FYN

Gene Summary

Gene:FYN; FYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
Aliases: SLK, SYN, p59-FYN
Location:6q21
Summary:This gene is a member of the protein-tyrosine kinase oncogene family. It encodes a membrane-associated tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in the control of cell growth. The protein associates with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and interacts with the fyn-binding protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (47)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (15)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Stomach Cancer
  • RTPCR
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Chromosome 6
  • DNA Methylation
  • Transcription
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • siRNA
  • bcl-X Protein
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cell Movement
  • Liver Cancer
  • Pyrimidines
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Messenger RNA
  • Breast Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Xenograft Models
  • Protein Binding
  • Base Sequence
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Apoptosis
  • Cervical Cancer
  • RNA Interference
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Transcription Factor HES-1
  • Mutation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Drug Resistance
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Phosphorylation
  • FYN
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Tyrosine
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FYN (cancer-related)

Du J, Zhang L
Pathway deviation-based biomarker and multi-effect target identification in asbestos-related squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
Int J Mol Med. 2017; 39(3):579-586 [PubMed] Related Publications
Asbestos-related lung carcinoma is one of the most devastating occupational cancers, and effective techniques for early diagnosis are still lacking. In the present study, a systematic approach was applied to detect a potential biomarker for asbestos-related lung cancer (ARLC); in particular asbestos-related squamous cell carcinoma (ARLC-SCC). Microarray data (GSE23822) were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 26 ARLC-SCCs and 30 non-asbestos-related squamous cell lung carcinomas (NARLC-SCCs). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by the limma package, and then a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed according to the BioGRID and HPRD databases. A novel scoring approach integrating an expression deviation score and network degree of the gene was then proposed to weight the DEGs. Subsequently, the important genes were uploaded to DAVID for pathway enrichment analysis. Pathway correlation analysis was carried out using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of the pathscore. In total, 1,333 DEGs, 391 upregulated and 942 downregulated, were obtained between the ARLC-SCCs and NARLC-SCCs. A total of 524 important genes for ARLC-SCC were significantly enriched in 22 KEGG pathways. Correlation analysis of these pathways showed that the pathway of SNARE interactions in vesicular transport was significantly correlated with 12 other pathways. Additionally, obvious correlations were found between multiple pathways by sharing cross-talk genes (EGFR, PRKX, PDGFB, PIK3R3, SLK, IGF1, CDC42 and PRKCA). On the whole, our data demonstrate that 8 cross-talk genes were found to bridge multiple ARLC-SCC-specific pathways, which may be used as candidate biomarkers and potential multi-effect targets. As these genes are involved in multiple pathways, it is possible that drugs targeting these genes may thus be able to influence multiple pathways simultaneously.

Zhang X, Li F, Zhu PL
Fyn-related kinase expression predicts favorable prognosis in patients with cervical cancer and suppresses malignant progression by regulating migration and invasion.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:270-276 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate expression pattern, clinical significance and potential roles of fyn related kinase (FRK) in cervical cancer.
METHODS: Expression of FRK protein and mRNA in 100 pairs of cervical cancer and matched non-cancerous tissue samples were detected by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate associations of FRK protein expression with various clinicopathologic features and patients' prognosis. The effects of FRK on cell migration and invasion were examined using in vitro migration and invasion assays, respectively.
RESULTS: Weak/negative immunostaining of FRK protein was observed in 86 (86.00%) of 100 cervical cancer tissues. Low FRK expression was significantly associated with several aggressive clinicopathologic features of cervical cancer, such as higher International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetric stage (P=0.01), the presence of lymph node metastasis (P=0.01) and recurrence (P=0.02). In addition, the survival analysis showed that cervical cancer patients with low FRK expression often had shorter overall survival than those with high FRK expression. The multivariate analysis also identified FRK expression as an independent prognostic factor of cervical cancer. Functionally, the enforced expression of FRK could efficiently inhibit cell migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, but the knockdown of FRK dramatically enhanced cell migration and invasion.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that loss of FRK protein may be implicated into the tumorigenesis and cell motility of human cervical cancer. More importantly, FRK expression may function as a promising prognostic marker of this malignancy, highlighting its potentials as a candidate target for gene therapy.

Lee C, Ramos DM
Regulation of Multicellular Spheroids by MAPK and FYN Kinase.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(8):3833-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding of the biology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not progressed significantly in the past 60 years, with 5-year survival remaining at approximately 50%. The epidemic of Human Papilloma Virus and its associated SCC warrants a renewed emphasis on fully understanding this disease. We previously used the 3-dimensional multicellular spheroid (MCS) model system to evaluate SCC behavior more accurately. In this study, we determined that SCC growth in MCS approximates epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Organization of an MCS requires the full-length β6 integrin subunit and its maintenance requires mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Limiting FYN kinase activation results in the down-regulation of E-cadherin, β-catenin and an increase in expression of N-cadherin and SNAIL. These results indicate that the microenvironment and growth patterns in an MCS are complex and require MAPK and FYN kinase.

