Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 10 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Mutated Genes and Abnormal Protein Expression (11)

How to use this data tableClicking on the Gene or Topic will take you to a separate more detailed page. Sort this list by clicking on a column heading e.g. 'Gene' or 'Topic'.

EXT2 11p11.2 SOTV, SSMS -EXT2 mutations in Secondary Chondrosarcoma
EXT1 8q24.11 EXT, LGS, TTV, LGCR, TRPS2 Germline
-EXT1 mutations in Secondaty Chondrosarcoma
FTCDNL1 2q33.1 FONG -FONG and Chondrosarcoma
TAF15 17q11.1-q11.2 Npl3, RBP56, TAF2N, TAFII68 Translocation
-t(9;17)(q22;q11) in Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma
-TAF15 and Chondrosarcoma
MMP1 11q22.2 CLG, CLGN Prognostic
-MMP1 and Chondrosarcoma
TFG 3q12.2 TF6, HMSNP, SPG57, TRKT3 -TFG and Chondrosarcoma
TCF12 15q21 HEB, CRS3, HTF4, TCF-12, bHLHb20, HsT17266 -TCF12 and Chondrosarcoma
TIMP2 17q25 DDC8, CSC-21K -TIMP2 Expression in Chondrosarcoma
MMP2 16q12.2 CLG4, MONA, CLG4A, MMP-2, TBE-1, MMP-II -MMP2 and Chondrosarcoma
EWSR1 22q12.2 EWS, EWS-FLI1, bK984G1.4 Translocation
-t(9;22)(q22;q12) in Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma
NR4A3 9q22 CHN, TEC, CSMF, NOR1, MINOR Translocation
-t(9;22)(q22;q12) in Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma
-t(9;17)(q22;q11) in Extraskeletal Myxoid Chondrosarcoma

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Recurring Structural Abnormalities

Selected list of common recurrent structural abnormalities

Abnormality Type Gene(s)
t(9;22)(q22;q12) in Extraskeletal Myxoid ChondrosarcomaTranslocationEWSR1 (22q12.2)NR4A3 (9q22)
t(9;17)(q22;q11) in Extraskeletal Myxoid ChondrosarcomaTranslocationNR4A3 (9q22)TAF15 (17q11.1-q11.2)

This is a highly selective list aiming to capture structural abnormalies which are frequesnt and/or significant in relation to diagnosis, prognosis, and/or characterising specific cancers. For a much more extensive list see the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer.

Latest Publications

Jiang D, Zheng X, Shan W, Shan Y
The overexpression of miR-30a affects cell proliferation of chondrosarcoma via targeting Runx2.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):5933-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as important epigenetic modulators of multiple target genes, leading to abnormal cellular signaling involving cellular proliferation in cancers. Aberrant miRNA expression has been observed in human chondrosarcoma (CS). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the expression and molecular mechanisms of Runx2 and miR-30a in human CS tissues and CS cell lines JJ012, SW1353, and L3252. In the present study, we found that the expression of miR-30a was markedly downregulated in CS cell lines and human CS tissues, compared to matched non-tumor-associated tissues. Furthermore, miR-30a expression was inversely proportional to that of Runx2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. Upregulation of miR-30a dramatically reduced the proliferation, colony formation, and cell cycle-related proteins of CS cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that ectopic expression of miR-30a significantly decreased the percentage of S phase cells and increased the percentage of G1/G0 phase cells. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR-30a binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) region of Runx2 inhibited the expression of Runx2 in cancer cells. Taken together, our results suggest that miR-30a plays an important role to inhibit the proliferation of CS cells and presents a novel mechanism for direct miRNA-mediated suppression of Runx2 in CS. Thus, miR-30a/Runx2 may have an important role in treatment of CS patients.

Hao S, Hong CS, Feng J, et al.
Somatic IDH1 mutation in a pituitary adenoma of a patient with Maffucci syndrome.
J Neurosurg. 2016; 124(6):1562-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Maffucci syndrome is a rare disease characterized by multiple enchondromas and soft-tissue hemangiomas. Additionally, neuroendocrine tumors including pituitary adenomas have been described in these patients. The underlying genetic etiology lies in somatic mosaicism of mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2). This report describes a patient with Maffucci syndrome who presented with intracranial tumors of the skull base and suprasellar region. The patient underwent resection of both intracranial tumors, revealing histopathological diagnoses of chondrosarcoma and pituitary adenoma. DNA sequencing of the tumors was performed to identify common IDH1/2 mutations. Clinical, radiological, and biochemical assessments were performed. Genotypic studies used standard Sanger sequencing in conjunction with a target-specific peptide nucleic acid to detect IDH1 mutations in tumor tissues. DNA sequencing demonstrated identical IDH1 mutations (c.394C > T) in both tumors. To the authors' knowledge, this report provides the first genetic evidence for the inclusion of pituitary adenomas among tumors characterizing Maffucci syndrome. In patients who are newly diagnosed with Maffucci syndrome, it is appropriate to monitor for development of pituitary pathology and neuroendocrine dysfunction.

