PML

Gene Summary

Gene:PML; promyelocytic leukemia
Aliases: MYL, RNF71, PP8675, TRIM19
Location:15q24.1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2, and a coiled-coil region. This phosphoprotein localizes to nuclear bodies where it functions as a transcription factor and tumor suppressor. Its expression is cell-cycle related and it regulates the p53 response to oncogenic signals. The gene is often involved in the translocation with the retinoic acid receptor alpha gene associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Extensive alternative splicing of this gene results in several variations of the protein's central and C-terminal regions; all variants encode the same N-terminus. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein PML
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (65)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Messenger RNA
  • Homologous Transplantat
  • Receptors, Retinoic Acid
  • Cell Nucleus
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • PML
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Chromosome 17
  • Cancer DNA
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Leukaemia
  • Translocation
  • Apoptosis
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Infant
  • Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
  • RARA
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein
  • Oxides
  • Adolescents
  • Transcription Factors
  • Arsenicals
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Karyotyping
  • FISH
  • Mutation
  • Drug Resistance
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Protein Binding
  • Chromosome 15
  • RARA
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
LeukaemiaPML and Leukaemia View Publications1048
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)PML and Acute Myeloid Leukaemia View Publications940
Leukaemiat(15;17)(q21;q21) RARA-PML translocation in Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PML (cancer-related)

Akhter A, Mughal MK, Elyamany G, et al.
Multiplexed automated digital quantification of fusion transcripts: comparative study with fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) technique in acute leukemia patients.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11(1):89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) classification system defines recurrent chromosomal translocations as the sole diagnostic and prognostic criteria for acute leukemia (AL). These fusion transcripts are pivotal in the pathogenesis of AL. Clinical laboratories universally employ conventional karyotype/FISH to detect these chromosomal translocations, which is complex, labour intensive and lacks multiplexing capacity. Hence, it is imperative to explore and evaluate some newer automated, cost-efficient multiplexed technologies to accommodate the expanding genetic landscape in AL.
METHODS: "nCounter® Leukemia fusion gene expression assay" by NanoString was employed to detect various fusion transcripts in a large set samples (n = 94) utilizing RNA from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) diagnostic bone marrow biopsy specimens. This series included AL patients with various recurrent translocations (n = 49), normal karyotype (n = 19), or complex karyotype (n = 21), as well as normal bone marrow samples (n = 5). Fusion gene expression data were compared with results obtained by conventional karyotype and FISH technology to determine sensitivity/specificity, as well as positive /negative predictive values.
RESULTS: Junction probes for PML/RARA; RUNX1-RUNX1T1; BCR/ABL1 showed 100 % sensitivity/specificity. A high degree of correlation was noted for MLL/AF4 (85 sensitivity/100 specificity) and TCF3-PBX1 (75 % sensitivity/100 % specificity) probes. CBFB-MYH11 fusion probes showed moderate sensitivity (57 %) but high specificity (100 %). ETV6/RUNX1 displayed discordance between fusion transcript assay and FISH results as well as rare non-specific binding in AL samples with normal or complex cytogenetics.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study presents preliminary data with high correlation between fusion transcript detection by a throughput automated multiplexed platform, compared to conventional karyotype/FISH technique for detection of chromosomal translocations in AL patients. Our preliminary observations, mandates further vast validation studies to explore automated molecular platforms in diagnostic pathology.

Baljevic M, Dumitriu B, Lee JW, et al.
Telomere Length Recovery: A Strong Predictor of Overall Survival in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.
Acta Haematol. 2016; 136(4):210-218 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/09/2017 Related Publications
Telomeres are the capping ends of chromosomes that protect the loss of genetic material and prevent chromosomal instability. In human tissue-specific stem/progenitor cells, telomere length (TL) is maintained by the telomerase complex, which consists of a reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit (TERT) and an RNA template (TERC). Very short telomeres and loss-of-function mutations in the TERT and TERC genes have been reported in acute myeloid leukemia, but the role of telomeres in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has not been well established. We report the results for a large cohort of 187 PML/RARα-positive APL patients. No germline mutations in the TERT or TERC genes were identified. Codon 279 and 1062 TERT polymorphisms were present at a frequency similar to that in the general population. TL measured in blood or marrow mononuclear cells at diagnosis was significantly shorter in the APL patients than in healthy volunteers, and shorter telomeres at diagnosis were significantly associated with high-risk disease. For patients who achieved complete remission, the median increase in TL from diagnosis to remission (delta TL) was 2.0 kilobase (kb), and we found delta TL to be the most powerful predictor of overall survival when compared with well-established risk factors for poor outcomes in APL.

Tang H, Jin Y, Jin S, et al.
Arsenite inhibits the function of CD133(+) CD13(+) liver cancer stem cells by reducing PML and Oct4 protein expression.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):14103-14115 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can form new tumors and contribute to post-operative recurrence and metastasis. We showed that CD133(+)CD13(+) hepatocytes isolated from HuH7 cells and primary HCC cells display biochemical and functional characteristics typical of CSCs, suggesting that CD133(+)CD13(+) hepatocytes in primary HCC tumors function as CSCs. We also found that arsenite treatment reduced the viability and stemness of CD133(+)CD13(+) hepatocytes, enhanced the sensitivity of HuH7 cells to pirarubicin, and reduced the tumorigenicity of CD133(+)CD13(+) hepatocytes xenografts in mice. The effects of sodium arsenite treatment in CD133(+)CD13(+) hepatocytes were mediated by the post-transcriptional suppression of PML expression and the inhibition of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 expression at the transcriptional level. Incomplete rescue of Oct4 expression in arsenic-treated cells ectopically expressing an siRNA-resistant PML transcript suggested that OCT4 regulation in liver CSCs involves other factors in addition to PML. Our findings provide evidence of a specific role for PML in regulating Oct4 levels in liver CSCs and highlight the clinical importance of arsenic for improving the efficacy of other chemotherapeutic agents and the prevention of post-operative HCC recurrence and metastasis.

