Gene Summary

Gene:YES1; YES proto-oncogene 1, Src family tyrosine kinase
Aliases: Yes, c-yes, HsT441, P61-YES
Summary:This gene is the cellular homolog of the Yamaguchi sarcoma virus oncogene. The encoded protein has tyrosine kinase activity and belongs to the src family of proteins. This gene lies in close proximity to thymidylate synthase gene on chromosome 18, and a corresponding pseudogene has been found on chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tyrosine-protein kinase Yes
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: YES1 (cancer-related)

Tan W, Lim SG, Tan TM
Up-regulation of microRNA-210 inhibits proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting YES1.
World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21(46):13030-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To determine the expression of microRNA-210 (miR-210) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to examine its role using HCC cells.
METHODS: The expression of miR-210 was determined in 21 pairs of HCC samples and the corresponding surrounding non-tumor tissues. The effects of miR-210 on proliferation and cell cycle progression were examined using HepG2 and HuH7 cells. Over-expression and inhibition of miR-210 was achieved by transfection of the cells with miR-210 mimic or inhibitor. Luciferase reporter constructs were used to identify the miR-210 interacting site on Yes1. Yes1 expression was examined after miR-210 transfection, as well as in the HCC samples.
RESULTS: miR-210 was significantly up-regulated by 3.4 fold (P < 0.01) in the tumor samples. The over-expression of miR-210 significantly reduced cell proliferation compared to the mock-treated cells (68.9% ± 7.4% and 53.6% ± 5.0%, P < 0.05 for the HepG2 and HuH7 cells respectively). Analysis of the HuH7 cells transfected with miR-210 mimic by flow cytometry showed that the cells took a longer time to reach the G2/M phase. The interaction between miR-210 and the 3'UTR of the Yes1 transcript was confirmed using a luciferase reporter assay. Over-expression of miR-210 reduced the expression of Yes1 protein in both HuH7 and HepG2 cells. Tumors with a greater than four-fold increase in the expression of miR-210 showed consistently lower expressions of Yes1 in the tumors. In nocodazole-treated cells with a significant G2/M cell population, Yes1 protein was significantly reduced and pre-inhibition of miR-210 in HuH7 cells was able to prevent the reduction of Yes1 protein expression. Knock-down of Yes1 by siRNA also led to reduced cell proliferation (70.8% ± 7.5%, P < 0.05 in the HuH7 cells).
CONCLUSION: Up-regulation of miR-210 inhibits cell proliferation. Yes1 is a target of miR-210 and affects cell proliferation in HCC.

Xu Z, Chen J, Shao L, et al.
Promyelocytic leukemia protein enhances apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through Yes-associated protein.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(10):8047-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been shown that Yes-associated protein (YAP) acts as a transcriptional co-activator to regulate p73-dependent apoptosis in response to DNA damage in some cell types, and promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is involved in the regulation loop through stabilization of YAP through sumoylation. Although YAP has been shown to be significantly upregulated in gastric cancer, whether the YAP/PML/p73 regulation loop also functions in gastric cancer is unknown. Here, we show significantly higher levels of YAP and significantly lower levels of PML in the gastric cancer specimen. Overexpression of YAP in gastric cancer cells significantly increased cell growth, but did not affect apoptosis. However, overexpression of PML in gastric cancer cells significantly increased cell apoptosis, resulting in decreases in cell growth, which seemed to require the presence of YAP. The effect of PML on apoptosis appeared to be conducted through p73-mediated modulation of apoptosis-associated genes, Bcl-2, Bak, and caspase9. Thus, our study suggests the presence of a YAP/PML/p73 regulatory loop in gastric cancer, and highlights PML as a promising tumor suppressor in gastric cancer through YAP-coordinated cancer cell apoptosis.

Ohkawa Y, Momota H, Kato A, et al.
Ganglioside GD3 Enhances Invasiveness of Gliomas by Forming a Complex with Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor α and Yes Kinase.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(26):16043-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There have been a few studies on the ganglioside expression in human glioma tissues. However, the role of these gangliosides such as GD3 and GD2 has not been well understood. In this study we employed a genetically engineered mouse model of glioma to clarify the functions of GD3 in gliomas. Forced expression of platelet-derived growth factor B in cultured astrocytes derived from p53-deficient mice resulted in the expression of GD3 and GD2. GD3-positive astrocytes exhibited increased cell growth and invasion activities along with elevated phosphorylation of Akt and Yes kinase. By enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources reaction and mass spectrometry, we identified PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) as a GD3-associated molecule. GD3-positive astrocytes showed a significant amount of PDGFRα in glycolipid-enriched microdomains/rafts compared with GD3-negative cells. Src kinase family Yes was co-precipitated with PDGFRα, and its pivotal role in the increased cell invasion of GD3-positive astrocytes was demonstrated by silencing with anti-Yes siRNA. Direct association between PDGFRα and GD3 was also shown, suggesting that GD3 forms ternary complex with PDGFRα and Yes. The fact that GD3, PDGFRα, and activated Yes were colocalized in lamellipodia and the edge of tumors in cultured cells and glioma tissues, respectively, suggests that GD3 induced by platelet-derived growth factor B enhances PDGF signals in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts, leading to the promotion of malignant phenotypes such as cell proliferation and invasion in gliomas.

