Gene Summary

Gene:TFG; trafficking from ER to golgi regulator
Aliases: TF6, HMSNP, SPG57, TRKT3
Summary:There are several documented fusion oncoproteins encoded partially by this gene. This gene also participates in several oncogenic rearrangements resulting in anaplastic lymphoma and mixoid chondrosarcoma, and may play a role in the NF-kappaB pathway. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein TFG
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (6)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: TFG (cancer-related)

Liu Y, Qin Z, Cai L, et al.
Selection of internal references for qRT-PCR assays of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.
Biosci Rep. 2017; 37(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Selecting internal references is important for normalizing the loading quantity of samples in quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). In the present study, a systematic evaluation of reference genes among nine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines was conducted. After screening the microarray assay data of ten HCC cell lines, 19 candidate reference genes were preselected and then evaluated by qRT-PCR, together with

Wu F, Cui L
Resveratrol suppresses melanoma by inhibiting NF-κB/miR-221 and inducing TFG expression.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2017; 309(10):823-831 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resveratrol (Res) is a natural compound with anti-cancer effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the suppression of Res in melanoma and investigate its relationship with miRNAs during this process. The in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer abilities of Res were evaluated using cellular assays and animal model. Two melanoma cell lines (A375 and MV3) were used for both in vitro assay and in vivo experiments. qRT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the changes in gene expressions and protein levels. Dual-luciferase reporter assay and bioinformatic tools were used to further confirm the protein binding and activation of targeted genes. In vitro experiments showed Res significantly decreased the expression of miR-221, an oncogenic microRNA, which was confirmed by the overexpression of miR-221 with or without Res treatment. Mechanistically, we showed that the inhibition of miR-221 by Res was achieved by regulating NF-κB (RELA) activity. In the meantime, we also identified that TFG, a tumor suppressor gene, was a target of miR-221. Finally, using in vivo melanoma model, we confirmed the tumor suppressive effects of Res and our in vitro regulatory network. Res displayed a significant anti-tumor effect on melanoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. The cellular mechanism under this effect involves miRNA regulation.

Flucke U, van Noesel MM, Wijnen M, et al.
TFG-MET fusion in an infantile spindle cell sarcoma with neural features.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(9):663-667 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
An increasing number of congenital and infantile sarcomas displaying a primitive, monomorphic spindle cell phenotype have been characterized to harbor recurrent gene fusions, including infantile fibrosarcoma and congenital spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, we report an unusual spindle cell sarcoma presenting as a large and infiltrative pelvic soft tissue mass in a 4-month-old girl, which revealed a novel TFG-MET gene fusion by whole transcriptome RNA sequencing. The tumor resembled the morphology of an infantile fibrosarcoma with both fascicular and patternless growth, however, it expressed strong S100 protein immunoreactivity, while lacking SOX10 staining and retaining H3K27me3 expression. Although this immunoprofile suggested partial neural/neuroectodermal differentiation, overall features were unusual and did not fit into any known tumor types (cellular schwannoma, MPNST), raising the possibility of a novel pathologic entity. The TFG-MET gene fusion expands the genetic spectrum implicated in the pathogenesis of congenital spindle cell sarcomas, with yet another example of kinase oncogenic activation through chromosomal translocation. The discovery of this new fusion is significant since the resulting MET activation can potentially be inhibited by targeted therapy, as MET inhibitors are presently available in clinical trials.

Iżykowska K, Przybylski GK, Gand C, et al.
Genetic rearrangements result in altered gene expression and novel fusion transcripts in Sézary syndrome.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(24):39627-39639 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sézary syndrome (SS) is an aggressive, leukemic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma variant. Molecular pathogenesis of SS is still unclear despite many studies on genetic alterations, gene expression and epigenetic regulations. Through whole genome and transcriptome next generation sequencing nine Sézary syndrome patients were analyzed in terms of copy number variations and rearrangements affecting gene expression. Recurrent copy number variations were detected within 8q (MYC, TOX), 17p (TP53, NCOR1), 10q (PTEN, FAS), 2p (DNMT3A), 11q (USP28), 9p (CAAP1), but no recurrent rearrangements were identified. However, expression of five genes involved in rearrangements (TMEM244, EHD1, MTMR2, RNF123 and TOX) was altered in all patients. Fifteen rearrangements detected in Sézary syndrome patients and SeAx resulted in an expression of new fusion transcripts, nine of them were in frame (EHD1-CAPN12, TMEM66-BAIAP2, MBD4-PTPRC, PTPRC-CPN2, MYB-MBNL1, TFG-GPR128, MAP4K3-FIGLA, DCP1A-CCL27, MBNL1-KIAA2018) and five resulted in ectopic expression of fragments of genes not expressed in normal T-cells (BAIAP2, CPN2, GPR128, CAPN12, FIGLA). Our results not only underscored the genomic complexity of the Sézary cancer cell genome but also showed an unpreceded large variety of novel gene rearrangements resulting in fusions transcripts and ectopically expressed genes.

