) was reported as an oncogene in a Ras-dependent manner. Recent studies have shown that DJ-1 stimulates cell proliferation, cell invasion, and cancer metastasis. However, the molecular mehchanism by which DJ-1 induces cancer cell invasion and metastasis remains unclear.
METHODS: Breast cancer cells were transfected with DJ-1 siRNA or DJ-1 overexpression to investigate the effect of DJ-1 on KLF17 expression. ID-1 luciferase promoter assay was performed to evaluate DJ-1-dependent KLF17 expression changes. In addition, Epistasis analysis of DJ-1 and KLF17 was performed to evaluate their regulatory interactions. Ras inhibitors were pretreated to determine whether DJ-1 regulates cell invasion in a Ras-dependent manner.
RESULTS: I n the present study, we found increased DJ-1 expression in highly invasive breast cancer cells as compared with non-metastatic cells. Furthermore, DJ-1 promoted breast cancer cell invasion by downregulating E-cadherin and increasing Snail expression. Interestingly, exogenous DJ-1 overexpression markedly decreased mRNA and protein expression of KLF17, the EMT negative regulator. These data were confirmed by ID-1 promoter activity, which is directly regulated by DJ-1-dependent KLF17 transcription factor. Epistasis analysis showed that KLF17 overexpression overcomes increased cell invasion by DJ-1, suggesting that KLF17 might be one of the downstream signalling molecules of DJ-1. Acceleration of cell invasion by DJ-1 was alleviated by Ras inhibitors, suggesting that DJ-1 cooperates with Ras to increase cell invasion.
CONCLUSION: Altogether, these data suggest for the first time that DJ-1 acts as an EMT-positive regulator in breast cancer cells via regulation of the KLF17/ID-1 pathway.

Zhu ZM, Li ZR, Huang Y, et al.
DJ-1 is involved in the peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer through activation of the Akt signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(3):1489-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peritoneal metastasis is a major cause of death in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. DJ-1 is now considered to play an important role in the metastasis of various malignancies. However, it remains largely unclear whether DJ-1 is involved in the development of peritoneal metastasis by gastric carcinoma. In the present study, we showed that the expression of DJ-1 was significantly upregulated in gastric cancer specimens with peritoneal metastasis compared to those without peritoneal metastasis. Knockdown of DJ-1 expression significantly inhibited invasion and migration, in vitro and the in vivo peritoneal metastatic abilities of SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. Moreover, knockdown of DJ-1 also diminished the expression of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. All of these effects were reversed by restoration of DJ-1 expression. Following investigation of the pathway through which DJ-1 regulates cell invasion and migration, DJ-1 was found to cause phosphorylation of Akt in SGC7901 gastric cancer cells. Inhibition of the Akt pathway in SGC7901 cells mimicked the effects of DJ-1 knockdown on cell migration, invasion, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, and abolished the effects of DJ-1 in promoting SGC7901 cell invasion and migration. Taken together, the present study revealed that DJ-1 plays an important role in the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric carcinoma, at least partially through activation of the Akt pathway and consequent upregulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Thus, DJ-1 may be a potential therapeutic target for peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric carcinoma.

Mémin E, Hoque M, Jain MR, et al.
Blocking eIF5A modification in cervical cancer cells alters the expression of cancer-related genes and suppresses cell proliferation.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(2):552-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer etiology is influenced by alterations in protein synthesis that are not fully understood. In this study, we took a novel approach to investigate the role of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A in human cervical cancers, where it is widely overexpressed. eIF5A contains the distinctive amino acid hypusine, which is formed by a posttranslational modification event requiring deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH), an enzyme that can be inhibited by the drugs ciclopirox and deferiprone. We found that proliferation of cervical cancer cells can be blocked by DOHH inhibition with either of these pharmacologic agents, as well as by RNA interference-mediated silencing of eIF5A, DOHH, or another enzyme in the hypusine pathway. Proteomic and RNA analyses in HeLa cervical cancer cells identified two groups of proteins in addition to eIF5A that were coordinately affected by ciclopirox and deferiprone. Group 1 proteins (Hsp27, NM23, and DJ-1) were downregulated at the translational level, whereas group 2 proteins (TrpRS and PRDX2) were upregulated at the mRNA level. Further investigations confirmed that eIF5A and DOHH are required for Hsp27 expression in cervical cancer cells and for regulation of its key target IκB and hence NF-κB. Our results argue that mature eIF5A controls a translational network of cancer-driving genes, termed the eIF5A regulon, at the levels of mRNA abundance and translation. In coordinating cell proliferation, the eIF5A regulon can be modulated by drugs such as ciclopirox or deferiprone, which might be repositioned to control cancer cell growth.