Hochart A, Dieux A, Coucke P, et al.
Association between Kniest dysplasia and chondrosarcoma in a child.
Am J Med Genet A. 2015; 167A(12):3204-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Constitutive COL2A1 mutations are associated with a wide variety of clinical manifestations known as type II collagenopathies. Among them is Kniest dysplasia, which is phenotypically variable and includes both skeletal (short trunk and limbs, kyphoscoliosis, prominent joints, and osteoarthritis) and craniofacial characteristics. Kniest dysplasia mutations primarily arise in the triple-helicoidal region of the alpha 1 (II) chain in COL2A1 between exons 12 and 24. Somatic COL2A1 mutations have been identified in chondrosarcoma, a rare cartilage forming neoplasm, with a hypermutability of the gene reported in 37% of cases. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no reported increase in predisposition to chondrosarcoma in human collagenopathies, and no reported clinical association between these congenital diseases and cartilaginous tumors. In the case study presented here, we report the first description of an association between these two rare diseases involving COL2A1, in a child presenting with Kniest dysplasia and a grade I sphenoethmoidal chondrosarcoma. We also describe a new constitutive mutation in COL2A1.

Jour G, Liu Y, Ricciotti R, et al.
Glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma: molecular evidence of a rare phenomenon.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(9):1398-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma has not been described. Our patient was a 64-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer status post-radiation and hormonal therapy. On screening bone scan, he was found to have increased uptake in his right femoral shaft. Biopsy revealed intermediate-grade conventional chondrosarcoma. Subsequent femoral resection was remarkable for an intermediate-grade chondrosarcomatous component juxtaposed to an area composed of anastomosing nests and cords of malignant epithelial cells showing nuclear atypia and increased mitotic activity. A fibroblastic-appearing spindle cell population was intimately associated with the epithelial cells. The epithelial cells labeled with 34bE12, AE1/AE3, EMA, and Vimentin (both spindled and epithelial components) while being negative for prostate-specific antigen, prostate specific acid phosphatase, cytokeratin 20, thyroid transcription factor-1, and CDX2. The patient developed local recurrence 9 months after the initial resection but has had no metastatic disease and consistently undetectable prostate-specific antigen levels. Deep parallel sequencing of the dedifferentiated component showed a nonsynonymous mutation at exon 4 of IDH1 gene at codon R132 leading to a substitution of arginine, with serine confirming glandular differentiation in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma.

Eo SH, Kim JH, Kim SJ
Induction of G₂/M Arrest by Berberine via Activation of PI3K/Akt and p38 in Human Chondrosarcoma Cell Line.
Oncol Res. 2014; 22(3):147-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
Berberine is a clinically important natural isoquinoline alkaloid found in many medicinal herbs. Berberine has been shown to have many pharmacological effects including antimicrobial, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effects and mechanism of action of berberine have not been studied in chondrosarcoma. Therefore, the effects of berberine on proliferation in a human chondrosarcoma cell line (HTB-94) were investigated. Berberine inhibited cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. We also determined that inhibition of cell proliferation by berberine occurred via G2/M phase arrest in HTB-94 cells. Berberine induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase by upregulation of p53 and p21 expression and suppressed cyclin B1, cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (cdc2), cdc25c, and phosphorylated retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor protein (pRb) expression. In addition, berberine stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and p38 kinase. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt with LY294002 (LY) and p38 kinase with SB203580 (SB), respectively, decreased berberine-induced p53 and p21 expression and restored cell proliferation and expression of cyclin B1, cdc2, cdc25c, and pRb cell cycle progression proteins. These results suggest that berberine-induced inhibition of cell proliferation by cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phases was regulated through PI3K/Akt and p38 kinase pathways in HTB-94 chondrosarcoma cells.

Kanamori H, Kitamura Y, Kimura T, et al.
Genetic characterization of skull base chondrosarcomas.
J Neurosurg. 2015; 123(4):1036-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECT: Although chondrosarcomas rarely arise in the skull base, chondrosarcomas and chordomas are the 2 major malignant bone neoplasms occurring at this location. The distinction of these 2 tumors is important, but this distinction is occasionally problematic because of radiological and histological overlap. Unlike chordoma and extracranial chondrosarcoma, no case series presenting a whole-genome analysis of skull base chondrosarcomas (SBCSs) has been reported. The goal of this study is to clarify the genetic characteristics of SBCSs and contrast them with those of chordomas.
METHODS: The authors analyzed 7 SBCS specimens for chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). They also examined IDH1 and IDH2 mutations and brachyury expression.
RESULTS: In CGH analyses, the authors detected CNAs in 6 of the 7 cases, including chromosomal gains of 8q21.1, 19, 2q22-q32, 5qcen-q14, 8q21-q22, and 15qcen-q14. Mutation of IDH1 was found with a high frequency (5 of 7 cases, 71.4%), of which R132S was most frequently mutated. No IDH2 mutations were found, and immunohistochemical staining for brachyury was negative in all cases.
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first whole-genome study of an SBSC case series. Their findings suggest that these tumors are molecularly consistent with a subset of conventional central chondrosarcomas and different from skull base chordomas.

