Gene Summary

Gene:YES1; YES proto-oncogene 1, Src family tyrosine kinase
Aliases: Yes, c-yes, HsT441, P61-YES
Summary:This gene is the cellular homolog of the Yamaguchi sarcoma virus oncogene. The encoded protein has tyrosine kinase activity and belongs to the src family of proteins. This gene lies in close proximity to thymidylate synthase gene on chromosome 18, and a corresponding pseudogene has been found on chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tyrosine-protein kinase Yes
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: YES1 (cancer-related)

Yoshioka T, Shien K, Takeda T, et al.
Acquired resistance mechanisms to afatinib in HER2-amplified gastric cancer cells.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(8):2549-2557 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer treatment, especially that for breast and lung cancer, has entered a new era and continues to evolve, with the development of genome analysis technology and the advent of molecular targeted drugs including tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Nevertheless, acquired drug resistance to molecular targeted drugs is unavoidable, creating a clinically challenging problem. We recently reported the antitumor effect of a pan-HER inhibitor, afatinib, against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified gastric cancer cells. The purpose of the present study was to identify the mechanisms of acquired afatinib resistance and to investigate the treatment strategies for HER2-amplified gastric cancer cells. Two afatinib-resistant gastric cancer cell lines were established from 2 HER2-amplified cell lines, N87 and SNU216. Subsequently, we investigated the molecular profiles of resistant cells. The activation of the HER2 pathway was downregulated in N87-derived resistant cells, whereas it was upregulated in SNU216-derived resistant cells. In the N87-derived cell line, both MET and AXL were activated, and combination treatment with afatinib and cabozantinib, a multikinase inhibitor that inhibits MET and AXL, suppressed the cell growth of cells with acquired resistance both in vitro and in vivo. In the SNU216-derived cell line, YES1, which is a member of the Src family, was remarkably activated, and dasatinib, a Src inhibitor, exerted a strong antitumor effect in these cells. In conclusion, we identified MET and AXL activation in addition to YES1 activation as novel mechanisms of afatinib resistance in HER2-driven gastric cancer. Our results also indicated that treatment strategies targeting individual mechanisms of resistance are key to overcoming such resistance.

Luo J, Chimge NO, Zhou B, et al.
CLDN18.1 attenuates malignancy and related signaling pathways of lung adenocarcinoma in vivo and in vitro.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 143(12):3169-3180 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
Claudins are a family of transmembrane proteins integral to the structure and function of tight junctions (TJ). Disruption of TJ and alterations in claudin expression are important features of invasive and metastatic cancer cells. Expression of CLDN18.1, the lung-specific isoform of CLDN18, is markedly decreased in lung adenocarcinoma (LuAd). Furthermore, we recently observed that aged Cldn18

Fan PD, Narzisi G, Jayaprakash AD, et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(26):E6030-E6038 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
In ∼30% of patients with

Su SP, Flashner-Abramson E, Klein S, et al.
Impact of the Anticancer Drug NT157 on Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Networks.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2018; 17(5):931-942 [PubMed] Related Publications
The small-molecule drug NT157 has demonstrated promising efficacy in preclinical models of a number of different cancer types, reflecting activity against both cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. Two known mechanisms of action are degradation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1/2 and reduced Stat3 activation, although it is possible that others exist. To interrogate the effects of this drug on cell signaling pathways in an unbiased manner, we have undertaken mass spectrometry-based global tyrosine phosphorylation profiling of NT157-treated A375 melanoma cells. Bioinformatic analysis of the resulting dataset resolved 5 different clusters of tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides that differed in the directionality and timing of response to drug treatment over time. The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL exhibited a rapid decrease in phosphorylation in response to drug treatment, followed by proteasome-dependent degradation, identifying an additional potential target for NT157 action. However, NT157 treatment also resulted in increased activation of p38 MAPK α and γ, as well as the JNKs and specific Src family kinases. Importantly, cotreatment with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 attenuated the antiproliferative effect of NT157, while synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation was observed when NT157 was combined with a Src inhibitor. These findings provide novel insights into NT157 action on cancer cells and highlight how globally profiling the impact of a specific drug on cellular signaling networks can identify effective combination treatments.

