CAV1

Gene Summary

Gene:CAV1; caveolin 1
Aliases: CGL3, PPH3, BSCL3, LCCNS, VIP21, MSTP085
Location:7q31.2
Summary:The scaffolding protein encoded by this gene is the main component of the caveolae plasma membranes found in most cell types. The protein links integrin subunits to the tyrosine kinase FYN, an initiating step in coupling integrins to the Ras-ERK pathway and promoting cell cycle progression. The gene is a tumor suppressor gene candidate and a negative regulator of the Ras-p42/44 mitogen-activated kinase cascade. Caveolin 1 and caveolin 2 are located next to each other on chromosome 7 and express colocalizing proteins that form a stable hetero-oligomeric complex. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy. Alternatively spliced transcripts encode alpha and beta isoforms of caveolin 1.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:caveolin-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CAV1 (cancer-related)

Shi D, Liu Y, Xi R, et al.
Caveolin-1 contributes to realgar nanoparticle therapy in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2016; 11:5823-5835 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the t(9;22) (q34;q11)-associated Bcr-Abl fusion gene, which is an essential element of clinical diagnosis. As a traditional Chinese medicine, realgar has been widely used for the treatment of various diseases for >1,500 years. Inspired by nano-drug, realgar nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared with an average particle size of <100 nm in a previous work. Compared with coarse realgar, the realgar NPs have higher bioavailability. As a principal constituent protein of caveolae, caveolin-1 (Cav-1) participates in regulating various cellular physiological and pathological processes including tumorigenesis and tumor development. In previous studies, it was found that realgar NPs can inhibit several types of tumor cell proliferation. However, the therapeutic effect of realgar NPs on CML has not been fully elucidated. In the present paper, it was demonstrated that realgar NPs can inhibit the proliferation of K562 cells and degrade Bcr-Abl fusion protein effectively. Both apoptosis and autophagy were activated in a dose-dependent manner in realgar NPs treated cells, and the induction of autophagy was associated with class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Morphological analysis indicated that realgar NPs induced differentiation effectively in CML cells. Furthermore, it was identified that Cav-1 might play a crucial role in realgar NP therapy. In order to study the effects of Cav-1 on K562 cells during realgar NP treatment, a Cav-1 overexpression cell model was established by using transient transfection. The results indicated that Cav-1 overexpression inhibited K562 cell proliferation, promoted endogenic autophagy, and increased the sensitivity of K562 cells to realgar NPs. Therefore, the results demonstrated that realgar NPs degraded Bcr-Abl oncoprotein, while the underlying mechanism might be related to apoptosis and autophagy, and Cav-1 might be considered as a potential target for clinical comprehensive therapy of CML.

Yuan S, Wang L, Chen X, et al.
Triptolide inhibits the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer cells via Caveolin-1/CD147/MMPs pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1776-1782 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common type of carcinoma and the 5th leading cause of cancer-related death in males. Triptolide, is a main and effective component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, which exerts an broad-spectrum anti-malignant tumor function. However, the effect of triptolide on migration and invasion of human prostate cancer cells is still poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that triptolide significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is regarded as a major structural protein of caveolae and participated in lipid transport, signal transduction and tumor progression. Triptolide treatment inhibited the expression of tumor promoter Cav-1 and reduced CD147 and MMPs activities at both mRNA and protein levels. Meanwhile, triptolide treatment combined with Cav-1 knockdown in PCa cells enhanced the effects of anti-migration and anti-invasion, and those effects were restored following Cav-1-rescued. Together, our research indicates that triptolide represses the migration and invasion through Cav-1/CD147/MMPs pathway in PCa cells, which gives a better understanding of triptolide in clinical aggressive prostate cancer therapy.

Ji Y, Han Z, Shao L, Zhao Y
Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction of calcium channel subunit α 1D siRNA inhibits breast cancer via G protein-coupled receptor 30.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):1886-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Estrogen has been closely associated with breast cancer. Several studies reported that Ca2+ signal and Ca2+ channels act in estrogen-modulated non-genomic pathway of breast cancer, however little was revealed on the function of L-type Ca2+ channels. The L-type Ca2+ channel subunit α 1D, named Cav1.3 was found in breast cancer cells. We aimed to investigate the expression and activity of Cav1.3 in human breast cancer, and reveal the effect of estrogen in regulating the expression of Cav1.3. The qRT-PCR and western blotting were employed to show that Cav1.3 was highly expressed in breast cancer tissues. E2 exposure rapidly upregulated the expression of Cav1.3 in dosage- and time-dependent manner, and promoted Ca2+ influx. The silencing of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPER1/GPR30) using siRNA transfection inhibited the upregulation of Cav1.3 and Ca2+ influx induced by E2. Moreover, the inhibition of Cav1.3 by siRNA transfection suppressed E2-induced second peak of Ca2+ signal, the expression of p-ERK1/2, and the cell proliferation. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) of Cav1.3 siRNA was used in MCF-7 cells in vitro and in the tumor xenografts mice in vivo. The application of UTMD significantly suppressed the tumor growth and promoted the survival rate. In conclusion, E2 upregulated the expression of Cav1.3 for Ca2+ influx to promote the expression of p-ERK1/2 for cell proliferation. The study confirmed that the mechanism of E2 inducing the expression of Cav1.3 through a non-genomic pathway, and highlighted that UTMD of Cav1.3 siRNA is a powerful promising technology for breast cancer gene therapy.