Wan X, Yeung C, Heske C, et al.
IGF-1R Inhibition Activates a YES/SFK Bypass Resistance Pathway: Rational Basis for Co-Targeting IGF-1R and Yes/SFK Kinase in Rhabdomyosarcoma.
Neoplasia. 2015; 17(4):358-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) has surfaced as a significant target in multiple solid cancers due to its fundamental roles in pro-survival and anti-apoptotic signaling. However, development of resistance to IGF-1R blockade represents a significant hindrance and limits treatment efficacy in the clinic. In this study, we identified acquired resistance to IGF-1R blockade with R1507, an antibody against IGF-1R, and with BMS-754807, a small molecular inhibitor of IGF-1R/insulin receptor (IR). We showed that treatment with an IGF-IR antibody, R1507, or an IR/IGF-IR kinase inhibitor, BMS-754807, was associated with increased activation of YES/SRC family tyrosine kinase (SFK) in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Combining anti-IGF-1R agents with SFK inhibitors resulted in blockade of IGF-1R inhibition-induced activation of YES/SFK and displayed advantageous antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Our data provide evidence that IGF-1R blockade results in activation of the YES/SRC family kinase bypass resistance pathway in vitro and in vivo. This may be of particular clinical relevance since both Yes and IGF components are overexpressed in RMS. Increased YES/SFK activation might serve as a clinical biomarker for predicting tumor resistance to IGF-1R inhibition. Dual inhibition of IGF-1R and SFK may have a broader and enhanced clinical benefit for patients with RMS.

Lee SA, Kim JS, Park SY, et al.
miR-203 downregulates Yes-1 and suppresses oncogenic activity in human oral cancer cells.
J Biosci Bioeng. 2015; 120(4):351-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of microRNA-203 (miR-203) as a tumor suppressor in KB human oral cancer cells. MicroRNA microarray results showed that the expression of miR-203 was significantly down-regulated in KB cells compared with normal human oral keratinocytes. The viability of KB cells was decreased by miR-203 in the time- and dose-dependent manners. In addition, over-expressed miR-203 not only increased the nuclear condensation but also significantly increased the apoptotic population of KB cells. These results indicated that the over-expression of miR-203 induced apoptosis of KB cells. Furthermore, the target gene array analyses revealed that the expression of Yes-1, a member of the Src family kinases (SFKs), was significantly down-regulated by miR-203 in KB cells. Moreover, both the mRNA and protein levels of Yes-1 were strongly reduced in KB cells transfected with miR-203. Therefore, these results indicated that Yes-1 is predicted to be a potential target gene of miR-203. Through a luciferase activity assay, miR-203 was confirmed to directly targets the Yes-1 3' untranslated region (UTR) to suppress gene expression. Therefore, our findings indicate that miR-203 induces the apoptosis of KB cells by directly targeting Yes-1, suggesting its application in anti-cancer therapeutics.

Chatterji T, Varkaris AS, Parikh NU, et al.
Yes-mediated phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase at tyrosine 861 increases metastatic potential of prostate cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(12):10175-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To study the role of FAK signaling complexes in promoting metastatic properties of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, we selected stable, highly migratory variants, termed PC3 Mig-3 and DU145 Mig-3, from two well-characterized PCa cell lines, PC3 and DU145. These variants were not only increased migration and invasion in vitro, but were also more metastatic to lymph nodes following intraprostatic injection into nude mice. Both PC3 Mig-3 and DU145 Mig-3 were specifically increased in phosphorylation of FAK Y861. We therefore examined potential alterations in Src family kinases responsible for FAK phosphorylation and determined only Yes expression was increased. Overexpression of Yes in PC3 parental cells and src-/-fyn-/-yes-/- fibroblasts selectively increased FAK Y861 phosphorylation, and increased migration. Knockdown of Yes in PC3 Mig-3 cells decreased migration and decreased lymph node metastasis following orthotopic implantation of into nude mice. In human specimens, Yes expression was increased in lymph node metastases relative to paired primary tumors from the same patient, and increased pFAK Y861 expression in lymph node metastases correlated with poor prognosis. These results demonstrate a unique role for Yes in phosphorylation of FAK and in promoting PCa metastasis. Therefore, phosphorylated FAK Y861 and increased Yes expression may be predictive markers for PCa metastasis.

Lv C, Qin W, Zhu T, et al.
Ophiobolin O isolated from Aspergillus ustus induces G1 arrest of MCF-7 cells through interaction with AKT/GSK3β/cyclin D1 signaling.
Mar Drugs. 2015; 13(1):431-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ophiobolin O is a member of ophiobolin family, which has been proved to be a potent anti-tumor drug candidate for human breast cancer. However, the anti-tumor effect and the mechanism of ophiobolin O remain unclear. In this study, we further verified ophiobolin O-induced G1 phase arrest in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and found that ophiobolin O reduced the phosphorylation level of AKT and GSK3β, and induced down-regulation of cyclin D1. The inverse docking (INVDOCK) analysis indicated that ophiobolin O could bind to GSK3β, and GSK3β knockdown abolished cyclin D1 degradation and G1 phase arrest. Pre-treatment with phosphatase inhibitor sodium or thovanadate halted dephosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β, and blocked ophiobolin O-induced G1 phase arrest. These data suggest that ophiobolin O may induce G1 arrest in MCF-7 cells through interaction with AKT/GSK3β/cyclin D1 signaling. In vivo, ophiobolin O suppressed tumor growth and showed little toxicity in mouse xenograft models. Overall, these findings provide theoretical basis for the therapeutic use of ophiobolin O.

