Gene Summary

Gene:NME1; NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1
Summary:This gene (NME1) was identified because of its reduced mRNA transcript levels in highly metastatic cells. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) exists as a hexamer composed of 'A' (encoded by this gene) and 'B' (encoded by NME2) isoforms. Mutations in this gene have been identified in aggressive neuroblastomas. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Co-transcription of this gene and the neighboring downstream gene (NME2) generates naturally-occurring transcripts (NME1-NME2), which encodes a fusion protein comprised of sequence sharing identity with each individual gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nucleoside diphosphate kinase A
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NME1 (cancer-related)

Brooks RA, Tritchler DS, Darcy KM, et al.
GOG 8020/210: Risk stratification of lymph node metastasis, disease progression and survival using single nucleotide polymorphisms in endometrial cancer: An NRG oncology/gynecologic oncology group study.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(2):335-342 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The ability to stratify a patient's risk of metastasis and survival permits more refined care. A proof of principle study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in literature based candidate cancer genes and the risk of nodal metastasis and clinical outcome in endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) patients.
METHODS: Surgically-staged EEC patients from the Gynecologic Oncology Group or Washington University School of Medicine with germline DNA available were eligible. Fifty-four genes represented by 384 SNPs, were evaluated by Illumina Custom GoldenGate array. Association with lymph node metastases was the primary outcome. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was also evaluated.
RESULTS: 361 SNPs with high quality genotype data were evaluated in 337 patients with outcome data. Five SNPs in CXCR2 had an odds ratio (OR) between 0.68 and 0.70 (p-value ≤ 0.025). The A allele rs946486 in ABL had an OR of 1.5 (p-value = 0.01) for metastasis. The G allele in rs7795743 in EGFR had an OR for metastasis of 0.68 (p-value = 0.02) and hazard ratio (HR) for progression of 0.66 (p-value = 0.004). Importantly, no SNP met genome wide significance after adjusting for multiple test correcting and clinical covariates. The A allele in rs2159359 SNP in NME1 and the G allele in rs13222385 in EGFR were associated with worse OS. Both exhibited genome wide significance; rs13222385 remained significant after adjusting for prognostic clinical variables.
CONCLUSION: SNPs in cancer genes including rs2159359 SNP in NME1 and rs13222385 in EGFR may stratify risk in EEC and are prioritized for further investigation.

Chen YJ, Liao YJ, Lin F, et al.
[Shared functional modules for nasopharyngeal and oral squamous cell carcinoma identified by network analysis of transcriptomes].
Yi Chuan. 2019; 41(2):146-157 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are highly correlated clinical diseases, the underling molecular mechanisms to link the two diseases remain largely unknown. The aim of this study is to identify the shared functional modules for NPC and OSCC by using large-scale transcriptomic data. Gene expression profile datasets of NPC and OSCC were obtained from the GEO database. A total of 1279 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of NPC and 1293 DEGs of OSCC were identified by fold change and empirical Bayes method, and 278 DEGs were common to these two diseases. These overlapped genes were translated into a primary network consisting of 1290 nodes (genes) and 1766 edges. The primary network was then decomposed into 15 compacted modules (subnets) with high modularity by Newman's algorithm. Topological analysis of these modules identified a total of 58 hub genes, most of which (e.g., PCNA, CDK1, STAT1, CCL5, and MMP1) have been proved to be associated with NPC and/or OSCC, while the rest (e.g., MELK, NME1, RACGAP1, INHBA, and NID1) might be novel risk genes for the two diseases. Further bioinformatics analysis of KEGG databases revealed that these modules are involved in multiple pathogenic biological pathways for either NPC or OSCC (e.g., p53 signaling pathway, ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and cell cycle). This study demonstrates that NPC and OSCC have similar molecular bases, and the identified pleiotropic modules may shape the complicated molecular interplays underlying the two clinically correlated diseases.

Marioni G, Ottaviano G, de Filippis C, et al.
Nuclear expression of onco-suppressors nm23-H1 and maspin are associated with lower recurrence rate in laryngeal carcinoma.
Am J Otolaryngol. 2019 Mar - Apr; 40(2):224-229 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The main aim of the study was to preliminarily investigate the possibly related role of nuclear onco-suppressors maspin and nm23-H1, a metastasis suppressor, in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Maspin expression pattern and nuclear nm23-H1 expression were ascertained in 62 consecutive LSCCs.
RESULTS: Recurrence rate was significantly lower in patients with a nuclear maspin pattern of expression; nuclear nm23-H1 expression was significantly lower in patients who experienced disease recurrence. Disease free survival (DFS) was significantly longer in patients with maspin nuclear pattern or with nuclear nm23-H1 expression ≥10%. A significant association was found between nuclear nm23-H1 expression and maspin pattern of expression in LSCC. KNN discriminant analysis considered N status, maspin sub-cellular localization and nuclear nm23-H1 expression. The selected variables' accuracy in terms of relapse was 82%. Positive predictive accuracy was 100%, and negative predictive accuracy 79%.
CONCLUSIONS: Nuclear nm23-H1 expression and maspin pattern, also in association, show promise as recurrence indicators in LSCC. Further studies are needed to shed more light on the nm23-H1 mechanism of action in LSCC and thus find ways to restore nm23-H1 loss. These preliminary findings suggest that re-activating maspin functions might represent an important goal in the treatment of advanced LSCC.