Osman WM, Abd El Atti RM, Abou Gabal HH
DJ-1 and androgen receptor immunohistochemical expression in prostatic carcinoma: a possible role in carcinogenesis.
J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2013; 25(4):223-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Androgen plays a fundamental role in the growth and differentiation of prostate. Androgen receptor (AR) expression may represent a potential marker of prognosis in prostate cancer. However, there have been variable results regarding its ability to predict clinical progression. Despite the oncogenic properties of DJ-1, its significance in prostate cancer development and progression is not well understood. This research shed some light on the possible role of immunohistochemical expression of DJ-1 in clinically localized prostatic carcinoma in relation to the established role of AR and other clinicopathologic parameters.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The immunohistochemical expression of AR and DJ-1 was evaluated in 129 samples including benign hyperplasia (n = 60) and prostatic carcinoma (n = 69).
RESULTS: The mean value of AR immunostaining was significantly higher in prostatic carcinomas than in benign hyperplasia (P = 0.001). A significant inverse correlation was found between AR immunostaining and the grade of prostatic carcinomas. A significantly higher median DJ-1 score was found in prostatic carcinoma than in benign hyperplasia (P = 0.0001). There was a significant direct correlation between AR and DJ-1 score (P = 0.0001). AR is more sensitive in predicting prostatic carcinoma than DJ-1 but DJ-1 is more specific than AR.
CONCLUSION: AR nuclear expression was consistently present in benign and adenocarcinoma epithelium. But, there may be limited clinical use for AR expression in localized carcinoma due to its constant heterogeneity. DJ-1 with its oncogenic properties, specificity for prostatic carcinoma and homogenous expression gives an ideal complementary role to AR in the detection and treatment of prostatic carcinomas.

Li Y, Cui J, Zhang CH, et al.
High-expression of DJ-1 and loss of PTEN associated with tumor metastasis and correlated with poor prognosis of gastric carcinoma.
Int J Med Sci. 2013; 10(12):1689-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: DJ-1 and PTEN have been shown to involve in multiple cell processes and play an important role in cancer development and progression. However, their relationship with gastric carcinoma (GC) has not been identified yet. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship of DJ-1 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in GC.
METHODS: 114 specimens were collected from GC patients and expression of DJ-1 and PTEN in tissue microarray was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Correlation between immunostainings and clinicopathological parameters, follow-up data of patients, was analyzed statistically.
RESULTS: High expression of DJ-1 was found in 66.7% (76/114) and associated with tumor depth (P=0.003), lymph node metastasis (P=0.011), distant metastasis (P=0.001) and advanced clinical stage (P=0.001). Loss or downregulation of PTEN was found in 58.7% (67/114) and associated with advanced clinical stage (P=0.018) and high expression of DJ-1 in tumor cells (P=0.006). In univariate survival analysis, high-expression of DJ-1 or loss of PTEN was significantly associated with poor prognosis of GC patients. However, only tumor depth (P=0.011) and coexistence of DJ-1 and PTEN abnormal expression (P=0.009) emerged as strong independent prognostic factors for overall survival of GC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: the present study indicates that DJ-1 and PTEN may play their roles in progression of GC in a cooperating pattern. Co-existence of abnormal DJ-1 and PTEN expression is likely to serve as an independent predictive factor for prognosis of GC patients.

Phueaouan T, Chaiyawat P, Netsirisawan P, et al.
Aberrant O-GlcNAc-modified proteins expressed in primary colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2929-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
O-GlcNAcylation is a post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues which is dynamically regulated by 2 enzymes; O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that catalyze the addition and removal of a single N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) molecule, respectively. This modification is thought to be a nutrient sensor in highly proliferating cells via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, a minor branch of glycolysis. Although emerging evidence suggests that O-GlcNAc modification is associated with many types of cancer, identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins and their role in cancer remain unexplored. In the present study, we demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation is increased in primary colorectal cancer tissues, and that this augmentation is associated with an increased expression of OGT levels. Using 2-dimensional O-GlcNAc immunoblotting and LC-MS/MS analysis, 16 proteins were successfully identified and 8 proteins showed an increase in O-GlcNAcylation, including cytokeratin 18, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1), hnRNP H, annexin A2, annexin A7, laminin-binding protein, α-tubulin and protein DJ-1. Among these identified proteins, annexin A2 was further confirmed to show overexpression of O-GlcNAc in all cancer samples. The results, therefore, indicate that aberrant O-GlcNAcylation of proteins is associated with colorectal cancer and that identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins may provide novel biomarkers of cancer.

