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Cancer Statistics
Population in 2012: 69.9m
People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr: 123,800
Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr: 137.5
Risk of getting cancer before age 75:14.2%
People dying from cancer /yr: 85,000
Data from IARC GlobalCan (2012)
Thailand Cancer Organisations and Resources
Latest Research Publications Related to Thailand

Thailand Cancer Organisations and Resources (11 links)

Latest Research Publications Related to Thailand

Zinboonyahgoon N, Vlassakov K, Lirk P, et al.
Benefit of regional anaesthesia on postoperative pain following mastectomy: the influence of catastrophising.
Br J Anaesth. 2019; 123(2):e293-e302 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that truncal regional anaesthesia (TRA), including techniques such as paravertebral block, may contribute significantly to analgesia after mastectomy. However, the severity and impact of postoperative pain varies markedly amongst individuals, making the identification of patients who would benefit most from TRA a potentially important step toward personalised perioperative care.
METHODS: In this prospective observational study, mastectomy patients (n=122) were recruited and systematically assessed for psychosocial characteristics including pain catastrophising before surgery, and either received preoperative TRA (n=57) or no block (n=65).
RESULTS: Age, baseline pain, and psychosocial traits did not differ between these groups. TRA was associated with lower overall pain scores and opioid consumption perioperatively, with a larger proportion of patients without block (50% vs 28%) reporting moderate-severe pain (more than three/10) on the day of surgery. Mixed model analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction between catastrophising and TRA, such that amongst patients with high baseline catastrophising, TRA was associated with substantially lower pain severity score (58% lower), while amongst patients with low baseline catastrophising, TRA was associated with only 18% lower pain severity. At 2 weeks, this interaction between baseline catastrophising and TRA was also observed when examining surgical pain burden, with higher baseline catastrophising patients who had received TRA reporting lower pain and less frequent opioid use (40% vs 70% of patients).
CONCLUSIONS: TRA provided immediate analgesic benefit for patients undergoing mastectomy on the day of surgery, but this effect appeared more pronounced and sustained amongst patients with higher baseline catastrophising.

Barchuk A, Bespalov A, Huhtala H, et al.
Productivity losses associated with premature mortality due to cancer in Russia: A population-wide study covering 2001-2030.
Scand J Public Health. 2019; 47(5):482-491 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications

Genuino AJ, Chaikledkaew U, The DO, et al.
Adjuvant trastuzumab regimen for HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2019; 12(8):815-824 [PubMed] Related Publications

Naruphontjirakul P, Viravaidya-Pasuwat K
Development of anti-HER2-targeted doxorubicin-core-shell chitosan nanoparticles for the treatment of human breast cancer.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2019; 14:4105-4121 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications

Elia R, Di Taranto G, Amorosi V, et al.
The versatility of the thoracodorsal artery based composite flaps with vascularized rib and a systematic review of the literature.
J Surg Oncol. 2019; 120(3):527-539 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pedicled and free composite flaps derived from the thoracodorsal artery system, including the latissimus dorsi-rib (LD-R) and the serratus anterior-rib (SA-R) osteo-muscular or osteo-myocutaneous flaps, are potential options to address head and neck, thorax, upper and lower extremity bone, and soft tissue defects' reconstruction. We aimed to report our series of LD/SA-R composite pedicled and free flaps, evaluating outcomes and complications, and to systematically identify all literature reporting results following LD/SA-rib reconstructions.

Kijima K, Krisanachinda A, Tamura M, et al.
Feasibility of a Tungsten Rubber Grid Collimator for Electron Grid Therapy.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):2799-2804 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Spatially fractionated radiotherapy (grid therapy) can control some bulky tumors which is challenging for conventional radiotherapy. This study aimed to investigate whether a novel tungsten contained rubber (TCR) grid collimator can be employed in electron grid therapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The TCR grid collimator placed on a solid water phantom, and percentage depth doses (PDDs) and lateral dose profiles were measured for 9 MeV electron beam with Gafchromic EBT3 films. At the lateral dose profile, the ratios of the dose in the areas with and without shielding (valley-to-peak ratios) were evaluated.
CONCLUSION: Only the 2 mm TCR grid collimator had adequate dosimetric features compared to the conventional grid collimator and could be substituted.

Youl Lee J, Taniguchi T, Zhang K, et al.
Report of the forth Asian Prostate Cancer (A-CaP) study meeting.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2019; 49(6):581-586 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Asian Prostate Cancer (A-CaP) Study is an Asia-wide prospective registry study for surveying the treatment outcome of prostate cancer patients who have received a histopathological diagnosis. The study aims to clarify the clinical situation for prostate cancer in Asia and use the outcomes for the purposes of international comparison. Following the first meeting in Tokyo on December 2015, the second meeting in Seoul, Korea 2016, the third meeting in Chiang Mai, Thailand, on October 2017, the fourth meeting was held in Seoul, again on August 2018 with the participation of members and collaborators from 13 countries and regions. In the meeting, participating countries and regions presented the current status of data collection and the A-CaP office presented a preliminary analysis of the registered cases received from each country and region. Participants discussed ongoing challenges relating to data cleaning and data up-dating which is the next step of the A-CaP study following the data collection phase between 2016 and 2018. There was specific difference in term of the patient characteristics, and initial treatment pattern among East Asia, Southeast Asia and Turkey, and Jordan. Finally, a close relationship between prevalence of PSA test and disease stage of the patients at diagnosis in Japan and Malaysia was discussed.