Bodzek M, Blecharz P, Ryś J, et al.
Molecular prognostic factors in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma.
Pol J Pathol. 2018; 69(3):285-291 [PubMed] Related Publications
Within the past years the proportion of cervical adenocarcinomas has increased, however, there is a shortage of data regarding immunohistochemical and molecular features and their prognostic relevance in early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma (esCAC). Aim of the present study was to evaluate molecular prognostic factors in esCAC patients treated with primary surgery. Analyses of surgical specimens in 59 patients with esCAC were performed on fixed paraffin-embedded sections of tumour tissue. Tumour tissue sections were routinely stained with hematoxylin and eosin followed by microscopic examination. Immunohistochemical analyses (IHC) were performed on paraffin-embedded section. Flow cytometry (FCM) analysis of paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was performed using flow cytometer FACSCalibur equipped with argon laser. DNA histogram analysis was performed with ModFit application. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated using overall 5-year survival. Survival probability was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Overall survival rate estimated using Kaplan-Meier method was 74.6%. Among the IHC and FCM features univariate analysis showed statistical significance of nm23-H1 gene expression and total S-phase fraction ≤ 11.9% (S-TOT). In multi- variate analysis LVSI and parametrial involvement had significant, negative impact on survival (HR = 8.04, p < 0.003 and HR = 4.03, p < 0.017, respectively). However, none of the tested IHC and FCM features had any influence on overall 5-year survival.

Pamidimukkala NV, Leonard MK, Snyder D, et al.
Metastasis Suppressor NME1 Directly Activates Transcription of the
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(11):6059-6068 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1 (NME1) is a metastasis suppressor gene, exhibiting reduced expression in metastatic cancers and the ability to suppress metastatic activity of cancer cells. We previously identified NME1-regulated genes with prognostic value in human melanoma. This study was conducted in melanoma cell lines aiming to elucidate the mechanism through which NME regulates one of these genes, aldolase C (ALDOC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: ALDOC mRNA and protein expression was measured using qRT-PCR and immunoblot analyses. Promoter-luciferase constructs and chromatin immunoprecipitation were employed to measure the impact of NME1 on ALDOC transcription.
RESULTS: NME1 enhanced ALDOC transcription, evidenced by increased expression of ALDOC pre-mRNA and activity of an ALDOC promoter-luciferase module. NME1 was detected at the ALDOC promoter, and forced NME1 expression resulted in enhanced occupancy of the promoter by NME1, increased presence of epigenetic activation markers (H3K4me3 and H3K27ac), and recruitment of RNA polymerase II.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to indicate that NME1 induces transcription through its direct binding to the promoter region of a target gene.

Wang QH, Han W, Chen MB, et al.
Prognostic value of NM23 in patients with gastric cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2018; 14(Supplement):S556-S564 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aim of Study: NM23, as a possible biomarker of prognosis in malignant tumors, has generated remarkable interest in this critical period of the high morbidity and mortality of malignancies. Thus, we launched this meta-analysis to investigate the predictive value of NM23 expression in patients with gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for relevant articles. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the prognostic value of NM23 expression in patients with gastric cancer and the association between NM23 expression and clinicopathological factors. We also performed subgroup analyses to find the source of heterogeneity.
Results: Exactly, 2674 patients were pooled from 19 available studies in total. The incorporative OR combined by 11 studies with overall survival (OS) showed no significance (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.51-1.58, P = 0.71). Although we failed to find any significance in N status and tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging (P = 0.23 and P = 0.74, respectively), elevated NM23 expression was related to well tumor differentiation (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.41-0.95, P = 0.03). However, in the subgroup analyses, we could not find any potential source of heterogeneity.
Conclusion: The results showed that statistically significant association was found between NM23 expression and the tumor differentiation of patients with gastric cancer, but no significance was found in OS, N status, and TNM staging. More and further researches should be conducted to reveal the prognostic value of NM23.

Ozturk E, Aksoy SA, Ugras N, et al.
Coexistence of MACC1 and NM23-H1 dysregulation and tumor budding promise early prognostic evidence for recurrence risk of early-stage colon cancer.
APMIS. 2018; 126(2):99-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification, the presence of a mucinous component, and signet ring cells are well-known criteria for identifying patients at a high risk for recurrence and determining the therapeutic approach for early-stage colon cancer (eCC). Nevertheless, recurrence can unexpectedly occur in some eCC cases after surgical resection. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the relation of dysregulated MACC1, c-MET, and NM23-H1 expression with the histopathological features of tumors in recurrence formation in eCC cases. A total of 100 sporadic eCC patients without poor prognosis factors were evaluated in this study. The relationship between the altered expression of MACC1, c-MET, and NM23-H1 and pathological microenvironmental features, including the presence of tumor budding and desmoplasia, were assessed. The primary outcomes, including 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), were also measured. Compared with nonrecurrent patients, the expression level of MACC1 was 8.27-fold higher, and NM23-H1 was 11.36-fold lower in patients with recurrence during the 5-year follow-up (p = 0.0345 and p = 0.0301, respectively). In addition, the coexistence of high MACC1 and low NM23-H1 expression and tumor budding was associated with short OS (p < 0.001). We suggest that the combination of reduced NM23-H1, induced MACC1, and the presence of tumor budding are promising biomarkers for the prediction of recurrence and may aid the stratification of patients with stage II colon cancer for adjuvant chemotherapy.