Hu D, Zhou W, Wang F, et al.
Development of a NanoString assay to detect leukemogenic fusion transcripts in acute myeloid leukemia.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2016; 38(6):663-673 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Detection of leukemogenic fusion transcripts in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is critical for AML diagnosis. NanoString nCounter system is a novel probe-based gene expression platform capable of measuring up to 800 targets with advantages of reproducibility, accuracy, and sample type flexibility. To study the potential application of NanoString in leukemia at clinic, we used this technology to detect AML leukemogenic fusion transcripts and compared the performances with clinical molecular assays.
METHODS: We developed a NanoString assay to detect seven leukemogenic fusion transcripts, namely RUNX1-RUNX1T1 (e5e12), PML-RARA (bcr1, bcr2, and bcr3), and CBFB-MYH11 (e5e12, e5e8, and e5e7). We set up the cut-off value for each fusion transcript and tested 42 de novo AML samples. We compared the results with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and TaqMan reverse quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR), the molecular methods standardly used at clinic.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that the NanoString and RT-PCR results correlate well (P < 0.0001) and are highly concordant (95.2%). Using TaqMan RQ-PCR as a validation method and gold standard, we demonstrated superior accuracy and sensitivity of NanoString compared to RT-PCR and comparable specificity. Furthermore, we showed that NanoString is not as sensitive as TaqMan RQ-PCR in detecting very low level of fusion transcripts.
CONCLUSIONS: NanoString can serve as a reliable and alternative molecular method to multiplexed RT-PCR for diagnosis of de novo AML with the perspective of screening/quantitation of a large number of leukemogenic fusion transcripts and prognostic genes. However, NanoString may not be an alternative method for monitoring minimal residual disease in AML.

Baba SM, Azad NA, Shah ZA, et al.
PHA-Induced Peripheral Blood Cytogenetics and Molecular Analysis: a Valid Diagnostic and Follow-up Modality for Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Patients Treated with ATRA and/or Arsenic Tri-oxide.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(4):1999-2006 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APML) is characterized by the reciprocal translocation t(15;17) (q22;q12) resulting in the PML-RARα fusion gene. A dual diagnostic and follow up approach was applied including cytogenetic demonstration of the t(15;17) translocation and detection of PML-RARα chimeric transcripts by molecular means.
PURPOSE: Conventional cytogenetics involving bone marrow is beset with high probability of poor metaphase index and was substituted with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced peripheral blood culture based cytogenetic analysis as a diagnostic and follow up modality in APML patients of Kashmir (North India). Both qualitative (RT-PCR) and quantitative (Q-PCR) tests were simultaneously carried out to authenticate the modified cytogenetics.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient samples were subjected to the said techniques to establish their baseline as well as follow-up status.
RESULTS: Initial cytogenetics revealed 30 patients (81%) positive for t(15;17) whereas 7 (19%) had either cryptic translocation or were negative for t(15;17). Two cases had chromosome 16q deletion and no hallmark translocation t(15;17). Q-PCR status for PML-RARα was found to be positive for all patients. All the APML patients were reassessed at the end of consolidation phase and during maintenance phase of chemotherapy where 6 patients had molecular relapse, wherein 4 also demonstrated cytogenetic relapse.
CONCLUSIONS: It was found that PHA-induced peripheral blood cytogenetics along with molecular analysis could prove a reliable modality in the diagnosis and assessment of follow up response of APML patients.

Yan W, Zhang G
Molecular Characteristics and Clinical Significance of 12 Fusion Genes in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Systematic Review.
Acta Haematol. 2016; 136(1):1-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the generation of the promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid (RA) receptor α (PML-RARα) fusion gene. PML-RARα is the central leukemia-initiating event in APL and is directly targeted by all-trans-RA (ATRA) as well as arsenic. In classic APL harboring PML-RARα transcripts, more than 90% of patients can achieve complete remission when treated with ATRA combined with arsenic trioxide chemotherapy. In the last 20 years, more than 10 variant fusion genes have been found and identified in APL patients. These variant APL cases present different clinical phenotypes and treatment outcomes. All variant APL cases show a similar breakpoint within the RARα gene, whereas its partner genes are variable. These fusion proteins have the ability to repress rather than activate retinoic targets. These chimeric proteins also possess different molecular characteristics, thereby resulting in variable sensitivities to ATRA and clinical outcomes. In this review, we comprehensively analyze various rearrangements in variant APL cases that have been reported in the literature as well as the molecular characteristics and functions of the fusion proteins derived from different RARα partner genes and their clinical implications.