Chen L, Cao H, Feng Y
MiR-199a suppresses prostate cancer paclitaxel resistance by targeting YES1.
World J Urol. 2018; 36(3):357-365 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer chemoresistance is a major contributor to the poor survival of patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating cancer resistance. Here we aim to explore the role and mechanism of miR-199a in regulating prostate cancer resistance.
METHODS: MiR-199a expressions in human prostate cancer tissues and cell lines were investigated with real-time PCR (RT-PCR). MiR-199a was ectopically overexpressed in PC3 cells, and resistance to paclitaxel (PTX) was evaluated consequently. The interaction between miR-199a and the oncogene Yamaguchi sarcoma viral homolog 1 (YES1) was assessed after miR-199a overexpression. YES1 was ectopically overexpressed, followed by evaluation of PTX resistance. The efficacy of miR-199a as a therapeutic agent was also investigated in vivo.
RESULTS: Downregulation of miR-199a was characteristic of prostate cancer, particularly recurrent cancers. MiR-199a was suppressed in PTX-resistant cell line. Overexpression of miR-199a inhibited PTX resistance. YES1 was a target of miR-199a, and overexpression of YES1 reversed the effect of miR-199a in suppressing PTX resistance. In vivo, miR-199a increased tumor PTX sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS: The downregulation of miR-199a contributes to PTX resistance in prostate cancer. YES1 mediates the regulation of miR-199a in prostate cancer PTX resistance. This miR-199a replacement therapy has potential to overcome PTX resistance.

Fang Z, Yin S, Sun R, et al.
miR-140-5p suppresses the proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer by regulating YES1.
Mol Cancer. 2017; 16(1):139 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aberrant expression of microRNA-140-5p (miR-140-5p) has been described in gastric cancer (GC). However, the role of miR-140-5p in GC remains unclear. In this study, the prognostic relevance of miR-140-5p in GC was investigated and YES1 was identified as a novel target of miR-140-5p in regulating tumor progression.
METHODS: miR-140-5p level was determined in 20 paired frozen specimens through quantitative real-time PCR, and analyzed in tissue microarrays through in situ hybridization. The target of miR-140-5p was verified through a dual luciferase reporter assay, and the effects of miR-140-5p on phenotypic changes in GC cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: Compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, miR-140-5p expression decreased in cancerous tissues. The downregulated miR-140-5p in 144 patients with GC was significantly correlated with the reduced overall survival of these patients. miR-140-5p could inhibit GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by directly targeting 3'-untranlated region of YES1. miR-140-5p could also remarkably reduce the tumor size in GC xenograft mice.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-140-5p serves as a potential prognostic factor in patients with GC, and miR-140-5p mediated YES1 inhibition is a novel mechanism behind the suppressive effects of miR-140-5p in GC.

Ichihara E, Westover D, Meador CB, et al.
SFK/FAK Signaling Attenuates Osimertinib Efficacy in Both Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Models of EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancer.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(11):2990-3000 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
Mutant-selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as osimertinib, are active agents for the treatment of

Takeda T, Yamamoto H, Kanzaki H, et al.
Yes1 signaling mediates the resistance to Trastuzumab/Lap atinib in breast cancer.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0171356 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is observed in approximately 15-23% of breast cancers and these cancers are classified as HER2-positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab is the first-line targeted therapeutic drug for HER2-positive breast cancer and has improved patient overall survival. However, acquired resistance to trastuzumab is still a critical issue in breast cancer treatment. We previously established a trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cell line (named as BT-474-R) from a trastuzumab-sensitive HER2-amplified cell line BT-474. Lapatinib is also a molecular-targeted drug for HER2-positive breast cancer, which acquired the resistance to trastuzumab. Acquired resistance to lapatinib is also an issue to be conquered.
METHODS: We established trastuzumab/lapatinib-dual resistant cell line (named as BT-474-RL2) by additionally treating BT-474-R with lapatinib. We analyzed the mechanisms of resistance to trastuzumab and lapatinib. Besides, we analyzed the effect of the detected resistance mechanism in HER2-positive breast cancer patients.
RESULTS: Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Yes1, which is one of the Src family members, was amplified, overexpressed and activated in BT-474-R and BT-474-RL2. Silencing of Yes1 by siRNA induced both BT-474-R and BT-474-RL2 to restore the sensitivity to trastuzumab and lapatinib. Pharmaceutical inhibition of Yes1 by the Src inhibitor dasatinib was also effective to restore the sensitivity to trastuzumab and lapatinib in the two resistant cell lines. Combination treatment with dasatinib and trastuzumab induced down-regulation of signaling molecules such as HER2 and Akt. Moreover, the combination treatments induced G1-phase cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Consistent with cell line data, high expression of Yes1 mRNA was correlated with worse prognosis in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: Yes1 plays an important role in acquired resistance to trastuzumab and lapatinib in HER2-positive breast cancer. Our data suggest that pharmacological inhibition of Yes1 may be an effective strategy to overcome resistance to trastuzumab and lapatinib.