Zhu KW, Chen P, Zhang DY, et al.
Association of genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in Ara-C and dNTP metabolism pathway with chemosensitivity and prognosis of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytarabine arabinoside (Ara-C) has been the core of chemotherapy for adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Ara-C undergoes a three-step phosphorylation into the active metabolite Ara-C triphosphosphate (ara-CTP). Several enzymes are involved directly or indirectly in either the formation or detoxification of ara-CTP.
METHODS: A total of 12 eQTL (expression Quantitative Trait Loci) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or tag SNPs in 7 genes including CMPK1, NME1, NME2, RRM1, RRM2, SAMHD1 and E2F1 were genotyped in 361 Chinese non-M3 AML patients by using the Sequenom Massarray system. Association of the SNPs with complete remission (CR) rate after Ara-C based induction therapy, relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed.
RESULTS: Three SNPs were observed to be associated increased risk of chemoresistance indicated by CR rate (NME2 rs3744660, E2F1 rs3213150, and RRM2 rs1130609), among which two (rs3744660 and rs1130609) were eQTL. Combined genotypes based on E2F1 rs3213150 and RRM2 rs1130609 polymorphisms further increased the risk of non-CR. The SAMHD1 eQTL polymorphism rs6102991 showed decreased risk of non-CR marginally (P = 0.055). Three SNPs (NME1 rs3760468 and rs2302254, and NME2 rs3744660) were associated with worse RFS, and the RRM2 rs1130609 polymorphism was marginally associated with worse RFS (P = 0.085) and OS (P = 0.080). Three SNPs (NME1 rs3760468, NME2 rs3744660, and RRM1 rs183484) were associated with worse OS in AML patients.
CONCLUSION: Data from our study demonstrated that SNPs in Ara-C and dNTP metabolic pathway predict chemosensitivity and prognosis of AML patients in China.

Shi X, Jin H, Peng M, et al.
Association between NME1 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility: A meta-analysis based on 1644 cases and 2038 controls.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(4):467-474 [PubMed] Related Publications
The association between polymorphisms in the nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1 (NME1) gene and overall risk of cancer remains to be elucidated. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between rs16949649, rs2302254, and rs34214448 polymorphisms in the NME1 gene and cancer risk. PubMed, Web of Science, and CNKI databases (as of June 6, 2017) were searched. Eight studies, encompassing 1644 cases and 2038 controls, were selected. The results revealed no significant relationship between NME1 polymorphisms and overall cancer susceptibility. Interestingly, the rs16949649 polymorphism was associated with increased susceptibility to gynecological cancer (heterozygous model: odds ratio [OR] = 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-2.86, P = 0.029). The rs2302254 polymorphism was linked to decreased susceptibility to gastric cancer in the other groups (recessive model: OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.28-0.98, P = 0.045). The rs34214448 polymorphism correlated significantly with increased susceptibility to non-small cell lung cancer according to all genetic models (P < 0.05) and was linked to decreased risk in cervical cancer (recessive model: OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.27-0.94, P = 0.031). Thus, our meta-analysis found rs16949649 associated with increased susceptibility to gynecological cancer and rs2302254 was linked to reduced gastric cancer risk; additional, larger studies are required to confirm these findings.

Yang M, Sun Y, Sun J, et al.
Differentially expressed and survival-related proteins of lung adenocarcinoma with bone metastasis.
Cancer Med. 2018; 7(4):1081-1092 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite recent advances in targeted and immune-based therapies, the poor prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) with bone metastasis (BM) remains a challenge. First, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in LUAD with BM, and then matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to identify these proteins. Second, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was used to identify mutations in these differentially expressed proteins and Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM Plotter) was used to generate survival curves for the analyzed cases. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to check the expression of proteins in 28 patients with BM and nine patients with LUAD. Lastly, the results were analyzed with respect to clinical features and patient's follow-up. We identified a number of matched proteins from 2-DE. High expression of enolase 1 (ENO1) (HR = 1.67, logrank P = 1.9E-05), ribosomal protein lateral stalk subunit P2 (RPLP2) (HR = 1.77, logrank P = 2.9e-06), and NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (NME1-NME2) (HR = 2.65, logrank P = 3.9E-15) was all significantly associated with poor survival (P < 0.05). Further, ENO1 was upregulated (P = 0.0004) and calcyphosine (CAPS1) was downregulated (P = 5.34E-07) in TCGA LUAD RNA-seq expression data. IHC revealed that prominent ENO1 staining (OR = 7.5, P = 0.034) and low levels of CAPS1 (OR = 0.01, P < 0.0001) staining were associated with BM incidence. Finally, we found that LUAD patients with high expression of ENO1 and RPLP2 had worse overall survival. This is the first instance where the genes ENO1, RPLP2, NME1-NME2 and CAPS1 were associated with disease severity and progression in LUAD patients with BM. Thus, with this study, we have identified potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for this disease.