Field AS, Raymond WA, Rickard M, et al.
The International Academy of Cytology Yokohama System for Reporting Breast Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy Cytopathology.
Acta Cytol. 2019; 63(4):257-273 [PubMed] Related Publications
The International Academy of Cytology (IAC) gathered together a group of cytopathologists expert in breast cytology who, working with clinicians expert in breast diagnostics and management, have developed the IAC Yokohama System for Reporting Breast Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) Cytology. The project was initiated with the first cytopathology group meeting in Yokohama at the 2016 International Congress of Cytology. This IAC Yokohama System defines five categories for reporting breast cytology, each with a clear descriptive term for the category, a definition, a risk of malignancy (ROM) and a suggested management algorithm. The key diagnostic cytopathology features of each of the lesions within each category will be presented more fully in a subsequent atlas. The System emphasizes that the crucial requirements for diagnostic breast FNAB cytology are a high standard for the performance of the FNAB and for the making of direct smears, and well-trained experienced cytopathologists to interpret the material. The performance indicators of breast FNAB, including specificity and sensitivity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value and ROM stated in this article have been derived from the recent literature. The current practice of breast FNAB has evolved with the increasing use of ultrasound guidance and rapid on-site evaluation. Two recent publications have shown a range of ROM for the insufficient/inadequate category of 2.6-4.8%, benign 1.4-2.3%, atypical 13-15.7%, suspicious of malignancy 84.6-97.1%, and malignant 99.0-100%. The management algorithm in the System provides options because there are variations in the management of breast lesions using FNAB and core-needle biopsy in those countries utilizing the "triple test" of clinical, imaging, and FNAB assessment, and also variations in the availability of CNB and imaging in low- and middle-income countries. The System will stimulate further discussion and research, particularly in the cytological diagnostic features of specific lesions within each category and in management recommendations. This will lead to continuing improvements in the care of patients with breast lesions and possible modifications to the IAC Yokohama System.

Saejia P, Lirdprapamongkol K, Svasti J, Paricharttanakul NM
Perfluorooctanoic Acid Enhances Invasion of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Cells Through NF-κB and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activation.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2429-2435 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is one of the most common perfluorinated compounds widely used in several applications. Due to its persistence in the environment, PFOA has been associated with various diseases, including cancer. This study explored the effects of PFOA on follicular thyroid carcinoma cells (FTC133).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell invasion, migration, adhesion and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were investigated using Transwell assays, adhesion assay and gelatin zymography, respectively. The underlying mechanism involved in the effects observed was evaluated by immunoblot analyses.
RESULTS: Treatment with PFOA did not affect cell migration, but enhanced cell invasion, adhesion and activity of MMP-2 in FTC133 cells. PFOA selectively enhanced the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, as well as induced NF-κB nuclear translocation. Treatment with a NF-κB inhibitor (BAY 11-7085) was able to reverse PFOA-induced cell invasiveness.
CONCLUSION: PFOA promotes invasiveness of FTC133 cells mediated through the activation of NF-κB signaling.

Sittitrai P, Reunmakkaew D, Srivanitchapoom C
Submental island flap versus radial forearm free flap for oral tongue reconstruction: a comparison of complications and functional outcomes.
J Laryngol Otol. 2019; 133(5):413-418 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study compared the complications and functional outcomes of patients with oral tongue cancer who had undergone reconstruction using a submental island flap or a radial forearm free flap.
METHOD: Of the 54 patients, 29 underwent reconstruction with a submental island flap and 25 patients with a radial forearm free flap. The complications and outcomes of speech and swallowing were evaluated.
RESULTS: In the submental island flap group, all the flaps were successfully transferred with no donor site complications. In the radial forearm free flap group, partial skin graft loss and arm function restriction were recorded. Mean operative time and duration of hospital stay were significantly shorter in the submental island flap group. Speech and swallowing function were comparable between the two groups. There was no significant difference in locoregional recurrence between the groups.
CONCLUSION: The submental island flap is reliable and is suitable for oral tongue reconstruction. It has a lower complication incidence when compared to the radial forearm free flap, while maintaining speech and swallowing function.