Rossing M, Yde CW, Sehested A, et al.
Genomic diagnostics leading to the identification of a TFG-ROS1 fusion in a child with possible atypical meningioma.
Cancer Genet. 2017; 212-213:32-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Meningiomas are rare in children. They are highly complex, harboring unique clinical and pathological characteristics, and many occur in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2. Hereby, we present a case of a two-year-old boy presented with a diagnostically challenging intraventricular tumor. It was incompletely resected 6 times over 14 months but kept progressing and was ultimately deemed unresectable. Histologically, the tumor was initially classified as schwannoma, but extensive international review concluded it was most likely an atypical meningioma, WHO grade II. Comprehensive genomic profiling revealed a TFG-ROS1 fusion, suggesting that ROS1-signaling pathway alterations were driving the tumor growth. In light of this new information, the possibility of a diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor was considered; however the histopathological results were not conclusive. This specific molecular finding allowed the potential use of precision medicine and the patient was enrolled in the AcSé phase 2 trial with crizotinib (NCT02034981), leading to a prolonged partial tumor response which is persisting since 14 months. This case highlights the value of precision cancer medicine in children.

Urbini M, Astolfi A, Pantaleo MA, et al.
HSPA8 as a novel fusion partner of NR4A3 in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(7):582-586 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a very rare sarcoma most often arising in the soft tissue. Rare EMC of the bone have been reported. EMC exhibits distinctive clinico-pathological and genetic features; however, despite the name, it lacks any feature of cartilaginous differentiation. EMC is characterized by the rearrangement of the NR4A3, which, in most cases (about 62-75%), is fused with EWSR1 and less frequently with other partners, including TAF15 (27%), TCF12 (4%), TFG, and FUS. We herein report the identification by whole-transcriptome sequencing of HSPA8 as a novel fusion partner of NR4A3 in a case of EMC. FISH analysis confirmed the presence of a genomic HSPA8-NR4A3 translocation in the vast majority of tumor cells. Our findings expand the spectrum of NR4A3 fusion partners involved in EMC pathobiology.

Cipriani NA, Agarwal S, Dias-Santagata D, et al.
Clear Cell Change in Thyroid Carcinoma: A Clinicopathologic and Molecular Study with Identification of Variable Genetic Anomalies.
Thyroid. 2017; 27(6):819-824 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Clear-cell carcinoma of the thyroid has been regarded as a variant of follicular (FTC) or papillary (PTC) thyroid carcinoma. Twenty-one primary thyroid carcinomas with clear-cell features, diagnosed in 20 patients (12 female) were identified between 1992 and 2012 (0.5% of in-house thyroid carcinomas).
METHODS: Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed. SNaPshot multigene mutational analysis and a translocation panel were successfully performed on 15 of these cases.
RESULTS: Twelve (57%) were FTC, five were conventional PTC, two were follicular variant of PTC, and two were poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Five cases had RAS mutation (four FTC and one PTC); two had PAX8-PPARgamma translocations (both FTC, one with concurrent p53 mutation); one had an EML4-ALK translocation (PTC); and one had a TFG-MET translocation (follicular variant of PTC). Five carcinomas were metastatic to regional lymph nodes (three FTC and two PTC), and two were metastatic to bone (both FTC). Disease confined to the thyroid (67%) and rates of regional lymph node metastasis (24%) and distant metastasis (10%) were near the national averages (68%, 25%, and 5%, respectively). One patient with a poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma died one year after diagnosis, and a patient with metastatic FTC died two years after diagnosis. Overall mortality was 10%.
CONCLUSIONS: Clear-cell change in thyroid carcinoma is rare, is more common in FTC than it is in PTC, is found focally or multifocally within a given lesion, and is frequently associated with RAS mutations (33%). Clear-cell change in thyroid neoplasia should raise the possibility of follicular carcinoma, and should not be treated differently from other carcinomas of similar grade and stage.