Galoian K, Qureshi A, D'Ippolito G, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of embryonic stem cell marker miR302C in human chondrosarcoma as determinant of antiproliferative activity of proline-rich polypeptide 1.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(2):465-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastatic chondrosarcoma of mesenchymal origin is the second most common bone malignancy and does not respond either to chemotherapy or radiation; therefore, the search for new therapies is relevant and urgent. We described recently that tumor growth inhibiting cytostatic proline-rich polypeptide 1, (PRP-1) significantly upregulated tumor suppressor miRNAs, downregulated onco-miRNAs in human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cell line, compared to chondrocytes culture. In this study we hypothesized the existence and regulation of a functional marker in cancer stem cells, correlated to peptides antiproliferative activity. Experimental results indicated that among significantly downregulated miRNA after PRP-1treatment was miRNAs 302c*. This miRNA is a part of the cluster miR302‑367, which is stemness regulator in human embryonic stem cells and in certain tumors, but is not expressed in adult hMSCs and normal tissues. PRP-1 had strong inhibitory effect on viability of chondrosarcoma and multilineage induced multipotent adult cells (embryonic primitive cell type). Unlike chondrosarcoma, in glioblastoma, PRP-1 does not have any inhibitory activity on cell proliferation, because in glioblastoma miR-302-367 cluster plays an opposite role, its expression is sufficient to suppress the stemness inducing properties. The observed correlation between the antiproliferative activity of PRP-1 and its action on downregulation of miR302c explains the peptides opposite effects on the upregulation of proliferation of adult mesenchymal stem cells, and the inhibition of the proliferation of human bone giant-cell tumor stromal cells, reported earlier. PRP-1 substantially downregulated the miR302c targets, the stemness markers Nanog, c-Myc and polycomb protein Bmi-1. miR302c expression is induced by JMJD2-mediated H3K9me2 demethylase activity in its promoter region. JMJD2 was reported to be a positive regulator for Nanog. Our experimental results proved that PRP-1 strongly inhibited H3K9 activity comprised of a pool of JMJD1 and JMJD2. We conclude that inhibition of H3K9 activity by PRP-1 leads to downregulation of miR302c and its targets, defining the PRP-1 antiproliferative role.

Chang L, Shrestha S, LaChaud G, et al.
Review of microRNA in osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(6):613 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, which play a complex role in posttranscriptional gene expression and can theoretically be used as a diagnostic or prognostic tool, or therapeutic target for neoplasia. Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of skeletal sarcomas, including osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma, much remains unknown regarding their underpinning molecular mechanisms. Given the recent increasing knowledge base of miRNA roles in neoplasia, both as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, this review will focus on the available literature regarding the expression profiles and potential roles of miRNA in skeletal sarcomas. Although this is an emerging field, miRNA profiling may be of use in clarifying competing diagnoses of skeletal sarcomas and possibly indicate patient risk of resistance to traditional chemotherapeutic agents. While detecting and targeting miRNAs is currently limited to experimental investigations, miRNA may be utilized for future clinical management of skeletal sarcomas.

Suijker J, Oosting J, Koornneef A, et al.
Inhibition of mutant IDH1 decreases D-2-HG levels without affecting tumorigenic properties of chondrosarcoma cell lines.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(14):12505-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 are found in a subset of benign and malignant cartilage tumors, gliomas and leukaemias. The mutant enzyme causes the production of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG), affecting CpG island and histone methylation. While mutations in IDH1/2 are early events in benign cartilage tumors, we evaluated whether these mutations play a role in malignant chondrosarcomas. Compared to IDH1/2 wildtype cell lines, chondrosarcoma cell lines harboring an endogenous IDH1 (n=3) or IDH2 mutation (n=2) showed up to a 100-fold increase in intracellular and extracellular D-2-HG levels. Specific inhibition of mutant IDH1 using AGI-5198 decreased levels of D-2-HG in a dose dependent manner. After 72 hours of treatment one out of three mutant IDH1 cell lines showed a moderate decrease in viability , while D-2-HG levels decreased >90%. Likewise, prolonged treatment (up to 20 passages) did not affect proliferation and migration. Furthermore, global gene expression, CpG island methylation as well as histone H3K4, -9, and -27 trimethylation levels remained unchanged. Thus, while IDH1/2 mutations cause enchondroma, malignant progression towards central chondrosarcoma renders chondrosarcoma growth independent of these mutations. Thus, monotherapy based on inhibition of mutant IDH1 appears insufficient for treatment of inoperable or metastasized chondrosarcoma patients.

Altuntas A, Halacli SO, Cakmak O, et al.
Interleukin-1β induced nuclear factor-κB binds to a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 9 promoter in human chondrosarcoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(1):595-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is involved in the regulation of inflammation‑associated genes. NF-κB forms dimers which bind with sequences referred to as NF-κB sites (9-11 bp). A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 9 (ADAMTS9) is a type of proteoglycanase, which proteolytically cleaves versican and aggrecan. ADAMTS9 is a cytokine-inducible gene that contains binding sites for NF-κB within its promoter region. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) affects cartilage metabolism and is involved in the NF-κB pathway. It is therefore hypothesized that NF-κB binding with ADAMTS9 promoters may activate IL-1β, thereby promoting chondrocytic cell growth. In the present study, the OUMS-27 chondrocytic human chondrosarcoma cell line was treated with IL-1β with or without inhibitors of NF-κB signaling pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electromobility shift assays (EMSA) were conducted order to analyze the binding of NF-κB with the ADAMTS9 promoter region. NF-κB-p65 subunit phosphorylation was promoted in IL-1β-treated cells, which were not treated with inhibitors of NF-κB signaling pathways. By contrast, NF-κB-p65 subunit phosphorylation was inhibited in cells that had been treated with BAY-117085, an NF-κB pathway inhibitor. ChIP and EMSA assays demonstrated that, following treatment with IL-1β, NF-κB‑p65 bound to elements located at -1177 and -1335 in the ADAMTS9 promoter region, in contrast to the untreated samples. The results of the present study suggested that NF-κB may be involved in IL-1β-induced activation of ADAMTS9 in human chondrocytes.