Kowalska K, Nowakowska M, Domińska K, Piastowska-Ciesielska AW
Coexpression of CAV-1, AT1-R and FOXM1 in prostate and breast cancer and normal cell lines and their influence on metastatic properties.
Acta Biochim Pol. 2016; 63(3):493-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate the coexpression of caveolin-1 (CAV-1), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) and forkhead box Ml (FOXM1) in prostate and breast cancer cell lines, in comparison with normal cell lines. CAV-1, AT1-R and FOXM1 expression was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis in the prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145 and LNCaP; prostate normal cell line PNT1A; breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231; and the normal breast cell line 184A1. A correlation between the expression levels of the investigated genes and their metastatic properties was determined by the Spearman's rank test (P<0.05) and Aspin-Welsch t-test, respectively. In prostate cell lines, a significant correlation was noted between CAV-1 and AT1-R expression and between FOXM1 and CAV-1 expression. A correlation between the expression levels of the investigated genes and their metastatic potential was also observed, with relatively high expression of all the investigated genes in the normal prostate cell line PNT1A. In comparison to prostate cancer cell lines, an adverse dependency between CAV-1, AT1-R, FOXM1 expression and metastatic potential was observed in the breast cancer cell lines. Relatively high expression of all tested genes was observed in the normal breast cell line 184A1, which was decreasing respectively with increasing metastatic potential of breast cancer cell lines. The results obtained here indicate that CAV-1, FOXM1 and AT1-R may be potential markers of tumorigenesis in certain types of cancer in vitro.

Riwaldt S, Bauer J, Wehland M, et al.
Pathways Regulating Spheroid Formation of Human Follicular Thyroid Cancer Cells under Simulated Microgravity Conditions: A Genetic Approach.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(4):528 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Microgravity induces three-dimensional (3D) growth in numerous cell types. Despite substantial efforts to clarify the underlying mechanisms for spheroid formation, the precise molecular pathways are still not known. The principal aim of this paper is to compare static 1g-control cells with spheroid forming (MCS) and spheroid non-forming (AD) thyroid cancer cells cultured in the same flask under simulated microgravity conditions. We investigated the morphology and gene expression patterns in human follicular thyroid cancer cells (UCLA RO82-W-1 cell line) after a 24 h-exposure on the Random Positioning Machine (RPM) and focused on 3D growth signaling processes. After 24 h, spheroid formation was observed in RPM-cultures together with alterations in the F-actin cytoskeleton. qPCR indicated more changes in gene expression in MCS than in AD cells. Of the 24 genes analyzed VEGFA, VEGFD, MSN, and MMP3 were upregulated in MCS compared to 1g-controls, whereas ACTB, ACTA2, KRT8, TUBB, EZR, RDX, PRKCA, CAV1, MMP9, PAI1, CTGF, MCP1 were downregulated. A pathway analysis revealed that the upregulated genes code for proteins, which promote 3D growth (angiogenesis) and prevent excessive accumulation of extracellular proteins, while genes coding for structural proteins are downregulated. Pathways regulating the strength/rigidity of cytoskeletal proteins, the amount of extracellular proteins, and 3D growth may be involved in MCS formation.

Popa IL, Milac AL, Sima LE, et al.
Cross-talk between Dopachrome Tautomerase and Caveolin-1 Is Melanoma Cell Phenotype-specific and Potentially Involved in Tumor Progression.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(24):12481-500 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
l-Dopachrome tautomerase (l-DCT), also called tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2), is a melanoma antigen overexpressed in most chemo-/radiotherapeutic stress-resistant tumor clones, and caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a main regulator of numerous signaling processes. A structural and functional relationship between DCT and CAV1 is first presented here in two human amelanotic melanoma cell lines, derived from vertical growth phase (MelJuSo) and metastatic (SKMel28) melanomas. DCT co-localizes at the plasma membrane with CAV1 and Cavin-1, another molecular marker for caveolae in both cell phenotypes. Our novel structural model proposed for the DCT-CAV1 complex, in addition to co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry data, indicates a possible direct interaction between DCT and CAV1. The CAV1 control on DCT gene expression, DCT post-translational processing, and subcellular distribution is cell phenotype-dependent. DCT is a modulator of CAV1 stability and supramolecular assembly in both cell phenotypes. During autocrine stimulation, the expressions of DCT and CAV1 are oppositely regulated; DCT increases while CAV1 decreases. Sub-confluent MelJuSo clones DCT(high)/CAV1(low) are proliferating and acquire fibroblast-like morphology, forming massive, confluent clusters as demonstrated by immunofluorescent staining and TissueFAXS quantitative image cytometry analysis. CAV1 down-regulation directly contributes to the expansion of MelJuSo DCT(high) subtype. CAV1 involved in the perpetuation of cell phenotype-overexpressing anti-stress DCT molecule supports the concept that CAV1 functions as a tumor suppressor in early stages of melanoma. DCT is a regulator of the CAV1-associated structures and is possibly a new molecular player in CAV1-mediated processes in melanoma.

Zhang M, Luo SC
Gene expression profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer reveals key genes and pathways associated with chemotherapy resistance.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study is to analyze gene expression data to identify key genes and pathways associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to improve clinical treatment strategies. The gene expression data set was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and included 12 chemotherapy-resistant EOC samples and 16 chemotherapy-sensitive EOC samples. A differential analysis was performed to screen out differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A functional enrichment analysis was conducted for the DEGs using the database for annotation, visualization, and integration discovery. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed with information from the human protein reference database. Pathway-pathway interactions were determined with a test based on the hypergeometric distribution. A total of 1564 DEGs were identified in chemotherapy-sensitive EOC, including 654 upregulated genes and 910 downregulated genes. The top three upregulated genes were HIST1H3G, AKT3, and RTN3, while the top three downregulated genes were NBLA00301, TRIM62, and EPHA5. A Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed that cell adhesion, biological adhesion, and intracellular signaling cascades were significantly enriched in the DEGs. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the calcium, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and B cell receptor signaling pathways were significantly over-represented in the DEGs. A PPI network containing 101 interactions was acquired. The top three hub genes were RAC1, CAV1, and BCL2. Five modules were identified from the PPI network. Taken together, these findings could advance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying intrinsic chemotherapy resistance in EOC.