Goel RK, Lukong KE
Understanding the cellular roles of Fyn-related kinase (FRK): implications in cancer biology.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2016; 35(2):179-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn-related kinase (FRK) is a member of the BRK family kinases (BFKs) and is distantly related to the Src family kinases (SFKs). FRK was first discovered in 1993, and studies pursued thereafter attributed a potential tumour-suppressive function to the enzyme. In recent years, however, further functional characterization of the tyrosine kinase in diverse cancer types suggests that FRK may potentially play an oncogenic role as well. Specifically, while ectopic expression of FRK suppresses cell proliferation and migration in breast and brain cancers, knockdown or catalytic inhibition of FRK suppresses these cellular processes in pancreatic and liver cancer. Such functional paradox is therefore evidently exhibited in a tissue-specific context. This review sheds light on the recent developments emerged from investigations on FRK which include: (a) a review of the expression pattern of the protein in mammalian cells/tissues, (b) underlying genomic perturbations and (c) a mechanistic function of the enzyme across different cellular environments. Given its functional heterogeneity observed across different cancers, we also discuss the therapeutic significance of FRK.

Chougule RA, Kazi JU, Rönnstrand L
FYN expression potentiates FLT3-ITD induced STAT5 signaling in acute myeloid leukemia.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(9):9964-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
FYN is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the SRC family of kinases, which are frequently over-expressed in human cancers, and play key roles in cancer biology. SRC has long been recognized as an important oncogene, but little attention has been given to its other family members. In this report, we have studied the role of FYN in FLT3 signaling in respect to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We observed that FYN displays a strong association with wild-type FLT3 as well as oncogenic FLT3-ITD and is dependent on the kinase activity of FLT3 and the SH2 domain of FYN. We identified multiple FYN binding sites in FLT3, which partially overlapped with SRC binding sites. To understand the role of FYN in FLT3 signaling, we generated FYN overexpressing cells. We observed that expression of FYN resulted in slightly enhanced phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2 and p38 in response to ligand stimulation. Furthermore, FYN expression led to a slight increase in FLT3-ITD-dependent cell proliferation, but potent enhancement of STAT5 phosphorylation as well as colony formation. We also observed that FYN expression is deregulated in AML patient samples and that higher expression of FYN, in combination with FLT3-ITD mutation, resulted in enrichment of the STAT5 signaling pathway and correlated with poor prognosis in AML. Taken together our data suggest that FYN cooperates with oncogenic FLT3-ITD in cellular transformation by selective activation of the STAT5 pathway. Therefore, inhibition of FYN, in combination with FLT3 inhibition, will most likely be beneficial for this group of AML patients.

Lim B, Kim C, Kim JH, et al.
Genetic alterations and their clinical implications in gastric cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis revealed by whole-exome sequencing of malignant ascites.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(7):8055-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peritoneal carcinomatosis accompanied by malignant ascites is a major cause of death of advanced gastric cancer (GC). To comprehensively characterize the underlying genomic events involved in GC peritoneal carcinomatosis, we analyzed whole-exome sequences of normal gastric tissues, primary tumors, and malignant ascites from eight GC patients. We identified a unique mutational signature biased toward C-to-A substitutions in malignant ascites. In contrast, the patients who received treatment of adjuvant chemotherapy showed a high rate of C-to-T substitutions along with hypermutation in malignant ascites. Comparative analysis revealed several candidate mutations for GC peritoneal carcinomatosis: recurrent mutations in COL4A6, INTS2, and PTPN13; mutations in druggable genes including TEP1, PRKCD, BRAF, ERBB4, PIK3CA, HDAC9, FYN, FASN, BIRC2, FLT3, ROCK1, CD22, and PIK3C2B; and mutations in metastasis-associated genes including TNFSF12, L1CAM, DIAPH3, ROCK1, TGFBR1, MYO9B, NR4A1, and RHOA. Notably, gene ontology analysis revealed the significant enrichment of mutations in the Rho-ROCK signaling pathway-associated biological processes in malignant ascites. At least four of the eight patients acquired somatic mutations in the Rho-ROCK pathway components, suggesting the possible relevance of this pathway to GC peritoneal carcinomatosis. These results provide a genome-wide molecular understanding of GC peritoneal carcinomatosis and its clinical implications, thereby facilitating the development of effective therapeutics.

Du C, Gao Y, Xu S, et al.
KLF5 promotes cell migration by up-regulating FYN in bladder cancer cells.
FEBS Lett. 2016; 590(3):408-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) promotes cell proliferation of bladder cancer. However, whether KLF5 regulates other cell processes in bladder cancer is not clear. We found that KLF5 increases cell migration and lamellipodia formation, expression of FYN and phosphorylation of FAK in bladder cancer cells. In addition, KLF5 promotes transcription of FYN through binding to its promoter. FYN overexpression rescues cell migration and lamellipodia formation reduced by KLF5 knockdown. Furthermore, the KLF5/FYN/p-FAK axis is necessary for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to promote cell migration. Our findings indicate that both KLF5 and FYN are important in the regulation of cell migration in bladder cancer cells. We propose the KLF5/FYN/p-FAK axis as a potential therapeutic target in bladder cancer.