Musso N, Caronia FP, Castorina S, et al.
Somatic loss of an EXT2 gene mutation during malignant progression in a patient with hereditary multiple osteochondromas.
Cancer Genet. 2015; 208(3):62-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is an autosomal-dominant skeletal disorder caused by mutations in the exostosin-1 (EXT1) or exostosin-2 (EXT2) genes. In this study, we report the analysis of the mutational status of the EXT2 gene in tumor samples derived from a patient affected by hereditary MO, documenting the somatic loss of the germline mutation in a giant chondrosarcoma and in a rapidly growing osteochondroma. The sequencing of all exons and exon-intron junctions of the EXT1 and EXT2 genes from blood DNA of the proband did not reveal any mutation in the EXT1 gene but did demonstrate the presence of the transition point mutation c.67C > T in the EXT2 gene, determining the introduction of a stop codon in the coding sequence (p.Arg23*). A mutational analysis of other members of the family and the presence of osteochondromas in the metaphysis of long bones confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary multiple osteochondromas. Direct sequencing from DNA extracted from different sites of two tumor samples (a small rapidly growing osteochondroma and a giant peripheral secondary chondrosarcoma, each located at different chondrocostal junctions) revealed the loss of the germline EXT2 mutation. Analysis of microsatellite polymorphic markers in the 11p region harboring the EXT2 gene did not reveal any loss of heterozygosity. This observation supports a recent model of sarcomagenesis in which osteochondroma cells bear EXT homozygous inactivation, whereas chondrosarcoma-initiating cells are EXT-expressing cells.

de Andrea CE, Zhu JF, Jin H, et al.
Cell cycle deregulation and mosaic loss of Ext1 drive peripheral chondrosarcomagenesis in the mouse and reveal an intrinsic cilia deficiency.
J Pathol. 2015; 236(2):210-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peripheral chondrosarcoma (PCS) develops as malignant transformation of an osteochondroma, a benign cartilaginous outgrowth at the bone surface. Its invasive, lobular growth despite low-grade histology suggests a loss of chondrocyte polarity. The known genetics of osteochondromagenesis include mosaic loss of EXT1 or EXT2 in both hereditary and non-hereditary cases. The most frequent genetic aberrations in human PCS also include disruptions of CDKN2A or TP53. In order to test the sufficiency of either of these to drive progression of an osteochondroma to PCS, we added conditional loss of Trp53 or Ink4a/Arf in an Ext1-driven mouse model of osteochondromagenesis. Each additional tumour suppressor silencing efficiently drove the development of growths that mimic human PCS. As in humans, lobules developed from both Ext1-null and Ext1-functional clones within osteochondromas. Assessment of their orientation revealed an absence of primary cilia in the majority of mouse PCS chondrocytes, which was corroborated in human PCSs. Loss of primary cilia may be responsible for the lost polarity phenotype ascribed to PCS. Cilia deficiency blocks proliferation in physeal chondrocytes, but cell cycle deregulation is sufficient to rescue chondrocyte proliferation following deciliation. This provides a basis of selective pressure for the frequent cell-cycle regulator silencing observed in peripheral chondrosarcomagenesis. Mosaic loss of Ext1 combined with loss of cell cycle regulators promotes peripheral chondrosarcomagenesis in the mouse and reveals deficient ciliogenesis in both the model and the human disease, explaining biological behaviour including lobular and invasive growth.

Lu N, Lin T, Wang L, et al.
Association of SOX4 regulated by tumor suppressor miR-30a with poor prognosis in low-grade chondrosarcoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3843-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The sex-determining region Y-box 4 (SOX4), a transcription factor, is involved in various developmental processes. It has been reported in multiple human cancers. However, the prognostic value and its exact role in chondrosarcoma remain poorly understood. In the current study, SOX4 was overexpressed in 28 of 92 (30.4 %) interpretable chondrosarcoma patients compared with 3 of 43 (6.9 %) interpretable chondroma cases (P = 0.003). Its overexpression in chondrosarcoma was significantly associated with histological grade (P < 0.001) and the presence of tumor recurrence (P = 0.041). In addition, SOX4 overexpression was notably correlated with c-MYC (P = 0.011) and P53 (P = 0.029) expression as well as high Ki67 labeling index (LI) (P < 0.001) in our cohort. More importantly, we found that SOX4 was an unfavorable independent prognostic factor for chondrosarcoma patients with low histological grade. Functionally, SOX4 silencing significantly suppressed the proliferation, migratory, and invasive capacity of SW1353 cells, suggesting an oncogenic role of SOX4 in chondrosarcoma in vitro. In an attempt of characterizing SOX4 overexpression mechanism, we identified miR-30a as a tumor suppressor that directly targets SOX4 in chondrosarcoma cells. Clinically, miR-30a expression was negatively correlated with SOX4 expression in chondrosarcoma cases. In all, we identified that SOX4 was oncogenic in chondrosarcoma and negatively regulated by miR-30a in vitro. Importantly, SOX4 overexpression may serve as a prognostic marker for patients with low-histological-grade chondrosarcoma.