Mok TSK, Wu YL, Kudaba I, et al.
Pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for previously untreated, PD-L1-expressing, locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (KEYNOTE-042): a randomised, open-label, controlled, phase 3 trial.
Lancet. 2019; 393(10183):1819-1830 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: First-line pembrolizumab monotherapy improves overall and progression-free survival in patients with untreated metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer with a programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumour proportion score (TPS) of 50% or greater. We investigated overall survival after treatment with pembrolizumab monotherapy in patients with a PD-L1 TPS of 1% or greater.
METHODS: This randomised, open-label, phase 3 study was done in 213 medical centres in 32 countries. Eligible patients were adults (≥18 years) with previously untreated locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer without a sensitising EGFR mutation or ALK translocation and with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score of 0 or 1, life expectancy 3 months or longer, and a PD-L1 TPS of 1% or greater. Randomisation was computer generated, accessed via an interactive voice-response and integrated web-response system, and stratified by region of enrolment (east Asia vs rest of world), ECOG performance status score (0 vs 1), histology (squamous vs non-squamous), and PD-L1 TPS (≥50% vs 1-49%). Enrolled patients were randomly assigned 1:1 in blocks of four per stratum to receive pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks for up to 35 cycles or the investigator's choice of platinum-based chemotherapy for four to six cycles. Primary endpoints were overall survival in patients with a TPS of 50% or greater, 20% or greater, and 1% or greater (one-sided significance thresholds, p=0·0122, p=0·0120, and p=0·0124, respectively) in the intention-to-treat population, assessed sequentially if the previous findings were significant. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02220894.
FINDINGS: From Dec 19, 2014, to March 6, 2017, 1274 patients (902 men, 372 women, median age 63 years [IQR 57-69]) with a PD-L1 TPS of 1% or greater were allocated to pembrolizumab (n=637) or chemotherapy (n=637) and included in the intention-to-treat population. 599 (47%) had a TPS of 50% or greater and 818 patients (64%) had a TPS of 20% or greater. As of Feb 26, 2018, median follow-up was 12·8 months. Overall survival was significantly longer in the pembrolizumab group than in the chemotherapy group in all three TPS populations (≥50% hazard ratio 0·69, 95% CI 0·56-0·85, p=0·0003; ≥20% 0·77, 0·64-0·92, p=0·0020, and ≥1% 0·81, 0·71-0·93, p=0·0018). The median surival values by TPS population were 20·0 months (95% CI 15·4-24·9) for pembrolizumab versus 12·2 months (10·4-14·2) for chemotherapy, 17·7 months (15·3-22·1) versus 13·0 months (11·6-15·3), and 16·7 months (13·9-19·7) versus 12·1 months (11·3-13·3), respectively. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse occurred in 113 (18%) of 636 treated patients in the pembrolizumab group and in 252 (41%) of 615 in the chemotherapy group and led to death in 13 (2%) and 14 (2%) patients, respectively.
INTERPRETATION: The benefit-to-risk profile suggests that pembrolizumab monotherapy can be extended as first-line therapy to patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer without sensitising EGFR or ALK alterations and with low PD-L1 TPS.
FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.

Adulkasem N, Pruksakorn D
Giant cell tumour of the middle phalanx of the middle finger.
BMJ Case Rep. 2019; 12(3) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Giant cell tumour (GCT) of bones in the hand is very rare, only 2% of all hand tumours, but unacceptably high recurrence rates (up to 90%) have been reported by several authors. Diagnosis can be challenging due to its rarity and enchondroma-mimicking characteristics. We report on a case of GCT of the middle phalanx of the left middle finger in a 49-year-old woman who underwent middle phalanx resection and reconstruction with bone grafting. At the 1-year follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was detected and the patient was pain-free.

Solikhah, Promthet S, Hurst C
Awareness Level about Breast Cancer Risk Factors, Barriers, Attitude and Breast Cancer Screening among Indonesian Women
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(3):877-884 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Globally, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women and is a leading cause of mortality in Indonesia. Raising awareness of breast cancer is particularly important to help at risk women seek medical treatment for this disease. This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the Indonesian women’s level of knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, barriers, attitude and breast cancer screening. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study administered the breast cancer awareness Indonesian scale (BCAS-I) to 856 Indonesian women. Samples were selected in rural and urban combinations from three provinces by stratified random sampling. The ordinal logistic model was used to investigate the clustering effect of the participant’s characteristics in this study. Results: Of the women, 62% lived in rural areas and 38% lived in urban areas. Living in an urban area was significantly associated with a lower knowledge of the risk factors. However, living in an urban area was significantly associated with better attitudes and healthier behaviours related to breast cancer awareness. Women with higher education levels had 70% worse attitudes toward breast cancer awareness. Women living South of Sumatera, women living in Yogyakarta, and unmarried women were 5.03, 3.84, and 1.56 times as likely to have higher perceived barriers, respectively. Conclusion: Urban women had a poorer level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors compared to women living in more rural areas. The result of this study may reflect inadequate breast cancer awareness campaigns or a lack of breast cancer awareness campaigns. These findings suggest that additional education programs aiming to increase awareness and educate the public are needed.