Yamada H, Tsutsumi K, Nakazawa Y, et al.
Src Family Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Regulates FilGAP through Association with RBM10.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146593 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
FilGAP is a Rac-specific GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that suppresses lamellae formation. In this study, we have identified RBM10 (RNA Binding Motif domain protein 10) as a FilGAP-interacting protein. Although RBM10 is mostly localized in the nuclei in human melanoma A7 cells, forced expression of Src family tyrosine kinase Fyn induced translocation of RBM10 from nucleus into cell peripheries where RBM10 and FilGAP are co-localized. The translocation of RBM10 from nucleus appears to require catalytic activity of Fyn since kinase-negative Fyn mutant failed to induce translocation of RBM10 in A7 cells. When human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells are spreading on collagen-coated coverslips, endogenous FilGAP and RBM10 were localized at the cell periphery with tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. RBM10 appears to be responsible for targeting FilGAP at the cell periphery because depletion of RBM10 by siRNA abrogated peripheral localization of FilGAP during cell spreading. Association of RBM10 with FilGAP may stimulate RacGAP activity of FilGAP. First, forced expression of RBM10 suppressed FilGAP-mediated cell spreading on collagen. Conversely, depletion of endogenous RBM10 by siRNA abolished FilGAP-mediated suppression of cell spreading on collagen. Second, FilGAP suppressed formation of membrane ruffles induced by Fyn and instead produced spiky cell protrusions at the cell periphery. This protrusive structure was also induced by depletion of Rac, suggesting that the formation of protrusions may be due to suppression of Rac by FilGAP. We found that depletion of RBM10 markedly reduced the formation of protrusions in cells transfected with Fyn and FilGAP. Finally, depletion of RBM10 blocked FilGAP-mediated suppression of ruffle formation induced by EGF. Taken together, these results suggest that Src family tyrosine kinase signaling may regulate FilGAP through association with RBM10.

Gururajan M, Cavassani KA, Sievert M, et al.
SRC family kinase FYN promotes the neuroendocrine phenotype and visceral metastasis in advanced prostate cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(42):44072-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
FYN is a SRC family kinase (SFK) that has been shown to be up-regulated in human prostate cancer (PCa) tissues and cell lines. In this study, we observed that FYN is strongly up-regulated in human neuroendocrine PCa (NEPC) tissues and xenografts, as well as cells derived from a NEPC transgenic mouse model. In silico analysis of FYN expression in prostate cancer cell line databases revealed an association with the expression of neuroendocrine (NE) markers such as CHGA, CD44, CD56, and SYP. The loss of FYN abrogated the invasion of PC3 and ARCaPM cells in response to MET receptor ligand HGF. FYN also contributed to the metastatic potential of NEPC cells in two mouse models of visceral metastasis with two different cell lines (PC3 and TRAMPC2-RANKL). The activation of MET appeared to regulate neuroendocrine (NE) features as evidenced by increased expression of NE markers in PC3 cells with HGF. Importantly, the overexpression of FYN protein in DU145 cells was directly correlated with the increase of CHGA. Thus, our data demonstrated that the neuroendocrine differentiation that occurs in PCa cells is, at least in part, regulated by FYN kinase. Understanding the role of FYN in the regulation of NE markers will provide further support for ongoing clinical trials of SFK and MET inhibitors in castration-resistant PCa patients.

Vlahov N, Scrace S, Soto MS, et al.
Alternate RASSF1 Transcripts Control SRC Activity, E-Cadherin Contacts, and YAP-Mediated Invasion.
Curr Biol. 2015; 25(23):3019-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor progression to invasive carcinoma is associated with activation of SRC family kinase (SRC, YES, FYN) activity and loss of cellular cohesion. The hippo pathway-regulated cofactor YAP1 supports the tumorigenicity of RAS mutations but requires both inactivation of hippo signaling and YES-mediated phosphorylation of YAP1 for oncogenic activity. Exactly how SRC kinases are activated and hippo signaling is lost in sporadic human malignancies remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that hippo-mediated inhibition of YAP1 is lost upon promoter methylation of the RAS effector and hippo kinase scaffold RASSF1A. We find that RASSF1A promoter methylation reduces YAP phospho-S127, which derepresses YAP1, and actively supports YAP1 activation by switching RASSF1 transcription to the independently transcribed RASSF1C isoform that promotes Tyr kinase activity. Using affinity proteomics, proximity ligation, and real-time molecular visualization, we find that RASSF1C targets SRC/YES to epithelial cell-cell junctions and promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and YAP1. RASSF1A restricts SRC activity, preventing motility, invasion, and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo, with epigenetic inactivation correlating with increased inhibitory pY527-SRC in breast tumors. These data imply that distinct RASSF1 isoforms have opposing functions, which provide a biomarker for YAP1 activation and explain correlations of RASSF1 methylation with advanced invasive disease in humans. The ablation of epithelial integrity together with subsequent YAP1 nuclear localization allows transcriptional activation of β-catenin/TBX-YAP/TEAD target genes, including Myc, and an invasive phenotype. These findings define gene transcript switching as a tumor suppressor mechanism under epigenetic control.