Miller RE, Brough R, Bajrami I, et al.
Synthetic Lethal Targeting of ARID1A-Mutant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumors with Dasatinib.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(7):1472-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
New targeted approaches to ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCC) are needed, given the limited treatment options in this disease and the poor response to standard chemotherapy. Using a series of high-throughput cell-based drug screens in OCCC tumor cell models, we have identified a synthetic lethal (SL) interaction between the kinase inhibitor dasatinib and a key driver in OCCC, ARID1A mutation. Imposing ARID1A deficiency upon a variety of human or mouse cells induced dasatinib sensitivity, both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this is a robust synthetic lethal interaction. The sensitivity of ARID1A-deficient cells to dasatinib was associated with G1-S cell-cycle arrest and was dependent upon both p21 and Rb. Using focused siRNA screens and kinase profiling, we showed that ARID1A-mutant OCCC tumor cells are addicted to the dasatinib target YES1. This suggests that dasatinib merits investigation for the treatment of patients with ARID1A-mutant OCCC. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1472-84. ©2016 AACR.

Vegi NM, Klappacher J, Oswald F, et al.
MEIS2 Is an Oncogenic Partner in AML1-ETO-Positive AML.
Cell Rep. 2016; 16(2):498-507 [PubMed] Related Publications
Homeobox genes are known to be key factors in leukemogenesis. Although the TALE family homeodomain factor Meis1 has been linked to malignancy, a role for MEIS2 is less clear. Here, we demonstrate that MEIS2 is expressed at high levels in patients with AML1-ETO-positive acute myeloid leukemia and that growth of AML1-ETO-positive leukemia depends on MEIS2 expression. In mice, MEIS2 collaborates with AML1-ETO to induce acute myeloid leukemia. MEIS2 binds strongly to the Runt domain of AML1-ETO, indicating a direct interaction between these transcription factors. High expression of MEIS2 impairs repressive DNA binding of AML1-ETO, inducing increased expression of genes such as the druggable proto-oncogene YES1. Collectively, these data describe a pivotal role for MEIS2 in AML1-ETO-induced leukemia.

Jin Y, Huang M, Wang Y, et al.
c-Yes enhances tumor migration and invasion via PI3K/AKT pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2016; 101(1):50-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of c-Yes has been noted to correlation with several human cancers. However, the effects of c-Yes on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development remain unclear. The aim of this study is going to prove the effects of c-Yes and related mechanisms in proliferation, metastasis and invasion of EOC. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed in 119 human EOC samples, and the data was correlated with clinic pathologic features. Furthermore, western blot analysis is performed for c-Yes in EOC samples and cell lines to evaluate their protein levels and molecular interaction. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis shows that the strong expression of c-Yes exhibited a significant correlation with poor prognosis in human EOC (P<0.01(⁎)). Meanwhile, we found that knockdown of c-Yes by shRNA inhibited the ability of migration and invasion in EOC cells via the PI3K/AKT pathway. In a word, these results suggested that c-Yes plays an important role in migration and invasion of EOC.

Liu L, Yang J, Zhu X, et al.
Long noncoding RNA H19 competitively binds miR-17-5p to regulate YES1 expression in thyroid cancer.
FEBS J. 2016; 283(12):2326-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
The long noncoding RNA H19 is overexpressed in many cancers and acts as an oncogene. Here, we investigated the role of H19 in thyroid carcinogenesis and its relation to microRNA miR-17-5p and its target gene YES1. H19 expression was higher in tumor samples and in thyroid cancer cell lines than nontumor tissues and normal thyroid cells. H19 knockdown and ectopic expression in the TPC-1 and NIM thyroid cancer cell lines showed that overexpression of H19 promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion, whereas H19 knockdown reduced cell viability and invasion and induced growth arrest in vitro and in vivo. H19 was identified as a target of miR-17-5p, by Dual-Luciferase Reporter assays and RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation assays. H19 antagonized the function of miR-17-5p on upregulation of its target YES1 and inhibited miR-17-5p-induced cell cycle progression. Our results suggest that H19 functions as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) by acting as a sink for miR-17-5p, revealing a potential ceRNA regulatory network involving H19 and miR-17-5p with a role in the modulation of YES1 expression. This mechanism may contribute to a better understanding of thyroid cancer pathogenesis and provide new insights into the treatment of this disease.

Jia J, Li C, Luo S, et al.
Yes-Associated Protein Contributes to the Development of Human Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Activation of RAS.
J Invest Dermatol. 2016; 136(6):1267-1277 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most common skin malignant tumors with an increasing incidence. Studies have shown that Yes-associated protein (YAP) participates in the development of a variety of tumors as an oncogene, but to our knowledge its role in cSCC has not been reported. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to show that YAP expression was elevated in cSCC samples of different stages versus in normal skin and that it was well correlated with the progression of the disease. Down-regulation of YAP in cSCC cell lines A431 and SCL-1 inhibited cell proliferation by inducing growth arrest during the G1/S phase transition, promoted apoptosis, and reduced invasion and migration abilities in vitro. Conversely, overexpression of YAP promoted cell proliferation and protected cells against basal and chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. These oncogenic effects of YAP were associated with activation of the RAS protein and its downstream AKT and ERK. Using a mouse xenograft model, we further showed that YAP depletion inhibited cSCC tumor growth in vivo. Our results suggested that YAP is involved in the carcinogenesis and development of cSCC and that it may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target of this disease.