Lee JC, Li CF, Huang HY, et al.
ALK oncoproteins in atypical inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours: novel RRBP1-ALK fusions in epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma.
J Pathol. 2017; 241(3):316-323 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ALK oncogenic activation mechanisms were characterized in four conventional spindle-cell inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours (IMT) and five atypical IMT, each of which had ALK genomic perturbations. Constitutively activated ALK oncoproteins were purified by ALK immunoprecipitation and electrophoresis, and were characterized by mass spectrometry. The four conventional IMT had TPM3/4-ALK fusions (two cases) or DCTN1-ALK fusions (two cases), whereas two atypical spindle-cell IMT had TFG-ALK and TPM3-ALK fusion in one case each, and three epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcomas had RANBP2-ALK fusions in two cases, and a novel RRBP1-ALK fusion in one case. The epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma with RRBP1-ALK fusion had cytoplasmic ALK expression with perinuclear accentuation, different from the nuclear membranous ALK localization in epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcomas with RANBP2-ALK fusions. Evaluation of three additional uncharacterized epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcomas with ALK cytoplasmic/perinuclear- accentuation expression demonstrated RRBP1-ALK fusion in two cases. These studies show that atypical spindle-cell IMT can utilize the same ALK fusion mechanisms described previously in conventional IMT, whereas in clinically aggressive epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma we identify a novel recurrent ALK oncogenic mechanism, resulting from fusion with the RRBP1 gene. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Recurrent MET fusion genes represent a drug target in pediatric glioblastoma.
Nat Med. 2016; 22(11):1314-1320 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pediatric glioblastoma is one of the most common and most deadly brain tumors in childhood. Using an integrative genetic analysis of 53 pediatric glioblastomas and five in vitro model systems, we identified previously unidentified gene fusions involving the MET oncogene in ∼10% of cases. These MET fusions activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and, in cooperation with lesions compromising cell cycle regulation, induced aggressive glial tumors in vivo. MET inhibitors suppressed MET tumor growth in xenograft models. Finally, we treated a pediatric patient bearing a MET-fusion-expressing glioblastoma with the targeted inhibitor crizotinib. This therapy led to substantial tumor shrinkage and associated relief of symptoms, but new treatment-resistant lesions appeared, indicating that combination therapies are likely necessary to achieve a durable clinical response.

Chen Y, Zhang K, Li Y, He Q
Estrogen-related receptor α participates transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of osteosarcoma cells.
Cell Adh Migr. 2017; 11(4):338-346 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma patients often exhibit pulmonary metastasis, which results in high patient mortality. Understanding the mechanisms of advanced metastasis in osteosarcoma cell is important for the targeted treatment and drug development. Our present study revealed that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) treatment can significantly promote the in vitro migration and invasion of human osteosarcoma MG-63 and HOS cells. The loss of epithelial characteristics E-cadherin (E-Cad) and up regulation of mesenchymal markers Vimentin (Vim) suggested TGF-β induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of osteosarcoma cells. TGF-β treatment obviously increased the expression of Snail, a key EMT-related transcription factor, in both MG-63 and HOS cells. Silencing of Snail markedly attenuated TGF-β induced down regulation of E-cad and up regulation of Vim. TGF-β treatment also significantly increased the expression and nuclear translocation of estrogen-related receptors α (ERRα), while had no obvious effect on the expression of ERα, ERβ, or ERRγ. Knock down of ERRα or its inhibitor XCT-790 significantly attenuated TFG-β induced EMT and transcription of Snail in osteosarcoma cells. Collectively, our present study revealed that TGF-β treatment can trigger the EMT of osteosarcoma cells via ERRα/Snail pathways. Our data suggested that ERRα/Snail pathways might be potential therapeutic targets of metastasis of osteosarcoma cells.

Starska K, Forma E, Jóźwiak P, et al.
Gene/protein expression of CAPN1/2-CAST system members is associated with ERK1/2 kinases activity as well as progression and clinical outcome in human laryngeal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13185-13203 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent evidence indicates the involvement of calpains (CAPNs), a family of cysteine proteases, in cancer development and progression, as well as the insufficient response to cancer therapies. The contribution of CAPNs and regulatory calpastatin (CAST) and ERK1/2 kinases to aggressiveness, disease course, and outcome in laryngeal cancer remains elusive. This study was aimed to evaluate the CAPN1/2-CAST-ERK1/2 enzyme system mRNA/protein level and to investigate whether they can promote the dynamic of tumor growth and prognosis. The mRNA expression of marker genes was determined in 106 laryngeal cancer (SCLC) cases and 73 non-cancerous adjacent mucosa (NCLM) controls using quantitative real-time PCR. The level of corresponding proteins was analyzed by Western Blot. SLUG expression, as indicator of pathological advancement was determined using IHC staining. Significant increases of CAPN1/2-CAST-ERK1/2 levels of mRNA/protein were noted in SCLC compared to NCLM (p < 0.05). As a result, a higher level of CAPN1 and ERK1 genes was related to larger tumor size, more aggressive and deeper growth according to TFG scale and SLUG level (p < 0.05). There were also relationships of CAPN1/2 and ERK1 with incidences of local/nodal recurrences (p < 0.05). An inverse association for CAPN1/2, CAST, and ERK1/2 transcripts was determined with regard to overall survival (p < 0.05). In addition, a higher CAPN1 and phospho-ERK1 protein level was related to higher grade and stage (p < 0.05) and was found to promote worse prognosis. This is the first study to show that activity of CAPN1/2- CAST-ERK1/2 axis may be an indicator of tumor phenotype and unfavorable outcome in SCLC.