Syn NL, Yong WP, Lee SC, Goh BC
Genetic factors affecting drug disposition in Asian cancer patients.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2015; 11(12):1879-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: In the era of genomic medicine, it is increasingly recognized that ethnogeographic differences in drug pharmacology exist between Asian and other populations. This is particularly pertinent to oncology, where drugs forming the backbone of chemotherapy often have narrow therapeutic windows and are frequently dosed close to maximally tolerable levels.
AREAS COVERED: At the population level, ancestry is important because historical-biogeographical confluences have shaped population genetics and pharmacoethnicity in the Asian race through allelic differentiation and interethnic differences in inheritance patterns of linkage disequilibrium. At the individual level, cis- and trans-acting germline polymorphisms and somatic mutations in genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters act in a multifactorial manner to determine drug disposition phenotype and clinical response in Asian cancer patients. A growing body of evidence also finds that complex genetic interactions and regulation, including a multiplicity of gene control mechanisms, are increasingly implicated in genotype-phenotype correlates than has hitherto been appreciated--potentially serving as the mechanistic links between hits in non-coding regions of genome-wide association studies and drug toxicity. Together, these genetic factors contribute to the clinical heterogeneity of drug disposition in Asian cancer patients.
EXPERT OPINION: This topic has broad relevance for the optimization and individualization of anticancer strategies in Asians.

Yshii LM, Denadai-Souza A, Vasconcelos AR, et al.
Suppression of MAPK attenuates neuronal cell death induced by activated glia-conditioned medium in alpha-synuclein overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells.
J Neuroinflammation. 2015; 12:193 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with characteristics and symptoms that are well defined. Nevertheless, its aetiology remains unknown. PD is characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies inside neurons. α-Synuclein (α-syn) is a soluble protein present in the pre-synaptic terminal of neurons. Evidence suggests that α-syn has a fundamental role in PD pathogenesis, given that it is an important component of Lewy bodies localized in the dopaminergic neurons of PD patients.
METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the influence of wild type (WT) and A30P α-syn overexpression on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y toxicity induced by the conditioned medium (CM) from primary cultures of glia challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli.
RESULTS: We observed that SH-SY5Y cells transduced with α-syn (WT or A30P) and treated with CM from LPS-activated glia cells show evidence of cell death, which is not reverted by NF-κB inhibition by sodium salicylate or by blockage of P50 (NF-κB subunit). Furthermore, the expression of A30P α-syn in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y decreases the cell death triggered by the CM of activated glia versus WT α-syn or control group. This effect of A30P α-syn may be due to the low MAPK42/44 phosphorylation. This finding is substantiated by MEK1 inhibition by PD98059, decreasing LDH release by CM in SH-SY5Y cells.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SH-SY5Y cells transduced with α-syn (WT or A30P) and treated with CM from LPS-activated glia cells show cell death, which is not reverted by NF-κB blockage. Additionally, the expression of A30P α-syn on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y leads to decreased cell death triggered by the CM of activated glia, when compared to WT α-syn or control group. The mechanism underlying this process remains to be completely elucidated, but the present data suggest that MAPK42/44 phosphorylation plays an important role in this process.

Caputi FF, Carretta D, Lattanzio F, et al.
Proteasome subunit and opioid receptor gene expression down-regulation induced by paraquat and maneb in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015; 40(3):895-900 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) are able to induce neurotoxic effects by promoting α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates and altering tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), thus increasing the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). These pesticides promote neurotoxic effects also by affecting proteasome function that normally regulate protein turnover. We investigated the effects of the two pesticides exposure on multiple targets involved in PD, using SH-SY5Y cells. First, we evaluated TH and α-syn protein levels following PQ and MB cell exposure and a significant increase of these protein levels was observed. Subsequently, since a relationship between ubiquitin/proteasome and opioid receptors has been proposed, the effects of pesticides on their gene expression have been investigated. A decrease of β1 and Rpt3 proteasome subunit mRNA levels, together with the μ and δ opioid receptor down-regulation, was detected. The reported alterations, here simultaneously observed, help to clarify the involvement of multiple biological markers implicated in PD, often separately evaluated.

Kataoka K, Nagata Y, Kitanaka A, et al.
Integrated molecular analysis of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(11):1304-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T cell neoplasm of largely unknown genetic basis, associated with human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection. Here we describe an integrated molecular study in which we performed whole-genome, exome, transcriptome and targeted resequencing, as well as array-based copy number and methylation analyses, in a total of 426 ATL cases. The identified alterations overlap significantly with the HTLV-1 Tax interactome and are highly enriched for T cell receptor-NF-κB signaling, T cell trafficking and other T cell-related pathways as well as immunosurveillance. Other notable features include a predominance of activating mutations (in PLCG1, PRKCB, CARD11, VAV1, IRF4, FYN, CCR4 and CCR7) and gene fusions (CTLA4-CD28 and ICOS-CD28). We also discovered frequent intragenic deletions involving IKZF2, CARD11 and TP73 and mutations in GATA3, HNRNPA2B1, GPR183, CSNK2A1, CSNK2B and CSNK1A1. Our findings not only provide unique insights into key molecules in T cell signaling but will also guide the development of new diagnostics and therapeutics in this intractable tumor.