Saulle E, Petronelli A, Pelosi E, et al.
PML-RAR alpha induces the downmodulation of HHEX: a key event responsible for the induction of an angiogenetic response.
J Hematol Oncol. 2016; 9:33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/09/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that angiogenesis is important in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). Among the various AMLs, the bone marrow angiogenetic response is particularly pronounced in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this angiogenetic response are largely unknown. In the present study, we have explored the role of HHEX, a homeodomain transcription factor, as a possible mediator of the pro-angiogenetic response observed in APL. This transcription factor seems to represent an ideal candidate for this biologic function because it is targeted by PML-RARα, is capable of interaction with PML and PML-RARα, and acts as a regulator of the angiogenetic response.
METHODS: We used various cellular systems of APL, including primary APL cells and leukemic cells engineered to express PML-RARα, to explore the role of the PML-RARα fusion protein on HHEX expression. Molecular and biochemical techniques have been used to investigate the mechanisms through which PML-RARα downmodulates HHEX and the functional consequences of this downmodulation at the level of the expression of various angiogenetic genes, cell proliferation and differentiation.
RESULTS: Our results show that HHEX expression is clearly downmodulated in APL and that this effect is directly mediated by a repressive targeting of the HHEX gene promoter by PML-RARα. Studies carried out in primary APL cells and in a cell line model of APL with inducible PML-RARα expression directly support the view that this fusion protein through HHEX downmodulation stimulates the expression of various genes involved in angiogenesis and inhibits cell differentiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that HHEX downmodulation by PML-RARα is a key event during APL pathogenesis.

Valiulienė G, Treigytė G, Savickienė J, et al.
Histone modifications patterns in tissues and tumours from acute promyelocytic leukemia xenograft model in response to combined epigenetic therapy.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 79:62-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Xenograft models are suitable for in vivo study of leukemia's pathogenesis and the preclinical development of anti-leukemia agents but understanding of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms linking to adult cell functions in pathological conditions during different in vivo treatments is yet unknown. In this study, for the first time epigenetic chromatin modifications were characterized in tissues and tumours from murine xenograft model generated using the human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) NB4 cells engrafted in immunodeficient NOG mice. Xenografts were subjected to combined epigenetic treatment by histone deacetylase inhibitor Belinostat, histone methyltransferase inhibitor 3-DZNeaplanocin A and all-trans-retinoic acid based on in vitro model, where such combination inhibited NB4 cell growth and enhanced retinoic acid-induced differentiation to granulocytes. Xenotransplantation was assessed by peripheral blood cells counts, the analysis of cell surface markers (CD15, CD33, CD45) and the expression of certain genes (PML-RAR alpha, CSF3, G-CSFR, WT1). The combined treatment prolonged APL xenograft mice survival and prevented tumour formation. The analysis of the expression of histone marks such as acetylation of H4, trimethylation of H3K4, H3K9 and H3K27 in APL xenograft mice tumours and tissues demonstrated tissue-specific changes in the level of histone modifications and the APL prognostic mark, WT1 protein. In summary, the effects of epigenetic agents used in this study were positive for leukemia prevention and linked to a modulation of the chromatin epigenetic environment in adult tissues of malignant organism.

Jo S, Lee YL, Kim S, et al.
PCGF2 negatively regulates arsenic trioxide-induced PML-RARA protein degradation via UBE2I inhibition in NB4 cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1863(7 Pt A):1499-509 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a therapeutic agent for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) which induces PML-RARA protein degradation via enhanced UBE2I-mediated sumoylation. PCGF2, a Polycomb group protein, has been suggested as an anti-SUMO E3 protein by inhibiting the sumoylation of UBE2I substrates, HSF2 and RANGAP1, via direct interaction. Thus, we hypothesized that PCGF2 might play a role in ATO-induced PML-RARA degradation by interacting with UBE2I. PCGF2 protein was down-regulated upon ATO treatment in human APL cell line, NB4. Knockdown of PCGF2 in NB4 cells, in the absence of ATO treatment, was sufficient to induce sumoylation-, ubiquitylation- and PML nuclear body-mediated degradation of PML-RARA protein. Moreover, overexpression of PCGF2 protected ATO-mediated degradation of ectopic and endogenous PML-RARA in 293T and NB4 cells, respectively. In 293T cells, UBE2I-mediated PML-RARA degradation was reduced upon PCGF2 co-expression. In addition, UBE2I-mediated sumoylation of PML-RARA was reduced upon PCGF2 co-expression and PCGF2-UBE2I interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Likewise, endogenous PCGF2-UBE2I interaction was detected by co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays in NB4 cells. Intriguingly, upon ATO-treatment, such interaction was disrupted and UBE2I was co-immunoprecipitated or co-localized with its SUMO substrate, PML-RARA. Taken together, our results suggested a novel role of PCGF2 in ATO-mediated degradation of PML-RARA that PCGF2 might act as a negative regulator of UBE2I via direct interaction.

Das N, Datta N, Chatterjee U, Ghosh MK
Estrogen receptor alpha transcriptionally activates casein kinase 2 alpha: A pivotal regulator of promyelocytic leukaemia protein (PML) and AKT in oncogenesis.
Cell Signal. 2016; 28(6):675-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein kinase CK2α is frequently upregulated in different cancers. Alteration of CK2α expression and its activity is sufficient to induce dramatic changes in cell fate. It has been established that CK2α induces oncogenesis through modulation of both AKT and PML. CK2α has been found to be overexpressed in breast cancer. In contrary, statistical reports have shown low level of PML. However, the regulation of CK2α gene expression is not fully understood. In the current study, we found that CK2α and activated AKT positively correlate with ERα, whereas PML follows an inverse correlation in human breast cancer tissues. Modulation of ERα signalling leads to recruitment of activated ERα on the ERE sites of CK2α promoter, resulting in CK2α transactivation. Furthermore, the DMBA induced tumours in rat showed elevated level of active CK2α. Consequently it mediates enhancement of AKT activity and PML degradation, resulting in increased cellular proliferation, migration and metastasis. Syngeneic ERα overexpressing stable mouse 4T1 cells produce larger primary tumours and metastatic lung nodules in mice, corroborating our in vitro findings. Hence, our study provides a novel route of ERα dependent CK2α mediated oncogenesis that causes upregulation and consequent AKT activation along with degradation of tumour suppressor PML.