Zhang CY, Li RK, Qi Y, et al.
Upregulation of long noncoding RNA SPRY4-IT1 promotes metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Cell Biol Toxicol. 2016; 32(5):391-401 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the prevalent and deadly cancers worldwide, especially in Eastern Asia. Recent studies show that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have critical roles in diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. In the present study, we find that the expression of lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 is significantly upregulated in ESCC cell lines as compared with human esophageal epithelial cell line HEEC. Overexpression of SPRY4-IT1 can increase in vitro motility of ESCC cells via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is characterized by increasing the expression of vimentin (Vim) and fibronectin (FN) with a concomitant decrease of E-cadherin (E-Cad) and ZO-1, while silencing of SPRY4-IT1 significantly inhibits the in vitro motility of ESCC cells. Further, the knockdown of SPRY4-IT1 also significantly attenuates TFG-β-induced EMT of ESCC cells. Further, lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 can directly increase the transcription, expression, and nuclear localization of Snail, one key transcription factor during the EMT processes of cancer cells, while siRNA-mediated specific knockdown of Snail can significantly attenuate SPRY4-IT1-induced EMT of ESCC cells. Our results suggest that lncRNA SPRY4-IT1 might be considered as a novel oncogene involved in ESCC progression.

Yamamoto H, Yoshida A, Taguchi K, et al.
ALK, ROS1 and NTRK3 gene rearrangements in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours.
Histopathology. 2016; 69(1):72-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathological features of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT) with gene rearrangement other than ALK.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1, ETV6, NTRK3 and RET in 36 cases of IMT by using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IHC staining showed ALK and ROS1 to be positive in 22 of 36 (61.1%) and two of 36 (5.6%) cases, respectively. In one case with ROS1 positivity, IHC staining showed cytoplasmic and dot-like ROS1 expression, and RT-PCR showed the presence of the TFG-ROS1 fusion transcript. Two cases of pulmonary IMT, in a 7-year-old patient and a 23-year-old patient, had ETV6 rearrangement, and the presence of the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript was confirmed in one case. These tumours were composed of hypocellular myxoid areas and highly cellular areas with rich plasmacytic infiltration; the histological features were different from those of infantile fibrosarcoma. RET rearrangement was not detected.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a subset of ALK-negative IMTs have rearrangement of ROS1, ETV6 or NTRK3 as a possible oncogenic mechanism, and that the detection of these alterations may be of diagnostic value and helpful for determining promising therapeutic strategies.

Sartore-Bianchi A, Ardini E, Bosotti R, et al.
Sensitivity to Entrectinib Associated With a Novel LMNA-NTRK1 Gene Fusion in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016; 108(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), actionable genetic lesions represent potential clinical opportunities. NTRK1, 2, and 3 gene rearrangements encode oncogenic fusions of the tropomyosin-receptor kinase (TRK) family of receptor tyrosine kinases in different tumor types. The TPM3-NTRK1 rearrangement is a recurring event in CRC that renders tumors sensitive to TRKA kinase inhibitors in preclinical models. We identified abnormal expression of the TRKA protein in tumor and liver metastases of a CRC patient refractory to standard therapy. Molecular characterization unveiled a novel LMNA-NTRK1 rearrangement within chromosome 1 with oncogenic potential, and the patient was treated with the pan-TRK inhibitor entrectinib, achieving partial response with decrease in hepatic target lesions from 6.8 and 8.2cm in longest diameter to 4.7 and 4.3cm, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first clinical evidence of efficacy for therapeutic inhibition of TRKA in a solid tumor, illuminating a genomic-driven strategy to identify CRCs reliant on this oncogene to be clinically targeted with entrectinib.