Amary MF, Ye H, Forbes G, et al.
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations (IDH1) and p16/CDKN2A copy number change in conventional chondrosarcomas.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(2):217-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To determine whether IDH1 mutations are present in primary and relapsed (local and distal) conventional central chondrosarcomas; and secondly, to assess if loss of p16/CDKN2A is associated with tumour grade progression, 102 tumour samples from 37 patients, including material from presenting and relapse events, were assessed. All wild-type cases for IDH1 R132 substitutions were also tested for IDH2 R172 and R140 alterations. The primary tumour and the most recent relapse sample were tested for p16/CDKN2A by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridisation. An additional 120 central cartilaginous tumours from different patients were also tested for p16/CDKN2A copy number. The study shows that if an IDH1 mutation were detected in a primary central chondrosarcoma, it is always detected at the time of presentation, and the same mutation is detected in local recurrences and metastatic events. We show that p16/CDKN2A copy number variation occurs subsequent to the IDH1 mutation, and confirm that p16/CDKN2A copy number variation occurs in 75% of high grade central chondrosarcomas, and not in low grade cartilaginous tumours. Finally, p16/CDKN2A copy number variation is seen in both the IDH1 wild-type and mutant cartilaginous central tumours.

Kalinski T
[Inflammation as molecular target in chondrosarcoma].
Pathologe. 2014; 35 Suppl 2:249-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammation is a hallmark in the development and progression of malignant tumors. In chondrosarcoma the inflammatory changes are relatively discrete; however, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) may exert tumor-promoting effects. Interleukin (IL)-1 is an inflammatory cytokine which is produced by TAMs and which leads to the expression of NF-κB-regulated genes in chondrosarcoma cells, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). Through IL-1 antagonists and substances, such as curcumin IL-1-induced VEGF-A expression and angiogenesis can be blocked; therefore, IL-1-blockade provides an interesting therapy target for chondrosarcoma.

Moriya K, Katayama S, Onuma M, et al.
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma diagnosed on FISH for HEY1-NCOA2 fusion gene.
Pediatr Int. 2014; 56(5):e55-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MC) is an extremely rare subtype of chondrosarcoma that has a small round-cell sarcoma with focal cartilaginous differentiation, often with a pericytomatous vascular pattern. The non-cartilaginous components are usually dominant, and such lesions might be confused with other small round-cell tumors. Recently, a tumor-specific HEY1-NCOA2 fusion gene was identified in MC. Here we report the case of a 9-year-old boy who was diagnosed with MC by detection of HEY1-NCOA2 fusion signals in almost 50% of tumor cells in tissue sections on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In this way, the tumor was definitively diagnosed as MC. This case suggests that the detection of the HEY1-NCOA2 fusion gene on FISH is of diagnostic value for MC.

Broehm CJ, Wu J, Gullapalli RR, Bocklage T
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma with a t(9;16)(q22;p11.2) resulting in a NR4A3-FUS fusion.
Cancer Genet. 2014; 207(6):276-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by rearrangement of NR4A3. A t(9;22)(q22;q12), creating a fusion protein of EWSR1 and NR4A3, has been reported as a unique, recurring translocation in most cases. Reported variant translocations have resulted in fusion of NR4A3 with three other genes: TAF15, TCF12, and TFG. We report a case of EMC in a 59-year-old man who presented with a 6-month history of an enlarging mass in the proximal right thigh. The karyotype of fresh tissue from tumor taken at incisional biopsy revealed a t(9;16)(q22;p11.2). There was no evidence of an EWSR1 rearrangement by dual-color break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Dual-color FISH probes revealed fusion of NR4A3 and FUS, a member of the TET family of genes, which includes EWSR1 and TAF15. Break-apart FISH probe results confirmed rearrangement of FUS. These findings show that a fusion product of FUS and NR4A3 may be an additional pathway to development of EMC.

Wei S, Siegal GP
Round cell tumors of bone: an update on recent molecular genetic advances.
Adv Anat Pathol. 2014; 21(5):359-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Round cell tumors of bone are a divergent group of neoplasms that largely constitute Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, small cell osteosarcoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, mensenchymal chondrosarcoma, and hematopoietic malignancies including lymphoma and plasmacytoma/myeloma, along with metastatic round cell tumors including neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and small cell carcinoma. These lesions share many histomorphologic similarities and often demonstrate overlapping clinical and radiologic characteristics, but typically have a diverse clinical outcome, thus warranting differing therapeutic modalities/regimens. Recent advances in molecular and cytogenetic techniques have identified a number of additional novel entities, including round cell sarcomas harboring CIC-DUX4 and BCOR-CCNB3 fusions, respectively. These novel findings have not only enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of round cell tumors, but also allowed us to reclassify some entities with potential therapeutic and prognostic significance. This article provides an overview focusing on recent molecular genetic advances in primary, nonhematologic round cell tumors of bone.

Totoki Y, Yoshida A, Hosoda F, et al.
Unique mutation portraits and frequent COL2A1 gene alteration in chondrosarcoma.
Genome Res. 2014; 24(9):1411-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma is the second most frequent malignant bone tumor. However, the etiological background of chondrosarcomagenesis remains largely unknown, along with details on molecular alterations and potential therapeutic targets. Massively parallel paired-end sequencing of whole genomes of 10 primary chondrosarcomas revealed that the process of accumulation of somatic mutations is homogeneous irrespective of the pathological subtype or the presence of IDH1 mutations, is unique among a range of cancer types, and shares significant commonalities with that of prostate cancer. Clusters of structural alterations localized within a single chromosome were observed in four cases. Combined with targeted resequencing of additional cartilaginous tumor cohorts, we identified somatic alterations of the COL2A1 gene, which encodes an essential extracellular matrix protein in chondroskeletal development, in 19.3% of chondrosarcoma and 31.7% of enchondroma cases. Epigenetic regulators (IDH1 and YEATS2) and an activin/BMP signal component (ACVR2A) were recurrently altered. Furthermore, a novel FN1-ACVR2A fusion transcript was observed in both chondrosarcoma and osteochondromatosis cases. With the characteristic accumulative process of somatic changes as a background, molecular defects in chondrogenesis and aberrant epigenetic control are primarily causative of both benign and malignant cartilaginous tumors.