Li L, He L, Zhao JL, et al.
MiR-17-5p up-regulates YES1 to modulate the cell cycle progression and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines.
J Cell Biochem. 2015; 116(6):1050-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that participate in the regulation of gene expression. Although many studies have demonstrated the involvement of miR-17-5p in different cancers, little is known to its function in ovarian cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-17-5p was able to enhance cell proliferation by promoting G1/S transition of the cell cycle and suppressing apoptosis in ES-2 and OVCAR3 cell lines, whereas inhibition of miR-17-5p yielded the reverse phenotype. YES1 was identified as a novel target gene of miR-17-5p. Moreover, miR-17-5p was found to directly bind to the 3'UTR of YES1 mRNA and up-regulated its expression. Furthermore, knockdown of YES1 led to the suppression of proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in ES-2 and OVCAR3 cells. Ectopic expression of YES1 was able to reverse the effects of miR-17-5p inhibition. Collectively, our results indicated that miR-17-5p might play a role in human ovarian cancer by up-regulating YES1 expression. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1050-1059, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Han X, Zhang W, Yang X, et al.
The role of Src family kinases in growth and migration of glioma stem cells.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(1):302-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Src family kinases (SFKs) are highly expressed and active in clinical glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) specimens. SFKs inhibitors have been demonstrated to inhibit proliferation and migration of glioma cells. However, the role of SFKs in glioma stem cells (GSCs), which are important for treatment resistance and recurrence, has not been reported. Here, we examined the expression pattern of individual members of SFKs and their functional role in CD133⁺ GSCs in comparison to primary glioma cells. We found that Fyn, c-Src and Yes were robustly expressed in GSCs while Lck was absent. Knockdown of c-Src, Yes or treatment with the SFK inhibitor dasatinib inhibited the migration of GSCs, but had no impact on their growth or self-renewal. These results suggest that SFKs represent an effective target for GSC migration but not for their growth.

Sato A, Virgona N, Ando A, et al.
A redox-silent analogue of tocotrienol inhibits cobalt(II) chloride-induced VEGF expression via Yes signaling in mesothelioma cells.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2014; 37(5):865-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in tumor angiogenesis and represents an attractive anticancer target. We have previously demonstrated that a redox-silent analogue of α-tocotrienol, 6-O-carboxypropyl-α-tocotrienol (T3E) exhibits potent anti-carcinogenic property in human malignant mesothelioma (MM) cells. However, inhibition of tumor growth by targeting VEGF pathway remains undetermined. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of T3E on the paracrine secretion of VEGF in MM cells under mimicked hypoxia by cobalt chloride (CoCl2). In this study we examine whether T3E can suppress the secretion of VEGF in MM cells exposed to mimic hypoxia by cobalt chloride (CoCl2). We found that CoCl2-induced hypoxia treatment leads to increased up-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) and subsequently induced the secretion of VEGF in MM cells. This up-regulation activation mainly depended on the activation of Yes, a member of the Src family of kinases. Treatment of hypoxic MM cells with T3E effectively inhibited the secretion of VEGF, On the other hand, T3E inhibited CoCl2-induced gene expression of VEGF due to the inactivation of Yes/HIF-2α signaling. These data suggest that Yes/HIF2-α/VEGF could be a promising therapeutic target of T3E in MM cells.

Je DW, O YM, Ji YG, et al.
The inhibition of SRC family kinase suppresses pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.
Pancreas. 2014; 43(5):768-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Src is considered a rising therapeutic target for the treatment of solid tumors, and Src family kinases (SFKs) participate in cancer cell proliferation and survival. The role of SFK suppression was investigated in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells.
METHODS: Knockdown of the SFKs in pancreatic cancer cells was achieved by transfecting small interfering RNAs, and its effects were investigated using proliferation, wound, and invasion assays.
RESULTS: The SFK inhibitors suppressed proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in pancreatic cancer cells. The SFK messenger RNA profiles showed that Yes1, Lyn, Fyn, Frk, Hck, and Src were expressed. Specific small interfering RNA transfection suppressed the messenger RNA expressions of Yes1, Lyn, Fyn, Frk, and Src, and the knockdown suppressed cell proliferation by 16.7% to 47.3% in PANC-1 cells. Knockdown of any of these 5 SFKs suppressed proliferation in other pancreatic cancer cell lines by 3.0% to 40.5%. The knockdowns significantly reduced pancreatic cancer cell migration by 24.9% to 66.7% and completely inhibited invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the knockdown of Yes1, Lyn, Fyn, Frk, or Src reduce human pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and that SFKs should be viewed as critical therapeutic targets of pancreatic cancer.

Touil Y, Igoudjil W, Corvaisier M, et al.
Colon cancer cells escape 5FU chemotherapy-induced cell death by entering stemness and quiescence associated with the c-Yes/YAP axis.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(4):837-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Metastasis and drug resistance are the major limitations in the survival and management of patients with cancer. This study aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying HT29 colon cancer cell chemoresistance acquired after sequential exposure to 5-fluorouracil (5FU), a classical anticancer drug for treatment of epithelial solid tumors. We examined its clinical relevance in a cohort of patients with colon cancer with liver metastases after 5FU-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery.
RESULTS: We show that a clonal 5F31 cell population, resistant to 1 μmol/L 5FU, express a typical cancer stem cell-like phenotype and enter into a reversible quiescent G0 state upon reexposure to higher 5FU concentrations. These quiescent cells overexpressed the tyrosine kinase c-Yes that became activated and membrane-associated upon 5FU exposure. This enhanced signaling pathway induced the dissociation of the Yes/YAP (Yes-associated protein) molecular complex and depleted nuclear YAP levels. Consistently, YES1 silencing decreased nuclear YAP accumulation and induced cellular quiescence in 5F31 cells cultured in 5FU-free medium. Importantly, YES1 and YAP transcript levels were higher in liver metastases of patients with colon cancer after 5FU-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Moreover, the YES1 and YAP transcript levels positively correlated with colon cancer relapse and shorter patient survival (P < 0.05 and P < 0.025, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: We identified c-Yes and YAP as potential molecular targets to eradicate quiescent cancer cells and dormant micrometastases during 5FU chemotherapy and resistance and as predictive survival markers for colon cancer.