Zhang K, Yang G, Wu W, et al.
Decreased Expression of Caveolin-1 and E-Cadherin Correlates with the Clinicopathologic Features of Gastric Cancer and the EMT Process.
Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2016; 11(2):236-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent researches and relevant patents have been reported to prove the significant value of Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in cancer diagnosis and treatment.
OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to study the role of Cav-1 in gastric cancer progression and investigate the relationship between Cav-1/E-cadherin expression and the clinical status of gastric cancer.
METHOD: Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the expression of Cav-1 and E-cadherin in gastric cancer in a tissue microarray. Real-time PCR was used to further detect the mRNA expression of Cav-1 and E-cadherin in tumor-derived and peritumoral tissues and in different gastric cancer cell lines. The expression of E-cadherin was analyzed by Western Blot and the cell migration ability was examined by Transwell migration assays after downregulation of Cav-1 using siRNA.
RESULTS: The staining of Cav-1 and E-cadherin were both strong in all 5 of the normal gastric tissues, while in gastric cancer tissues the staining of Cav-1 and E-cadherin were downregulated (44&33 negative, 21&22weak and 5&15 strong). And their level was correlated with tumor clinical stage, pathological grade, and metastasis status. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between Cav-1 expression and E-cadherin expression in gastric cancer tissues(r = 0.42, P < 0.05). Knockdown of Cav-1 resulted in decreased expression of E-cadherin, cell morphology changes and elevated migration ability of gastric cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Decreased expression of Cav-1 and E-cadherin may play an important role in the progression of gastric cancer; Knockdown of Cav-1 may promote EMT of gastric cancer by targeting E-cadherin.

Deb M, Sengupta D, Kar S, et al.
Epigenetic drift towards histone modifications regulates CAV1 gene expression in colon cancer.
Gene. 2016; 581(1):75-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an important structural component of cellular caveolae involved in cell signaling. CAV1 gene on/off regulatory mechanism in multiple diseases, including cancer is not clearly understood. The tumor suppressor versus oncogene paradox of CAV1 during tumor development tempted us to investigate the role for the epigenetic drift of CAV1 gene regulation.
METHODS: We have analyzed CAV1 gene expression and associated epigenetic marks (DNA methylation and histone 3 modifications) in the CAV1 promoter in two colon cancer cell lines, under treatment with well established epigenetic modulators, AZA, SAM, TSA and SFN at varying concentrations. CAV1 gene promoter DNA methylation and histone modifications were analyzed by DNA methylation specific PCR, bisulphite modification of DNA and ChIP analyses following PCR respectively.
RESULTS: Ectopic expression of CAV1 by epigenetic modulators inhibits colon cancer cell growth. CAV1 promoter DNA remains unmethylated before and after treatment with epigenetic modulators, which confirmed that DNA methylation is not the regulator of CAV1 expression in colon cancer. There was enrichment of H3K4me3 and H3K9AcS10P and depletion of H3K9me3 modifications around the CAV1 promoter.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data provides novel insight into the regulation of CAV1 gene by histone H3 modifications and enhance the amplitude of the cancer epigenome.

Zhang S, Cao W, Yue M, et al.
Caveolin-1 affects tumor drug resistance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by regulating expressions of P-gp and MRP1.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9189-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common cancer in China, and multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of the biggest problems in ESCC chemotherapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of Caveolin-1, an integral membrane protein, on regulating ESCC MDR. First, immunohistochemistry was used to check the protein expression of Caveolin-1, MDR-related protein of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) in 84 pathologically characterized ESCC tissues, matched adjacent tumor, and adjacent normal-looking tissues. The results showed that Caveolin-1 expression level was elevated in ESCC tissues than that of matched adjacent tumor and adjacent normal-looking tissues (P < 0.05), and the expression of Caveolin-1 has close correlation with P-gp and MRP1 during tumor genesis of ESCC (P = 0.034, P = 0.009, respectively). Then, Caveolin-1 overexpression and knockdown were used to investigate its effect on expressions of P-gp and MRP1 in ESCC cell line Ec9706. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of P-gp and MRP1 were checked by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB). The results showed that Caveolin-1 overexpression significantly promotes the mRNA and protein expression of MRP1 (P < 0.05), while almost has no effect on the mRNA and protein expression of P-gp (P > 0.05); Cavoelin-1 knockdown inhibits the mRNA and protein expressions of both P-gp and MRP1 (P < 0.05). The similar result was found in another ESCC cell line Eca109. So, it is concluded that Caveolin-1 affects ESCC MDR by regulating the expressions of P-gp and MRP1; therefore, it can be taken as a significant marker and target in tumor therapy.

Nath A, Chan C
Genetic alterations in fatty acid transport and metabolism genes are associated with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:18669 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a hallmark feature of cancer cells. While a distinct set of processes drive metastasis when compared to tumorigenesis, it is yet unclear if genetic alterations in metabolic pathways are associated with metastatic progression of human cancers. Here, we analyzed the mutation, copy number variation and gene expression patterns of a literature-derived model of metabolic genes associated with glycolysis (Warburg effect), fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, oxidation, lipolysis, esterification) and fatty acid uptake in >9000 primary or metastatic tumor samples from the multi-cancer TCGA datasets. Our association analysis revealed a uniform pattern of Warburg effect mutations influencing prognosis across all tumor types, while copy number alterations in the electron transport chain gene SCO2, fatty acid uptake (CAV1, CD36) and lipogenesis (PPARA, PPARD, MLXIPL) genes were enriched in metastatic tumors. Using gene expression profiles, we established a gene-signature (CAV1, CD36, MLXIPL, CPT1C, CYP2E1) that strongly associated with epithelial-mesenchymal program across multiple cancers. Moreover, stratification of samples based on the copy number or expression profiles of the genes identified in our analysis revealed a significant effect on patient survival rates, thus confirming prominent roles of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.