Starska K, Forma E, Nowacka-Zawisza M, et al.
The c.*229C > T gene polymorphism in 3'UTR region of the topoisomerase IIβ binding protein 1 gene and LOH in BRCA1/2 regions and their effect on the risk and progression of human laryngeal carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):4541-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
Topoisomerase IIβ binding protein 1 (TopBP1), a multiple-BRCT-domain, protein plays crucial roles in chromosome replication, DNA damage repair, apoptosis, and cell cycle checkpoint signalling. The aim of this study was to identify five SNPs at loci potentially located in the 3'UTR region of the TopBP1 gene (rs185903567, rs116645643, rs115160714, rs116195487, rs112843513), their relationship with the risk of squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCLC), tumor invasiveness, and prognosis. Genotyping was performed in 323 genetically unrelated individuals with SCLC and 418 randomly selected healthy volunteers. Allele-specific TopBP1 mRNA and protein expressions were determined by using real-time PCR and Western blotting techniques, respectively. LOH in BRCA1/BRCA2 was determined by using microsatellite markers. Compared to homozygous common allele carriers, heterozygosity for the T variant was associated with increased risk of SCLC (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 9.83, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 3.12-22.16, p dominant < 0.0001). The presence of risk allele at rs115160714 TopBP1 determined a higher incidence of nodal metastases (OR = 7.98, 95 % CI: 3.94-16.00, p = 0.001) and higher tumor grade (OR = 6.48, 95 % CI: 0.86-48.01, p = 0.03). The heterozygotes displayed diffuse tumor growth with no distinct borderline (OR = 3.10, 95 % Cl: 0.92-10.62, p = 0.049) and higher depth of invasion (OR = 2.66, 95 % Cl: 0.78-9.03, p = 0.04). Relationships were also identified between TopBP1 mRNA/protein expression and overall survival (p < 0.0001). The incidence of LOH in BRCA1/BRCA2 was significantly related to higher tumor grade and TFG (p < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that rs115160714 TopBP1 may be a genetic marker of etiology and progression in laryngeal cancer.

Kim AY, Lim B, Choi J, Kim J
The TFG-TEC oncoprotein induces transcriptional activation of the human β-enolase gene via chromatin modification of the promoter region.
Mol Carcinog. 2016; 55(10):1411-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recurrent chromosome translocations are the hallmark of many human cancers. A proportion of human extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (EMCs) are associated with the characteristic chromosomal translocation t(3;9)(q11-12;q22), which results in the formation of a chimeric protein in which the N-terminal domain of the TRK-fused gene (TFG) is fused to the translocated in extraskeletal chondrosarcoma (TEC; also called CHN, CSMF, MINOR, NOR1, and NR4A3) gene. The oncogenic effect of this translocation may be due to the higher transactivation ability of the TFG-TEC chimeric protein; however, downstream target genes of TFG-TEC have not yet been identified. The results presented here, demonstrate that TFG-TEC activates the human β-enolase promoter. EMSAs, ChIP assays, and luciferase reporter assays revealed that TFG-TEC upregulates β-enolase transcription by binding to two NGFI-B response element motifs located upstream of the putative transcription start site. In addition, northern blot, quantitative real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses showed that overexpression of TFG-TEC up-regulated β-enolase mRNA and protein expression in cultured cell lines. Finally, ChIP analyses revealed that TFG-TEC controls the activity of the endogenous β-enolase promoter by promoting histone H3 acetylation. Overall, the results presented here indicate that TFG-TEC triggers a regulatory gene hierarchy implicated in cancer cell metabolism. This finding may aid the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of human EMCs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Hornick JL, Sholl LM, Dal Cin P, et al.
Expression of ROS1 predicts ROS1 gene rearrangement in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors.
Mod Pathol. 2015; 28(5):732-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a distinctive, rarely metastasizing mesenchymal neoplasm composed of fascicles of spindle cells with a prominent inflammatory infiltrate. Roughly 50% of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors harbor ALK receptor tyrosine kinase gene rearrangements. Such tumors are usually positive for ALK by immunohistochemistry. The molecular pathogenesis of ALK-negative inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors is largely unknown. A recent study identified rearrangements of ROS1 (another tyrosine kinase receptor) in a subset of ALK-negative inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. Immunohistochemistry for ROS1 has been shown to correlate with ROS1 rearrangement in lung adenocarcinomas. The purpose of this study was to determine whether immunohistochemistry for ROS1 could predict ROS1 rearrangement in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. In total, 30 inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors were evaluated, including 21 ALK-positive tumors (10 confirmed to harbor ALK rearrangements, with TPM3, CLTC, RANPB2, and FN1 fusion partners) and 9 ALK-negative tumors (including 2 known to harbor ROS1 rearrangements). Immunohistochemistry was performed on whole tissue sections following pressure cooker antigen retrieval using a rabbit anti-ROS1 monoclonal antibody. The results were scored as 'positive' or 'negative,' and the pattern of staining was recorded. Three ALK-negative inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (including both tumors with known ROS1 rearrangements) showed immunoreactivity for ROS1, whereas all ALK-positive inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors were negative for ROS1. One ROS1-positive inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (with YWHAE-ROS1 fusion) showed strong, diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear staining; one case (with TFG-ROS1 fusion) showed weak, diffuse and dot-like cytoplasmic staining; and one case (fusion partner unknown) showed moderate, diffuse and dot-like cytoplasmic staining. Expression of ROS1 correlates with ROS1 gene rearrangement in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. These findings suggest that immunohistochemistry for ROS1 may be useful to support the diagnosis of a subset of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors and may select some clinically aggressive cases for targeted therapy directed against ROS1.