Cheng X, Ku CH, Siow RC
Regulation of the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway by microRNAs: New players in micromanaging redox homeostasis.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2013; 64:4-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are now thought to play a central role in the regulation of many diverse aspects of cell biology; however, it remains to be fully elucidated how microRNAs can orchestrate cellular redox homeostasis, which plays a central role in a multitude of physiological and pathophysiological processes. The redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) serves as a "master regulator" of cell survival through the coordinated induction of phase II and antioxidant defense enzymes to counteract oxidative stress and modulate redox signaling events. MicroRNAs are able to "fine-tune" the regulation of processes including those directly interacting with the Nrf2 pathway and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This review highlights that cellular redox homeostasis can be regulated by microRNAs through their modulation of Nrf2-driven antioxidant gene expression as well as key enzymes that generate ROS, which in turn can alter the biogenesis and processing of microRNAs. Therefore redox sensitive microRNAs or "redoximiRs" add an important regulatory mechanism for redox signaling beyond the well-characterized actions of Nrf2. The potential exists for microRNA-based therapies where diminished antioxidant defenses and dysregulated redox signaling can lead to cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegeneration, and accelerated aging.

Kravitz E, Laitman Y, Hassin-Baer S, et al.
Parkinson's disease genes do not segregate with breast cancer genes' loci.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013; 22(8):1464-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer and skin cancer rates among patients with Parkinson's disease are higher than in non-Parkinson's disease cases, and Jewish-Ashkenazi LRRK2*G2019S mutation carriers have higher breast cancer rates than noncarriers. Because additional Parkinson's disease predisposition genes are implicated in the malignant transformation process, we hypothesized that the association between breast cancer and Parkinson's disease may be related to segregation of breast cancer loci with known Parkinson's disease predisposition loci.
METHODS: Data mining for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), reportedly associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association study (GWAS) that localize to chromosomes bearing known Parkinson's disease predisposition loci: PARK7, PINK1 (chromosome 1); SNCA (chromosome 4); PARK2 (chromosome 6); and LRRK2 (chromosome 12), was carried out.
RESULTS: A total of 188 breast cancer-associated SNPs were identified in 29 eligible manuscripts: 43 SNPs on chromosome 1 (PINK1), 46 SNPs on chromosome 4 (SNCA), 72 SNPs on chromosome 6 (PARK2), and 27 SNPs on chromosome 12 (LRRK2). No breast cancer-associated SNP was located at distance less than 500,000 bp from any of the analyzed Parkinson's disease predisposition genes.
CONCLUSIONS: The association between breast cancer and the most common genetic-inherited forms of Parkinson's disease cannot be accounted for by allele cosegregation at the genomic level.
IMPACT: To elucidate the association between Parkinson's disease and breast cancer, a comprehensive approach that spans beyond a simple genetic association is required.

Shu K, Xiao Z, Long S, et al.
Expression of DJ-1 in endometrial cancer: close correlation with clinicopathological features and apoptosis.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013; 23(6):1029-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: DJ-1 was originally cloned as a putative oncogene capable of transforming NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with H-Ras or c-Myc, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of some solid tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical significance of DJ-1 in endometrial cancer and study its effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis in endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells.
METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were performed to determine the DJ-1 expression in 100 surgical specimens of endometrial cancer tissues, paired tumor-adjacent tissues, and 30 surgical specimens of normal endometrium tissues. The proliferation variety of endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium assay after transfecting the interference plasmid pGPU6/GFP/neo-DJ-1-shRNA into Ishikawa cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to evaluate the effect of interference plasmid on target gene expression. Apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: DJ-1 expression in endometrial cancer tissues was higher than in tumor-adjacent tissues and normal endometrial tissues. At the same time, it was associated with signs of cancer progression, including differentiation, myometrial invasion depth, and presence of lymph node metastasis. Knocking down DJ-1 promoted the apoptosis of Ishikawa cells.
CONCLUSIONS: High DJ-1 expression seems to be negatively correlated with apoptosis. Meanwhile, it may be part of the mechanisms for the development, invasion, and metastasis in endometrial cancer.

Chang LC, Fan CW, Tseng WK, et al.
Immunohistochemical study of the Nrf2 pathway in colorectal cancer: Nrf2 expression is closely correlated to Keap1 in the tumor and Bach1 in the normal tissue.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2013; 21(6):511-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oxidative stress is a contributing factor in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. The Nrf2 [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; NFE2L2] pathway is one of the major cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study investigated the expression of the Nrf2 pathway in colorectal cancer. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue arrays consisting of the tumor, adjacent normal, and distant normal tissues from the resected specimens of 83 colorectal cancer patients were subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with antibodies against Nrf2, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), p21, P62, Parkinson protein 7 (Park7), prohibitin, BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1), CD34 and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). The mean IHC density of each IHC staining was digitally analyzed. The results showed that molecules of the Nrf2 pathway were actively expressed, with different expression profiles among the tumor and normal tissues. The oxidative stress, represented by the mean IHC staining density of 8-OHdG, did not differ but was correlated with the expressions of different Nrf2 pathway molecules to a varied extent in tumor and normal tissues of colorectal cancer. Keap1 [estimate, 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.19-0.79] and Bach1 (estimate, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.11-0.38) were significant predictors for the expression of 8-OHdG and had the closest proximity to Nrf2 in the cluster dendrogram of the tumor and distant normal tissues, respectively. Advanced stage (estimate, 14.9; 95% CI, 2.99-26.8) and current smoker (estimate, 15.6; 95% CI, 1.92-29.3) were significant predictors with high estimates for Bach1 in the adjacent and distant normal tissues, respectively. In colorectal cancer, the molecules of the Nrf2 pathway have different expression profiles and a difference in their importance, especially Keap1 and Bach1, related to Nrf2 and oxidative stress among tumor and normal tissues.