Riwaldt S, Bauer J, Pietsch J, et al.
The Importance of Caveolin-1 as Key-Regulator of Three-Dimensional Growth in Thyroid Cancer Cells Cultured under Real and Simulated Microgravity Conditions.
Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 16(12):28296-310 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
We recently demonstrated that the CAV1 gene was down-regulated, when poorly differentiated thyroid FTC-133 cancer cells formed spheroids under simulated microgravity conditions. Here, we present evidence that the caveolin-1 protein is involved in the inhibition of spheroid formation, when confluent monolayers are exposed to microgravity. The evidence is based on proteins detected in cells and their supernatants of the recent spaceflight experiment: "NanoRacks-CellBox-Thyroid Cancer". The culture supernatant had been collected in a special container adjacent to the flight hardware incubation chamber and stored at low temperature until it was analyzed by Multi-Analyte Profiling (MAP) technology, while the cells remaining in the incubation chamber were fixed by RNAlater and examined by mass spectrometry. The soluble proteins identified by MAP were investigated in regard to their mutual interactions and their influence on proteins, which were associated with the cells secreting the soluble proteins and had been identified in a preceding study. A Pathway Studio v.11 analysis of the soluble and cell-associated proteins together with protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA) suggests that caveolin-1 is involved, when plasminogen enriched in the extracellular space is not activated and the vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) mediated cell-cell adhesion is simultaneously strengthened and activated PRKCA is recruited in caveolae, while the thyroid cancer cells do not form spheroids.

Herek TA, Shew TD, Spurgin HN, Cutucache CE
Conserved Molecular Underpinnings and Characterization of a Role for Caveolin-1 in the Tumor Microenvironment of Mature T-Cell Lymphomas.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0142682 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
Neoplasms of extra-thymic T-cell origin represent a rare and difficult population characterized by poor clinical outcome, aggressive presentation, and poorly defined molecular characteristics. Much work has been done to gain greater insights into distinguishing features among malignant subtypes, but there also exists a need to identify unifying characteristics to assist in rapid diagnosis and subsequent potential treatment. Herein, we investigated gene expression data of five different mature T-cell lymphoma subtypes (n = 187) and found 21 genes to be up- and down-regulated across all malignancies in comparison to healthy CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell controls (n = 52). From these results, we sought to characterize a role for caveolin-1 (CAV1), a gene with previous description in the progression of both solid and hematological tumors. Caveolin-1 was upregulated, albeit with a heterogeneous nature, across all mature T-cell lymphoma subtypes, a finding confirmed using immunohistochemical staining on an independent sampling of mature T-cell lymphoma biopsies (n = 65 cases). Further, stratifying malignant samples in accordance with high and low CAV1 expression revealed that higher expression of CAV1 in mature T-cell lymphomas is analogous with an enhanced inflammatory and invasive gene expression profile. Taken together, these results demonstrate a role for CAV1 in the tumor microenvironment of mature T-cell malignancies and point toward potential prognostic implications.

Sugie S, Mukai S, Yamasaki K, et al.
Significant Association of Caveolin-1 and Caveolin-2 with Prostate Cancer Progression.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2015 Nov-Dec; 12(6):391-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Up-regulation of caveolin (CAV)-1 is associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Recently, it has been inferred that CAV2, a co-factor sub-type of CAV1, cross-talks with CAV1 and promotes tumor growth. We previously reported that plasma CAV1 levels are elevated in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), but not in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (non-CRPC), implying that CAV1 may be a therapeutic target for CRPC. However, a correlation of CAV1 and CAV2 expression in PC has not yet been reported. Herein, we analyzed associations between PC progression and plasma CAV1 and -2 in Japanese men, and expression of CAV1 and -2 in PC3 (CRPC) and LNCaP (non-CRPC) cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated plasma samples from 36 patients with CRPC and 22 with non-CRPC. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine plasma levels of CAV1 and -2, and examined correlations with clinicopathological characteristics such as Gleason grade and clinical T stage. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate CAV1 and CAV2 mRNA in PC cell lines. We also introduced CAV1- and CAV2-specific small interfering (siRNA) into PC3 cells to knock-down (KD) both molecules, and examined its influence on the expression of these genes between PC3 CAV1 and -2 KD cells and control cells.
RESULTS: Plasma CAV1 and -2 levels in patients with CRPC were significantly higher than in those with non-CRPC (CAV1, p=0.003; CAV2, p<0.001). Plasma levels of CAV1 and -2 were significantly correlated (p<0.001). However, we did not find any significant relationship between CAV1 or CAV2 expression and clinicopathological factors. ELISA and real-time qRT-PCR showed that both proteins and mRNAs in PC3 cells were significantly over-expressed compared to LNCaP cells (p<0.001). In PC3 CAV1 KD cells, expression of CAV2 was suppressed and confirmed the linkage of CAV2 KD and suppression of CAV1 expression.
CONCLUSION: There was a significant correlation between plasma CAV-1 and -2 levels and progression of PC. CAV1 and -2 were highly expressed in the PC3 compared to the LNCaP cell line. Our findings support the potential of these molecules as therapeutic targets for CRPC.