Chai F, Liang Y, Zhang F, et al.
Systematically identify key genes in inflammatory and non-inflammatory breast cancer.
Gene. 2016; 575(2 Pt 3):600-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the gene expression in breast tumor stroma, playing a critical role in determining inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) phenotype, has been proved to be significantly different between IBC and non-inflammatory breast cancer (non-IBC), more effort needs to systematically investigate the gene expression profiles between tumor epithelium and stroma and to efficiently uncover the potential molecular networks and critical genes for IBC and non-IBC. Here, we comprehensively analyzed and compared the transcriptional profiles from IBC and non-IBC patients using hierarchical clustering, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database analyses, and identified PDGFRβ, SUMO1, COL1A1, FYN, CAV1, COL5A1 and MMP2 to be the key genes for breast cancer. Interestingly, PDGFRβ was found to be the hub gene in both IBC and non-IBC; SUMO1 and COL1A1 were respectively the key genes for IBC and non-IBC. These analysis results indicated that those key genes might play important role in IBC and non-IBC and provided some clues for future studies.

Markowski DN, Holzmann C, Bullerdiek J
Genetic alterations in uterine fibroids - a new direction for pharmacological intervention?
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2015; 19(11):1485-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Though uterine leiomyomas (UL) (syn.: fibroids) are by far the most frequent human symptomatic tumors their pathogenesis still remains to be elucidated. From the detection of microscopically visible alterations of chromosomal structure and molecular cytogenetic analyses, as well as from transcriptome and genome analyses, a picture of a heterogeneous group of benign clonal smooth muscle neoplasms emerges that, for clinical as well as histological reasons, have been summarized under the headline 'UL'.
AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors address the background of genetic alterations identified in UL as well their possible clinical significance.
EXPERT OPINION: Of the emerging genetic subgroups of UL those characterized by chromosomal alterations targeting high mobility group protein AT-hook 2 gene (10 - 20%) and those with point mutations of mediator subcomplex 12 (60 - 70%) predominate. Mechanistic models as to how these changes molecularly contribute to tumor development are lagging far behind their identification. Nevertheless, the different sizes of both types of myomas, their different tendency to occur as single or multiple tumors, and even a different probability to undergo malignant transformation suggest that in the future the clinical management of patients with fibroids will benefit from distinguishing between these latter as well as other more rare subgroups.

Chiang ER, Ma HL, Wang JP, et al.
Multi-lineage differentiation and angiogenesis potentials of pigmented villonodular synovitis derived mesenchymal stem cells--pathological implication.
J Orthop Res. 2016; 34(3):395-403 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign tissue proliferation characterized by its hyper-vascularity within the lesion. The true etiology and cell source of this disease entity still remain unclear. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exist in various tissues of human body. However, it has not been clarified whether MSCs could be isolated from tissue of PVNS. Here, we isolated MSCs from PVNS (PVNS-SCs), and by comparing to the MSCs from normal synovium (Syn-SCs) of the same individual, we investigated whether PVNS-SCs differed in the capacity for multi-differentiation and inducing angiogenesis. We first demonstrated that PVNS-SCs existed in the lesion of PVNS of three individuals. Moreover, we showed PVNS-SCs had better osteogenic differentiation potential than Syn-SCs, whereas Syn-SCs had better capacity for adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. By genome-wide analysis of gene expression profile using a complementary DNA microarray and comparing to Syn-SCs, we identified in PVNS-SCs a distinct gene expression profile characterized by up-regulation of genes involved in angiogenesis. In vitro and in vivo studies further confirmed that PVNS-SCs had better capacities for promoting angiogenesis. In summary, the identification of PVNS-SCs in PVNS tissue and their distinct angiogenic potential may help elucidate the underlying etiology of this disease.

Pilati C, Zucman-Rossi J
Mutations leading to constitutive active gp130/JAK1/STAT3 pathway.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2015; 26(5):499-506 [PubMed] Related Publications
Constitutive activation of STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) transcription factors is a common feature identified in numerous tumors. Inflammatory hepatocellular adenomas (IHCA) are benign liver tumors characterized by an inflammatory phenotype and an overexpression of STAT3 target genes. Recurrent somatic mutations in major actors belonging to the IL6/JAK/STAT3 pathway have been identified in these tumors. (1) 60% of IHCA show IL-6 signal transducer (IL6ST; gp130) mutations; (2) 10% harbor mutations of the Fyn-related kinase FRK; (3) 5% harbor mutations in STAT3; (4) 5% harbor somatic mutations in the GNAS complex locus; and (5) 1% of IHCA harbor mutations in the Janus kinase 1 (JAK1). All these IHCA-associated mutations promote the constitutive activation of STAT3. In this review, we discuss the role of these mutated genes in IHCA and other tumors.