Haenisch B, Huber M, Wilhelm T, et al.
Investigation into mechanisms mediating the inhibitory effect of 1,4-benzodiazepines on mast cells by gene expression profiling.
Life Sci. 2013; 92(6-7):345-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: This study aims to identify by a molecular genetic approach potential targets in mast cells at which 1,4-benzodiazepines may cause their inhibitory effect on mast cell activity.
MAIN METHODS: Gene expression analyses with microarray gene chip and/or quantitative PCR were performed using 1,4-benzodiazepine-treated human mast cell leukemia HMC-1.2 cells, promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells and human mast cells from healthy volunteers and patients with mast cell activation disease (MCAD). Pathway analysis was applied to search for enriched biological functions and canonical pathways within differentially regulated genes.
KEY FINDINGS: Both neoplastic and normal human mast cells express several GABA(A) receptor subunits at the mRNA level. In mast cells from MCAD patients expression of some GABA(A) receptor subunits and expression of the translocator protein TSPO are increased compared with those from healthy controls. Expression of the protein tyrosine kinases Lyn, Fgr and Yes1 was increased in HMC-1.2 cells as compared with the ontogenetically related HL60 cells. Differences in gene regulation in HMC-1.2 cells after treatment with the 1,4-benzodiazepines clonazepam, flunitrazepam and 4-chlorodiazepam suggested that signaling and gene expression induced by clonazepam was similar to that of flunitrazepam but different from that of 4-chlorodiazepam. This conclusion is supported by the results of the pathway analysis.
SIGNIFICANCE: A novel type of GABA(A) receptors on mast cells appears to be involved in the inhibition of mast cell activity by 1,4-benzodiazepines. These receptors seem to be composed without γ subunits suggesting unique pharmacological properties. An action at Src-kinases, or at TSPO located in the plasma membrane may also be involved.

Yeung CL, Ngo VN, Grohar PJ, et al.
Loss-of-function screen in rhabdomyosarcoma identifies CRKL-YES as a critical signal for tumor growth.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(47):5429-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To identify novel signaling pathways necessary for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) survival, we performed a loss-of-function screen using an inducible small hairpin RNA (shRNA) library in an alveolar and an embryonal RMS cell line. This screen identified CRKL expression as necessary for growth of alveolar RMS and embryonal RMS both in vitro and in vivo. We also found that CRKL was uniformly highly expressed in both RMS cell lines and tumor tissue. As CRKL is a member of the CRK adapter protein family that contains an SH2 and two SH3 domains and is involved in signal transduction from multiple tyrosine kinase receptors, we evaluated CRKL interaction with multiple tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathways in RMS cells. While we saw no interaction of CRKL with IGFIR, MET or PI3KAKT/mTOR pathways, we determined that CRKL signaling was associated with SRC family kinase (SFK) signaling, specifically with YES kinase. Inhibition of SFK signaling with dasatinib or another SFK inhibitor, sarcatinib, suppressed RMS cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These data identify CRKL as a novel critical component of RMS growth. This study also demonstrates the use of functional screening to identify a potentially novel therapeutic target and treatment approach for these highly aggressive pediatric cancers.

Rosenbluh J, Nijhawan D, Cox AG, et al.
β-Catenin-driven cancers require a YAP1 transcriptional complex for survival and tumorigenesis.
Cell. 2012; 151(7):1457-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a key role in the pathogenesis of colon and other cancers; emerging evidence indicates that oncogenic β-catenin regulates several biological processes essential for cancer initiation and progression. To decipher the role of β-catenin in transformation, we classified β-catenin activity in 85 cancer cell lines in which we performed genome-scale loss-of-function screens and found that β-catenin active cancers are dependent on a signaling pathway involving the transcriptional regulator YAP1. Specifically, we found that YAP1 and the transcription factor TBX5 form a complex with β-catenin. Phosphorylation of YAP1 by the tyrosine kinase YES1 leads to localization of this complex to the promoters of antiapoptotic genes, including BCL2L1 and BIRC5. A small-molecule inhibitor of YES1 impeded the proliferation of β-catenin-dependent cancers in both cell lines and animal models. These observations define a β-catenin-YAP1-TBX5 complex essential to the transformation and survival of β-catenin-driven cancers.

Kang SG, Huynh T, Zhou R
Non-destructive inhibition of metallofullerenol Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) on WW domain: implication on signal transduction pathway.
Sci Rep. 2012; 2:957 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endohedral metallofullerenol Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) has recently been shown to effectively inhibit tumor growth; however, its potential adverse bioeffects remain to be understood before its wider applications. Here, we present our study on the interaction between Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) and WW domain, a representative protein domain involved in signaling and regulatory pathway, using all-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations. We find that Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) has an intrinsic binding preference to the binding groove, particularly the key signature residues Y28 and W39. In its binding competition with the native ligand PRM, Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) is shown to easily win the competition over PRM in occupying the active site, implying that Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) can impose a potential inhibitory effect on the WW domain. Further analyses with binding free energy landscapes reveal that Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) can not only directly block the binding site of the WW domain, but also effectively distract the PRM from its native binding pocket.