Tan W, Lim SG, Tan TM
Up-regulation of microRNA-210 inhibits proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting YES1.
World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21(46):13030-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
AIM: To determine the expression of microRNA-210 (miR-210) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to examine its role using HCC cells.
METHODS: The expression of miR-210 was determined in 21 pairs of HCC samples and the corresponding surrounding non-tumor tissues. The effects of miR-210 on proliferation and cell cycle progression were examined using HepG2 and HuH7 cells. Over-expression and inhibition of miR-210 was achieved by transfection of the cells with miR-210 mimic or inhibitor. Luciferase reporter constructs were used to identify the miR-210 interacting site on Yes1. Yes1 expression was examined after miR-210 transfection, as well as in the HCC samples.
RESULTS: miR-210 was significantly up-regulated by 3.4 fold (P < 0.01) in the tumor samples. The over-expression of miR-210 significantly reduced cell proliferation compared to the mock-treated cells (68.9% ± 7.4% and 53.6% ± 5.0%, P < 0.05 for the HepG2 and HuH7 cells respectively). Analysis of the HuH7 cells transfected with miR-210 mimic by flow cytometry showed that the cells took a longer time to reach the G2/M phase. The interaction between miR-210 and the 3'UTR of the Yes1 transcript was confirmed using a luciferase reporter assay. Over-expression of miR-210 reduced the expression of Yes1 protein in both HuH7 and HepG2 cells. Tumors with a greater than four-fold increase in the expression of miR-210 showed consistently lower expressions of Yes1 in the tumors. In nocodazole-treated cells with a significant G2/M cell population, Yes1 protein was significantly reduced and pre-inhibition of miR-210 in HuH7 cells was able to prevent the reduction of Yes1 protein expression. Knock-down of Yes1 by siRNA also led to reduced cell proliferation (70.8% ± 7.5%, P < 0.05 in the HuH7 cells).
CONCLUSION: Up-regulation of miR-210 inhibits cell proliferation. Yes1 is a target of miR-210 and affects cell proliferation in HCC.

Xu Z, Chen J, Shao L, et al.
Promyelocytic leukemia protein enhances apoptosis of gastric cancer cells through Yes-associated protein.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(10):8047-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been shown that Yes-associated protein (YAP) acts as a transcriptional co-activator to regulate p73-dependent apoptosis in response to DNA damage in some cell types, and promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is involved in the regulation loop through stabilization of YAP through sumoylation. Although YAP has been shown to be significantly upregulated in gastric cancer, whether the YAP/PML/p73 regulation loop also functions in gastric cancer is unknown. Here, we show significantly higher levels of YAP and significantly lower levels of PML in the gastric cancer specimen. Overexpression of YAP in gastric cancer cells significantly increased cell growth, but did not affect apoptosis. However, overexpression of PML in gastric cancer cells significantly increased cell apoptosis, resulting in decreases in cell growth, which seemed to require the presence of YAP. The effect of PML on apoptosis appeared to be conducted through p73-mediated modulation of apoptosis-associated genes, Bcl-2, Bak, and caspase9. Thus, our study suggests the presence of a YAP/PML/p73 regulatory loop in gastric cancer, and highlights PML as a promising tumor suppressor in gastric cancer through YAP-coordinated cancer cell apoptosis.

Ohkawa Y, Momota H, Kato A, et al.
Ganglioside GD3 Enhances Invasiveness of Gliomas by Forming a Complex with Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor α and Yes Kinase.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(26):16043-58 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
There have been a few studies on the ganglioside expression in human glioma tissues. However, the role of these gangliosides such as GD3 and GD2 has not been well understood. In this study we employed a genetically engineered mouse model of glioma to clarify the functions of GD3 in gliomas. Forced expression of platelet-derived growth factor B in cultured astrocytes derived from p53-deficient mice resulted in the expression of GD3 and GD2. GD3-positive astrocytes exhibited increased cell growth and invasion activities along with elevated phosphorylation of Akt and Yes kinase. By enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources reaction and mass spectrometry, we identified PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) as a GD3-associated molecule. GD3-positive astrocytes showed a significant amount of PDGFRα in glycolipid-enriched microdomains/rafts compared with GD3-negative cells. Src kinase family Yes was co-precipitated with PDGFRα, and its pivotal role in the increased cell invasion of GD3-positive astrocytes was demonstrated by silencing with anti-Yes siRNA. Direct association between PDGFRα and GD3 was also shown, suggesting that GD3 forms ternary complex with PDGFRα and Yes. The fact that GD3, PDGFRα, and activated Yes were colocalized in lamellipodia and the edge of tumors in cultured cells and glioma tissues, respectively, suggests that GD3 induced by platelet-derived growth factor B enhances PDGF signals in glycolipid-enriched microdomain/rafts, leading to the promotion of malignant phenotypes such as cell proliferation and invasion in gliomas.