Lewis-Tuffin LJ, Feathers R, Hari P, et al.
Src family kinases differentially influence glioma growth and motility.
Mol Oncol. 2015; 9(9):1783-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Src-family kinase (SFK) signaling impacts multiple tumor-related properties, particularly in the context of the brain tumor glioblastoma. Consequently, the pan-SFK inhibitor dasatinib has emerged as a therapeutic strategy, despite physiologic limitations to its effectiveness in the brain. We investigated the importance of individual SFKs (Src, Fyn, Yes, and Lyn) to glioma tumor biology by knocking down individual SFK expression both in culture (LN229, SF767, GBM8) and orthotopic xenograft (GBM8) contexts. We evaluated the effects of these knockdowns on tumor cell proliferation, migration, and motility-related signaling in culture, as well as overall survival in the orthotopic xenograft model. The four SFKs differed significantly in their importance to these properties. In culture, Src, Fyn, and Yes knockdown generally reduced growth and migration and altered motility-related phosphorylation patterns while Lyn knockdown did so to a lesser extent. However the details of these effects varied significantly depending on the cell line: in no case were conclusions about the role of a particular SFK applicable to all of the measures or all of the cell types examined. In the orthotopic xenograft model, mice implanted with non-target or Src or Fyn knockdown cells showed no differences in survival. In contrast, mice implanted with Yes knockdown cells had longer survival, associated with reduced tumor cell proliferation. Those implanted with Lyn knockdown cells had shorter survival, associated with higher overall tumor burden. Together, our results suggest that Yes signaling directly affects tumor cell biology in a pro-tumorigenic manner, while Lyn signaling affects interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment in an anti-tumor manner. In the context of therapeutic targeting of SFKs, these results suggest that pan-SFK inhibitors may not produce the intended therapeutic benefit when Lyn is present.

Zhang S, Qi Q, Chan CB, et al.
Fyn-phosphorylated PIKE-A binds and inhibits AMPK signaling, blocking its tumor suppressive activity.
Cell Death Differ. 2016; 23(1):52-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The AMP-activated protein kinase, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, has a critical role in metabolic disorders and cancers. AMPK is mainly regulated by cellular AMP and phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Here, we show that PIKE-A binds to AMPK and blocks its tumor suppressive actions, which are mediated by tyrosine kinase Fyn. PIKE-A directly interacts with AMPK catalytic alpha subunit and impairs T172 phosphorylation, leading to repression of its kinase activity on the downstream targets. Mutation of Fyn phosphorylation sites on PIKE-A, depletion of Fyn, or pharmacological inhibition of Fyn blunts the association between PIKE-A and AMPK, resulting in loss of its inhibitory effect on AMPK. Cell proliferation and oncogenic assays demonstrate that PIKE-A antagonizes tumor suppressive actions of AMPK. In human glioblastoma samples, PIKE-A expression inversely correlates with the p-AMPK levels, supporting that PIKE-A negatively regulates AMPK activity in cancers. Thus, our findings provide additional layer of molecular regulation of the AMPK signaling pathway in cancer progression.

Viollet C, Davis DA, Reczko M, et al.
Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis Reveals Differential Expression Profiles of MiRNA-mRNA Target Pairs in KSHV-Infected Cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0126439 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes several tumors, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Cellular and viral microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in regulating gene expression. A better knowledge of the miRNA-mediated pathways affected by KSHV infection is therefore important for understanding viral infection and tumor pathogenesis. In this study, we used deep sequencing to analyze miRNA and cellular mRNA expression in a cell line with latent KSHV infection (SLKK) as compared to the uninfected SLK line. This approach revealed 153 differentially expressed human miRNAs, eight of which were independently confirmed by qRT-PCR. KSHV infection led to the dysregulation of ~15% of the human miRNA pool and most of these cellular miRNAs were down-regulated, including nearly all members of the 14q32 miRNA cluster, a genomic locus linked to cancer and that is deleted in a number of PEL cell lines. Furthermore, we identified 48 miRNAs that were associated with a total of 1,117 predicted or experimentally validated target mRNAs; of these mRNAs, a majority (73%) were inversely correlated to expression changes of their respective miRNAs, suggesting miRNA-mediated silencing mechanisms were involved in a number of these alterations. Several dysregulated miRNA-mRNA pairs may facilitate KSHV infection or tumor formation, such as up-regulated miR-708-5p, associated with a decrease in pro-apoptotic caspase-2 and leukemia inhibitory factor LIF, or down-regulated miR-409-5p, associated with an increase in the p53-inhibitor MDM2. Transfection of miRNA mimics provided further evidence that changes in miRNAs are driving some observed mRNA changes. Using filtered datasets, we also identified several canonical pathways that were significantly enriched in differentially expressed miRNA-mRNA pairs, such as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and the interleukin-8 signaling pathways. Overall, our data provide a more detailed understanding of KSHV latency and guide further studies of the biological significance of these changes.