Azzi G, Velez M, Mathias-Machado MC
Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in chondrosarcoma: the crossroads between cellular metabolism and oncogenesis.
Curr Opin Oncol. 2014; 26(4):403-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the most recent developments and implications in regard to isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in chondrosarcoma, a disease in which currently available systemic therapies have proven inefficacious, with an emphasis on how disruption in normal cellular metabolism plays a role in oncogenesis.
RECENT FINDINGS: The development of acquired isocitrate dehydrogenase-1/isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 mutations has been described in multiple tumors and more recently in chondrosarcomas. The impact of these mutations has been the focus of multiple research efforts during the last years, allowing us to better understand the impact of the mutation, including its interaction with other proteins, changes in expression of genes involved in tumor genesis, the oncogenic potential of 2-hydroxyglutarate, the impact on cellular proliferation and differentiation, and the influence on the epigenetic state of cells owing to changes in DNA and histone methylation patterns. New compounds targeting the mutation have been developed.
SUMMARY: This mutation is the first of its kind described in chondrosarcoma, serving as an identifying marker of chondroid differentiation, and becoming the first molecular target with potential anticancer effect, translating into the development of therapies targeting these mutations currently being tested further in preclinical models and clinical trials.

Panagopoulos I, Gorunova L, Bjerkehagen B, et al.
Chromosome aberrations and HEY1-NCOA2 fusion gene in a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):40-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are fast-growing tumors that account for 2-10% of primary chondrosarcomas. Cytogenetic information is restricted to 12 cases that did not show a specific aberration pattern. Recently, two fusion genes were described in mesenchymal chondrosarcomas: a recurrent HEY1-NCOA2 found in tumors that had not been cytogenetically characterized and an IRF2BP2-CDX1 found in a tumor carrying a t(1;5)(q42;q32) translocation as the sole chromosomal abnormality. Here, we present the cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis of a mesenchymal chondrosarcoma in which the patient had two histologically indistinguishable tumor lesions, one in the neck and one in the thigh. An abnormal clone with the G-banding karyotype 46,XX,add(6)(q23),add(8)(p23),del(10)(p11),+12,-15[6] was found in the neck tumor whereas a normal karyotype, 46,XX, was found in the tumor of the thigh. RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing showed that exon 4 of HEY1 was fused to exon 13 of NCOA2 in the sample from the thigh lesion; we did not have spare material to perform a similar analysis of the neck tumor. Examining the published karyotypes we observed numerical or structural aberrations of chromosome 8 in the majority of the karyotyped mesenchymal chondrosarcomas. Chromosome 8 was also structurally affected in the present study. The pathogenetic mechanisms behind this nonrandom involvement are unknown, but the presence on 8q of two genes, HEY1 and NCOA2, now known to be involved in mesenchymal chondrosarcoma tumorigenesis is, of course, suggestive.

Hua G, Liu Y, Li X, et al.
Targeting glucose metabolism in chondrosarcoma cells enhances the sensitivity to doxorubicin through the inhibition of lactate dehydrogenase-A.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(6):2727-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma is a malignant cartilage-forming cancer composed of cells derived from transformed cells that produce cartilage. Conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy have very limited efficacy in patients with advanced chondrosarcoma. In the present study, we reported a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of chondrosarcoma cells. We detected that lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDHA) is highly active in chondrosarcoma cells and chondrosarcoma patient samples compared with normal chondrocyte cell lines and primary human chondrocyte. Moreover, chondrosarcoma cells exhibited elevated levels of LDHA expression under doxorubicin treatment. To further explore the mechanisms, we generated doxorubicin-resistant cells from SW1353 chondrosarcoma cell line. Notably, the activity and expression of LDHA are upregulated in doxorubicin-resistant cells. Moreover, our data showed a strong correlation between glucose metabolism and doxorubicin resistance in chondrosarcoma cells; doxorubicin-resistant cells displayed highly activated glucose metabolism and depended more on glucose supply. Finally, we reported a synergistic effect produced by incorporating doxorubicin with glycolysis inhibitors-oxamate in the combined treatment of chondrosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In summary, the present study may aid in the development of new approaches using the combination of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of chondrosarcoma patients.

Song YD, Zhang KF, Liu D, et al.
Inhibition of EGFR-induced glucose metabolism sensitizes chondrosarcoma cells to cisplatin.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):7017-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage-forming tumors which are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. By searching in Oncomine which is a cancer microarray database and web-based data mining platform, we found Glut1 and LDHA were upregulated in human chondrosarcoma patient samples. In this study, we reported total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and phosphorylated EGFR were highly activated in human chondrosarcoma cell lines. In addition, overexpression of EGFR contributed to cisplatin resistance. EGFR promoted glucose metabolism of chondrosarcoma cells through the upregulation of glycolysis key enzymes. Interestingly, cisplatin-resistant chondrosarcoma cells showed upregulated glucose metabolism and EGFR signaling pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that the combination of either EGFR inhibitor or anaerobic glycolysis inhibitor with cisplatin showed synergistically inhibitory effects on cisplatin-resistant chondrosarcoma cells through the inducements of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Our project proposed a novel function of EGFR in the regulation of glucose metabolism in chondrosarcoma cells and contributed to the development of therapeutic strategies for the clinical treatment of chondrosarcoma patient.