Ferrucci V, de Antonellis P, Pennino FP, et al.
Metastatic group 3 medulloblastoma is driven by PRUNE1 targeting NME1-TGF-β-OTX2-SNAIL via PTEN inhibition.
Brain. 2018; 141(5):1300-1319 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic modifications during development of paediatric groups 3 and 4 medulloblastoma are responsible for their highly metastatic properties and poor patient survival rates. PRUNE1 is highly expressed in metastatic medulloblastoma group 3, which is characterized by TGF-β signalling activation, c-MYC amplification, and OTX2 expression. We describe the process of activation of the PRUNE1 signalling pathway that includes its binding to NME1, TGF-β activation, OTX2 upregulation, SNAIL (SNAI1) upregulation, and PTEN inhibition. The newly identified small molecule pyrimido-pyrimidine derivative AA7.1 enhances PRUNE1 degradation, inhibits this activation network, and augments PTEN expression. Both AA7.1 and a competitive permeable peptide that impairs PRUNE1/NME1 complex formation, impair tumour growth and metastatic dissemination in orthotopic xenograft models with a metastatic medulloblastoma group 3 cell line (D425-Med cells). Using whole exome sequencing technology in metastatic medulloblastoma primary tumour cells, we also define 23 common 'non-synonymous homozygous' deleterious gene variants as part of the protein molecular network of relevance for metastatic processes. This PRUNE1/TGF-β/OTX2/PTEN axis, together with the medulloblastoma-driver mutations, is of relevance for future rational and targeted therapies for metastatic medulloblastoma group 3.10.1093/brain/awy039_video1awy039media15742053534001.

Lu Z, Hunter T
Metabolic Kinases Moonlighting as Protein Kinases.
Trends Biochem Sci. 2018; 43(4):301-310 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein kinases regulate every aspect of cellular activity, whereas metabolic enzymes are responsible for energy production and catabolic and anabolic processes. Emerging evidence demonstrates that some metabolic enzymes, such as pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), ketohexokinase (KHK) isoform A (KHK-A), hexokinase (HK), and nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1 and 2 (NME1/2), that phosphorylate soluble metabolites can also function as protein kinases and phosphorylate a variety of protein substrates to regulate the Warburg effect, gene expression, cell cycle progression and proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, exosome secretion, T cell activation, iron transport, ion channel opening, and many other fundamental cellular functions. The elevated protein kinase functions of these moonlighting metabolic enzymes in tumor development make them promising therapeutic targets for cancer.

Okabe-Kado J, Hagiwara-Watanabe Y, Niitsu N, et al.
NM23 downregulation and lysophosphatidic acid receptor EDG2/lpa1 upregulation during myeloid differentiation of human leukemia cells.
Leuk Res. 2018; 66:39-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
The NM23 gene is overexpressed in many hematological malignancies and its overexpression predicts poor treatment outcomes. NM23 overexpression is thought to suppress myeloid differentiation of leukemia cells, but the molecular mechanism is unknown. In breast cancer cells, the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor EDG2/lpa1 was downregulated by NM23-H1 overexpression, and this reciprocal expression pattern was associated with suppressed or induced cell motility/metastasis. Here, we examined the relationship between EDG2 and NM23 expression during myeloid differentiation of leukemia cells. NM23 expression decreased and EDG2 expression increased during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced myeloid differentiation of HL-60, NB4, and THP-1 leukemia cells. Moreover, this inverse correlation was more evident when myeloid differentiation was enhanced by ellagic acid, an inhibitor of NM23 activity. In contrast, there was no inverse correlation between EDG2 and NM23 expression during erythroid differentiation of HEL and K562 cells. ATRA plus LPA enhanced the motility of leukemia cells as well as breast cancer cells in an EDG2-dependent manner. These results suggest a common molecular mechanism between myeloid differentiation of leukemia cells and migration of breast cancer cells depending on NM23 and EDG2 expression levels.