Tabariès S, Annis MG, Hsu BE, et al.
Lyn modulates Claudin-2 expression and is a therapeutic target for breast cancer liver metastasis.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(11):9476-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Claudin-2 enhances breast cancer liver metastasis and promotes the development of colorectal cancers. The objective of our current study is to define the regulatory mechanisms controlling Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We evaluated the effect of several Src Family Kinase (SFK) inhibitors or knockdown of individual SFK members on Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We also assessed the potential effects of pan-SFK and SFK-selective inhibitors on the formation of breast cancer liver metastases. This study reveals that pan inhibition of SFK signaling pathways significantly elevated Claudin-2 expression levels in breast cancer cells. In addition, our data demonstrate that pan-SFK inhibitors can enhance breast cancer metastasis to the liver. Knockdown of individual SFK members reveals that loss of Yes or Fyn induces Claudin-2 expression; whereas, diminished Lyn levels impairs Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. The Lyn-selective kinase inhibitor, Bafetinib (INNO-406), acts to reduce Claudin-2 expression and suppress breast cancer liver metastasis. Our findings may have major clinical implications and advise against the treatment of breast cancer patients with broad-acting SFK inhibitors and support the use of Lyn-specific inhibitors.

Sun B, Yang N, Jiang Y, et al.
Antagomir-1290 suppresses CD133⁺ cells in non-small cell lung cancer by targeting fyn-related Src family tyrosine kinase.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(8):6223-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) are involved in cancer initiation, development, and metastasis, and microRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in regulating CSLCs. miRNA-based therapeutic strategy associated with CSLCs might promise potential new therapeutic approaches. In the present study, we found that miR-1290 was increased in CD133(+) cells. Antagomir-1290 significantly suppressed tumor volume and weight initiated by CD133(+) cells in vivo. Furthermore, antagomir-1290 significantly inhibited the proliferation, clonogenicity, invasion, and migration of CD133(+) cells by targeting fyn-related Src family tyrosine kinase. These findings provide insights into the clinical prospect of miR-1290-based therapies for non-small cell lung cancer.

Akkad J, Bochum S, Martens UM
Personalized treatment for colorectal cancer: novel developments and putative therapeutic strategies.
Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2015; 400(2):129-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosed worldwide and continues to be a major healthcare concern. Molecular heterogeneity of CRC is believed to be one of the main factors responsible for the considerable variability in treatment response. With the recent development of powerful genomic technologies, novel insights in tumor biology of CRC have now been provided, facilitating the recognition of new molecular subtypes with prognostic and predictive implications.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review article is to summarize current knowledge about genomic, epigenomic, and proteomic characteristics of CRC, as well as their implications for biomarker identification and individualized targeted therapy.
CONCLUSION: Supplementing the findings from several previous studies, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project recently finalized the systematic characterization of CRC resulting in the first tumor dataset with complete molecular measurements at DNA, RNA, and protein levels. The challenge now is to translate these findings into a robust and reproducible CRC classification system linking molecular features of the tumor to precision medicine.

Zou S, Li J, Zhou H, et al.
Mutational landscape of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Nat Commun. 2014; 5:5696 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a fatal primary liver cancer (PLC) that affects 5-10% of all PLCs. Here we sequence tumour and matching control sample pairs of a large cohort of 103 ICC patients in China, resulting in the identification of an ICC-specific somatic mutational signature that is associated with liver inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis. We further uncover 25 significantly mutated genes including eight potential driver genes (TP53, KRAS, IDH1, PTEN, ARID1A, EPPK1, ECE2 and FYN). We find that TP53-defective ICC patients are more likely to be HBsAg-seropositive, whereas mutations in the oncogene KRAS are nearly exclusively found in HBsAg-seronegative ICC patients. Three pathways (Ras/phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase signalling, p53/cell cycle signalling and transforming growth factor-β/Smad signalling), genes important for epigenetic regulation and oxidative phosphorylation are substantially affected in ICC. We reveal mutations in this study that may be valuable for designing further studies, better diagnosis and effective therapies.

Huang C, Sheng Y, Jia J, Chen L
Identification of melanoma biomarkers based on network modules by integrating the human signaling network with microarrays.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2014; 10 Suppl:C114-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a leading cause of cancer death. Thus, accurate prognostic biomarkers that will assist rational treatment planning need to be identified.
METHODS: Microarray analysis of melanoma and normal tissue samples was performed to identify differentially expressed modules (DEMs) from the signaling network and ultimately detect molecular markers to support histological examination. Network motifs were extracted from the human signaling network. Then, significant expression-correlation differential modules were identified by comparing the network module expression-correlation differential scores under normal and disease conditions using the gene expression datasets. Finally, we obtained DEMs by the Wilcoxon rank test and considered the average gene expression level in these modules as the classification features for diagnosing melanoma.
RESULTS: In total, 99 functional DEMs were identified from the signaling network and gene expression profiles. The area under the curve scores for cancer module genes, melanoma module genes, and whole network modules are 92.4%, 90.44%, and 88.45%, respectively. The classification efficiency rates for nonmodule features are 71.04% and 79.38%, which correspond to the features of cancer genes and melanoma cancer genes, respectively. Finally, we acquired six significant molecular biomarkers, namely, module 10 (CALM3, Ca 2+ , PKC, PDGFRA, phospholipase-g, PIB5PA, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase), module 14 (SRC, Src homology 2 domain-containing [SHC], SAM68, GIT1, transcription factor-4, CBLB, GRB2, VAV2, LCK, YES, PTCH2, downstream of tyrosine kinase [DOK], and KIT), module 16 (ELK3, p85beta, SHC, ZFYVE9, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, CITED1, SH3KBP1, HCK, DOK, and KIT), module 45 (RB, CCND3, CCNA2, CDK4, and CDK6), module 75 (PCNA, CDK4, and CCND1), and module 114 (PSD93, NMDAR, and FYN).
CONCLUSION: We explored the gene expression profile and signaling network in a global view and identified DEMs that can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers for melanoma.