Starska K, Forma E, Jóźwiak P, et al.
Gene and protein expression of glucose transporter 1 and glucose transporter 3 in human laryngeal cancer-the relationship with regulatory hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression, tumor invasiveness, and patient prognosis.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2309-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increased glucose uptake mediated by glucose transporters and reliance on glycolysis are common features of malignant cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α supports the adaptation of hypoxic cells by inducing genes related to glucose metabolism. The contribution of glucose transporter (GLUT) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activity to tumor behavior and their prognostic value in head and neck cancers remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive value of GLUT1, GLUT3, and HIF-1α messenger RNA (mRNA)/protein expression as markers of tumor aggressiveness and prognosis in laryngeal cancer. The level of hypoxia/metabolic marker genes was determined in 106 squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and 73 noncancerous matched mucosa (NCM) controls using quantitative real-time PCR. The related protein levels were analyzed by Western blot. Positive expression of SLC2A1, SLC2A3, and HIF-1α genes was noted in 83.9, 82.1, and 71.7% of SCC specimens and in 34.4, 59.4, and 62.5% of laryngeal cancer samples. Higher levels of mRNA/protein for GLUT1 and HIF-1α were noted in SCC compared to NCM (p < 0.05). SLC2A1 was found to have a positive relationship with grade, tumor front grading (TFG) score, and depth and mode of invasion (p < 0.05). SLC2A3 was related to grade and invasion type (p < 0.05). There were also relationships of HIF-1α with pTNM, TFG scale, invasion depth and mode, tumor recurrences, and overall survival (p < 0.05). In addition, more advanced tumors were found to be more likely to demonstrate positive expression of these proteins. In conclusion, the hypoxia/metabolic markers studied could be used as molecular markers of tumor invasiveness in laryngeal cancer.

Starska K, Forma E, Brzezińska-Błaszczyk E, et al.
Gene and protein expression of O-GlcNAc-cycling enzymes in human laryngeal cancer.
Clin Exp Med. 2015; 15(4):455-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant protein O-GlcNAcylation may contribute to the development and malignant behavior of many cancers. This modification is controlled by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). The aim of this study was to determine the expression of O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes mRNA/protein and to investigate their relationship with clinicopathological parameters in laryngeal cancer. The mRNA levels of OGT and MGEA5 genes were determined in 106 squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCLC) cases and 73 non-cancerous adjacent laryngeal mucosa (NCLM) controls using quantitative real-time PCR. The level of OGT and OGA proteins was analyzed by Western blot. A positive expression of OGT and MGEA5 transcripts and OGT and OGA proteins was confirmed in 75.5 and 68.9 % and in 43.7 and 59.4 % samples of SCLC, respectively. Higher levels of mRNA/protein for both OGT and OGA as well as significant increases of 60 % in total protein O-GlcNAcylation levels were noted in SCLC compared with NCLM (p < 0.05). As a result, an increased level of OGT and MGEA5 mRNA was related to larger tumor size, nodal metastases, higher grade and tumor behavior according to TFG scale, as well as incidence of disease recurrence (p < 0.05). An inverse association between OGT and MGEA5 transcripts was determined with regard to prognosis (p < 0.05). In addition, the highest OGT and OGA protein levels were observed in poorly differentiated tumors (p < 0.05). No correlations with other parameters were noted, but the results showed a trend of more advanced tumors to be more frequently OGT and OGA positive. The results suggest that increased O-GlcNAcylation may have an effect on tumor aggressiveness and prognosis in laryngeal cancer.

McFadden DG, Dias-Santagata D, Sadow PM, et al.
Identification of oncogenic mutations and gene fusions in the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(11):E2457-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) is increasingly common. Recent studies have suggested that FVPTC is heterogeneous and comprises multiple tumor types with distinct biological behaviors and underlying genetics.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of mutations and gene fusions in known oncogenes in a panel representative of the common spectrum of FVPTC diagnosed at an academic medical center and correlate the clinical and pathological features obtained at the initial diagnosis with the tumor genotype.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed SNaPshot genotyping on a panel of 129 FVPTCs of ≥1 cm for 90 point mutations or small deletions in known oncogenes and tumor suppressors and identified gene fusions using an anchored multiplex PCR assay targeting a panel of rearranged oncogenes.
RESULTS: We identified a mutation or gene fusion in 70% (89 of 127) of cases. Mutations targeting the RAS family of oncogenes were the most frequently observed class of alterations, present in 36% (46 of 127) of cases, followed by BRAF mutation, present in 30% (38 of 127). We also detected oncogenic rearrangements not previously associated with FVPTC, including TFG-ALK and CREB3L2-PPARγ. BRAF mutation was significantly associated with unencapsulated tumor status.
CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that FVPTC is composed of distinct biological entities, with one class being identified by BRAF mutation and support the use of clinical genotyping assays that detect a diverse array of rearrangements involving ALK and PPARγ. Additional studies are necessary to identify genetic drivers in the 30% of FVPTCs with no known oncogenic alteration and to better predict behavior in tumors with known genotypes.