Nichol JN, Galbraith MD, Kleinman CL, et al.
NPM and BRG1 Mediate Transcriptional Resistance to Retinoic Acid in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.
Cell Rep. 2016; 14(12):2938-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/03/2017 Related Publications
Perturbation in the transcriptional control of genes driving differentiation is an established paradigm whereby oncogenic fusion proteins promote leukemia. From a retinoic acid (RA)-sensitive acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line, we derived an RA-resistant clone characterized by a block in transcription initiation, despite maintaining wild-type PML/RARA expression. We uncovered an aberrant interaction among PML/RARA, nucleophosmin (NPM), and topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B). Surprisingly, RA stimulation in these cells results in enhanced chromatin association of the nucleosome remodeler BRG1. Inhibition of NPM or TOP2B abrogated BRG1 recruitment. Furthermore, NPM inhibition and targeting BRG1 restored differentiation when combined with RA. Here, we demonstrate a role for NPM and BRG1 in obstructing RA differentiation and implicate chromatin remodeling in mediating therapeutic resistance in malignancies. NPM mutations are the most common genetic change in patients with acute leukemia (AML); therefore, our model may be applicable to other more common leukemias driven by NPM.

Ibáñez M, Carbonell-Caballero J, García-Alonso L, et al.
The Mutational Landscape of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Reveals an Interacting Network of Co-Occurrences and Recurrent Mutations.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0148346 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/03/2017 Related Publications
Preliminary Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) whole exome sequencing (WES) studies have identified a huge number of somatic mutations affecting more than a hundred different genes mainly in a non-recurrent manner, suggesting that APL is a heterogeneous disease with secondary relevant changes not yet defined. To extend our knowledge of subtle genetic alterations involved in APL that might cooperate with PML/RARA in the leukemogenic process, we performed a comprehensive analysis of somatic mutations in APL combining WES with sequencing of a custom panel of targeted genes by next-generation sequencing. To select a reduced subset of high confidence candidate driver genes, further in silico analysis were carried out. After prioritization and network analysis we found recurrent deleterious mutations in 8 individual genes (STAG2, U2AF1, SMC1A, USP9X, IKZF1, LYN, MYCBP2 and PTPN11) with a strong potential of being involved in APL pathogenesis. Our network analysis of multiple mutations provides a reliable approach to prioritize genes for additional analysis, improving our knowledge of the leukemogenesis interactome. Additionally, we have defined a functional module in the interactome of APL. The hypothesis is that the number, or the specific combinations, of mutations harbored in each patient might not be as important as the disturbance caused in biological key functions, triggered by several not necessarily recurrent mutations.

Tang Y, Wang Y, Hu L, et al.
Acute promyelocytic leukemia with cryptic t(15;17) on isochromosome 17: a case report and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(11):15294-300 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/03/2017 Related Publications
Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) is one of the most curable leukemia which shows great sensitivity to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) although a small number of the patients present poor prognosis and short survival. Isochromosome 17 in APL which usually bears an additional copy of RARA/PML fusion gene is considered to be a negative factor on its prognosis. Cryptic t(15;17) on i(17q) leads to an extra copy of PML/RARA rather than RARA/PML which may confer a worse prognosis. We describe here a rare APL case with complex chromosomal abnormality including isochromosome 17 bearing cryptic t(15;17) showing poor outcome. The patient lacks a classic t(15;17) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) presents 2 PML/RARA fusion signals on both long arms of the isochromosome. The patient also acquired a secondary mutation at relapse when the initial karyotype was already a complex karyotype involving chromosome 13, 17 and 22 at the same time. The poor response of this patient to traditional chemotherapy like ATRA and novel therapy like arsenic trioxide (ATO) suggests that early auto-hematological stem cell transplantation may be the choice of APL with isochromosome 17 especially with cryptic t(15;17) on i(17q). We are the first to show a clear history and evidence of FISH of these kind of cases. A small summary of cases with cryptic t(15;17) on isochromosome 17 is also made.

Ding W, Tong Y, Zhang X, et al.
Study of Arsenic Sulfide in Solid Tumor Cells Reveals Regulation of Nuclear Factors of Activated T-cells by PML and p53.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:19793 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 29/03/2017 Related Publications
Arsenic sulfide (AS) has excellent cytotoxic activity in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but its activity in solid tumors remains to be explored. Here we show that AS and cyclosporine A (CsA) exerted synergistic inhibitory effect on cell growth and c-Myc expression in HCT116 cells. AS inhibited the expression of PML, c-Myc, NFATc1, NFATc3, and NFATc4, while stimulating the expression of p53 and NFATc2. Knockdown of PML reduced NFATc1, NFATc2, NFATc3 and NFATc4 expression while overexpression of p53 stimulated NFATc2-luciferase activity that was further augmented by AS by binding to a set of p53 responsive elements (PREs) on the NFATc2 promoter. Additionally, overexpression of p53 suppressed NFATc3 and NFATc4. Reciprocally, NFATc3 knockdown enhanced p53 while reducing MDM2 expression indicating that NFATc3 is a negative regulator of p53 while a positive regulator of MDM2, consistent with its tumor-promoting property as knockdown of NFATc3 retarded cell growth in vitro and tumor growth in xenograft. In patients with colon cancer, tumor expression of NFATc2 correlated with superior survival, while nuclear NFATc1 with inferior survival. These results indicate that AS differentially regulates NFAT pathway through PML and p53 and reveal an intricate reciprocal regulatory relationship between NFAT proteins and p53 pathway.