Kanamori M, Sano A, Yasuda T, et al.
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization for genomic-wide screening of DNA copy number alterations in aggressive bone tumors.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 31:100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The genetic pathways of aggressive changes of bone tumors are still poorly understood. It is very important to analyze DNA copy number alterations (DCNAs), to identify the molecular events in the step of progression to the aggressive change of bone tissue.
METHODS: Genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) was used to investigate DCNAs of 14 samples from 13 aggressive bone tumors, such as giant cell tumors (GCTs) and osteosarcoma (OS), etc.
RESULTS: Primary aggressive bone tumors had copy number gains of 17.8±12.7% in the genome, and losses of 17.3±11.4% in 287 target clones (threshold for each DCNA: ≦085, 1.15≦). Genetic unstable cases, which were defined by the total DCNAs aberration ≧30%, were identified in 9 of 13 patients (3 of 7 GCTs and all malignant tumors). High-level amplification of TGFβ2, CCND3, WI-6509, SHGC-5557, TCL1A, CREBBP, HIC1, THRA, AFM217YD10, LAMA3, RUNX1 and D22S543, were commonly observed in aggressive bone tumors. On the other hand, NRAS, D2S447, RAF1, ROBO1, MYB, MOS, FGFR2, HRAS, D13S319, D13S327, D18S552, YES1 and DCC, were commonly low. We compared genetic instability between a primary OS and its metastatic site in Case #13. Metastatic lesion showed increased 9 DCNAs of remarkable change (m/p ratio ≧1.3 folds), compared to a primary lesion. D1S214, D1S1635, EXT1, AFM137XA11, 8 M16/SP6, CCND2, IGH, 282 M15/SP6, HIC1 and LAMA3, were overexpressed. We gave attention to HIC1 (17p13.3), which was common high amplification in this series.
CONCLUSION: Our results may provide several entry points for the identification of candidate genes associated with aggressive change of bone tumors. Especially, the locus 17p11-13 including HIC1 close to p53 was common high amplification in this series and review of the literature.

Sato A, Sekine M, Virgona N, et al.
Yes is a central mediator of cell growth in malignant mesothelioma cells.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 28(5):1889-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The constitutive activation of the Src family kinases (SFKs) has been established as a poor prognostic factor in malignant mesothelioma (MM), however, the family member(s) which contribute to the malignancy have not been defined. This study aimed to identify the SFK member(s) contributing to cell growth using RNA interference in various MM cell lines. Silencing of Yes but not of c-Src or Fyn in MM cells leads to cell growth suppression. This suppressive effect caused by Yes silencing mainly depends on G1 cell cycle arrest and partly the induction of apoptosis. Also, the knockout of Yes induces the inactivation of β-catenin signaling and subsequently decreases the levels of cyclin D necessary for G1-S transition in the cell cycle. In addition, Yes knockout has less effect on cell growth suppression in β-catenin-deficient H28 MM cells compared to other MM cells which express the catenin. Overall, we conclude that Yes is a central mediator for MM cell growth that is not shared with other SFKs such as c-Src.

Iacobucci I, Iraci N, Messina M, et al.
IKAROS deletions dictate a unique gene expression signature in patients with adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e40934 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deletions of IKAROS (IKZF1) frequently occur in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) but the mechanisms by which they influence pathogenesis are unclear. To address this issue, a cohort of 144 adult B-ALL patients (106 BCR-ABL1-positive and 38 B-ALL negative for known molecular rearrangements) was screened for IKZF1 deletions by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays; a sub-cohort of these patients (44%) was then analyzed for gene expression profiling.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total or partial deletions of IKZF1 were more frequent in BCR-ABL1-positive than in BCR-ABL1-negative B-ALL cases (75% vs 58%, respectively, p = 0.04). Comparison of the gene expression signatures of patients carrying IKZF1 deletion vs those without showed a unique signature featured by down-regulation of B-cell lineage and DNA repair genes and up-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle, JAK-STAT signalling and stem cell self-renewal. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays we corroborated these findings both in vivo and in vitro, showing that Ikaros deleted isoforms lacked the ability to directly regulate a large group of the genes in the signature, such as IGLL1, BLK, EBF1, MSH2, BUB3, ETV6, YES1, CDKN1A (p21), CDKN2C (p18) and MCL1.
CONCLUSIONS: Here we identified and validated for the first time molecular pathways specifically controlled by IKZF1, shedding light into IKZF1 role in B-ALL pathogenesis.

Liu W, Monahan KB, Pfefferle AD, et al.
LKB1/STK11 inactivation leads to expansion of a prometastatic tumor subpopulation in melanoma.
Cancer Cell. 2012; 21(6):751-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Germline mutations in LKB1 (STK11) are associated with the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), which includes aberrant mucocutaneous pigmentation, and somatic LKB1 mutations occur in 10% of cutaneous melanoma. By somatically inactivating Lkb1 with K-Ras activation (±p53 loss) in murine melanocytes, we observed variably pigmented and highly metastatic melanoma with 100% penetrance. LKB1 deficiency resulted in increased phosphorylation of the SRC family kinase (SFK) YES, increased expression of WNT target genes, and expansion of a CD24(+) cell population, which showed increased metastatic behavior in vitro and in vivo relative to isogenic CD24(-) cells. These results suggest that LKB1 inactivation in the context of RAS activation facilitates metastasis by inducing an SFK-dependent expansion of a prometastatic, CD24(+) tumor subpopulation.