Wan X, Yeung C, Heske C, et al.
IGF-1R Inhibition Activates a YES/SFK Bypass Resistance Pathway: Rational Basis for Co-Targeting IGF-1R and Yes/SFK Kinase in Rhabdomyosarcoma.
Neoplasia. 2015; 17(4):358-66 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) has surfaced as a significant target in multiple solid cancers due to its fundamental roles in pro-survival and anti-apoptotic signaling. However, development of resistance to IGF-1R blockade represents a significant hindrance and limits treatment efficacy in the clinic. In this study, we identified acquired resistance to IGF-1R blockade with R1507, an antibody against IGF-1R, and with BMS-754807, a small molecular inhibitor of IGF-1R/insulin receptor (IR). We showed that treatment with an IGF-IR antibody, R1507, or an IR/IGF-IR kinase inhibitor, BMS-754807, was associated with increased activation of YES/SRC family tyrosine kinase (SFK) in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Combining anti-IGF-1R agents with SFK inhibitors resulted in blockade of IGF-1R inhibition-induced activation of YES/SFK and displayed advantageous antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Our data provide evidence that IGF-1R blockade results in activation of the YES/SRC family kinase bypass resistance pathway in vitro and in vivo. This may be of particular clinical relevance since both Yes and IGF components are overexpressed in RMS. Increased YES/SFK activation might serve as a clinical biomarker for predicting tumor resistance to IGF-1R inhibition. Dual inhibition of IGF-1R and SFK may have a broader and enhanced clinical benefit for patients with RMS.

Lee SA, Kim JS, Park SY, et al.
miR-203 downregulates Yes-1 and suppresses oncogenic activity in human oral cancer cells.
J Biosci Bioeng. 2015; 120(4):351-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of microRNA-203 (miR-203) as a tumor suppressor in KB human oral cancer cells. MicroRNA microarray results showed that the expression of miR-203 was significantly down-regulated in KB cells compared with normal human oral keratinocytes. The viability of KB cells was decreased by miR-203 in the time- and dose-dependent manners. In addition, over-expressed miR-203 not only increased the nuclear condensation but also significantly increased the apoptotic population of KB cells. These results indicated that the over-expression of miR-203 induced apoptosis of KB cells. Furthermore, the target gene array analyses revealed that the expression of Yes-1, a member of the Src family kinases (SFKs), was significantly down-regulated by miR-203 in KB cells. Moreover, both the mRNA and protein levels of Yes-1 were strongly reduced in KB cells transfected with miR-203. Therefore, these results indicated that Yes-1 is predicted to be a potential target gene of miR-203. Through a luciferase activity assay, miR-203 was confirmed to directly targets the Yes-1 3' untranslated region (UTR) to suppress gene expression. Therefore, our findings indicate that miR-203 induces the apoptosis of KB cells by directly targeting Yes-1, suggesting its application in anti-cancer therapeutics.

Chatterji T, Varkaris AS, Parikh NU, et al.
Yes-mediated phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase at tyrosine 861 increases metastatic potential of prostate cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(12):10175-94 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
To study the role of FAK signaling complexes in promoting metastatic properties of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, we selected stable, highly migratory variants, termed PC3 Mig-3 and DU145 Mig-3, from two well-characterized PCa cell lines, PC3 and DU145. These variants were not only increased migration and invasion in vitro, but were also more metastatic to lymph nodes following intraprostatic injection into nude mice. Both PC3 Mig-3 and DU145 Mig-3 were specifically increased in phosphorylation of FAK Y861. We therefore examined potential alterations in Src family kinases responsible for FAK phosphorylation and determined only Yes expression was increased. Overexpression of Yes in PC3 parental cells and src-/-fyn-/-yes-/- fibroblasts selectively increased FAK Y861 phosphorylation, and increased migration. Knockdown of Yes in PC3 Mig-3 cells decreased migration and decreased lymph node metastasis following orthotopic implantation of into nude mice. In human specimens, Yes expression was increased in lymph node metastases relative to paired primary tumors from the same patient, and increased pFAK Y861 expression in lymph node metastases correlated with poor prognosis. These results demonstrate a unique role for Yes in phosphorylation of FAK and in promoting PCa metastasis. Therefore, phosphorylated FAK Y861 and increased Yes expression may be predictive markers for PCa metastasis.