Poomtavorn Y, Tanprasertkul C, Sammor A, et al.
Predictors of Absent High-grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) in Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure Specimens of Patients with Colposcopic Directed Biopsy-Confirmed High-Grade CIN
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(3):849-854 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: To determine predictors of having cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 or less in loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) specimens of patients with colposcopic directed biopsy-confirmed CIN 2-3. Methods: Two hundred and eighty patients with colposcopic directed biopsy-confirmed CIN 2-3 who subsequently underwent LEEP were enrolled in the retrospective study. Related clinical data were collected to determine the predictors of CIN 1 or less in LEEP specimens. Results: CIN 1 or less in LEEP specimens was found in 71 (25.4%) of 280 patients. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that nulliparity [OR (95% CI) = 3.375 (1.245-9.150)], low grade Papanicolaou (Pap) results [OR (95% CI) = 6.410 (2.877-14.280)] and low grade colposcopic impression [OR (95% CI) = 16.506 (5.844-46.632)] were significant risk factors of having CIN 1 or less in LEEP specimens. Neither persistent nor recurrent CIN 2-3 was detected in 71 patients who had CIN 1 or less in LEEP specimens. However, persistent or recurrent CIN 2-3 developed in 3 out of 209 (1.4%) patients with CIN 2-3 found in LEEP specimens. Conclusion: Approximately 25% of patients with CIN 2-3 in colposcopic directed biopsy specimens had CIN 1 or less found in LEEP specimens. Predicting factors of having CIN 1 or less in LEEP specimens were nulliparity, low grade Pap results and low grade colposcopic impression.

Buasom R, Roder D, Singhakosit N, et al.
Accounting for Immigrant Status when Calculating Cancer Incidence Rates for Bangkok
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(3):737-741 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objective: Cancer-registry data are crucial for definingcancer incidence rates for use in setting service priorities and monitoringservice effects. This applies in Thailand where cancer is the leading cause of death and service needs are high. The Bangkok Cancer Registry (population-based) was established in 1990to determine cancer incidence rates for Bangkok. This proved difficult, however, because the Bangkokpopulation (>8million) fluctuates with numbers of temporary visitors, many of whom visit Bangkok temporarily for services. If these visitors are mis-categorized as usual residents, cancer incidence rateswould be inflated. During 2013-2015, residential addresses on the Registry were cross-checked against official addresses on the National Civil Registration records of the Ministry of Interior. The effectsof this cross-checking on incidence rates are discussed. Methods: Residential addresses recorded on the Registry for cancer diagnoses in 2013-2015 were corrected using official Ministry data. Effects on numbers of recorded cancers and crude and directly age-standardized rates (World Population) were determined. Results: Of 44,813 cancer casesdiagnosed and recorded on the Registryduring 2013-2015, 36,327 (81.1%) had an official Bangkok address. When limiting analyses to these cases, the crude incidencefor all cancer sites combined reduced by 18.9% (19.7% for males and 18.3% for females). Corresponding reductions in age-standardized incidence rates were 20.0% for males and 18.8% for females. These reductions varied for common cancer sites:in males,from 14.8% for lung to 25.9% for colorectal cancer; and in females, from 12.9% for lung to 24.0% for cervical cancer. Conclusions: These differences are considered sufficient in magnitude to justifyroutine use of official residential data when calculating cancer incidence rates for Bangkok. If these rates are to be compared with comparable rates for other Asian citiesthat serve broader populations, equivalent methodologies for determining residential status would be needed for all cities.

Ratree S, Kleebkaow P, Aue-Aungkul A, et al.
Histopathology of Women with “Atypical Squamous Cells Cannot Exclude High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion” (ASC-H) Smears
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(3):683-686 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objectives: To evaluate prevalence of underlying significant pathologies among women with cervical smears rated as ‘atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H)’, as well as associated risk factors. Methods: Medical records were reviewed of all consecutive women with ASC-H smears who had undergone colposcopy at Srinagarind Hospital from January 2008 to July 2016. Significant pathology results included cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2-3, adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), endometrial hyperplasia, and cancer of any original site. Result: During the study period, 133 women with ASC-H were reviewed. The mean age was 45.3 years (range 21-72). The histopathologic results for the 133 women were as follows: no lesions (58; 43.6%), CIN 1 (34; 25.6%), CIN 2-3 (33; 24.8%), AIS (2; 1.5%), and cervical cancer (6; 4.5%). The overall rate of significant pathology was 30.8% (95% confidence interval, 22.9%-38.8%). Women younger than 40 years old carried a higher risk of harboring significant lesions when compared to older women (41.7% versus 27.8%, respectively). There was no significant impact of parity and menopausal status on the risk of significant pathology results. Conclusion: The rate of significant histopathologies among women with ASC-H smears in this study was approximately 31% and the associated risk factor was patient age.