Kobayashi Y, Banno K, Shimizu T, et al.
Gene expression profile of a newly established choriocarcinoma cell line, iC3-1, compared to existing choriocarcinoma cell lines and normal placenta.
Placenta. 2013; 34(2):110-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gestational choriocarcinoma is a malignant trophoblastic tumor that usually occurs in the uterus after pregnancy. The tumor is curable with advanced chemotherapy, but the molecular mechanism of choriocarcinoma tumorigenesis remains unclear. This is partly because the low incidence makes it difficult to obtain clinical samples for investigation and because an appropriate choriocarcinoma cell model to study the tumorigenesis has not been developed. We have established a new choriocarcinoma cell line, induced choriocarcinoma cell-1 (iC(3)-1), that possesses unique characteristics compared to other choriocarcinoma cell lines, including production of tumors that consist of the two types of cells commonly found in choriocarcinoma and mimicking of the clinical pathology. Existing trophoblast cell lines utilized in previous choriocarcinoma studies have had significantly dissimilar gene expression profiles. Therefore, it is important to choose an appropriate cell line for a particular study based on the characteristics of the cell line. In this study, to clarify the genetic characteristics of iC(3)-1 and to explore the tumorigenesis mechanism, we examined the gene profile of iC(3)-1 compared to those of existing cell lines and normal placental tissue. Bioinformatics analysis showed that several characteristic genes, IGF1R, CHFR, MUC3A, TAF7, PARK7, CDC123 and PSMD8, were significantly upregulated in iC(3)-1 compared to BeWo and JEG3 cells. Interestingly, HAS2, CD44 and S100P were significantly upregulated in iC(3)-1 compared to parental HTR8/SVneo cells and normal third trimester placenta. Choriocarcinoma samples also showed immunoreactivity to HAS2, CD44 and S100. In summary, the gene expression profile of iC(3)-1 suggests that studies using this cell line can make an important contribution to improved understanding of choriocarcinoma tumorigenesis.

Zhu XL, Wang ZF, Lei WB, et al.
Tumorigenesis role and clinical significance of DJ-1, a negative regulator of PTEN, in supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 31:94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DJ-1 can induce the tumor cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating PTEN in many malignant tumors, and correlated to prognostic significance. However, the tumorigenesis role and clinical significance of DJ-1 in supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the DJ-1 the relationship between DJ-1 and clinicopathological data including patient survival.
METHODS: The expression of DJ-1 and PTEN in SSCCs (52) and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (42) was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and the relationship between DJ-1 and clinicopathological data was analyzed.
RESULTS: DJ-1 was detected mainly in SSCCs (88.5%) and less frequently in adjacent non-cancerous tissues (21.0%). PTEN expression was detected in 46.2% of SSCCs and in 90.5% of adjacent non-cancerous tissues. DJ-1 expression was linked to nodal status (P = 0.009), a highly significant association of DJ-1 expression with shortened patient overall survival (5-year survival rate 88.0% versus 53.9%; P = 0.007; log rank test) was demonstrated.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that DJ-1 over-expression was linked to nodal status, and might be an independent prognostic marker for patients with SSCC.

Tsushima J, Nishimura K, Tashiro N, et al.
Protective effect of planarian DJ-1 against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity.
Neurosci Res. 2012; 74(3-4):277-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
DJ-1/PARK7 has multiple functions as an antioxidant, an oncogene, and a molecular chaperone in vertebrates, and loss-of-function mutations in DJ-1 cause early onset of Parkinson's disease. However, the function of invertebrate DJ-1 remains unknown. In order to investigate the function of planarian DJ-1, we isolated the planarian DJ-1 gene Dugesia japonica DJ-1 (DjDJ-1) and analyzed its expression and function. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that DjDJ-1 mRNA was expressed throughout the body, including the central nervous system, cells surrounding the pharynx, and stem cells. Planarian DjDJ-1 protein exhibited antioxidant function, similar to human DJ-1, as evidenced by the fact that recombinant DjDJ-1 protein reduced reactive oxygen species and protected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells from cell death. In addition, dopaminergic neurons in DjDJ-1(RNAi) planarians became susceptible to 6-hydroxydopamine, a dopaminergic neurotoxin. These results suggest that planarians have a DJ-1 ortholog, which has conserved antioxidant and neuroprotective functions.