Lv C, Qin W, Zhu T, et al.
Ophiobolin O isolated from Aspergillus ustus induces G1 arrest of MCF-7 cells through interaction with AKT/GSK3β/cyclin D1 signaling.
Mar Drugs. 2015; 13(1):431-43 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
Ophiobolin O is a member of ophiobolin family, which has been proved to be a potent anti-tumor drug candidate for human breast cancer. However, the anti-tumor effect and the mechanism of ophiobolin O remain unclear. In this study, we further verified ophiobolin O-induced G1 phase arrest in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, and found that ophiobolin O reduced the phosphorylation level of AKT and GSK3β, and induced down-regulation of cyclin D1. The inverse docking (INVDOCK) analysis indicated that ophiobolin O could bind to GSK3β, and GSK3β knockdown abolished cyclin D1 degradation and G1 phase arrest. Pre-treatment with phosphatase inhibitor sodium or thovanadate halted dephosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β, and blocked ophiobolin O-induced G1 phase arrest. These data suggest that ophiobolin O may induce G1 arrest in MCF-7 cells through interaction with AKT/GSK3β/cyclin D1 signaling. In vivo, ophiobolin O suppressed tumor growth and showed little toxicity in mouse xenograft models. Overall, these findings provide theoretical basis for the therapeutic use of ophiobolin O.

Li L, He L, Zhao JL, et al.
MiR-17-5p up-regulates YES1 to modulate the cell cycle progression and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines.
J Cell Biochem. 2015; 116(6):1050-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that participate in the regulation of gene expression. Although many studies have demonstrated the involvement of miR-17-5p in different cancers, little is known to its function in ovarian cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR-17-5p was able to enhance cell proliferation by promoting G1/S transition of the cell cycle and suppressing apoptosis in ES-2 and OVCAR3 cell lines, whereas inhibition of miR-17-5p yielded the reverse phenotype. YES1 was identified as a novel target gene of miR-17-5p. Moreover, miR-17-5p was found to directly bind to the 3'UTR of YES1 mRNA and up-regulated its expression. Furthermore, knockdown of YES1 led to the suppression of proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in ES-2 and OVCAR3 cells. Ectopic expression of YES1 was able to reverse the effects of miR-17-5p inhibition. Collectively, our results indicated that miR-17-5p might play a role in human ovarian cancer by up-regulating YES1 expression. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1050-1059, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Han X, Zhang W, Yang X, et al.
The role of Src family kinases in growth and migration of glioma stem cells.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(1):302-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
Src family kinases (SFKs) are highly expressed and active in clinical glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) specimens. SFKs inhibitors have been demonstrated to inhibit proliferation and migration of glioma cells. However, the role of SFKs in glioma stem cells (GSCs), which are important for treatment resistance and recurrence, has not been reported. Here, we examined the expression pattern of individual members of SFKs and their functional role in CD133⁺ GSCs in comparison to primary glioma cells. We found that Fyn, c-Src and Yes were robustly expressed in GSCs while Lck was absent. Knockdown of c-Src, Yes or treatment with the SFK inhibitor dasatinib inhibited the migration of GSCs, but had no impact on their growth or self-renewal. These results suggest that SFKs represent an effective target for GSC migration but not for their growth.

Sato A, Virgona N, Ando A, et al.
A redox-silent analogue of tocotrienol inhibits cobalt(II) chloride-induced VEGF expression via Yes signaling in mesothelioma cells.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2014; 37(5):865-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a crucial role in tumor angiogenesis and represents an attractive anticancer target. We have previously demonstrated that a redox-silent analogue of α-tocotrienol, 6-O-carboxypropyl-α-tocotrienol (T3E) exhibits potent anti-carcinogenic property in human malignant mesothelioma (MM) cells. However, inhibition of tumor growth by targeting VEGF pathway remains undetermined. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of T3E on the paracrine secretion of VEGF in MM cells under mimicked hypoxia by cobalt chloride (CoCl2). In this study we examine whether T3E can suppress the secretion of VEGF in MM cells exposed to mimic hypoxia by cobalt chloride (CoCl2). We found that CoCl2-induced hypoxia treatment leads to increased up-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) and subsequently induced the secretion of VEGF in MM cells. This up-regulation activation mainly depended on the activation of Yes, a member of the Src family of kinases. Treatment of hypoxic MM cells with T3E effectively inhibited the secretion of VEGF, On the other hand, T3E inhibited CoCl2-induced gene expression of VEGF due to the inactivation of Yes/HIF-2α signaling. These data suggest that Yes/HIF2-α/VEGF could be a promising therapeutic target of T3E in MM cells.