Zou W, Ma X, Hua W, et al.
Caveolin-1 mediates chemoresistance in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells by targeting apoptosis through the Notch-1/Akt/NF-κB pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(6):3256-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a family of ubiquitously expressed oligomeric structural proteins in many mammalian cells, has been shown to be an effective regulator of tumorigenesis. Recent studies have indicated that Cav-1 can promote resistance to chemotherapy in a variety of tumors. However, the regulation of Cav-1 on chemoresistance in ovarian cancer is still unknown. In the present study, the mRNA and protein expression level was investigated by RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively, and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was measured by MTT assay. The protein expression level of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Notch-1, p-Akt and p-NF-κB p65 were detected using western blot analysis and the apoptotic ratio was determined using the Annexin V-FITC/PI detection kit. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of Cav-1 were significantly higher in SKOV3/DDP and A2780/DDP than in SKOV3 and A2780, respectively. Knockdown of Cav-1 significantly decreased the IC50 value in cisplatin-resistant cells. The protein expression level of P-gp in SKOV3/DDP and A2780/DDP was significant higher than SKOV3 and A2780, respectively, and had no correlation with the Cav-1 siRNA transfection. The apoptotic ratio induced by cisplatin in normal ovarian cancer cells was higher than cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells, and knockdown of Cav-1 could significantly enhance cisplatin induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, knockdown of Cav-1 was also able to significantly downregulate the protein expression level of Notch-1, p-Akt and p-NF-κB p65 in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of Cav-1 upregulated the IC50 value, but under the effect of Notch-1 siRNA or LY294002 or PDTC, the IC50 value was markedly decreased. Our results suggested that Cav-1 can promote the chemoresistance of ovarian cancer by targeting apoptosis through the Notch-1/Akt/NF-κB pathway.

Totta P, Gionfra F, Busonero C, Acconcia F
Modulation of 17β-Estradiol Signaling on Cellular Proliferation by Caveolin-2.
J Cell Physiol. 2016; 231(6):1219-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
The sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) exerts pleiotropic effects by binding to the ligand-activated transcription factor estrogen receptor α (ERα). The E2:ERα complex regulates several physiological processes, including cell survival and proliferation, through transcriptional effects (i.e., estrogen responsive element [ERE]-based gene transcription) and non-transcriptional membrane-initiated effects (i.e., the activation of extra-nuclear signaling cascades), which derive from the activation of the pool of ERα that is localized to plasma membrane caveolae. Caveolae are ω-shaped membrane sub-domains that are composed of scaffold proteins named caveolins (i.e., caveolin-1, caveolin-2, and caveolin-3). Although caveolin-3 is exclusively expressed in muscles, caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 are co-expressed in all human tissues. From a functional point of view, caveolin-2 can operate both dependently on and independently of caveolin-1, which is the main coat component of caveolae. Interestingly, while a functional interplay between caveolin-1 and ERα has been reported in the control of E2-induced physiological effects, the role of caveolin-2 in E2:ERα signaling within the cell remains poorly understood. This study shows that siRNA-mediated caveolin-2 depletion in breast ductal carcinoma cells (MCF-7) reduces E2-induced ERα phosphorylation at serine residue 118 (S118), controls intracellular receptor levels, precludes ERα-mediated extra-nuclear activation of signaling pathways, reduces ERα transcriptional activity, and prevents cellular proliferation. Meanwhile, the impact of caveolin-1 depletion on ERα signaling in MCF-7 cells is shown to be similar to that elicited by siRNA-mediated caveolin-2 depletion. Altogether, these data demonstrate that caveolin-2 expression is necessary for the control of E2-dependent cellular proliferation.

Jung AC, Ray AM, Ramolu L, et al.
Caveolin-1-negative head and neck squamous cell carcinoma primary tumors display increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition and prometastatic properties.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(39):41884-901 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
Distant metastases arise in 20-30% of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) in the 2 years following treatment. Therapeutic options are limited and the outcome of the patients is poor. The identification of predictive biomarkers of patient at risk for distant metastasis and therapies are urgently needed. We previously identified a clinical subgroup, called "R1" characterized by high propensity for rapid distant metastasis. Here, we showed that "R1" patients do not or at very low level express caveolin-1 (Cav1). Low or no expression of Cav1 is of bad prognosis. Disappearance of Cav1 enables cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT is associated with enhanced migration and invasion. Our study uncovered a new target, α5β1 integrin. Targeting α5β1 integrins might not only prevent metastasis of HNSCC but also delay the development of the primary tumor by reducing tumor cell viability. Cav1 detection might be taken into consideration in the future in the clinic not only to identify patients at high risk of metastasis but also to select patient who might benefit from an anti-integrin therapy.

Jiang X, Ye X, Ma J, et al.
G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER 1) mediates estrogen-induced, proliferation of leiomyoma cells.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2015; 31(11):894-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER-1, formerly known as GPR30) has been proposed as the receptor for estrogen-induced, growth of leiomyomas though its precise mechanisms of action are not clear. We obtained leiomyoma cells (LC) and normal smooth muscle cells from 28 women (n = 28, median age 38 years, median parity 1.0). We incubated them with 17-β estradiol (E(2)), after blocking, or upregulating, expression of GPER-1 with ICI182,780 (a GPER-1 agonist) and siGPR30, respectively. We evaluated the role of GPER-1 in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway using Western blot analysis. We studied cell proliferation with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, and, mitotic activity with phosphohistone H3 (PPH3) expression in leiomyoma, and, matched, normal, smooth muscle tissues using standard immunohistochemistry. Downregulation of GPER-1 expression with siGPR30 partially attenuated the E(2)-activated MAPK signaling pathway (p < 0.01). Upregulation of GPER-1 with ICI182,780 enhanced the E(2)-activated MAPK signaling pathway (p < 0.01). ICI182,780 enhanced E(2)-induced proliferation of LC (p < 0.01), while knock down of the GPER-1 gene with GPER-1 small interfering RNA partially inhibited E(2)-induced cell proliferation (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in PPH3 expression between LCs and normal smooth muscle tissues (p > 0.05). Neither ICI182,780 nor siGPR30 increased mitosis in LCs (p > 0.05). Our results indicate that GPER-1 mediates proliferation of estrogen-induced, LC by activating the MAPK pathway, and, not by promoting mitosis.