Kim Y, Ignatchenko V, Yao CQ, et al.
Identification of differentially expressed proteins in direct expressed prostatic secretions of men with organ-confined versus extracapsular prostate cancer.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012; 11(12):1870-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current protocols for the screening of prostate cancer cannot accurately discriminate clinically indolent tumors from more aggressive ones. One reliable indicator of outcome has been the determination of organ-confined versus nonorgan-confined disease but even this determination is often only made following prostatectomy. This underscores the need to explore alternate avenues to enhance outcome prediction of prostate cancer patients. Fluids that are proximal to the prostate, such as expressed prostatic secretions (EPS), are attractive sources of potential prostate cancer biomarkers as these fluids likely bathe the tumor. Direct-EPS samples from 16 individuals with extracapsular (n = 8) or organ-confined (n = 8) prostate cancer were used as a discovery cohort, and were analyzed in duplicate by a nine-step MudPIT on a LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. A total of 624 unique proteins were identified by at least two unique peptides with a 0.2% false discovery rate. A semiquantitative spectral counting algorithm identified 133 significantly differentially expressed proteins in the discovery cohort. Integrative data mining prioritized 14 candidates, including two known prostate cancer biomarkers: prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase, which were significantly elevated in the direct-EPS from the organ-confined cancer group. These and five other candidates (SFN, MME, PARK7, TIMP1, and TGM4) were verified by Western blotting in an independent set of direct-EPS from patients with biochemically recurrent disease (n = 5) versus patients with no evidence of recurrence upon follow-up (n = 10). Lastly, we performed proof-of-concept SRM-MS-based relative quantification of the five candidates using unpurified heavy isotope-labeled synthetic peptides spiked into pools of EPS-urines from men with extracapsular and organ-confined prostate tumors. This study represents the first efforts to define the direct-EPS proteome from two major subclasses of prostate cancer using shotgun proteomics and verification in EPS-urine by SRM-MS.

Chang YH, Lee SH, Chang HC, et al.
Comparative secretome analyses using a hollow fiber culture system with label-free quantitative proteomics indicates the influence of PARK7 on cell proliferation and migration/invasion in lung adenocarcinoma.
J Proteome Res. 2012; 11(11):5167-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
As the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, lung cancer lacks effective diagnosis tools and treatments to prevent its metastasis. Fortunately, secretome has clinical usages as biomarkers and protein drugs. To discover the secretome that influences lung adenocarcinoma metastasis, the hollow fiber culture (HFC) system was used along with label-free proteomics approach to analyze cell secretomes between CL1-0 and CL1-5 cell lines, which exhibit low and high metastatic potentials. Among the 703 proteins quantified, 50 possessed different levels between CL1-0 and CL1-5. PARK7 was a primary focus because of the lack of research involving lung adenocarcinoma. The cell proliferation, migration, and invasion properties of CL1-0, CL1-5, and A549 cells were significantly diminished when the expression of their PARK7 proteins was reduced. Conversely, these functions were promoted when PARK7 was overexpressed in CL1-0. In clinical expression, PARK7 levels within tissue specimens and plasma samples were significantly higher in the cancer group. This represents the first time the HFC system has been used with label-free quantification to discern the elements of metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma cell secretomes. Likewise, PARK7 has never been researched for its role in promoting lung adenocarcinoma progression.

Linge A, Kennedy S, O'Flynn D, et al.
Differential expression of fourteen proteins between uveal melanoma from patients who subsequently developed distant metastases versus those who did Not.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012; 53(8):4634-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To compare the proteomic profiles of two categories of primary uveal melanoma tissue samples; those from patients who have subsequently developed metastatic disease and those who have not.
METHODS: Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) was performed on 25 uveal melanoma tissue specimens (minimum follow-up of 7 years) comparing nine uveal melanoma tumors from patients who developed metastatic disease and 16 from those who did not. Most of the tumors which metastasized also exhibited chromosome 3 monosomy. Selected differentially expressed proteins were further followed up by immunohistochemistry and functional validation in vitro using siRNA.
RESULTS: Proteomic analysis revealed 14 statistically significant differentially expressed proteins, with nine showing increased expression (PDIA3, VIM/HEXA, SELENBP1, ENO1, CAPZA1, ERP29, TPI1, PARK7, and FABP3) and five showing decreased expression (EIF2S, PSMA3, RPSA, TUBB, and TUBA1B) in uveal melanomas that subsequently metastasized compared with those that did not. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for six of the differentially expressed proteins and gave similar results to the 2D DIGE study for two of these proteins, fatty acid-binding protein, heart-type (FABP3) and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI1). siRNA knockdown in the 92.1 uveal melanoma cell line confirmed a functional role for FABP3 and TPI1 in invasion in vitro.
CONCLUSIONS: Proteomic analysis identified proteins differentially expressed in uveal melanoma that will subsequently metastasize, some of which appear to have a functional role in invasion. These results may contribute to better predictive tests (along with genetic analysis) and to the identification of new therapeutic targets.