Je DW, O YM, Ji YG, et al.
The inhibition of SRC family kinase suppresses pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.
Pancreas. 2014; 43(5):768-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Src is considered a rising therapeutic target for the treatment of solid tumors, and Src family kinases (SFKs) participate in cancer cell proliferation and survival. The role of SFK suppression was investigated in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells.
METHODS: Knockdown of the SFKs in pancreatic cancer cells was achieved by transfecting small interfering RNAs, and its effects were investigated using proliferation, wound, and invasion assays.
RESULTS: The SFK inhibitors suppressed proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in pancreatic cancer cells. The SFK messenger RNA profiles showed that Yes1, Lyn, Fyn, Frk, Hck, and Src were expressed. Specific small interfering RNA transfection suppressed the messenger RNA expressions of Yes1, Lyn, Fyn, Frk, and Src, and the knockdown suppressed cell proliferation by 16.7% to 47.3% in PANC-1 cells. Knockdown of any of these 5 SFKs suppressed proliferation in other pancreatic cancer cell lines by 3.0% to 40.5%. The knockdowns significantly reduced pancreatic cancer cell migration by 24.9% to 66.7% and completely inhibited invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the knockdown of Yes1, Lyn, Fyn, Frk, or Src reduce human pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and that SFKs should be viewed as critical therapeutic targets of pancreatic cancer.

Touil Y, Igoudjil W, Corvaisier M, et al.
Colon cancer cells escape 5FU chemotherapy-induced cell death by entering stemness and quiescence associated with the c-Yes/YAP axis.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(4):837-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Metastasis and drug resistance are the major limitations in the survival and management of patients with cancer. This study aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying HT29 colon cancer cell chemoresistance acquired after sequential exposure to 5-fluorouracil (5FU), a classical anticancer drug for treatment of epithelial solid tumors. We examined its clinical relevance in a cohort of patients with colon cancer with liver metastases after 5FU-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery.
RESULTS: We show that a clonal 5F31 cell population, resistant to 1 μmol/L 5FU, express a typical cancer stem cell-like phenotype and enter into a reversible quiescent G0 state upon reexposure to higher 5FU concentrations. These quiescent cells overexpressed the tyrosine kinase c-Yes that became activated and membrane-associated upon 5FU exposure. This enhanced signaling pathway induced the dissociation of the Yes/YAP (Yes-associated protein) molecular complex and depleted nuclear YAP levels. Consistently, YES1 silencing decreased nuclear YAP accumulation and induced cellular quiescence in 5F31 cells cultured in 5FU-free medium. Importantly, YES1 and YAP transcript levels were higher in liver metastases of patients with colon cancer after 5FU-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Moreover, the YES1 and YAP transcript levels positively correlated with colon cancer relapse and shorter patient survival (P < 0.05 and P < 0.025, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: We identified c-Yes and YAP as potential molecular targets to eradicate quiescent cancer cells and dormant micrometastases during 5FU chemotherapy and resistance and as predictive survival markers for colon cancer.

Haenisch B, Huber M, Wilhelm T, et al.
Investigation into mechanisms mediating the inhibitory effect of 1,4-benzodiazepines on mast cells by gene expression profiling.
Life Sci. 2013; 92(6-7):345-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: This study aims to identify by a molecular genetic approach potential targets in mast cells at which 1,4-benzodiazepines may cause their inhibitory effect on mast cell activity.
MAIN METHODS: Gene expression analyses with microarray gene chip and/or quantitative PCR were performed using 1,4-benzodiazepine-treated human mast cell leukemia HMC-1.2 cells, promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells and human mast cells from healthy volunteers and patients with mast cell activation disease (MCAD). Pathway analysis was applied to search for enriched biological functions and canonical pathways within differentially regulated genes.
KEY FINDINGS: Both neoplastic and normal human mast cells express several GABA(A) receptor subunits at the mRNA level. In mast cells from MCAD patients expression of some GABA(A) receptor subunits and expression of the translocator protein TSPO are increased compared with those from healthy controls. Expression of the protein tyrosine kinases Lyn, Fgr and Yes1 was increased in HMC-1.2 cells as compared with the ontogenetically related HL60 cells. Differences in gene regulation in HMC-1.2 cells after treatment with the 1,4-benzodiazepines clonazepam, flunitrazepam and 4-chlorodiazepam suggested that signaling and gene expression induced by clonazepam was similar to that of flunitrazepam but different from that of 4-chlorodiazepam. This conclusion is supported by the results of the pathway analysis.
SIGNIFICANCE: A novel type of GABA(A) receptors on mast cells appears to be involved in the inhibition of mast cell activity by 1,4-benzodiazepines. These receptors seem to be composed without γ subunits suggesting unique pharmacological properties. An action at Src-kinases, or at TSPO located in the plasma membrane may also be involved.