Bittremieux M, Parys JB, Pinton P, Bultynck G
ER functions of oncogenes and tumor suppressors: Modulators of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1863(6 Pt B):1364-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intracellular Ca(2+) signals that arise from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the major intracellular Ca(2+)-storage organelle, impact several mitochondrial functions and dictate cell survival and cell death processes. Furthermore, alterations in Ca(2+) signaling in cancer cells promote survival and establish a high tolerance towards cell stress and damage, so that the on-going oncogenic stress does not result in the activation of cell death. Over the last years, the mechanisms underlying these oncogenic alterations in Ca(2+) signaling have started to emerge. An important aspect of this is the identification of several major oncogenes, including Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Mcl-1, PKB/Akt, and Ras, and tumor suppressors, such as p53, PTEN, PML, BRCA1, and Beclin 1, as direct and critical regulators of Ca(2+)-transport systems located at the ER membranes, including IP3 receptors and SERCA Ca(2+) pumps. In this way, these proteins execute part of their function by controlling the ER-mitochondrial Ca(2+) fluxes, favoring either survival (oncogenes) or cell death (tumor suppressors). Oncogenic mutations, gene deletions or amplifications alter the expression and/or function of these proteins, thereby changing the delicate balance between oncogenes and tumor suppressors, impacting oncogenesis and favoring malignant cell function and behavior. In this review, we provided an integrated overview of the impact of the major oncogenes and tumor suppressors, often altered in cancer cells, on Ca(2+) signaling from the ER Ca(2+) stores. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen.

Iaccarino L, Ottone T, Divona M, et al.
Mutations affecting both the rearranged and the unrearranged PML alleles in refractory acute promyelocytic leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2016; 172(6):909-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is characterized by the PML/RARA fusion transcript. PML and RARA mutations have been shown to directly respond to arsenic trioxide (ATO) and all-trans retinoic (ATRA). We analysed the prevalence of PML mutations in 32 patients with de novo or therapy-related APL (t-APL; n = 5), treated with ATO. We identified one ATO-resistant t-APL patient, who presented a PML A216T mutation in both the rearranged and unrearranged PML alleles, and two mutations in the rearranged RARA gene. In this patient, subclones with different PML and RARA mutations acquired clonal dominance during the disease course, probably leading to treatment resistance.

Imoto N, Hayakawa F, Kurahashi S, et al.
B Cell Linker Protein (BLNK) Is a Selective Target of Repression by PAX5-PML Protein in the Differentiation Block That Leads to the Development of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(9):4723-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PAX5 is a transcription factor that is required for the development and maintenance of B cells. Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) is a tumor suppressor and proapoptotic factor. The fusion gene PAX5-PML has been identified in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chromosomal translocation t(9;15)(p13;q24). We have reported previously that PAX5-PML dominant-negatively inhibited PAX5 transcriptional activity and impaired PML function by disrupting PML nuclear bodies (NBs). Here we demonstrated the leukemogenicity of PAX5-PML by introducing it into normal mouse pro-B cells. Arrest of differentiation was observed in PAX5-PML-introduced pro-B cells, resulting in the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia after a long latency in mice. Among the transactivation targets of PAX5, B cell linker protein (BLNK) was repressed selectively in leukemia cells, and enforced BLNK expression abrogated the differentiation block and survival induced by PAX5-PML, indicating the importance of BLNK repression for the formation of preleukemic state. We also showed that PML NBs were intact in leukemia cells and attributed this to the low expression of PAX5-PML, indicating that the disruption of PML NBs was not required for the PAX5-PML-induced onset of leukemia. These results provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of leukemia by PAX5 mutations.

Shire K, Wong AI, Tatham MH, et al.
Identification of RNF168 as a PML nuclear body regulator.
J Cell Sci. 2016; 129(3):580-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein forms the basis of PML nuclear bodies (PML NBs), which control many important processes. We have screened an shRNA library targeting ubiquitin pathway proteins for effects on PML NBs, and identified RNF8 and RNF168 DNA-damage response proteins as negative regulators of PML NBs. Additional studies confirmed that depletion of either RNF8 or RNF168 increased the levels of PML NBs and proteins, whereas overexpression induced loss of PML NBs. RNF168 partially localized to PML NBs through its UMI/MIU1 ubiquitin-interacting region and associated with NBs formed by any PML isoform. The association of RNF168 with PML NBs resulted in increased ubiquitylation and SUMO2 modification of PML. In addition, RNF168 was found to associate with proteins modified by SUMO2 and/or SUMO3 in a manner dependent on its ubiquitin-binding sequences, suggesting that hybrid SUMO-ubiquitin chains can be bound. In vitro assays confirmed that RNF168, preferentially, binds hybrid SUMO2-K63 ubiquitin chains compared with K63-ubiquitin chains or individual SUMO2. Our study identified previously unrecognized roles for RNF8 and RNF168 in the regulation of PML, and a so far unknown preference of RNF168 for hybrid SUMO-ubiquitin chains.