Gujral TS, Chan M, Peshkin L, et al.
A noncanonical Frizzled2 pathway regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis.
Cell. 2014; 159(4):844-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Wnt signaling plays a critical role in embryonic development, and genetic aberrations in this network have been broadly implicated in colorectal cancer. We find that the Wnt receptor Frizzled2 (Fzd2) and its ligands Wnt5a/b are elevated in metastatic liver, lung, colon, and breast cancer cell lines and in high-grade tumors and that their expression correlates with markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Pharmacologic and genetic perturbations reveal that Fzd2 drives EMT and cell migration through a previously unrecognized, noncanonical pathway that includes Fyn and Stat3. A gene signature regulated by this pathway predicts metastasis and overall survival in patients. We have developed an antibody to Fzd2 that reduces cell migration and invasion and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in xenografts. We propose that targeting this pathway could provide benefit for patients with tumors expressing high levels of Fzd2 and Wnt5a/b.

Eschbach J, von Einem B, Müller K, et al.
Mutual exacerbation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α deregulation and α-synuclein oligomerization.
Ann Neurol. 2015; 77(1):15-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) and α-syn cytotoxicity are hallmarks of sporadic and familial Parkinson disease (PD), with accumulating evidence that prefibrillar oligomers and protofibrils are the pathogenic species in PD and related synucleinopathies. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular energy metabolism, has recently been associated with the pathophysiology of PD. Despite extensive effort on studying the function of PGC-1α in mitochondria, no studies have addressed whether PGC-1α directly influences oligomerization of α-syn or whether α-syn oligomers impact PGC-1α expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested whether pharmacological or genetic activation of PGC-1α or PGC-11α knockdown could modulate the oligomerization of α-syn in vitro by using an α-syn -fragment complementation assay.
RESULTS: In this study, we found that both PGC-1α reference gene (RG-PGC-1α) and the central nervous system (CNS)-specific PGC-1α (CNS-PGC-1α) are downregulated in human PD brain, in A30P α-syn transgenic animals, and in a cell culture model for α-syn oligomerization. Importantly, downregulation of both RG-PGC-1α and CNS-PGC-1α in cell culture or neurons from RG-PGC-1α-deficient mice leads to a strong induction of α-syn oligomerization and toxicity. In contrast, pharmacological activation or genetic overexpression of RG-PGC-1α reduced α-syn oligomerization and rescued α-syn-mediated toxicity.
INTERPRETATION: Based on our results, we propose that PGC-1α downregulation and α-syn oligomerization form a vicious circle, thereby influencing and/or potentiating each other. Our data indicate that restoration of PGC-1α is a promising approach for development of effective drugs for the treatment of PD and related synucleinopathies.

Hu H, Takano N, Xiang L, et al.
Hypoxia-inducible factors enhance glutamate signaling in cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(19):8853-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Signaling through glutamate receptors has been reported in human cancers, but the molecular mechanisms are not fully delineated. We report that in hepatocellular carcinoma and clear cell renal carcinoma cells, increased activity of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) due to hypoxia or VHL loss-of-function, respectively, augmented release of glutamate, which was mediated by HIF-dependent expression of the SLC1A1 and SLC1A3 genes encoding glutamate transporters. In addition, HIFs coordinately regulated expression of the GRIA2 and GRIA3 genes, which encode glutamate receptors. Binding of glutamate to its receptors activated SRC family kinases and downstream pathways, which stimulated cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis resistance, migration and invasion in different cancer cell lines. Thus, coordinate regulation of glutamate transporters and receptors by HIFs was sufficient to activate key signal transduction pathways that promote cancer progression.

Sertkaya S, Hamid SM, Dilsiz N, Varisli L
Decreased expression of EFS is correlated with the advanced prostate cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(2):799-805 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignant neoplasm in men in the developed countries. Although the progression of prostate cancer and the processes of invasion and metastasis by tumor cells are comparatively well understood, the genes involved in these processes are not fully determined. Therefore, a common area of research interest is the identification of novel molecules that are involved in these processes. In the present study, we have used in silico and experimental approaches to compare the expression of embryonal Fyn-associated substrate (EFS) between normal prostate and prostate cancer. We showed that EFS expression is remarkably downregulated in prostate cancer cells, compared to normal prostate cells. We also found that decreased expression of EFS in prostate cancer cells is due to DNA methylation. In addition, we showed that high EFS expression is important to suppress a malignant behavior of prostate cancer cells. Therefore, we suggest that EFS should be considered as a novel tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer.

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