Yeung CL, Ngo VN, Grohar PJ, et al.
Loss-of-function screen in rhabdomyosarcoma identifies CRKL-YES as a critical signal for tumor growth.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(47):5429-38 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
To identify novel signaling pathways necessary for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) survival, we performed a loss-of-function screen using an inducible small hairpin RNA (shRNA) library in an alveolar and an embryonal RMS cell line. This screen identified CRKL expression as necessary for growth of alveolar RMS and embryonal RMS both in vitro and in vivo. We also found that CRKL was uniformly highly expressed in both RMS cell lines and tumor tissue. As CRKL is a member of the CRK adapter protein family that contains an SH2 and two SH3 domains and is involved in signal transduction from multiple tyrosine kinase receptors, we evaluated CRKL interaction with multiple tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathways in RMS cells. While we saw no interaction of CRKL with IGFIR, MET or PI3KAKT/mTOR pathways, we determined that CRKL signaling was associated with SRC family kinase (SFK) signaling, specifically with YES kinase. Inhibition of SFK signaling with dasatinib or another SFK inhibitor, sarcatinib, suppressed RMS cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These data identify CRKL as a novel critical component of RMS growth. This study also demonstrates the use of functional screening to identify a potentially novel therapeutic target and treatment approach for these highly aggressive pediatric cancers.

Rosenbluh J, Nijhawan D, Cox AG, et al.
β-Catenin-driven cancers require a YAP1 transcriptional complex for survival and tumorigenesis.
Cell. 2012; 151(7):1457-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a key role in the pathogenesis of colon and other cancers; emerging evidence indicates that oncogenic β-catenin regulates several biological processes essential for cancer initiation and progression. To decipher the role of β-catenin in transformation, we classified β-catenin activity in 85 cancer cell lines in which we performed genome-scale loss-of-function screens and found that β-catenin active cancers are dependent on a signaling pathway involving the transcriptional regulator YAP1. Specifically, we found that YAP1 and the transcription factor TBX5 form a complex with β-catenin. Phosphorylation of YAP1 by the tyrosine kinase YES1 leads to localization of this complex to the promoters of antiapoptotic genes, including BCL2L1 and BIRC5. A small-molecule inhibitor of YES1 impeded the proliferation of β-catenin-dependent cancers in both cell lines and animal models. These observations define a β-catenin-YAP1-TBX5 complex essential to the transformation and survival of β-catenin-driven cancers.

Kang SG, Huynh T, Zhou R
Non-destructive inhibition of metallofullerenol Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) on WW domain: implication on signal transduction pathway.
Sci Rep. 2012; 2:957 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
Endohedral metallofullerenol Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) has recently been shown to effectively inhibit tumor growth; however, its potential adverse bioeffects remain to be understood before its wider applications. Here, we present our study on the interaction between Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) and WW domain, a representative protein domain involved in signaling and regulatory pathway, using all-atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations. We find that Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) has an intrinsic binding preference to the binding groove, particularly the key signature residues Y28 and W39. In its binding competition with the native ligand PRM, Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) is shown to easily win the competition over PRM in occupying the active site, implying that Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) can impose a potential inhibitory effect on the WW domain. Further analyses with binding free energy landscapes reveal that Gd@C(82)(OH)(22) can not only directly block the binding site of the WW domain, but also effectively distract the PRM from its native binding pocket.

Kanamori M, Sano A, Yasuda T, et al.
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization for genomic-wide screening of DNA copy number alterations in aggressive bone tumors.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 31:100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The genetic pathways of aggressive changes of bone tumors are still poorly understood. It is very important to analyze DNA copy number alterations (DCNAs), to identify the molecular events in the step of progression to the aggressive change of bone tissue.
METHODS: Genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) was used to investigate DCNAs of 14 samples from 13 aggressive bone tumors, such as giant cell tumors (GCTs) and osteosarcoma (OS), etc.
RESULTS: Primary aggressive bone tumors had copy number gains of 17.8±12.7% in the genome, and losses of 17.3±11.4% in 287 target clones (threshold for each DCNA: ≦085, 1.15≦). Genetic unstable cases, which were defined by the total DCNAs aberration ≧30%, were identified in 9 of 13 patients (3 of 7 GCTs and all malignant tumors). High-level amplification of TGFβ2, CCND3, WI-6509, SHGC-5557, TCL1A, CREBBP, HIC1, THRA, AFM217YD10, LAMA3, RUNX1 and D22S543, were commonly observed in aggressive bone tumors. On the other hand, NRAS, D2S447, RAF1, ROBO1, MYB, MOS, FGFR2, HRAS, D13S319, D13S327, D18S552, YES1 and DCC, were commonly low. We compared genetic instability between a primary OS and its metastatic site in Case #13. Metastatic lesion showed increased 9 DCNAs of remarkable change (m/p ratio ≧1.3 folds), compared to a primary lesion. D1S214, D1S1635, EXT1, AFM137XA11, 8 M16/SP6, CCND2, IGH, 282 M15/SP6, HIC1 and LAMA3, were overexpressed. We gave attention to HIC1 (17p13.3), which was common high amplification in this series.
CONCLUSION: Our results may provide several entry points for the identification of candidate genes associated with aggressive change of bone tumors. Especially, the locus 17p11-13 including HIC1 close to p53 was common high amplification in this series and review of the literature.

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