Song G, Shi L, Guo Y, et al.
A novel PAD4/SOX4/PU.1 signaling pathway is involved in the committed differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells into granulocytic cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(3):3144-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment yields cure rates > 80% through proteasomal degradation of the PML-RARα fusion protein that typically promotes acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, recent evidence indicates that ATRA can also promote differentiation of leukemia cells that are PML-RARα negative, such as HL-60 cells. Here, gene expression profiling of HL-60 cells was used to investigate the alternative mechanism of impaired differentiation in APL. The expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PADI4), encoding PAD4, a protein that post-translationally converts arginine into citrulline, was restored during ATRA-induced differentiation. We further identified that hypermethylation in the PADI4 promoter was associated with its transcriptional repression in HL-60 and NB4 (PML-RARα positive) cells. Functionally, PAD4 translocated into the nucleus upon ATRA exposure and promoted ATRA-mediated differentiation. Mechanistic studies using RNAi knockdown or electroporation-mediated delivery of PADI4, along with chromatin immunoprecipitation, helped identify PU.1 as an indirect target and SOX4 as a direct target of PAD4 regulation. Indeed, PAD4 regulates SOX4-mediated PU.1 expression, and thereby the differentiation process, in a SOX4-dependent manner. Taken together, our results highlight an association between PAD4 and DNA hypermethylation in APL and demonstrate that targeting PAD4 or regulating its downstream effectors may be a promising strategy to control differentiation in the clinic.

Grimwade D, Ivey A, Huntly BJ
Molecular landscape of acute myeloid leukemia in younger adults and its clinical relevance.
Blood. 2016; 127(1):29-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent major advances in understanding the molecular basis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) provide a double-edged sword. Although defining the topology and key features of the molecular landscape are fundamental to development of novel treatment approaches and provide opportunities for greater individualization of therapy, confirmation of the genetic complexity presents a huge challenge to successful translation into routine clinical practice. It is now clear that many genes are recurrently mutated in AML; moreover, individual leukemias harbor multiple mutations and are potentially composed of subclones with differing mutational composition, rendering each patient's AML genetically unique. In order to make sense of the overwhelming mutational data and capitalize on this clinically, it is important to identify (1) critical AML-defining molecular abnormalities that distinguish biological disease entities; (2) mutations, typically arising in subclones, that may influence prognosis but are unlikely to be ideal therapeutic targets; (3) mutations associated with preleukemic clones; and (4) mutations that have been robustly shown to confer independent prognostic information or are therapeutically relevant. The reward of identifying AML-defining molecular lesions present in all leukemic populations (including subclones) has been exemplified by acute promyelocytic leukemia, where successful targeting of the underlying PML-RARα oncoprotein has eliminated the need for chemotherapy for disease cure. Despite the molecular heterogeneity and recognizing that treatment options for other forms of AML are limited, this review will consider the scope for using novel molecular information to improve diagnosis, identify subsets of patients eligible for targeted therapies, refine outcome prediction, and track treatment response.

Shigeto S, Matsuda K, Yamaguchi A, et al.
Rapid diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia with the PML-RARA fusion gene using a combination of droplet-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and instant-quality fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Clin Chim Acta. 2016; 453:38-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with the PML-RARA fusion gene can be effectively cured using molecular-targeted therapies, which require both detection and quantification of the PML-RARA fusion gene. Here, we developed a rapid assay for identifying and measuring the PML-RARA fusion gene in patients with APL using droplet-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (droplet-RT-PCR) and instant quality-fluorescence in situ hybridization (IQ-FISH).
METHODS: RNA for droplet-RT-PCR and fixed-cell suspensions for IQ-FISH were prepared from five patients with APL and three controls. We evaluated the amplification efficiency and reaction time with droplet-RT-PCR and signal clarity and hybridization time with IQ-FISH.
RESULTS: The reaction using droplet-RT-PCR was completed in 26min. The PML-RARA fusion gene was detected in all samples from the five patients. IQ-FISH yielded clear signals after 1h of hybridization. There were no significant differences in signal clarity or positive signal ratios between IQ-FISH and conventional FISH.
CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous droplet-RT-PCR and IQ-FISH, in addition to morphological examination of blood smears, can be used to diagnose patients as having APL within 4h based on molecular/cytogenetic results. Rapid diagnosis can allow effective therapies to be started promptly.

Kolb EA, Meshinchi S
Acute myeloid leukemia in children and adolescents: identification of new molecular targets brings promise of new therapies.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2015; 2015:507-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent reports of recurrent mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have identified potential targets for new therapeutic strategies. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized commonly by a fusion between the PML gene and the RARA gene, genes targetable by arsenic (ATO) and retinoic acid (ATRA), respectively. A mutation in GATA1, common in AML of Down syndrome (ML-DS), renders cells more susceptible to cytarabine and anthracyclines, thus permitting targeted dose reductions to preserve high survival rates while reducing toxicity. In all other patients, Ras pathway mutations, KMT2A and other methyltransferase mutations, FLT3 mutations, and KIT mutations are all relatively common in childhood AML and all are potentially "druggable". The focus of this review is on those therapies likely to be clinically available in the near future. The preclinical and clinical data providing a rationale for testing in children of specific agents in children is discussed. Whether the expression of a potential target is sufficient to predict response to a targeted therapy is an open question in childhood AML. Development of clinical trials to evaluate targeted therapies in small molecularly defined subsets of AML will be the next great challenge for all cooperative groups in North America and Europe.