Hass HG, Vogel U, Scheurlen M, Jobst J
Subclassification and Detection of New Markers for the Discrimination of Primary Liver Tumors by Gene Expression Analysis Using Oligonucleotide Arrays.
Gut Liver. 2018; 12(3):306-315 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background/Aims: The failure to correctly differentiate between intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant clinical problem, particularly in terms of the different treatment goals for both cancers. In this study a specific gene expression profile to discriminate these two subgroups of liver cancer was established and potential diagnostic markers for clinical use were analyzed.
Methods: To evaluate the gene expression profiles of HCC and intrahepatic CC, Oligonucleotide arrays (
Results: 695 genes/expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in HCC (245 up-/450 down-regulated) and 552 genes/ESTs in CC (221 up-/331 down-regulated) were significantly dysregulated (p<0.05, fold change >2, ≥70%). Using a supervised learning method, and one-way analysis of variance a specific 270-gene expression profile that enabled rapid, reproducible differentiation between both tumors and nonmalignant liver tissues was established. A panel of 12 genes (e.g., HSP90β, ERG1, GPC3, TKT, ACLY, and NME1 for HCC; SPT2, T4S3, CNX43, TTD1, HBD01 for CC) were detected and partly described for the first time as potential discrimination markers.
Conclusions: A specific gene expression profile for discrimination of primary liver cancer was identified and potential marker genes with feasible clinical impact were described.

A P S, Laishram RS
Nuclear Phosphatidylinositol-Phosphate Type I Kinase α-Coupled Star-PAP Polyadenylation Regulates Cell Invasion.
Mol Cell Biol. 2018; 38(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Star-PAP, a nuclear phosphatidylinositol (PI) signal-regulated poly(A) polymerase (PAP), couples with type I PI phosphate kinase α (PIPKIα) and controls gene expression. We show that Star-PAP and PIPKIα together regulate 3'-end processing and expression of pre-mRNAs encoding key anti-invasive factors (

Attwood PV, Muimo R
The actions of NME1/NDPK-A and NME2/NDPK-B as protein kinases.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(3):283-290 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are multifunctional proteins encoded by the nme (non-metastatic cells) genes, also called NM23. NDPKs catalyze the transfer of γ-phosphate from nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates by a ping-pong mechanism involving the formation of a high-energy phosphohistidine intermediate. Growing evidence shows that NDPKs, particularly NDPK-B, can additionally act as a protein histidine kinase. Protein kinases and phosphatases that regulate reversible O-phosphorylation of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues have been studied extensively in many organisms. Interestingly, other phosphoamino acids histidine, lysine, arginine, aspartate, glutamate, and cysteine exist in abundance but remain understudied due to the paucity of suitable methods and antibodies. The N-phosphorylation of histidine by histidine kinases via the two- or multi-component signaling systems is an important mediator in cellular responses in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes, like yeast, fungi, and plants. However, in vertebrates knowledge of phosphohistidine signaling has lagged far behind and the identity of the protein kinases and protein phosphatases involved is not well established. This article will therefore provide an overview of our current knowledge on protein histidine phosphorylation particularly the role of nm 23 gene products as protein histidine kinases.

Zheng Z, Tian R, Wang P
Roles of KAI1 and nm23 in lymphangiogenesis and lymph metastasis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
World J Surg Oncol. 2017; 15(1):211 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic metastasis contributes to the poor prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). This study aimed to investigate the roles of two metastasis suppressor genes, KAI1 and nm23, in lymphangiogenesis and lymph metastasis of LSCC.
METHODS: A total of 45 LSCC patients were enrolled in this study. The positive expression rates of KAI1 and nm23 protein were detected via immunohistochemistry in 45 LSCC and 22 normal laryngeal mucosa adjacent to LSCC. Micro-lymphatic vessel density (MLVD) was detected via immunohistochemistry with the specific antibody D2-40. Associations between KAI1 and nm23 expression and clinical characteristics of LSCC were then evaluated.
RESULTS: The positive expression rates of KAI1 and nm23 were significantly lower in LSCC than normal laryngeal mucosa (P < 0.05). Significantly lower positive rates of KAI1 and nm23 were found in LSCC with lymphatic metastasis than those without lymphatic metastasis (P < 0.05), whereas MLVD was negatively correlated with the expression of KAI1 and nm23 (P < 0.05). However, no significant associations were found between KAI1 and nm23 expression and clinical characteristics of LSCC (sex, age, disease position, differentiation, and T-stage).
CONCLUSIONS: Both KAI1 and nm23 can inhibit lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in LSCC.

Rasool F, Nayak D, Katoch A, et al.
Regiospecific Synthesis of Ring A Fused Withaferin A Isoxazoline Analogues: Induction of Premature Senescence by W-2b in Proliferating Cancer Cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):13749 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Induction of premature senescence represents a novel functional strategy to curb the uncontrolled proliferation of malignant cancer cells. This study unveils the regiospecific synthesis of novel isoxazoline derivatives condensed to ring A of medicinal plant product Withaferin-A. Intriguingly, the cis fused products with β-oriented hydrogen exhibited excellent cytotoxic activities against proliferating human breast cancer MCF7 and colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells. The most potent derivative W-2b triggered premature senescence along with increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, G2/M cell cycle arrest, and induction of senescence-specific marker p21