Chai F, Liang Y, Zhang F, et al.
Systematically identify key genes in inflammatory and non-inflammatory breast cancer.
Gene. 2016; 575(2 Pt 3):600-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the gene expression in breast tumor stroma, playing a critical role in determining inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) phenotype, has been proved to be significantly different between IBC and non-inflammatory breast cancer (non-IBC), more effort needs to systematically investigate the gene expression profiles between tumor epithelium and stroma and to efficiently uncover the potential molecular networks and critical genes for IBC and non-IBC. Here, we comprehensively analyzed and compared the transcriptional profiles from IBC and non-IBC patients using hierarchical clustering, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database analyses, and identified PDGFRβ, SUMO1, COL1A1, FYN, CAV1, COL5A1 and MMP2 to be the key genes for breast cancer. Interestingly, PDGFRβ was found to be the hub gene in both IBC and non-IBC; SUMO1 and COL1A1 were respectively the key genes for IBC and non-IBC. These analysis results indicated that those key genes might play important role in IBC and non-IBC and provided some clues for future studies.

Caiola E, Marrazzo E, Alesci S, et al.
∆Np73beta induces caveolin-1 in human non-small cell lung cancer cell line H1299.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(2):2015-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Caveolins have recently attracted attention for their possible involvement in signal transduction. Their role in cancer is debated, being reported both a suppressive and oncogenic role in different experimental conditions. Caveolin-1 is regulated by the tumor suppressor p53 which is able to bind its promoter and activate transcription. We had previous evidences indicating that a specific p73 isoform, namely ∆Np73β, when overexpressed in NCI-H1299 induced growth arrest and cell death. By gene expression analysis in cell transiently overexpressed with ∆Np73β, a strong induction of caveolin-1 was found. Caveolin was induced both at mRNA and protein level, and we characterised the promoter sequence of the gene encoding for caveolin-1 and found that the promoter region containing the putative p53 (and hence p73) binding sequence was responsive to ∆Np73β, but not to ∆Np73α and ∆Np73γ which do not induce growth arrest as ∆Np73β does. A reduction in cell adhesion was observed in ∆Np73β overexpressing cells, again supporting a possible role of caveolins in determining these effects. By using specific siRNA directed against human caveolin-1, we could not however antagonize the effects induced by ∆Np73β. Although caveolin-1 represents one of the genes whose expression is strongly activated by ∆Np73β, we could not define a role of caveolin-1 as a mediator of ∆Np73β associated growth arrest. It could well be that the expression of caveolin-1 is able to mediate other activities of ∆Np73β, and studies are in progress to determine whether its expression is mainly associated to metastatic spread.

Davis JE, Nemesure B, Mehmood S, et al.
Her2 and Ki67 Biomarkers Predict Recurrence of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2016; 24(1):20-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A subset of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) experience recurrence or progression to invasive cancer. Current clinical practice is not reliably guided by DCIS recurrence prediction, although recurrence risk for invasive breast cancer can now be assessed. We analyzed a panel of biomarkers (estrogen receptor, Her2, Ki67, p53, cyclin D1, COX-2, caveolin-1, survivin, and PPAR-γ) and DCIS histologic and clinical features to determine associations with DCIS recurrence.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy DCIS cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2010 were divided into 2 groups: 52 had DCIS without known recurrence after excision and 18 had DCIS with subsequent recurrence after excision as DCIS or invasive carcinoma in the ipsilateral or contralateral breast. Tissue microarrays were prepared, immunohistochemistry performed, and expression of the biomarkers scored semiquantitatively. Variables analyzed included age, tumor size, margin status, DCIS grade, necrosis, histologic type, and immunohistochemistry scores. Differences between groups were evaluated using t tests for continuous variables and Fisher exact tests for categorical variables.
RESULTS: Intraductal necrosis was associated with increased recurrence risk: 46% of nonrecurrent cases showed necrosis compared with 83% of those who recurred (P=0.007). Her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) and Ki67 expression distributions were significantly different between nonrecurrent and recurrent cases. Her2 was overexpressed in 14% of nonrecurrent cases compared with 50% in the recurrent cases (P=0.03). A total of 87% of nonrecurrent cases had low Ki67 staining (0% to 10%) compared with 50% among the recurrent cases (P=0.002).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Her2 and Ki67 immunohistochemistry and the presence of intraductal necrosis aid in DCIS risk stratification.

Yu F, Xie D, Ng SS, et al.
IFITM1 promotes the metastasis of human colorectal cancer via CAV-1.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 368(1):135-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) is one of the interferon-induced transmembrane protein family members. In this study, we reported that the elevated IFITM1 expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) significantly correlated with CRC lymph node and distance metastasis as well as a more advanced clinical stage. Importantly, elevated IFITM1 expression is an independent prognostic factor for poor survival. To investigate the molecular mechanisms, we showed that over-expression of IFITM1 in CRC cells promoted, whereas knockdown of IFITM1 expression inhibited, cell migration/invasion and tumorigenicity in vitro. Furthermore, we identified Caveolin-1 (CAV1) as a downstream target of IFITM1-induced cell invasion, as knockdown of CAV1 abrogated siIFITM1 mediated inhibition of cell invasion in CRC cells. In addition, in a CRC cohort of 229 patients, the expression of IFITM1 inversely correlated with the expression of CAV1. These results suggested that IFITM1 promotes the aggressiveness of CRC cells, and it is a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for CRC.