Esposito MT, Zhao L, Fung TK, et al.
Synthetic lethal targeting of oncogenic transcription factors in acute leukemia by PARP inhibitors.
Nat Med. 2015; 21(12):1481-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is mostly driven by oncogenic transcription factors, which have been classically viewed as intractable targets using small-molecule inhibitor approaches. Here we demonstrate that AML driven by repressive transcription factors, including AML1-ETO (encoded by the fusion oncogene RUNX1-RUNX1T1) and PML-RARα fusion oncoproteins (encoded by PML-RARA) are extremely sensitive to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition, in part owing to their suppressed expression of key homologous recombination (HR)-associated genes and their compromised DNA-damage response (DDR). In contrast, leukemia driven by mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL, encoded by KMT2A) fusions with dominant transactivation ability is proficient in DDR and insensitive to PARP inhibition. Intriguingly, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of an MLL downstream target, HOXA9, which activates expression of various HR-associated genes, impairs DDR and sensitizes MLL leukemia to PARP inhibitors (PARPis). Conversely, HOXA9 overexpression confers PARPi resistance to AML1-ETO and PML-RARα transformed cells. Together, these studies describe a potential utility of PARPi-induced synthetic lethality for leukemia treatment and reveal a novel molecular mechanism governing PARPi sensitivity in AML.

Liu J, Zhu HH, Jiang H, et al.
Varying responses of PML-RARA with different genetic mutations to arsenic trioxide.
Blood. 2016; 127(2):243-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resistance to arsenic and/or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a challenging problem in the clinical management of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Acquired genetic mutations in the PML moiety of the PML-RARA fusion gene are found in some patients with relapsed/refractory APL. Whether all of the identified point mutations play a role and have a similar function in the mechanisms of arsenic resistance remains unknown. Here we performed in vitro functional analyses and a retrospective analysis of APL patients to investigate the effect of PML-RARA mutations in mediating resistance to arsenic trioxide. Among the 5-point mutations in the PML part of PML-RARA identified in patients with relapsed APL, we found that A216V, S214L, and A216T mutations could attenuate the negative regulation of arsenic on PML-RARA, resulting in the retention of oncoproteins. In contrast, L217F and S220G mutations functioned weakly in this context. Furthermore, we demonstrated that either increasing the concentration of arsenic trioxide or combining it with ATRA could overcome the mutation-triggered arsenic resistance in vitro. In addition to presenting more evidence to reinforce the correlation of genetic mutations in PML-RARA with arsenic efficacy, we provide novel insight into the functional difference of acquired mutations of PML-RARA both in vitro and in the clinical setting. Our findings may help predict the prognosis and select more effective strategies during APL therapy.

Zhu S, Zhao L, Li Y, et al.
Suppression of RAD21 Induces Senescence of MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells Through RB1 Pathway Activation Via c-Myc Downregulation.
J Cell Biochem. 2016; 117(6):1359-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cellular senescence impedes cancer progression by limiting uncontrolled cell proliferation. To identify new genetic events controlling senescence, we performed a small interfering RNA screening human cancer cells and identified a number of targets potentially involved in senescence of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Importantly, we showed that knockdown of RAD21 resulted in the appearance of several senescent markers, including enhanced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and heterochromatin focus formation, as well as elevated p21 protein levels and RB1 pathway activation. Further biochemical analyses revealed that RAD21 knockdown led to the downregulation of c-Myc and its targets, including CDK4, a negative regulator of RB1, and blockedRB1 phosphorylation (pRB1), and the RB1-mediated transcriptional repression of E2F. Moreover, c-Myc downregulation was partially mediated by proteasome-dependent degradation within promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, which were found to be highly abundant during RAD21 knockdown-induced senescence. Exogenous c-Myc reconstitution rescued cells from RAD21 silencing-induced senescence. Altogether, data arising from this study implicate a novel function of RAD21 in cellular senescence in MDA-MB-231 cells that is mainly dependent onRB1 pathway activation via c-Myc downregulation.

He P, Liu Y, Qi J, et al.
Prohibitin promotes apoptosis of promyelocytic leukemia induced by arsenic sulfide.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(6):2286-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic sulfide (As4S4), an oral form of arsenic agent, has been shown to have similar efficacy and safety to intravenous arsenic trioxide in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The aim of the present study was to identify proteins modulated by As4S4 and to determine their involvement in the apoptotic pathway. We used comparative proteomic analysis to screen and identify the proteins that were differentially expressed with As4S4 treatment. Prohibitin (PHB) was selected for its diverse role and its increased expression in the cells treated with As4S4. To examine whether PHB play a functional role, two clones of PHB-knockdown and PHB-overexpression were generated by transfection of NB4-R1 with vectors containing PHB gene sequences. In comparison with parental NB4-R1 cells, PHB overexpression showed an increase in baseline apoptosis and an enhanced response in As4S4-induced apoptosis. PML-RARα fusion protein was found to be reduced with PHB-overexpression, and following As4S4 treatment, a greater reduction of promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor-α (PML-RARα) fusion protein was seen in PHB-overexpression than that in parental cells. Consistently, PHB knockdown presented with a significant reduction in As4S4-induced apoptosis and a lesser degree of PML-RARα degradation. The results indicate the antitumor activity of PHB in promoting apoptosis of APL cells.