Leonard MK, McCorkle JR, Snyder DE, et al.
Identification of a gene expression signature associated with the metastasis suppressor function of NME1: prognostic value in human melanoma.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(3):327-338 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although NME1 is well known for its ability to suppress metastasis of melanoma, the molecular mechanisms underlying this activity are not completely understood. Herein, we utilized a bioinformatics approach to systematically identify genes whose expression is correlated with the metastasis suppressor function of NME1. This was accomplished through a search for genes that were regulated by NME1, but not by NME1 variants lacking metastasis suppressor activity. This approach identified a number of novel genes, such as ALDOC, CXCL11, LRP1b, and XAGE1 as well as known targets such as NETO2, which were collectively designated as an NME1-Regulated Metastasis Suppressor Signature (MSS). The MSS was associated with prolonged overall survival in a large cohort of melanoma patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The median overall survival of melanoma patients with elevated expression of the MSS genes was >5.6 years longer compared with that of patients with lower expression of the MSS genes. These data demonstrate that NMEl represents a powerful tool for identifying genes whose expression is associated with metastasis and survival of melanoma patients, suggesting their potential applications as prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in advanced forms of this lethal cancer.

Romani P, Ignesti M, Gargiulo G, et al.
Extracellular NME proteins: a player or a bystander?
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(2):248-257 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Nm23/NME gene family has been under intensive study since Nm23H1/NME1 was identified as the first metastasis suppressor. Inverse correlation between the expression levels of NME1/2 and prognosis has indeed been demonstrated in different tumor cohorts. Interestingly, the presence of NME proteins in the extracellular environment in normal and tumoral conditions has also been noted. In many reported cases, however, these extracellular NME proteins exhibit anti-differentiation or oncogenic functions, contradicting their canonical anti-metastatic action. This emerging field thus warrants further investigation. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of extracellular NME proteins. A role in promoting stem cell pluripotency and inducing development of central nervous system as well as a neuroprotective function of extracellular NME have been suggested. Moreover, a tumor-promoting function of extracellular NME also emerged at least in some tumor cohorts. In this complex scenario, the secretory mechanism through which NME proteins exit cells is far from being understood. Recently, some evidence obtained in the Drosophila and cancer cell line models points to the involvement of Dynamin in controlling the balance between intra- and extracellular levels of NME. Further analyses on extracellular NME will lead to a better understanding of its physiological function and in turn will allow understanding of how its deregulation contributes to carcinogenesis.

Pandey S, Robertson ES
Oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus recruits Nm23-H1 to regulate chromatin modifiers.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(2):258-268 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In cancer progression, metastasis is a major cause of poor survival of patients and can be targeted for therapeutic interventions. The first discovered metastatic-suppressor Nm23-H1 possesses nucleoside diphosphate kinase, histidine kinase, and DNase activity as a broad-spectrum enzyme. Recent advances in cancer metastasis have opened new ways for the development of therapeutic molecular approaches. In this review, we provide a summary of the current understanding of Nm23/NDPKs in the context of viral oncogenesis. We also focused on Nm23-H1-mediated cellular events with an emphasis on chromatin modifications. How Nm23-H1 modulates the activities of chromatin modifiers through interaction with Epstein-Barr virus-encoded oncogenic antigens and related crosstalks are discussed in the context of other oncogenic viruses. We also described the current understanding of the cellular and viral interactions of Nm23-H1 and their reference to transcription regulation and metastasis. Further, we summarized the recent therapeutic approaches targeting Nm23 and its potential links to pathways that can be exploited by oncogenic viruses.

Tan CY, Chang CL
NDPKA is not just a metastasis suppressor - be aware of its metastasis-promoting role in neuroblastoma.
Lab Invest. 2018; 98(2):219-227 [PubMed] Related Publications
NDPK-A, encoded by nm23-H1 (also known as NME1) was the first metastasis suppressor discovered. Much of the attention has been focused on the metastasis-suppressing role of NDPK-A in human tumors, including breast carcinoma and melanoma. However, compelling evidence points to a metastasis-promoting role of NDPK-A in certain tumors such as neuroblastoma and lymphoma. To balance attention on this contrariety of NDPK-A in different cancer types, this review addresses the metastasis-promoting role of NDPK-A in neuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma is an embryonic tumor, arising from neural crest cells that fail to differentiate into the sympathetic nervous system. We summarize and discuss nm23-H1 genetics and the prognosis of neuroblastoma, structural and functional changes associated with the S120G mutation of NDPK-A, as well as the evidence supporting the role of NDPK-A as a metastasis promoter. Also discussed are the NDPK-A relevant molecular determinants of neuroblastoma metastasis, and metastasis-relevant neural crest development. Because of NDPK-A's dichotomous role in tumor metastasis as both a suppressor and a promoter, tumor genome/exome profiles are necessary to identify the molecular drivers of metastasis in the NDPK-A network for developing tumor-specific therapies.