Agaram NP, Zhang L, Sung YS, et al.
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma with non-EWSR1-NR4A3 variant fusions correlate with rhabdoid phenotype and high-grade morphology.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(5):1084-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (EMC) are rare soft tissue sarcomas with distinctive histology and uncertain histogenesis, characterized by Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 3 (EWSR1-NR4A3) fusion in 75% of the cases. A smaller proportion of cases show NR4A3 fused to other gene partners including TATA binding protein-associated factor 15 (TAF15), transcription factor 12 (TCF12), and TRK-fused gene (TFG). The impact of various gene fusions on morphology and outcome has not been previously evaluated. We investigated 26 consecutive EMCs and correlated the genetic findings with morphology and clinical outcome. There were 5 females and 21 males (median age, 49.5 years). Mean size of the tumors was 11 cm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed EWSR1-NR4A3 gene fusion in 16 cases (62%), TAF15-NR4A3 gene fusion in 7 cases (27%), and TCF12-NR4A3 gene fusion in 1 case (4%). Two cases showed only NR4A3 gene rearrangements. Morphologically, most EWSR1-rearranged tumors (10/16) showed low cellularity, minimal cytologic atypia, and low mitotic counts. In contrast, 80% of EMCs with variant (non-EWSR1) NR4A3 gene fusions (TAF15, TCF12) had high-grade morphology with increased cellularity, proliferation, and cytologic atypia, showing a plasmacytoid/rhabdoid morphology in half the cases. Follow-up showed that only 1 of 16 patients with EWSR1-rearranged tumors died of disease, in contrast to 3 (43%) of 7 TAF15-rearranged tumors. In conclusion, EMCs with variant NR4A3 gene fusions show a higher incidence of rhabdoid phenotype, high-grade morphology, and a more aggressive outcome compared with the EWSR1-NR4A3 positive tumors. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for NR4A3, along with EWSR1, may be an additional ancillary test to confirm diagnosis of EMCs.

Samuel AM, Costa J, Lindskog DM
Genetic alterations in chondrosarcomas - keys to targeted therapies?
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2014; 37(2):95-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chondrosarcomas are malignant tumors of chondrocytes and represent the second most common type of primary bone tumors. Within the context of normal chondrogenesis, this review summarizes results from recent research outlining the key molecular changes that occur during the development of this sarcoma type.
RESULTS: Current data support the notion that a two-hit scenario, common to many tumors, also underlies chondrosarcoma formation. First, early-stage mutations alter the normal proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, thereby predisposing them to malignant transformation. These early-stage mutations, found in both benign cartilaginous lesions and chondrosarcomas, include alterations affecting the IHH/PTHrP and IDH1/IDH2 pathways. As they are not observed in malignant cells, mutations in the EXT1 and EXT2 genes are considered early-stage events providing an environment that alters IHH/PTHrP signaling, thereby inducing mutations in adjacent cells. Due to normal cell cycle control that remains active, a low rate of malignant transformation is seen in benign cartilaginous lesions with early-stage mutations. In contrast, late-stage mutations, seen in most malignant chondrosarcomas, appear to induce malignant transformation as they are not found in benign cartilaginous lesions. These late-stage mutations primarily involve cell cycle pathway regulators including p53 and pRB, two genes that are also known to be implicated in numerous other human tumor types.
CONCLUSIONS: Now the key genetic alterations involved in both early and late stages of chondrosarcoma development have been identified, focus should be shifted to the identification of druggable molecular targets for the design of novel chondrosarcoma-specific therapies.

Scheil-Bertram S, Kappler R, von Baer A, et al.
Molecular profiling of chordoma.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(4):1041-55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The molecular basis of chordoma is still poorly understood, particularly with respect to differentially expressed genes involved in the primary origin of chordoma. In this study, therefore, we compared the transcriptional expression profile of one sacral chordoma recurrence, two chordoma cell lines (U-CH1 and U-CH2) and one chondrosarcoma cell line (U-CS2) with vertebral disc using a high-density oligonucleotide array. The expression of 65 genes whose mRNA levels differed significantly (p<0.001; ≥6-fold change) between chordoma and control (vertebral disc) was identified. Genes with increased expression in chordoma compared to control and chondrosarcoma were most frequently located on chromosomes 2 (11%), 5 (8%), 1 and 7 (each 6%), whereas interphase cytogenetics of 33 chordomas demonstrated gains of chromosomal material most prevalent on 7q (42%), 12q (21%), 17q (21%), 20q (27%) and 22q (21%). The microarray data were confirmed for selected genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. As in other studies, we showed the expression of brachyury. We demonstrate the expression of new potential candidates for chordoma tumorigenesis, such as CD24, ECRG4, RARRES2, IGFBP2, RAP1, HAI2, RAB38, osteopontin, GalNAc-T3, VAMP8 and others. Thus, we identified and validated a set of interesting candidate genes whose differential expression likely plays a role in chordoma.