Petpiroon N, Bhummaphan N, Tungsukruthai S, et al.
Chrysotobibenzyl inhibition of lung cancer cell migration through Caveolin-1-dependent mediation of the integrin switch and the sensitization of lung cancer cells to cisplatin-mediated apoptosis.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 58:152888 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A Lung cancer death account for approximately 1 in 5 of all cancer-related deaths and is particularly virulent due to its enhanced metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Chrysotobibenzyl has been reported to decrease cell metastasis, according to the results of an anchorage-independent growth assay; however, its underlying mechanism has not been investigated yet.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of chrysotobibenzyl on lung cancer cell migration and drug sensitization and its mechanism.
METHODS: Cell viability, cell proliferation and drug sensitization were determined by MTT assay. Cell migration was analyzed using a wound-healing assay. Transwell migration and invasion were analyzed using Boyden chamber assay. Mechanisms of chrysotobibenzyl against metastasis including cell migration, invasion, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) were evaluated by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence.
RESULTS: Treatment with chrysotobibenzyl was applied at concentrations of 0-50 µM and the results showed non-cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cells (H460, H292, A549, and H23) and other non-cancerous human cells (HCT116, primary DP1 and primary DP2). However, 50 µM of chrysotobibenzyl significantly altered cell proliferation in H292 cells at 48 h. In addition, 1-50 µM of chrysotobibenzyl significantly inhibited H460 and H292 cell migration, invasion, filopodia formation, and decreased EMT in a dose-dependent manner at 48 h, which were correlated with reduced protein levels of integrins β1, β3, and αν, p-FAK, p-AKT, Cdc42, and Cav-1. We also established shRNA-Cav-1-transfected (shCav-1) H460 and H292 cells. shCav-1 transfected cells can decrease cell migration and downregulate the expression of integrins β1, β3, and αν when compared with the control. Moreover, chrysotobibenzyl was shown to suppress EMT indicated by the reduction of EMT markers (Vimentin, Snail, and Slug), and sensitize lung cancer cells to cisplatin-mediated apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: Treatment with chrysotobibenzyl inhibited lung cancer cell migration via Cav-1, integrins β1, β3, and αν, and EMT suppressions. The downregulation of integrins in response to the compound not only inhibited cell metastasis, but also sensitized lung cancer cells to cisplatin-mediated apoptosis.

Faroongsarng D, Sunpaweravong S, Raksawong A
Thermally Induced Denaturing Energetics of Human Blood Plasma Albumin by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) as an Indicator for Breast Cancer Diagnosis in Female Patients.
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2019; 20(4):146 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancerous invasion yields unusual metabolisms providing a significant amount of peptide albuminomes that modulate albumin stability via binding. The study aimed at the investigation of the thermal stability of human plasma albumin with breast cancer of various stages by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Blood plasma was drawn from 11 female breast cancer patients and 50 healthy volunteers of homogeneous demographics. Plasma samples and their albumin-enriched fractions were subjected to DSC scanning between 37 and 90°C at 5°C/min rate. For normal blood plasma, a characteristic signature of DSC tracing was observed. And, the deconvolution of DSC thermograms revealed the recognition of thermal transition of albumin. It was found that denaturing temperature of albumin increased with increasing breast cancer staging which implied the increase in albuminome/peptide abundance produced by cancerous invasion. The analysis of albumin denaturing energetics based on rational approximation of the simple Lumry-Eyring model demonstrated that thermal transition of free albumin and albuminome-bound form attained energetic levels expressed as apparent activation energy (E

Tuponchai P, Kukongviriyapan V, Prawan A, et al.
Myricetin ameliorates cytokine-induced migration and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cells via suppression of STAT3 pathway.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2019 Jan-Mar; 15(1):157-163 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aim of Study: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive cancer with considerable metastatic potential. Various cytokines secreted by tumor cells or cells in the tumor environment can promote the metastasis of CCA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of myricetin on the inhibition of cytokine-induced migration and invasion and the associated cellular mechanisms in human CCA cells.
Materials and Methods: CCA KKU-100 cells were treated with a pro-inflammatory cytokine mixture consisting of interleukin-6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α. The migratory and invasive ability of KKU-100 cells were determined using a wound-healing assay and transwell invasion assay. The effect of myricetin on cytokine-induced STAT3 activation in CCA cells was determined using Western blot analysis. The real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine messenger RNA expression.
Results: Myricetin significantly inhibited cytokine-induced migration and invasion of KKU-100 cells. Detailed molecular analyses revealed that myricetin suppressed the activation of the STAT3 pathway, evidently by a decrease of the active phospho-STAT3 protein expression after myricetin treatment. The cytokine-mediated upregulation of metastasis- and inflammatory-associated genes, which are downstream genes of STAT3 including the intercellular adhesion molecule-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), were also significantly abolished by myricetin treatment. Moreover, the anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of a widely prescribed COX inhibitor, indomethacin, were also revealed.
Conclusion: This finding reveals the anti-metastatic effect of myricetin against CCA cells which is mediated partly through suppression of the STAT3 pathway. This compound could be potentially useful as a therapeutic agent against CCA.

Kidoikhammouan S, Seubwai W, Silsirivanit A, et al.
Blocking of methionine aminopeptidase-2 by TNP-470 induces apoptosis and increases chemosensitivity of cholangiocarcinoma.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2019 Jan-Mar; 15(1):148-152 [PubMed] Related Publications
Context: Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs is a major pitfall of the failure of chemotherapy treatment for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). A new therapeutic strategy that can improve treatment efficacy is mandatory for CCA patients. Our previous findings demonstrated the overexpression of methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP2) in CCA patients. In addition, supplementation of TNP-470, a MetAP2 inhibitor, significantly inhibited the growth and metastatic activities of CCA cell lines. However, the molecular mechanism of antitumor activity of TNP-470 and the synergistic antitumor activity of TNP-470 combined with chemotherapeutic drugs are still unknown.
Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the molecular mechanism of anticancer activity and the potential use of TNP-470 as a chemosensitizing agent in CCA cell lines.
Materials and Methods: Cell cycle and apoptosis of CCA cell lines were evaluated using flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. Expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins was measured by Western blotting. The chemosensitizing effect of TNP-470 was determined using combination index.
Results: TNP-470 inhibited the growth of CCA cells via induction of apoptosis through activation of the p38-phosphorylation and up- and down-regulation of Bax and Bcl-xL, respectively. Furthermore, TNP-470 significantly enhanced the antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, doxorubicin, and gemcitabine.
Conclusions: The present results show that TNP-470 could be a potential therapeutic or adjuvant agent for CCA.