Durand S, Trillet K, Uguen A, et al.
A transcriptome-based protein network that identifies new therapeutic targets in colorectal cancer.
BMC Genomics. 2017; 18(1):758 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer occurrence is increasing worldwide, making it the third most frequent cancer. Although many therapeutic options are available and quite efficient at the early stages, survival is strongly decreased when the disease has spread to other organs. The identification of molecular markers of colon cancer is likely to help understanding its course and, eventually, to uncover novel genes to be targeted by drugs. In this study, we compared gene expression in a set of 95 human colon cancer samples to that in 19 normal colon mucosae, focusing on 401 genes from 5 selected pathways (Apoptosis, Cancer, Cholesterol metabolism and lipoprotein signaling, Drug metabolism, Wnt/beta-catenin). Deregulation of mRNA levels largely matched that of proteins, leading us to build in silico protein networks, starting from mRNA levels, to identify key proteins central to network activity.
RESULTS: Among the analyzed genes, 10.5% (42) had no reported link with colon cancer, including the SFRP1, IGF1 and ADH1B (down), and MYC and IL8 (up), whose encoded proteins were most interacting with other proteins from the same or even distinct networks. Analyzing all pathways globally led us to uncover novel functional links between a priori unrelated or rather remotely connected pathways, such as the Drug metabolism and the Cancer pathways or, even more strikingly, between the Cholesterol metabolism and lipoprotein signaling and the Cancer pathways. In addition, we analyzed the responsiveness of some of the deregulated genes essential to network activities, to chemotherapeutic agents used alone or in presence of Lovastatin, a lipid-lowering drug. Some of these treatments could oppose the deregulations occurring in cancer samples, including those of the CHECK2, CYP51A1, HMGCS1, ITGA2, NME1 or VEGFA genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Our network-based approach allowed discovering genes not previously known to play regulatory roles in colon cancer. Our results also showed that selected drug treatments might revert the cancer-specific deregulation of genes playing prominent roles within the networks operating to maintain colon homeostasis. Among those genes, some could constitute novel testable targets to eliminate colon cancer cells, either directly or, potentially, through the use of lipid-lowering drugs such as statins, in association with selected anticancer drugs.

Hung CY, Wang YC, Chuang JY, et al.
Nm23-H1-stabilized hnRNPA2/B1 promotes internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of Sp1 in the lung cancer progression.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):9166 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our recent studies have indicated that specificity protein-1 (Sp1) accumulates substantially in the early stage of lung cancer but is partially decreased in the late stages, which is an important factor in the progression of the cancer. In this study, we found that Nm23-H1 and hnRNPA2/B1 could be recruited to the 5'UTR of Sp1 mRNA. In investigating the clinical relevance of Nm23-H1/Sp1 levels, we found a positive correlation between lung cancer patients with poor prognosis and low levels of Sp1 and Nm23-H1, suggesting an association between Nm23-H1/Sp1 levels and survival rate. Knockdown of Nm23-H1 inhibits lung cancer growth but increases lung cancer cell malignancy, which could be rescued by overexpression of Sp1, indicating that Nm23-H1-induced Sp1 expression is critical for lung cancer progression. We also found that Nm23-H1 increases the protein stability of hnRNPA2/B1and is thereby co-recruited to the 5'UTR of Sp1 mRNA to regulate cap-independent translational activity. Since the Sp1 level is tightly regulated during lung cancer progression, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation by Nm23-H1/hnRNPA2B1 of Sp1 expression in the various stages of lung cancer will be beneficial for lung cancer therapy in the future.

Leonard MK, Pamidimukkala N, Puts GS, et al.
The HGF/SF Mouse Model of UV-Induced Melanoma as an In Vivo Sensor for Metastasis-Regulating Gene.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cutaneous malignant melanoma is an aggressive and potentially lethal form of skin cancer, particularly in its advanced and therapy-resistant stages, and the need for novel therapeutics and prognostic tools is acute. Incidence of melanoma has steadily increased over the past few decades, with exposure to the genome-damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) well-recognized as a primary cause. A number of genetically-engineered mouse models (GEMMs) have been created that exhibit high incidence of spontaneous and induced forms of melanoma, and a select subset recapitulates its progression to aggressive and metastatic forms. These GEMMs hold considerable promise for providing insights into advanced stages of melanoma, such as potential therapeutic targets and prognostic markers, and as in vivo systems for testing of novel therapies. In this review, we summarize how the HGF/SF transgenic mouse has been used to reveal metastasis-regulating activity of four different genes (

Saha D, Singh A, Hussain T, et al.
Epigenetic suppression of human telomerase (
J Biol Chem. 2017; 292(37):15205-15215 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transcriptional activation of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (

Huang S, Qin J, Chen J, et al.
Impact of laparoscopy on the biological behavior and gene expression of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2017; 33(11):899-903 [PubMed] Related Publications
The current study investigated the effect of laparoscopy on the biological behavior and gene expression of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Totally, 40 patients with stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma and 20 patients with benign uterine diseases were enrolled in this study. For patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma, laparoscopy was performed in 20 cases and laparotomy was carried out in the other 20 cases. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed in patients with benign diseases. Cell apoptotic rate and the gene expression of N-myc, Fas, metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), and nm23-H1 were determined in the normal and cancerous endometrial tissues both preoperatively and postoperatively. For endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, laparoscopy, instead of laparotomy, promoted the apoptosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells, down-regulated the expression of apoptosis suppressor gene N-myc and metastasis-promoting gene MTA1, up-regulated the expression of apoptosis-promoting gene Fas and metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1. However, laparoscopy did not affect the apoptotic rate and gene expression in normal endometrial cells. Laparoscopy may be used as a safe and effective intervention for endometrial cancer.