Broehm CJ, Wu J, Gullapalli RR, Bocklage T
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma with a t(9;16)(q22;p11.2) resulting in a NR4A3-FUS fusion.
Cancer Genet. 2014; 207(6):276-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare neoplasm characterized by rearrangement of NR4A3. A t(9;22)(q22;q12), creating a fusion protein of EWSR1 and NR4A3, has been reported as a unique, recurring translocation in most cases. Reported variant translocations have resulted in fusion of NR4A3 with three other genes: TAF15, TCF12, and TFG. We report a case of EMC in a 59-year-old man who presented with a 6-month history of an enlarging mass in the proximal right thigh. The karyotype of fresh tissue from tumor taken at incisional biopsy revealed a t(9;16)(q22;p11.2). There was no evidence of an EWSR1 rearrangement by dual-color break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Dual-color FISH probes revealed fusion of NR4A3 and FUS, a member of the TET family of genes, which includes EWSR1 and TAF15. Break-apart FISH probe results confirmed rearrangement of FUS. These findings show that a fusion product of FUS and NR4A3 may be an additional pathway to development of EMC.

Starska K, Krześlak A, Forma E, et al.
Genetic polymorphism of metallothionein 2A and risk of laryngeal cancer in a Polish population.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(7):75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metallothioneins are intracellular regulators of many biological mechanisms including differentiation, proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion, which are crucial processes in carcinogenesis. This study examines the association between three single-nucleotide polymorphisms at loci -5 A/G (rs28366003) and -209 A/G (rs1610216) in the core promoter region and at locus +838 C/G (rs10636) in 3'UTR region of the metallothionein 2A (MT2A) gene with squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCLC) risk, as well as with tumor invasiveness according to tumor front grading (TFG). Genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique in 323 genetically unrelated individuals with SCLC and 418 randomly selected healthy volunteers. Only one SNP (rs28366003) was significantly related to laryngeal cancer in the study population. Compared with homozygous common allele carriers, heterozygous and homozygous for the G variant had significantly increased risk of SCLC [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.90, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.53-5.21, p dominant < 0.001]. The A/G allele carriers at rs28366003 MT2A were at higher risk of SCLC development (OR = 2.63, 95 % CI 1.41-2.85, p < 0.001]. There was a significant association between the rs28366003 and stage and TFG classification. Most carriers of minor allele had a higher stage (OR = 2.76, 95 % CI 1.11-7.52, p = 0.03), increased cancer aggressiveness, as defined by a higher total TFG score (>18 points) (OR = 3.76, 95 % CI 1.15-12.56, p = 0.03) and diffuse tumor growth (OR = 5.86, 95 % Cl 0.72-44.79, p = 0.08). The results of this study raise a possibility that a genetic variation of MT2A may be implicated in the etiology of laryngeal cancer in a Polish population.

Agaram NP, Zhang L, Sung YS, et al.
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma with non-EWSR1-NR4A3 variant fusions correlate with rhabdoid phenotype and high-grade morphology.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(5):1084-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (EMC) are rare soft tissue sarcomas with distinctive histology and uncertain histogenesis, characterized by Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 3 (EWSR1-NR4A3) fusion in 75% of the cases. A smaller proportion of cases show NR4A3 fused to other gene partners including TATA binding protein-associated factor 15 (TAF15), transcription factor 12 (TCF12), and TRK-fused gene (TFG). The impact of various gene fusions on morphology and outcome has not been previously evaluated. We investigated 26 consecutive EMCs and correlated the genetic findings with morphology and clinical outcome. There were 5 females and 21 males (median age, 49.5 years). Mean size of the tumors was 11 cm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed EWSR1-NR4A3 gene fusion in 16 cases (62%), TAF15-NR4A3 gene fusion in 7 cases (27%), and TCF12-NR4A3 gene fusion in 1 case (4%). Two cases showed only NR4A3 gene rearrangements. Morphologically, most EWSR1-rearranged tumors (10/16) showed low cellularity, minimal cytologic atypia, and low mitotic counts. In contrast, 80% of EMCs with variant (non-EWSR1) NR4A3 gene fusions (TAF15, TCF12) had high-grade morphology with increased cellularity, proliferation, and cytologic atypia, showing a plasmacytoid/rhabdoid morphology in half the cases. Follow-up showed that only 1 of 16 patients with EWSR1-rearranged tumors died of disease, in contrast to 3 (43%) of 7 TAF15-rearranged tumors. In conclusion, EMCs with variant NR4A3 gene fusions show a higher incidence of rhabdoid phenotype, high-grade morphology, and a more aggressive outcome compared with the EWSR1-NR4A3 positive tumors. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for NR4A3, along with EWSR1, may be an additional ancillary test to confirm diagnosis of EMCs.