Wheeler SE, Morariu EM, Bednash JS, et al.
Lyn kinase mediates cell motility and tumor growth in EGFRvIII-expressing head and neck cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(10):2850-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: EGF receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) has been detected in several cancers in which tumors expressing this truncated growth factor receptor show more aggressive behavior. The molecular mechanisms that contribute to EGFRvIII-mediated tumor progression that are amenable to targeted therapy are incompletely understood. The present study aimed to better define the role of Src family kinases (SFKs) in EGFRvIII-mediated cell motility and tumor growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: HNSCC models expressing EGFRvIII were treated with dasatinib, a pharmacologic inhibitor of SFKs.
RESULTS: SFK inhibition significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of EGFRvIII-expressing HNSCC cells. Administration of dasatinib to mice bearing EGFRvIII-expressing HNSCC xenografts resulted in a significant reduction of tumor volume compared with controls. Immunoprecipitation with anti-c-Src, Lyn, Fyn, and Yes antibodies followed by immunoblotting for phosphorylation of the SFK activation site (Y416) showed specific activation of Lyn kinase in EGFRvIII-expressing HNSCC cell lines and human HNSCC tumor specimens. Selective inhibition of Lyn using siRNA decreased cell migration and invasion of EGFRvIII-expressing HNSCCs compared with vector control cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that Lyn mediates tumor progression of EGFRvIII-expressing HNSCCs in which strategies to inhibit SFK may represent an effective therapeutic strategy.

Iida M, Brand TM, Campbell DA, et al.
Yes and Lyn play a role in nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(6):759-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a central regulator of tumor progression in human cancers. Cetuximab is an anti-EGFR antibody that has been approved for use in oncology. Previously we investigated mechanisms of resistance to cetuximab using a model derived from the non-small cell lung cancer line NCI-H226. We demonstrated that cetuximab-resistant clones (Ctx(R)) had increased nuclear localization of the EGFR. This process was mediated by Src family kinases (SFKs), and nuclear EGFR had a role in resistance to cetuximab. To better understand SFK-mediated nuclear translocation of EGFR, we investigated which SFK member(s) controlled this process as well as the EGFR tyrosine residues that are involved. Analyses of mRNA and protein expression indicated upregulation of the SFK members Yes (v-Yes-1 yamaguchi sarcoma viral oncogene) and Lyn (v-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral-related oncogene homolog) in all Ctx(R) clones. Further, immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that EGFR interacts with Yes and Lyn in Ctx(R) clones, but not in cetuximab-sensitive (Ctx(S)) parental cells. Using RNAi interference, we found that knockdown of either Yes or Lyn led to loss of EGFR translocation to the nucleus. Conversely, overexpression of Yes or Lyn in low nuclear EGFR-expressing Ctx(S) parental cells led to increased nuclear EGFR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed nuclear EGFR complexes associated with the promoter of the known EGFR target genes B-Myb and iNOS. Further, all Ctx(R) clones exhibited upregulation of B-Myb and iNOS at the mRNA and protein levels. siRNAs directed at Yes or Lyn led to decreased binding of EGFR complexes to the B-Myb and iNOS promoters based on ChIP analyses. SFKs have been shown to phosphorylate EGFR on tyrosines 845 and 1101 (Y845 and Y1101), and mutation of Y1101, but not Y845, impaired nuclear entry of the EGFR. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Yes and Lyn phosphorylate EGFR at Y1101, which influences EGFR nuclear translocation in this model of cetuximab resistance.

Eguchi R, Kubo S, Takeda H, et al.
Deficiency of Fyn protein is prerequisite for apoptosis induced by Src family kinase inhibitors in human mesothelioma cells.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(5):969-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor arising from mesothelial cells of serous membranes. Src family kinases (SFKs) have a pivotal role in cell adhesion, proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Here, we examined the effect of SFK inhibitors in NCI-H2052, ACC-MESO-4 and NCI-H28 cells, mesothelioma cell lines and Met5A, a human non-malignant mesothelial cell line. We found that PP2, a selective SFK inhibitor, inhibited SFK activity and induced apoptosis mediated by caspase-8 in NCI-H28 but not Met5A, NCI-H2052 and ACC-MESO-4 cells. Src, Yes, Fyn and Lyn protein, which are members of the SFK, were expressed in these cell lines, whereas NCI-H28 cells were deficient in Fyn protein. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Fyn facilitated PP2-induced apoptosis mediated by caspase-8 in NCI-H2052 and ACC-MESO-4 cells. PP2 reduced Lyn protein levels and suppressed SFK activity in all mesothelioma cell lines. Lyn siRNA induced caspase-8 activation and apoptosis in NCI-H28 cells but not in NCI-H2052 and ACC-MESO-4 cells. However, double RNA interference knockdown of Fyn and Lyn induced apoptosis accompanied by caspase-8 activation in NCI-H2052 and ACC-MESO-4 cells. Dasatinib, an inhibitor of multi-tyrosine kinases including SFK, also inhibited SFK activity and induced reduction of Lyn protein levels, caspase-8 activation and apoptosis in NCI-H28 cells but not in other cell lines. Present study suggests that SFK inhibitors induce caspase-8-dependent apoptosis caused by reduction of Lyn protein in Fyn-deficient mesothelioma cells.