Kitowska A, Wesserling M, Seroczynska B, et al.
Differentiation of high-risk stage I and II colon tumors based on evaluation of CAV1 gene expression.
J Surg Oncol. 2015; 112(4):408-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Several molecular markers are currently being investigated for their prognostic or predictive value in colorectal cancer. One of the genes proposed, as a potential molecular marker in CRC is CAV1.
METHODS: The level of CAV1 expression was investigated in low-stage (I and II TNM) colon cancers using Real-Time PCR and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: The level of CAV1 expression increased in tumors characterized by greater depths of invasiveness. The CAV1 expression level detected in tumors with a depth of invasion at stage T4 was significantly higher compared to that in T2 (P = 0.01) and T3 (P = 0.003) lesions. The length of a patient's survival depended on CAV1 expression level; the 10-year survival rate for patients with elevated expression of CAV1 was ∼59% compared with 91% for patients with reduced or unchanged expression of CAV1 (P = 0.007). The overall survival rate of patients with T3 + T4 lesions was significantly lower (P = 0.006) for patients with tumor displaying elevated CAV1 expression compared with patients with reduced or unchanged CAV1 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of CAV1 expression offers valuable prognostic information for patients with colorectal cancer, and could be used to select patients with stage I or II disease, who are at increased risk of unfavorable outcomes.

Pon JR, Wong J, Saberi S, et al.
MEF2B mutations in non-Hodgkin lymphoma dysregulate cell migration by decreasing MEF2B target gene activation.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:7953 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
Myocyte enhancer factor 2B (MEF2B) is a transcription factor with mutation hotspots at K4, Y69 and D83 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To provide insight into the regulatory network of MEF2B, in this study, we analyse global gene expression and DNA-binding patterns. We find that candidate MEF2B direct target genes include RHOB, RHOD, CDH13, ITGA5 and CAV1, and that indirect target genes of MEF2B include MYC, TGFB1, CARD11, MEF2C, NDRG1 and FN1. MEF2B overexpression increases HEK293A cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and decreases DLBCL cell chemotaxis. K4E, Y69H and D83V MEF2B mutations decrease the capacity of MEF2B to activate transcription and decrease its' effects on cell migration. The K4E and D83V mutations decrease MEF2B DNA binding. In conclusion, our map of the MEF2B regulome connects MEF2B to drivers of oncogenesis.

Cheng Y, Ma D, Zhang Y, et al.
Cervical squamous cancer mRNA profiles reveal the key genes of metastasis and invasion.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(3):309-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: To investigate mRNA expression profiles associated with cervical squamous carcinoma progression and to identify key genes involved in invasion and metastasis of cervical squamous cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors extracted the mRNA expression profile of eight normal cervical tissues by human whole genome microarray. The main functions of differentially expressed genes were identified by gene ontology (GO) analysis. Gene-networks were established based on bioinformatic approaches. Microarray data of the expressions level of key genes verified by qRT-PCR.
RESULTS: The authors identified 2036 differentially expressed genes between two groups including 1,282 down-regulated genes and 754 up-regulated genes (p < 0.05, FDR < 0.05). Gene-network revealed that PDGFRA, CAV1, and GJA-1 were critical for cervical cancer invasion and metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: PDGFRA, CAV1, and GJA-1 were revealed as key node genes for cervical cancer invasion and metastasis. The results may provide new evidences and ideas for early diagnosis and prognosis assessment of cervical cancer.

Lin HH, Lin HK, Lin IH, et al.
Mechanical phenotype of cancer cells: cell softening and loss of stiffness sensing.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(25):20946-58 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
The stiffness sensing ability is required to respond to the stiffness of the matrix. Here we determined whether normal cells and cancer cells display distinct mechanical phenotypes. Cancer cells were softer than their normal counterparts, regardless of the type of cancer (breast, bladder, cervix, pancreas, or Ha-RasV12-transformed cells). When cultured on matrices of varying stiffness, low stiffness decreased proliferation in normal cells, while cancer cells and transformed cells lost this response. Thus, cancer cells undergo a change in their mechanical phenotype that includes cell softening and loss of stiffness sensing. Caveolin-1, which is suppressed in many tumor cells and in oncogene-transformed cells, regulates the mechanical phenotype. Caveolin-1-upregulated RhoA activity and Y397FAK phosphorylation directed actin cap formation, which was positively correlated with cell elasticity and stiffness sensing in fibroblasts. Ha-RasV12-induced transformation and changes in the mechanical phenotypes were reversed by re-expression of caveolin-1 and mimicked by the suppression of caveolin-1 in normal fibroblasts. This is the first study to describe this novel role for caveolin-1, linking mechanical phenotype to cell transformation. Furthermore, mechanical characteristics may serve as biomarkers for cell transformation.

Zhu J, Pan C, Jiang J, et al.
Six stroma-based RNA markers diagnostic for prostate cancer in European-Americans validated at the RNA and protein levels in patients in China.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(18):16757-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
We previously analyzed human prostate tissue containing stroma near to tumor and from cancer-negative tissues of volunteers. Over 100 candidate gene expression differences were identified and used to develop a classifier that could detect nearby tumor with an accuracy of 97% (sensitivity = 98% and specificity = 88%) based on 364 independent test cases from primarily European American cases. These stroma-based gene signatures have the potential to identify cancer patients among those with negative biopsies. In this study, we used prostate tissues from Chinese cases to validate six of these markers (CAV1, COL4A2, HSPB1, ITGB3, MAP1A and MCAM). In validation by real-time PCR, four genes (COL4A2, HSPB1, ITGB3, and MAP1A) demonstrated significantly lower expression in tumor-adjacent stroma compared to normal stroma (p value ≤ 0.05). Next, we tested whether these expression differences could be extended to the protein level. In IHC assays, all six selected proteins showed lower expression in tumor-adjacent stroma compared to the normal stroma, of which COL4A2, HSPB1 and ITGB3 showed significant differences (p value ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that biomarkers for diagnosing prostate cancer based on tumor microenvironment may be applicable across multiple racial groups.