Hsu KS, Guan BJ, Cheng X, et al.
Translational control of PML contributes to TNFα-induced apoptosis of MCF7 breast cancer cells and decreased angiogenesis in HUVECs.
Cell Death Differ. 2016; 23(3):469-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumor suppressor protein promyelocytic leukemia (PML) is a key regulator of inflammatory responses and tumorigenesis and functions through the assembly of subnuclear structures known as PML nuclear bodies (NBs). The inflammation-related cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is known to induce PML protein accumulation and PML NB formation that mediate TNFα-induced cell death in cancer cells and inhibition of migration and capillary tube formation in endothelial cells (ECs). In this study, we uncover a novel mechanism of PML gene regulation in which the p38 MAPK and its downstream kinase MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 1 (MNK1) mediate TNFα-induced PML protein accumulation and PML NB formation. The mechanism includes the presence of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) found within the well-conserved 100 nucleotides upstream of the PML initiation codon. The activity of the PML IRES is induced by TNFα in a manner that involves MNK1 activation. It is proposed that the p38-MNK1-PML network regulates TNFα-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells and TNFα-mediated inhibition of migration and capillary tube formation in ECs.

Fang Y, Garnier D, Lee TH, et al.
PML-RARa modulates the vascular signature of extracellular vesicles released by acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.
Angiogenesis. 2016; 19(1):25-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncogenic transformation is believed to impact the vascular phenotype and microenvironment in cancer, at least in part, through mechanisms involving extracellular vesicles (EVs). We explored these questions in the context of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (NB4) expressing oncogenic fusion protein, PML-RARa and exquisitely sensitive to its clinically used antagonist, the all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). We report that NB4 cells produce considerable numbers of EVs, which are readily taken up by cultured endothelial cells triggering their increased survival. NB4 EVs contain PML-RARa transcript, but no detectable protein, which is also absent in endothelial cells upon the vesicle uptake, thereby precluding an active intercellular trafficking of this oncogene in this setting. ATRA treatment changes the emission profile of NB4-related EVs resulting in preponderance of smaller vesicles, an effect that occurs in parallel with the onset of cellular differentiation. ATRA also increases IL-8 mRNA and protein content in NB4 cells and their EVs, while decreasing the levels of VEGF and tissue factor (TF). Endothelial cell uptake of NB4-derived EVs renders these cells more TF-positive and procoagulant, and this effect is diminished by pre-treatment of EV donor cells with ATRA. Profiling angiogenesis-related transcripts in intact and ATRA-treated APL cells and their EVs reveals multiple differences attributable to cellular responses and EV molecular packaging. These observations point to the potential significance of changes in the angiogenic signature and activity associated with EVs released from tumor cells subjected to targeted therapy.

Chen L, Huang K, Himmelfarb EA, et al.
Diagnostic value of maspin in distinguishing adenocarcinoma from benign biliary epithelium on endoscopic bile duct biopsy.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(11):1647-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histopathologic distinction between benign and malignant epithelia on endoscopic bile duct biopsy can be extremely challenging due to small sample size, crush artifact, and a propensity for marked inflammatory and reactive changes after stent placement. Our previous studies have shown that the insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3, S100P, and the von Hippel-Lindau gene product (pVHL) can help the distinction. This study analyzed 134 endoscopic bile duct biopsy specimens (adenocarcinoma 45, atypical 31, and benign 58) by immunohistochemistry for the expression of maspin, a serine protease inhibitor. The results demonstrated that (1) maspin expression was more frequently detected in malignant than in benign biopsies; (2) malignant biopsies frequently showed diffuse, strong/intermediate, and combined nuclear/cytoplasmic staining patterns for maspin, which were much less commonly seen in benign biopsies; (3) the malignant staining patterns for maspin observed in atypical biopsies were consistent with follow-up data showing that 67% of these patients were subsequently diagnosed with adenocarcinoma; (4) a maspin+/S100P+/pVHL- staining profile was seen in 75% of malignant biopsies but in none of the benign cases. These observations demonstrate that maspin is a useful addition to the diagnostic immunohistochemical panel (S100P, pVHL, and insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3) to help distinguish malignant from benign epithelia on challenging bile duct biopsies.

Prokhorova EA, Zamaraev AV, Kopeina GS, et al.
Role of the nucleus in apoptosis: signaling and execution.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015; 72(23):4593-612 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since their establishment in the early 1970s, the nuclear changes upon apoptosis induction, such as the condensation of chromatin, disassembly of nuclear scaffold proteins and degradation of DNA, were, and still are, considered as the essential steps and hallmarks of apoptosis. These are the characteristics of the execution phase of apoptotic cell death. In addition, accumulating data clearly show that some nuclear events can lead to the induction of apoptosis. In particular, if DNA lesions resulting from deregulation during the cell cycle or DNA damage induced by chemotherapeutic drugs or viral infection cannot be efficiently eliminated, apoptotic mechanisms, which enable cellular transformation to be avoided, are activated in the nucleus. The functional heterogeneity of the nuclear organization allows the tight regulation of these signaling events that involve the movement of various nuclear proteins to other intracellular compartments (and vice versa) to initiate and govern apoptosis. Here, we discuss how these events are coordinated to execute apoptotic cell death.

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