Brown J, Bothma H, Veale R, Willem P
Genomic imbalances in esophageal carcinoma cell lines involve Wnt pathway genes.
World J Gastroenterol. 2011; 17(24):2909-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To identify molecular markers shared across South African esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines using cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array copy number analysis.
METHODS: We used conventional cytogenetics, FISH, and multicolor FISH to characterize the chromosomal rearrangements of five ESCC cell lines established in South Africa. The whole genome copy number profile was established from 250K SNP arrays, and data was analyzed with the CNAT 4.0 and GISTIC software.
RESULTS: We detected common translocation breakpoints involving chromosomes 1p11-12 and 3p11.2, the latter correlated with the deletion, or interruption of the EPHA3 gene. The most significant amplifications involved the following chromosomal regions and genes: 11q13.3 (CCND1, FGF3, FGF4, FGF19, MYEOV), 8q24.21(C-MYC, FAM84B), 11q22.1-q22.3 (BIRC2, BIRC3), 5p15.2 (CTNND2), 3q11.2-q12.2 (MINA) and 18p11.32 (TYMS, YES1). The significant deletions included 1p31.2-p31.1 (CTH, GADD45α, DIRAS3), 2q22.1 (LRP1B), 3p12.1-p14.2 (FHIT), 4q22.1-q32.1 (CASP6, SMAD1), 8p23.2-q11.1 (BNIP3L) and 18q21.1-q21.2 (SMAD4, DCC). The 3p11.2 translocation breakpoint was shared across four cell lines, supporting a role for genes involved at this site, in particular, the EPHA3 gene which has previously been reported to be deleted in ESCC.
CONCLUSION: The finding that a significant number of genes that were amplified (FGF3, FGF4, FGF19, CCND1 and C-MYC) or deleted (SFRP2 gene) are involved in the Wnt and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways, suggests that these pathways may be activated in these cell lines.

Orr BA, Bai H, Odia Y, et al.
Yes-associated protein 1 is widely expressed in human brain tumors and promotes glioblastoma growth.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011; 70(7):568-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The hippo pathway and its downstream mediator yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) regulate mammalian organ size in part through modulating progenitor cell numbers. YAP1 has also been implicated as an oncogene in multiple human cancers. Currently, little is known about the expression of YAP1 either in normal human brain tissue or in central nervous system neoplasms. We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate nuclear YAP1 expression in the fetal and normal adult human brains and in 264 brain tumors. YAP1 was expressed in fetal and adult brain regions known to harbor neural progenitor cells, but there was little YAP1 immunoreactivity in the adult cerebral cortex. YAP1 protein was also readily detected in the nuclei of human brain tumors. In medulloblastoma, the expression varied between histologic subtypes and was most prominent in nodular/desmoplastic tumors. In gliomas, it was frequently expressed in infiltrating astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas but rarely in pilocytic astrocytomas. Using a loss-of-function approach, we show that YAP1 promoted growth of glioblastoma cell lines in vitro. High levels of YAP1 messenger RNA expression were associated with aggressive molecular subsets of glioblastoma and with a nonsignificant trend toward reduced mean survival in human astrocytoma patients. These findings suggest that YAP1 may play an important role in normal human brain development and that it could represent a new target in human brain tumors.

Mitchell C, Hamed HA, Cruickshanks N, et al.
Simultaneous exposure of transformed cells to SRC family inhibitors and CHK1 inhibitors causes cell death.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2011; 12(3):215-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The present studies were initiated to determine in greater molecular detail the regulation of CHK1 inhibitor lethality in transfected and infected breast cancer cells and using genetic models of transformed fibrobalsts. Multiple MEK1/2 inhibitors (PD184352, AZD6244 (ARRY-142886)) interacted with multiple CHK1 inhibitors (UCN-01 (7-hydroxystaurosporine), AZD7762) to kill mammary carcinoma cells and transformed fibroblasts. In transformed cells, CHK1 inhibitor -induced activation of ERK1/2 was dependent upon activation of SRC family non-receptor tyrosine kinases as judged by use of multiple SRC kinase inhibitors (PP2, Dasatinib; AZD0530), use of SRC/FYN/YES deleted transformed fibroblasts or by expression of dominant negative SRC. Cell killing by SRC family kinase inhibitors and CHK1 inhibitors was abolished in BAX/BAK -/- transformed fibroblasts and suppressed by over expression of BCL-XL. Treatment of cells with BCL-2/BCL-XL antagonists promoted SRC inhibitor + CHK1 inhibitor -induced lethality in a BAX/BAK-dependent fashion. Treatment of cells with [SRC + CHK1] inhibitors radio-sensitized tumor cells. These findings argue that multiple inhibitors of the SRC-RAS-MEK pathway interact with multiple CHK1 inhibitors to kill transformed cells.