Owattanapanich W, Chayakulkeeree M
Efficacy of levofloxacin as an antibacterial prophylaxis for acute leukemia patients receiving intensive chemotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Hematology. 2019; 24(1):362-368 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of febrile neutropenia (FN) in acute leukemia patients following induction or consolidation chemotherapy is high. Several clinical practice guidelines recommend the use of a fluoroquinolone prophylaxis to prevent bacterial infection in patients being prone to prolonged profound neutropenia.
METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy and complications of levofloxacin as a prophylaxis for FN patients following chemotherapy for acute leukemia. Two databases from MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for published studies indexed before 10 July 2018.
RESULTS: A total of 862 acute leukemia patients were included, with 356 in the levofloxacin prophylaxis arm and 506 in the no-prophylaxis arm. Patients receiving levofloxacin had a significantly lower FN rate than patients who did not receive the antibiotic prophylaxis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32-0.58, p < .00001, I
CONCLUSIONS: Although the levofloxacin prophylaxis for the acute leukemia patients receiving intensive chemotherapy showed advantages for infectious complications, it did not affect mortality.

Ruengkhachorn I, Phithakwatchara N, Viriyapak B, et al.
Comparison of oncologic outcomes of unanticipated cervical carcinoma in women undergoing inadvertent simple hysterectomy and those undergoing surgical treatment after preoperative diagnosis.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(2):248-254 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of women with undiagnosed cervical carcinoma before simple hysterectomy and its causes and to compare the oncologic outcomes of women diagnosed and treated with standard therapy to those undergoing inadvertent simple hysterectomy with subsequent treatment.
METHODS: Medical records were reviewed for patients with cervical carcinoma who underwent hysterectomy between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2014. Demographic data, chemotherapeutic agents, and response rates were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The categorical variables were compared using chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The continuous data were compared using the independent t-test and Mann-Whitney test, as appropriate. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate the survival outcomes.
RESULTS: Of the 526 patients with cervical carcinoma who underwent hysterectomy, 57 patients (10.8%) were diagnosed with cervical carcinoma after simple hysterectomy. After excluding 121 patients with invasion of <3 mm and without lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), 353 patients were preoperatively diagnosed with cervical carcinoma stage IA1 with LVSI to IIA and underwent proper surgical treatment. Fifty-two patients were encountered for inadvertent hysterectomy. Forty-four of 52 patients in the inadvertent hysterectomy group consented to subsequent treatment, with 43 patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy and one undergoing additional surgery. The median time before subsequent treatment initiation was 1.6 months [0.5-9.2 months]. The 5-year DFS rates of the standard surgical treatment group and inadvertent hysterectomy group were 88.4% vs. 93.2%, respectively (P = 0.147). The 5-year OS rates of the standard surgical treatment group and the inadvertent hysterectomy group were 98.9% vs. 100%, respectively (P = 0.767).
CONCLUSIONS: Women with cervical carcinoma who had small tumors and underwent inadvertent simple hysterectomy with appropriate consequent management had oncologic outcomes comparable to those in the standard surgical treatment group.

Pin-On P, Aporntewan C, Siriluksana J, et al.
Targeting high transcriptional control activity of long mononucleotide A-T repeats in cancer by Argonaute 1.
Gene. 2019; 699:54-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetic regulatory changes alter the gene regulation function of DNA repeat elements in cancer and consequently promote malignant phenotypes. Some short tandem repeat sequences, distributed throughout the human genome, can play a role as cis-regulatory elements of the genes. Distributions of tandem long (≥10) and short (<10) A-T repeats in the genome are different depending on gene functions. Long repeats are more commonly found in housekeeping genes and may regulate genes in harmonious fashion. Mononucleotide A-repeats around transcription start sites interact with Argonaute proteins (AGOs) to regulate gene expression. miRNA-bound AGO alterations in cancer have been reported; consequently, these changes would affect genes containing mononucleotide A- and T-repeats. Here, we showed an unprecedented hallmark of gene regulation in cancer. We evaluated the gene expression profiles reported in the Gene Expression Omnibus and found a high density of 13-27 A-T repeats in the up-regulated genes in malignancies derived from the bladder, cervix, head and neck, ovary, vulva, breast, colon, liver, lung, prostate, kidney, thyroid, adrenal gland, bone, blood cells, muscle and brain. Transfection of cell-penetrating protein tag AGO1 containing poly uracils (CPP-AGO1-polyUs) to the lung cancer cell lines altered gene regulation depending on the presence of long A-T repeats. CPP-AGO1-polyUs limited cell proliferation and the ability of a cancer cell to grow into a colony in lung cancer cell lines. In conclusion, long A-T repeats up-regulated many genes in cancer that can be targeted by AGO1 to change the expression of many genes and limited cancer growth.