Xu D, Aka JA, Wang R, Lin SX
17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 is negatively correlated to apoptosis inhibitor GRP78 and tumor-secreted protein PGK1, and modulates breast cancer cell viability and proliferation.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017; 171:270-280 [PubMed] Related Publications
17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (17β-HSD5) is an important enzyme associated with sex steroid metabolism in hormone-dependent cancer. However, reports on its expression and its prognostic value in breast cancer are inconsistent. Here, we demonstrate the impact of 17β-HSD5 expression modulation on the proteome of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer cells. RNA interference technique (siRNA) was used to knock down 17β-HSD5 gene expression in the ER+ breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the proteome of the 17β-HSD5-knockdown cells was compared to that of MCF-7 cells using two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was additionally used to assess functional enrichment analyses of the proteomic dataset, including protein network and canonical pathways. Our proteomic analysis revealed only four differentially expressed protein spots (fold change > 2, p<0.05) between the two cell lines. The four spots were up-regulated in 17β-HSD5-knockdown MCF-7 cells, and comprised 21 proteins involved in two networks and in functions that include apoptosis inhibition, regulation of cell growth and differentiation, signal transduction and tumor metastasis. Among the proteins are nucleoside diphosphate kinase A (NME1), 78kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1). We also showed that expression of 17β-HSD5 and that of the apoptosis inhibitor GRP78 are strongly but negatively correlated. Consistent with their opposite regulation, GRP78 knockdown decreased MCF-7 cell viability whereas 17β-HSD5 knockdown or inhibition increased cell viability and proliferation. Besides, IPA analysis revealed that ubiquitination pathway is significantly affected by 17β-HSD5 knockdown. Furthermore, IPA predicted the proto-oncogene c-Myc as an upstream regulator linked to the tumor-secreted protein PGK1. The latter is over-expressed in invasive ductal breast carcinoma as compared with normal breast tissue and its expression increased following 17β-HSD5 knockdown. Our present results indicate a 17β-HSD5 role in down-regulating breast cancer development. We thus propose that 17β-HSD5 may not be a potent target for breast cancer treatment but its low expression could represent a poor prognosis factor.

Sheng Y, Xiong Y, Xu M, et al.
[Effect of Nm23-H1 Nuclear Localization on Proliferation of 
Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Line A549].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi. 2017; 20(4):226-232 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that Nm23-H1 is found in the nucleus, but previous studies have been based on the overexpression or suppression of Nm23-H1 in the cytoplasm. Due to the lacking nuclear localization signal of Nm23-H1, these results cannot reflect or repeat cells in which Nm23-H1 mainly positioned in nuclei and whether they cause clinical biological effects. Therefore, to explore the effects of transposing Nm23-H1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during lung cancer cell proliferation, a vector with a nuclear localization signal of Nm23-H1 was constructed and A549 cells were transfected.
METHODS: Gene recombination technology was used to construct pLentis-CMV-NME1-IRES2-PURO lentiviral vectors using a nuclear localization signal sequence, and the recombinant plasmid was verified using restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing. Nm23-H1 positioning and expression were performed after the stably transfected A549 cells were assessed by Western blot and confocal laser scanning microscope. The A549 cell proliferation was assessed using a cell counting kit-8. Flow cytometry was performed to assess the cell cycle distribution of A549 cells.
RESULTS: The directional Nm23-H1 lentiviral vector was successfully constructed within the nucleus. Compared with that of the empty vector group, the proliferation rates of the transfection groups at 72 h, 96 h, and 120 h were remarkably increased (P<0.000,1). Moreover, the empty vector group of A549 cells in the G0/G1 phase proportion was 35.69%, which was higher than the 28.28% of the transfection group (t=1.461, P=0.217); furthermore, the transfection group of A549 cells in the G2/M phase proportion was 58.7% and that of the empty vector group was 31.30% (t=4.560, P=0.010).
CONCLUSIONS: Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 cells of Nm23-H1 nuclear localized mainly in the G2/M phase and the nuclear Nm23-H1 promoted A549 cell proliferation in vitro.

Fang M, Tao Y, Liu Z, et al.
Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between NM23 Expression to Gastric Cancer Risk and Clinical Features.
Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017:8047183 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The prognostic value of reduced NM23 expression for gastric cancer (GC) patients is still contradictory. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the association of NM23 expression with GC risk and clinical features by analyzing 27 publications. The result of our meta-analysis indicated that NM23 expression is markedly reduced in gastric cancer tissues (OR = 3.15; 95% CI = 1.97-5.03;

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