Tang W, Feng X, Zhang S, et al.
Caveolin-1 Confers Resistance of Hepatoma Cells to Anoikis by Activating IGF-1 Pathway.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015; 36(3):1223-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Anoikis resistance is a prerequisite for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. The role of Caveolin-1 (CAV1) in anoikis resistance of HCC remains unclear.
METHODS: The oncogenic effect of CAV1 on anchor-independent growth and anoikis resistance was investigated by overexpression and knockdown of CAV1 in hepatoma cells. IGF-1 pathway and its downstream signals were detected by immunoblot analysis. Caveolae invagination and IGF-1R internalization was studied by electron microscopy and (125)I-IGF1 internalization assay, respectively. The role of IGF-1R and tyrosine-14 residue (Y-14) of CAV1 was explored by deletion experiment and mutation experiment, respectively. The correlation of CAV1 and IGF-1R was further examined by immunochemical analysis in 120 HCC specimens.
RESULTS: CAV1 could promote anchor-independent growth and anoikis resistance in hepatoma cells. CAV1-overexpression increased the expression of IGF-1R and subsequently activated PI3K/Akt and RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, while CAV1 knockdown showed the opposite effect. The mechanism study revealed that CAV1 facilitated caveolae invagination and (125)I-IGF1 internalization. IGF-1R deletion or Y-14 mutation reversed CAV1 mediated anchor-independent growth and anoikis resistance. In addition, CAV1 expression was positively related to IGF-1R expression in human HCC tissues.
CONCLUSION: CAV1 confers resistance of hepatoma cells to anoikis by activating IGF-1 pathway, providing a potential therapeutic target for HCC metastasis.

Auzair LB, Vincent-Chong VK, Ghani WM, et al.
Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) and actin-related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1B (ARPC1B) expressions as prognostic indicators for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016; 273(7):1885-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex, Subunit 1B (ARPC1B) have been implicated in various human cancers, yet its role in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Therefore, this study aims to determine the protein expression of these two genes in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and to evaluate the clinical and prognostic impact of these genes in OSCC. Protein expressions of these two genes were determined by immunohistochemistry technique. The association between Cav-1 and ARPC1B with clinico-pathological parameters was evaluated by Chi-square test (or Fisher exact test where appropriate). Correlation between the protein expressions of these 2 genes with survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. Cav-1 and ARPC1B were found to be significantly over-expressed in OSCC compared to normal oral mucosa (p = 0.002 and p = 0.033, respectively). Low level of ARPC1B protein expression showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis (LNM) (p = 0.010) and advanced tumor staging (p = 0.003). Kaplan-Meier survival analyses demonstrated that patients with over-expression of Cav-1 protein were associated with poor prognosis (p = 0.030). Adjusted multivariate Cox regression model revealed that over-expression of Cav-1 remained as an independent significant prognostic factor for OSCC (HRR = 2.700, 95 % CI 1.013-7.198, p = 0.047). This study demonstrated that low-expression of ARPC1B is significantly associated with LNM and advanced tumor staging whereas high expression of Cav-1 can be a prognostic indicator for poor prognosis in OSCC patients.

Zhao R, Liu K, Huang Z, et al.
Genetic Variants in Caveolin-1 and RhoA/ROCK1 Are Associated with Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk in a Chinese Population.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0128771 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The RhoA/ROCK pathway and Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) participate in the process of tumorigenesis in numerous types of cancer. Up-regulation of RhoA/ROCK and Cav-1 expression is considered to be associated with the development and progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We investigated the association between genetic variations of RhoA/ROCK and Cav-1 and the risk of ccRCC in the Chinese population.
METHODS: Between May 2004 and March 2014, a total of 1,248 clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases and 1,440 cancer-free controls were enrolled in this hospital-based case-control study. Nine SNPs in RhoA/ROCK and Cav-1 were genotyped using the TaqMan assay.
RESULT: We found two SNPs (Cav-1 rs1049334 and ROCK1 rs35996865) were significantly associated with the increasing risk of ccRCC (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001 respectively). The analysis of combined risk alleles revealed that patients with 2-4 risk alleles showed a more remarkable growth of ccRCC risk than the patients with 0-1 risk alleles(OR = 1.66, 95%CI = 1.31-2.11, P < 0.001). Younger subjects (P = 0.001, OR = 1.83, 95%CI = 1.30-2.57), higher weight subjects (P = 0.001, OR = 1.76, 95%CI = 1.25-2.47), female subjects (P = 0.007, OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.17-2.62), nonsmokers (P < 0.001, OR = 1.67, 95%CI = 1.26-2.23), drinkers (P = 0.025, OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.07-2.85), subjects with hypertension (P = 0.025, OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.07-2.85) and diabetes (P = 0.026, OR = 4.31, 95% CI = 1.19-15.62) showed a stronger association between the combined risk alleles and the risk of ccRCC by using the stratification analysis. Furthermore, we observed higher Cav-1 mRNA levels in the presence of the rs1049334 A allele in normal renal tissues.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the two SNPs (Cav-1 rs1049334 and ROCK1 rs35996865) and genotypes with a combination of 2-4 risk alleles were associated with the risk of ccRCC. The functional SNP rs1049334 may affect the risk of ccRCC by altering the expression of Cav-1 and the relevance between the risk effects and the functional impact of this polymorphism needs further validation.

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