Lewin NL, Luetragoon T, Andersson BÅ, et al.
The Influence of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Adjuvant Radiotherapy on Systemic Inflammatory Proteins, Chemokines and Cytokines of Patients With Breast Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(3):1287-1292 [PubMed] Related Publications
Independently of tumour and treatment modulation, the host immune response status plays an important role in the clinical outcome of patients with cancer. The influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) on the systemic immune response status of patients with breast cancer was investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-six female patients recovering from breast cancer surgery were investigated. As a control cohort, 82 healthy female blood donors were used. Blood-based SNPs, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokines and chemokines were analyzed for this purpose.
RESULTS: Independently of tumour stage and hormone receptor status, dysregulation of plasma CRP, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4) and interleukin 2 (IL2), but not CCL5, CCL2, platelet-derived growth factor, IL6, IL10, IL12, interferon-gamma or tumour necrosis factor alpha were detected in the patients when compared to controls. The extent of alteration in plasma levels of CRP and IL2 patients was significantly associated with SNPs in CRP rs1800947 and IL2 rs6822844, respectively. These SNPs had no influence on the levels of corresponding plasma biomarkers in the healthy controls. Adjuvant RT reduced plasma CRP and CCL5 levels in patients with regards to CRP rs1800947CC, CCL5 rs2107538GG and CCL5 rs2280789AA sequences.
CONCLUSION: Dysregulation of immune responses, as indicated by plasma levels of CRP, CCL4 and IL2 were found in patients with breast cancer despite the removal of the tumour mass. The benefit of adjuvant RT, as indicated by reduced plasma amounts of inflammatory protein CRP and chemokine CCL5 were based on the SNPs of the patients. Analyses of blood-based SNPs, plasma CRP, IL2 and CCL5 are low cost, rapid and can be carried out using general laboratory facilities while requiring only a peripheral blood sample. The possibility of using these blood-based biomarkers as an indicator of patient immune status for selection of individual patient treatment warrants further investigation.

Wasenang W, Chaiyarit P, Proungvitaya S, Limpaiboon T
Serum cell-free DNA methylation of OPCML and HOXD9 as a biomarker that may aid in differential diagnosis between cholangiocarcinoma and other biliary diseases.
Clin Epigenetics. 2019; 11(1):39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal cancer of the bile duct epithelial cell lining. The misdiagnosis of CCA and other biliary diseases may occur due to the similarity of clinical manifestations and blood tests resulting in inappropriate or delayed treatment. Thus, an accurate and less-invasive method for differentiating CCA from other biliary diseases is inevitable.
METHODS: We quantified methylation of OPCML, HOXA9, and HOXD9 in serum cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of CCA patients and other biliary diseases using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM). Their potency as differential biomarkers between CCA and other biliary diseases was also evaluated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
RESULTS: The significant difference of methylation levels of OPCML and HOXD9 was observed in serum cfDNA of CCA compared to other biliary diseases. Assessment of serum cfDNA methylation of OPCML and HOXD9 as differential biomarkers of CCA and other biliary diseases showed the area under curve (AUC) of 0.850 (0.759-0.941) for OPCML which sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were 80.00%, 90.00%, 88.88%, 81.81%, and 85.00%, respectively. The AUC of HOXD9 was 0.789 (0.686-0.892) with sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of 67.50%, 90.00%, 87.09%, 73.46%, and 78.75%, respectively. The combined marker between OPCML and HOXD9 showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 62.50%, 100%, 100%, and 72.72%, respectively, which may be helpful to prevent a misdiagnosis between CCA and other biliary diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the application of serum cfDNA methylation of OPCML and HOXD9 for differential diagnosis of CCA and other biliary diseases due to its less invasiveness and clinically practical method which may benefit the patients by preventing the misdiagnosis of CCA and avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention.

Chantarasriwong O, Milcarek AT, Morales TH, et al.
Synthesis, structure-activity relationship and in vitro pharmacodynamics of A-ring modified caged xanthones in a preclinical model of inflammatory breast cancer.
Eur J Med Chem. 2019; 168:405-413 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a highly metastatic, lethal form of breast cancer that lacks targeted therapeutic strategies. Inspired by the promising cytotoxicity of gambogic acid and related caged xanthones in spheroids

Jaerapong N, Jamil QA, Riha J, et al.
Organic anion‑transporting polypeptides contribute to the uptake of curcumin and its main metabolites by human breast cancer cells: Impact on antitumor activity.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(4):2558-2566 [PubMed] Related Publications
Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound with pronounced anticancer properties, despite its low bioavailability caused by extensive glucuronidation and sulfation. Information on the cellular uptake mechanisms and their contribution to the anticancer effects of curcumin and its biotransformation products is limited. The present study, therefore, investigated the role of organic anion‑transporting polypeptides (OATPs) in the cellular uptake of curcumin and its major metabolites in OATP‑expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human ZR‑75‑1 breast cancer cells. The uptake rates for curcumin in OATP1B1‑, OATP1B3‑ and OATP2B1‑transfected CHO cells were 2‑ to 3‑fold higher than wild‑type cells. Curcumin sulfate was transported by all three OATPs, although to a much lesser extent, while uptake of tetrahydrocurcumin was the highest but only via OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Notably, curcumin glucuronide did not exhibit any affinity for these OATPs. The increased mRNA levels of OATP1B1 in wild‑type human breast cancer ZR‑75‑1 cells compared with OATP1B1 knockdown cells was associated with a higher initial uptake of curcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin leading to decreased IC50 values. In conclusion, our data revealed that OATPs act as cellular uptake transporters for curcumin and its major metabolites, and this may also be applicable to patients undergoing cancer therapy.