Jones KB, Pacifici M, Hilton MJ
Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE): elucidating the pathogenesis of a rare skeletal disorder through interdisciplinary research.
Connect Tissue Res. 2014; 55(2):80-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abstract An interdisciplinary and international group of clinicians and scientists gathered in Philadelphia, PA, to attend the fourth International Research Conference on Multiple Hereditary Exostoses (MHE), a rare and severe skeletal disorder. MHE is largely caused by autosomal dominant mutations in EXT1 or EXT2, genes encoding Golgi-associated glycosyltransferases responsible for heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis. HS chains are key constituents of cell surface- and extracellular matrix-associated proteoglycans, which are known regulators of skeletal development. MHE affected individuals are HS-deficient, can display skeletal growth retardation and deformities, and consistently develop benign, cartilage-capped bony outgrowths (termed exostoses or osteochondromas) near the growth plates of many skeletal elements. Nearly 2% of patients will have their exostoses progress to malignancy, becoming peripheral chondrosarcomas. Current treatments are limited to the surgical removal of symptomatic exostoses. No definitive treatments have been established to inhibit further formation and growth of exostoses, prevent transition to malignancy, or address other medical problems experienced by MHE patients, including chronic pain. Thus, the goals of the Conference were to assess our current understanding of MHE pathogenesis, identify key gaps in information, envision future therapeutic strategies and discuss ways to test and implement them. This report provides an assessment of the exciting and promising findings in MHE and related fields presented at the Conference and a discussion of the future MHE research directions. The Conference underlined the critical usefulness of gathering experts in several research fields to forge new alliances and identify cross-fertilization areas to benefit both basic and translational biomedical research on the skeleton.

Dotlic S, Gatalica Z, Wen W, et al.
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma of the vulva with PLAG1 gene activation: molecular genetic characterization of 2 cases.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2014; 22(7):537-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm, rarely reported in the genitourinary tract with only 5 cases reported in the vulva. We investigated 2 cases of vulvar sarcomas whose morphologic appearance and immunohistochemical profiles were consistent with EMC using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and a whole genome expression array. FISH and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays showed no EWSR1 and NR4A3 loci rearrangements. Microarray-based analysis also revealed no changes in NR4A3 and EWSR1 gene transcription levels. Microarray data showed a significant downregulation of the muscle-related genes (eg, myosin heavy chain family, actins, myoglobin, desmin, creatine kinase, troponins) and cytokeratins (KRT6A, 6B, 13, 14, and 78), upregulation of several neuron-specific genes [neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM-1/CD56), neurofilament (NEFH)], along with some well-characterized tumor biomarkers [carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-9), topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-7, MMP-9), CDKN2 gene (p16-INK4a), checkpoint homolog 2 (CHEK2)]. Notably, both tumors showed upregulation of the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1), and in 1 case PLAG1 gene rearrangement was detected by break-apart FISH. Some vulvar tumors with morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of EMC may represent a molecular genetic entity separate from EMCs arising in other locations. PLAG1 gene activation appears to be involved in the development of these neoplasms.

Galoian KA, Guettouche T, Issac B, et al.
Regulation of onco and tumor suppressor MiRNAs by mTORC1 inhibitor PRP-1 in human chondrosarcoma.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(3):2335-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastatic chondrosarcoma of mesenchymal origin is the second most common bone malignancy and does not respond either to chemotherapy or radiation; therefore, the search for new therapies is relevant and urgent. This study aimed to reveal the comparative analysis of miRNAs and their targets in human JJ012 chondrosarcoma cell line between control and experimental samples, treated with mTORC1 inhibitor, cytostatic antiproliferative proline-rich polypeptide (PRP-1). Examination of tumor-specific microRNA expression profiles has revealed widespread deregulation of these molecules in diverse cancers. It was reported that microRNAs can function as novel biomarkers for disease diagnostics and therapy, as well as a novel class of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. mTORC 1 inhibitor PRP-1 caused significant upregulation of tumor suppressors, such as miR20a, miR125b, and miR192; and downregulation of onco miRNAs, miR509-3p, miR589, miR490-3p, miR 550 in human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cell line.

Liang W, Li X, Li Y, et al.
Gallic acid induces apoptosis and inhibits cell migration by upregulating miR-518b in SW1353 human chondrosarcoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(1):91-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gallic acid (GA), a natural agent, is widely distri-buted in plants with a range of biological effects and has been of potential interest as anticancer agent. However, its effects on chondrosarcoma cell apoptosis are still undefined. In the present study, the possible mechanisms of GA-induced apoptosis were explored in SW1353 cells, a human chondrosarcoma cell line. Our results showed that GA inhibited cell viability dose- and time-dependently. Morphological examination of GA-treated cells exhibited the typical features of cell death, such as rounding up of the cells and cell shrinkage. Wound-healing assay indicated that GA inhibited the migratory abilities of SW1353 cells. Hoechst 33258 staining assay and Annexin V/PI staining assay exhibited apoptosis induction by GA. To determine the molecular mechanism of GA-induced apoptosis, the expression levels Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were determined in SW1353 cells treated with GA. We found that GA downregulated the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and upregulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. To identify the possible mechanisms, the changes of microRNA expression were tested using the miRCURY™ LNA expression array. It was observed that the miR-518b gene was upregulated in treated cells. Taken together, these data show that GA induces apoptosis and inhibits cell migration by upregulating miR-518b in SW1353 cells.

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