Baumunk D, Reichelt U, Hildebrandt J, et al.
Expression parameters of the metabolic pathway genes pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1) and DJ-1/PARK7 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
World J Urol. 2013; 31(5):1191-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Metabolic adaptations, such as increases in glucose and energy metabolism, play a pivotal role in the biology of RCC. PDK-1 and DJ-1/PARK7 are thought to control metabolic pathways in cancer. We investigated the expression of PDK-1 and DJ-1/PARK7 in RCC and their prognostic relevance.
METHODS: RCC tumor tissue and corresponding normal parenchyma samples were obtained from 91 patients with clear cell RCC. Expression of PDK-1 and DJ-1/PARK7 was determined on the mRNA and protein levels using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Expression ratios tumor/normal were analyzed for associations with pathological stage and grade (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, chi-square test). Potential associations with progression-free and overall survival were analyzed using Cox regression models.
RESULTS: PDK-1 mRNA expression was up-regulated as compared to normal tissue (p < 0.001). Differences were observed by tumor stage (p < 0.05) with a trend toward lower expression with increasing stage (p > 0.01). Expression ratio tumor/normal also showed differences by tumor stage with the lowest ratio observed in advanced (pT3) disease. MRNA expression data were confirmed on the protein level with the lowest protein expression in pT3 tumors. PDK-1 expression ratio tumor/normal was inversely associated with outcome after adjustment for stage and grade (HR, 0.54; 95 % CI, 0.31-0.94). No associations observed for DJ-1/PARK7 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: PDK is up-regulated in RCC, but down-regulation may be associated with progression toward a metastasizing behavior. Given the role of PDK-1 in the control of glucose metabolism, aerobic glycolysis via up-regulation of PDK-1 may be an early event in RCC development, but less relevant for the progression toward an aggressive phenotype.

Chen Y, Kang M, Lu W, et al.
DJ-1, a novel biomarker and a selected target gene for overcoming chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012; 138(9):1463-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Aberrant expression of DJ-1 has been proven to be associated with tumorigenesis in many carcinomas. However, its role in pancreatic cancer is unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate whether the serum DJ-1 might be a potential biomarker for pancreatic cancer and to determine the biologic function of DJ-1 expression in gemcitabine-induced chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: The serum level of DJ-1 was higher in 128 pancreatic cancer patients compared with 62 healthy controls by ELISA. To determine the effect of DJ-1 on pancreatic tumor chemoresistance, a siRNA-targeting DJ-1 was synthesized and a stably transfected cell line with DJ-1 over-expression was constructed. The mechanism of tumor chemoresistance was assessed by multiple methods, such as MTT assay, real-time PCR, Western blot and flow cytometry.
RESULTS: The serum level of DJ-1 was higher in pancreatic cancer patients than healthy controls, and it has the relationship with tumor differentiation in pancreatic cancer. Down-regulation of DJ-1 enhanced gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in three pancreatic cancer cell lines. On the contrary, over-expression of DJ-1 desensitized the MIA PaCa-2 to the induction of apoptosis by gemcitabine.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the serum level of DJ-1 may be a potential biomarker for pancreatic cancer, and that DJ-1 plays critical roles in the pancreatic tumor chemoresistance, supporting the development of chemotherapeutic approaches targeting this oncogene.

Tsuchiya B, Iwaya K, Kohno N, et al.
Clinical significance of DJ-1 as a secretory molecule: retrospective study of DJ-1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in ductal carcinoma of the breast.
Histopathology. 2012; 61(1):69-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: DJ-1 is a molecule secreted into serum by some breast cancer cells. However, little is known about the clinical significance of the DJ-1 expression.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression of DJ-1 protein was examined by immunohistochemistry, and expression of DJ-1 mRNA was detected using in-situ hybridization in 273 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) and 41 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCISs) of the breast, and also in breast cancer cell lines. Breast cancer cells were examined for their secretion of DJ-1 using immunoblot analysis. By immunohistochemistry DJ-1 protein expression was lower than adjacent non-cancerous epithelium in 6 (14.6%) of the 41 DCISs and 146 (53%) of the 273 IDCs, even although all 314 carcinomas retained expression of DJ-1 mRNA, which was higher than that in adjacent non-cancerous epithelium in 220 cases (70%). Patients with IDC whose cancer cells showed low expression of DJ-1 protein had significantly shorter disease-free survival (P = 0.0152) and overall survival (P = 0.0196) than those whose cancer cells retained DJ-1 expression. MDA-MB-231 cells, which secreted DJ-1, showed low expression of DJ-1 protein.
CONCLUSIONS: Low expression of DJ-1 protein with high expression of its mRNA, which may reflect a secretory expression pattern, is predictive of poor outcome in patients with IDC.