Chaiyawat P, Sungngam P, Teeyakasem P, et al.
Protein profiling of osteosarcoma tissue and soft callus unveils activation of the unfolded protein response pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(5):1704-1718 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
Oncogenic drivers of osteosarcoma remain controversial due to the complexity of the genomic background of the disease. There are limited novel therapeutic options, and the survival rate of patients with osteosarcoma has not improved in decades. Genomic instability leads to complexity in various pathways, which is potentially revealed at the protein level. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the mechanisms involved in the oncogenesis of osteosarcoma using proteomics and bioinformatics tools. As clinical specimens from patients are the most relevant disease‑related source, expression patterns of proteins in osteosarcoma tissues were compared with soft tissue callus from donors containing high numbers of osteoblastic cells. Two‑dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography‑tandem mass spectrometry (LC‑MS/MS) successfully identified 33 differentially expressed proteins in the osteosarcoma tissues compared with the soft tissue callus. Among these proteins, 29 proteins were significantly upregulated in osteosarcoma. A functionally grouped network of the overexpressed proteins, that was created using the ClueGo and CluePedia applications, demonstrated that the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway was activated mainly through the activating transcription factor 6 arm in osteosarcoma. The results of proteomics analysis were confirmed by elevated expression of UPR‑related chaperone proteins, including 78 kDa glucose‑related protein (GRP78), endoplasmin, calreticulin and prelamin‑A/C, in the patient‑derived primary cells and osteosarcoma cell lines. Furthermore, the expression of GRP78, a master regulator of the UPR, was enhanced in the osteosarcoma tissues of patients that were resistant to double regimen of doxorubicin and a platinum‑based drug. The findings of the present study suggest that targeting the UPR pathway may be promising for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Bannangkoon K, Hongsakul K, Tubtawee T, Piratvisuth T
Safety margin of embolized area can reduce local recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after superselective transarterial chemoembolization.
Clin Mol Hepatol. 2019; 25(1):74-85 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We aimed to determine the relationship between the safety margin of an embolized area and local tumor recurrence (LTR) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent superselective transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).
METHODS: The medical records of 77 HCC patients with 109 HCC nodules who underwent superselective TACE were retrospectively analyzed for LTR. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for 16 potential factors using Cox proportional hazard regression. Iodized oil deposition on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging was divided into three grades: A=complete tumor staining and complete circumferential safety margin, B=complete tumor staining but incomplete safety margin, C=incomplete tumor staining. The effect of a safety margin on LTR was evaluated by comparison between grade A and B group.
RESULTS: Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that grade A iodized oil deposition and portal vein visualization were the only two independent significant factors of LTR (P<0.001 and P=0.029, respectively). The 12- and 24-month LTR rates of tumors for grade A (n=62), grade B (n=30), and grade C (n=17) were 16% vs. 41% vs. 100% and 16% vs. 61% vs. 100%, respectively (P<0.001). The tumors in the grade A group had a 75% risk reduction in LTR (odds ratio, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.64; P=0.004) compared to the grade B group.
CONCLUSION: LTR was significantly lower when a greater degree of iodized oil deposition occurred with a complete circumferential safety margin. In superselective TACE, the safety margin of the embolized areas using intraprocedural CBCT affected LTR in HCC patients.

Liu Z, Bychkov A, Jung CK, et al.
Interobserver and intraobserver variation in the morphological evaluation of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features in Asian practice.
Pathol Int. 2019; 69(4):202-210 [PubMed] Related Publications
To evaluate the current diagnostic criteria in reporting nuclear features of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP), nine Asian pathologists with expertise in thyroid reviewed virtual slides of 30 noninvasive follicular patterned thyroid lesions according to the nuclear scoring system originally proposed by an international expert and a more detailed scoring system proposed by the Asian Working Group. The interobserver agreement for nuclear grading score was generally moderate (kappa value = 0.452). The best consistency fell on the chromatin features (kappa value = 0.658-1.000). A fair to moderate interobserver agreement was demonstrated in the evaluation of nuclear elongation, nuclear overlapping, membrane irregularities and distribution of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) type nuclear features. A slight agreement was rendered for the evaluation of the nuclear enlargement. Intraobserver agreement was substantial to perfect when comparing results of both scoring systems. However, both scoring systems were not able to reliably separate NIFTP from an encapsulated follicular variant PTC with minimal lymph node metastasis or BRAF

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