Lim SK, Orhant-Prioux M, Toy W, et al.
Tyrosine phosphorylation of transcriptional coactivator WW-domain binding protein 2 regulates estrogen receptor α function in breast cancer via the Wnt pathway.
FASEB J. 2011; 25(9):3004-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
WW-binding protein 2 (WBP2) has been demonstrated in different studies to be a tyrosine kinase substrate, to activate estrogen receptor α (ERα)/progesterone receptor (PR) transcription, and to play a role in breast cancer. However, the role of WBP2 tyrosine phosphorylation in regulating ERα function and breast cancer biology is unknown. Here, we established WBP2 as a tyrosine phosphorylation target of estrogen signaling via EGFR crosstalk. Using dominant-negative, constitutively active mutants, RNAi, and pharmacological studies, we demonstrated that phosphorylation of WBP2 at Tyr192 and Tyr231 could be regulated by c-Src and c-Yes kinases. We further showed that abrogating WBP2 phosphorylation impaired >60% of ERα reporter activity, putatively by blocking nuclear entry of WBP2 and its interaction with ERα. Compared to vector control, overexpression of WBP2 and its phospho-mimic mutant in MCF7 cells resulted in larger tumors in mice, induced loss of cell-cell adhesion, and enhanced cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, and invasion in both estrogen-dependent and -independent manners, events of which could be substantially abolished by overexpression of the phosphorylation-defective mutant. Hormone independence of cells expressing WBP2 phospho-mimic mutant was associated with heightened ERα and Wnt reporter activities. Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor FH535 blocked phospho-WBP2-mediated cancer cell growth more pronouncedly than tamoxifen and fulvestrant, in part by reducing the expression of ERα. Wnt pathway is likely to be a critical component in WBP2-mediated breast cancer biology.

Kluger HM, Dudek AZ, McCann C, et al.
A phase 2 trial of dasatinib in advanced melanoma.
Cancer. 2011; 117(10):2202-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inhibiting src kinases (non-receptor tyrosine kinase signaling intermediates) reduces melanoma cell proliferation and invasion. Dasatinib inhibits c-kit, PDGFβR, and EPHA2 and src kinases c-src, c-Yes, Lck, and Fyn. A phase 2 trial of dasatinib in melanoma was conducted to assess response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), and toxicity.
METHODS: Adults with stage 3/4 chemotherapy-naïve unresectable melanoma were eligible. Dasatinib was initially administered at 100 mg twice daily continuously to 17 patients. Due to toxicity, the starting dosage was decreased to 70 mg twice daily. Tumor assessments occurred every 8 weeks.
RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients were enrolled, 36 of whom were evaluable for activity and toxicity. Five, 4, and 3 patients had acral-lentiginous, ocular, or mucosal primaries, respectively. Two patients had confirmed partial responses lasting 64 and 24 weeks (RR 5%). Three patients had minor responses lasting 136, 64, and 28 weeks, and 1 patient who was responding discontinued due to noncompliance. The median PFS was 8 weeks; the 6-month PFS rate was 13%. One patient with an exon-13 c-kit mutation had a partial response, whereas disease in another patient with an exon-11 c-kit mutation progressed. Common toxicities were fatigue, dyspnea, and pleural effusion.
CONCLUSIONS: Daily dasatinib has minimal activity in unselected melanoma patients, excluding those with c-kit mutations. The study did not meet the prespecified endpoints of 30% response rate or 6-month PFS. Dasatinib was poorly tolerated overall, often requiring dose reduction or interruption. Because activity was observed in a small subset without c-kit mutations, identifying predictive biomarkers is important for future development of dasatinib in melanoma alone or in combination trials.

Hamamura K, Tsuji M, Hotta H, et al.
Functional activation of Src family kinase yes protein is essential for the enhanced malignant properties of human melanoma cells expressing ganglioside GD3.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(21):18526-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The possible roles of Src family kinases in the enhanced malignant properties of melanomas related to GD3 expression were analyzed. Among Src family kinases only Yes, not Fyn or Src, was functionally involved in the increased cell proliferation and invasion of GD3-expressing transfectant cells (GD3+). Yes was located upstream of p130Cas and paxillin and at an equivalent level to focal adhesion kinase. Yes underwent autophosphorylation even before serum treatment and showed stronger kinase activity in GD3+ cells than in GD3- cells following serum treatment. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Yes bound to focal adhesion kinase or p130Cas more strongly in GD3+ cells than in GD3- cells. As a possible mechanism for the enhancing effects of GD3 on cellular phenotypes, it was shown that majority of Yes was localized in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts in GD3+ cells even before serum treatment, whereas it was scarcely detected in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts in GD3- cells. An in vitro kinase assay of Yes revealed that coexistence of GD3 with Yes in membranous environments enhances the kinase activity of GD3- cell-derived Yes toward enolase, p125, and Yes itself. Knockdown of GD3 synthase resulted in the alleviation of tumor phenotypes and reduced activation levels of Yes. Taken together, these results suggest a role of GD3 in the regulation of Src family kinases.

Sancier F, Dumont A, Sirvent A, et al.
Specific oncogenic activity of the Src-family tyrosine kinase c-Yes in colon carcinoma cells.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(2):e17237 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
c-Yes, a member of the Src tyrosine kinase family, is found highly activated in colon carcinoma but its importance relative to c-Src has remained unclear. Here we show that, in HT29 colon carcinoma cells, silencing of c-Yes, but not of c-Src, selectively leads to an increase of cell clustering associated with a localisation of β-catenin at cell membranes and a reduction of expression of β-catenin target genes. c-Yes silencing induced an increase in apoptosis, inhibition of growth in soft-agar and in mouse xenografts, inhibition of cell migration and loss of the capacity to generate liver metastases in mice. Re-introduction of c-Yes, but not c -Src, restores transforming properties of c-Yes depleted cells. Moreover, we found that c-Yes kinase activity is required for its role in β-catenin localisation and growth in soft agar, whereas kinase activity is dispensable for its role in cell migration. We conclude that c-Yes regulates specific oncogenic signalling pathways important for colon cancer progression that is not shared with c-Src.

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