Krause K, Prawitt S, Eszlinger M, et al.
Dissecting molecular events in thyroid neoplasia provides evidence for distinct evolution of follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma.
Am J Pathol. 2011; 179(6):3066-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Benign hypofunctional cold thyroid nodules (CTNs) are a frequent scintiscan finding and need to be distinguished from thyroid carcinomas. The origin of CTNs with follicular morphologic features is unresolved. The DNA damage response might act as a physiologic barrier, inhibiting the progression of preneoplastic lesions to neoplasia. We investigated the following in hypofunctional follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC): i) the mutation rate of frequently activated oncogenes, ii) the activation of DNA damage response checkpoints, and iii) the differential proteomic pattern between FA and FTC. Both FTC and FA, which did not harbor RAS, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, or PAX/peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ mutations, express various proteins in common and others that are more distinctly expressed in FTC rather than in FA or normal thyroid tissue. This finding is in line with the finding of constitutive DNA damage checkpoint activation (p-Chk2, γ-H2AX) and evidence for replicative stress causing genomic instability (increased cyclin E, retinoblastoma, or E2F1 mRNA expression) in FTC but not FA. We discuss the findings of the increased expression of translationally controlled tumor protein, phosphatase 2A inhibitor, and DJ-1 in FTC compared with FA identified by proteomics and their potential implication in follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. Our present findings argue for the definition of FA as a truly benign entity and against progressive development of FA to FTC.

Ren H, Fu K, Wang D, et al.
Oxidized DJ-1 interacts with the mitochondrial protein BCL-XL.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(40):35308-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Parkinson disease (PD)- and cancer-associated protein, DJ-1, mediates cellular protection via many signaling pathways. Deletions or mutations in the DJ-1 gene are directly linked to autosomal recessive early-onset PD. DJ-1 has potential roles in mitochondria. Here, we show that DJ-1 increases its mitochondrial distribution in response to ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation and binds to Bcl-X(L). The interactions between DJ-1 and Bcl-X(L) are oxidation-dependent. DJ-1(C106A), a mutant form of DJ-1 that is unable to be oxidized, binds Bcl-X(L) much less than DJ-1 does. Moreover, DJ-1 stabilizes Bcl-X(L) protein level by inhibiting its ubiquitination and degradation through ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in response to UVB irradiation. Furthermore, under UVB irradiation, knockdown of DJ-1 leads to increases of Bcl-X(L) ubiquitination and degradation upon UVB irradiation, thereby increasing mitochondrial Bax, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. These data suggest that DJ-1 protects cells against UVB-induced cell death dependent on its oxidation and its association with mitochondrial Bcl-X(L).

Usami Y, Hatano T, Imai S, et al.
DJ-1 associates with synaptic membranes.
Neurobiol Dis. 2011; 43(3):651-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons. Although many reports have suggested that genetic factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of PD, molecular mechanisms underlying selective dopaminergic neuronal degeneration remain unknown. DJ-1 is a causative gene for autosomal recessive form of PARK7-linked early-onset PD. A number of studies have demonstrated that exogenous DJ-1 localizes within mitochondria and the cytosol, and functions as a molecular chaperone, as a transcriptional regulator, and as a cell protective factor against oxidative stress. However, the precise subcellular localization and function of endogenous DJ-1 are not well known. The mechanisms by which mutations in DJ-1 contributes to neuronal degeneration also remain poorly understood. Here we show by immunocytochemistry that DJ-1 distributes to the cytosol and membranous structures in a punctate appearance in cultured cells and in primary neurons obtained from mouse brain. Interestingly, DJ-1 colocalizes with the Golgi apparatus proteins GM130 and the synaptic vesicle proteins such as synaptophysin and Rab3A. Förster resonance energy transfer analysis revealed that a small portion of DJ-1 interacts with synaptophysin in living cells. Although the wild-type DJ-1 protein directly associates with membranes without an intermediary protein, the pathogenic L166P mutation of DJ-1 exhibits less binding to synaptic vesicles. These results indicate that DJ-1 associates with membranous organelles including synaptic membranes to exhibit its normal function.

Lei Y, Huang K, Gao C, et al.
Proteomics identification of ITGB3 as a key regulator in reactive oxygen species-induced migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2011; 10(10):M110.005397 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and second in females worldwide. Unfortunately 40-50% of patients already have metastatic disease at presentation when prognosis is poor with a 5-year survival of <10%. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to play a crucial role in tumor metastasis. We now show that higher levels of ROS accumulation are found in a colorectal cancer-derived metastatic cell line (SW620) compared with a cell line (SW480) derived from the primary lesion from the same patient. In addition, ROS accumulation can affect both the migratory and invasive capacity of SW480 and SW620 cells. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying ROS-induced migration and invasion in CRC, we have compared protein expression patterns between SW480 and SW620 cells using a two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics strategy. A total of 63 altered proteins were identified from tandem MS analysis. Cluster analysis revealed dysregulated expression of multiple redox regulative or ROS responsive proteins, implicating their functional roles in colorectal cancer metastasis. Molecular and pathological validation demonstrated that altered expression of PGAM1, GRB2, DJ-1, ITGB3, SOD-1, and STMN1 was closely correlated with the metastatic potential of CRC. Functional studies showed that ROS markedly up-regulated expression of ITGB3, which in turn promoted an aggressive phenotype in SW480 cells, with concomitant up-regulated expression of STMN1. In contrast, knockdown of ITGB3 expression could mitigate the migratory and invasive potential of SW620 or H(2)O(2)-treated SW480 cells, accompanied by down-regulated expression of STMN1. The function of ITGB3 was dependent on the surface expression of integrin αvβ3 heterodimer. Furthermore, STMN1 expression and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway were found to be involved in ROS-induced and ITGB3-mediated migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, these studies suggest that ITGB3 plays an important role in ROS-induced migration and invasion in CRC.

Shen Z, Ren Y, Ye D, et al.
Significance and relationship between DJ-1 gene and surviving gene expression in laryngeal carcinoma.
Eur J Histochem. 2011; 55(1):e9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study aimed at exploring the correlation between DJ-1 gene and survivin gene in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma by analyzing their gene expression levels and their relationship with clinicopathologic parameters. The expression of DJ-1 gene and survivin gene in 82 laryngeal carcinoma tissues from patients and 82 negative surgical margin tissue samples were detected by immunohistochemistry, respectively. The correlation of their expression levels and patients’ clinical parameters were then analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. The positive detection rates of DJ-1 and survivin in laryngeal carcinoma tissues were 71.95% and 60.98%, which were higher than those of the normal control that were 29.27% and 0.00%, respectively (P<0.01). The positive detection rates of DJ-1 and survivin were found associated with tumor stages (P<0.05), but not with lymph node metastasis. The DJ-1 gene expression level was related to cell differentiation (P<0.05). Finally, a positive correlation between DJ-1 and survivin gene expression in laryngeal carcinoma was found. The overall survival rate of patients was 51.2%, and disease-free survival (DFS) was 39.0%. DFS in DJ-1 negative-expression group was 87.0%, and 20.3% in DJ-1 positive-expression group. The negative expression of DJ-1 was associated with a shorter mean patient DFS time (44.643±1.417 months), whereas positive expression of DJ-1 was associated with a longer mean DSF time (25.943±1.297 months). DJ-1 and survivin play a vital role in the occurrence and development of laryngeal carcinoma. DJ-1 may promote the carcinogenesis of laryngeal cells by up-regulating the survivin gene expression.

Gao X, Ning Y
Cancer and Parkinson's disease: the odd couple.
Drugs Today (Barc). 2011; 47(3):215-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) are less likely to develop nonmelanoma cancers and vice versa. In contrast, the co-occurrence of PD and melanoma has been reported in numerous studies. The exact mechanisms underlying the observed cancer-PD association are not clear. Different hypotheses have been put forward, including shared environmental/lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking and socioeconomic status) and common genetic components (e.g., parkinson protein 2 [PARK2], leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 [LRRK2], Parkinson disease [autosomal recessive, early onset] 7 [PARK7, DJ-1] and pigmentation genes). In the current review, we summarize recent findings to offer new insight into the pathogenesis of both conditions.

Patel BB, Li XM, Dixon MP, et al.
APC +/- alters colonic fibroblast proteome in FAP.
Oncotarget. 2011; 2(3):197-208 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Here we compared the proteomes of primary fibroblast cultures derived from morphologically normal colonic mucosa of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients with those obtained from unaffected controls. The expression signature of about 19% of total fibroblast proteins separates FAP mutation carriers from unaffected controls (P < 0.01). More than 4,000 protein spots were quantified by 2D PAGE analysis, identifying 368 non-redundant proteins and 400 of their isoforms. Specifically, all three classes of cytoskeletal filaments and their regulatory proteins were altered as were oxidative stress response proteins. Given that FAP fibroblasts showed heightened sensitivity to transformation by KiMSV and SV40 including elevated levels of the p53 protein, events controlled in large measure by the Ras suppressor protein-1 (RSU-1) and oncogenic DJ-1, here we show decreased RSU1 and augmented DJ-1 expression in both fibroblasts and crypt-derived epithelial cells from morphologically normal colonic mucosa of FAP gene-carriers. The results indicate that heterozygosity for a mutant APC tumor suppressor gene alters the proteomes of both colon-derived normal fibroblasts in a gene-specific manner, consistent with a "one-hit" effect.

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