Chen Y, Tseng SH
Targeting tropomyosin-receptor kinase fused gene in cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(4):1595-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tropomyosin-receptor kinase fused gene (TRK-fused gene, TFG) encodes a protein which is a conserved regulator of protein secretion that localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites and controls the export of materials from the endoplasmic reticulum. It is important for intracellular trafficking of protein secretion. TFG belongs to the systems which control cell size, and is involved in regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis and cell proliferation. The TFG fusion proteins have been found to play a role in oncogenesis, with the activity of TFG fusion proteins promoting tumor development. In addition, TFG alone has been demonstrated to function like an oncoprotein; however, there are contradictory data suggesting TFG might act as a tumor suppressor. In this article, we will review the functions and regulation of TFG, the TFG fusion proteins, and the role of TFG in tumorigenesis. Finally, the potential of targeting TFG in cancer treatment is discussed.

Hsu TI, Lin SC, Lu PS, et al.
MMP7-mediated cleavage of nucleolin at Asp255 induces MMP9 expression to promote tumor malignancy.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(7):826-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nucleolin (NCL) participates in DNA transcription, ribosomal biogenesis and the regulation of RNA stability. However, the contribution of NCL to tumor development is still not clear. Herein, we found that NCL expression correlated with poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. Overexpressed NCL was predominantly cleaved to C-terminal truncated NCL (TNCL). In lung cancer formation, activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway induced NCL expression, and also the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 7, which then cleaved NCL at Asp255 to generate TNCL of 55 kDa. TNCL increased the expression of several oncogenes, including MMP9, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), HIF1a and CBLB, and decreased the expression of tumor suppressors including BRD4, PCM1, TFG and KLF6 by modulating mRNA stability through binding to the 3'-untranslated regions of their transcripts, thus ultimately enhancing metastasis activity. In conclusion, this study identified a novel role of the cleavage form of NCL generated by MMP7 in stabilizing MMP9 mRNA. We also provide a new insight that MMP7 not only cleaves the extracellular matrix to promote tumor invasion but also cleaves NCL, which augment oncogenesis. Blocking NCL cleavage may provide a useful new strategy for lung cancer therapy.

Benini S, Cocchi S, Gamberi G, et al.
Diagnostic utility of molecular investigation in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.
J Mol Diagn. 2014; 16(3):314-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is characterized by the reciprocal chromosomal translocation t(9;22) and the resultant fused gene EWS RNA-binding protein 1 and nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 3 (EWSR1-NR4A3). A second cytogenetic rearrangement t(9;17) involves the genes NR4A3 and TAF 15 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor (TAF15). Less frequent fusion transcript variants of the NR4A3 gene, transcription factor 12 (TCF12)-NR4A3 and TRK-fused gene (TFG)-NR4A3, are associated with t(9;15) and t(9;3) respectively. The samples from 42 patients with extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma were examined for the presence of EWSR1-NR4A3, TAF15-NR4A3, TCF12-NR4A3, and TFG-NR4A3 fusion transcripts by using RT-PCR. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed to analyze the status of EWSR1 and NR4A3 genes. The fusion transcripts were detected in 34 of 42 samples (81%); the presence of an EWSR1 or NR4A3 gene rearrangements were detected in 8 of 42 samples (19%) which had tested negative for all fusion transcripts detected by RT-PCR. Of the 34 samples evaluable for fusion transcripts, 23 yielded positive results for EWSR1-NR4A3, 10 for TAF15-NR4A3, and 1 for TCF12-NR4A3. The combination of RT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization on frozen and paraffin-embedded tissue is a sensitive and specific method for molecular detection of recurrent translocations and is an important ancillary method to establish the diagnosis of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma.

Lyons AJ, Nixon I, Papadopoulou D, Crichton S
Can we predict which patients are likely to develop severe complications following reconstruction for osteoradionecrosis?
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013; 51(8):707-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
High morbidity has been reported for free vascularised reconstruction for osteoradionecrosis (ORN) and there are no apparent risk factors. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the transforming growth factor beta 1 gene (TGF-β1) has been implicated in the cause of ORN and may also predict these complications. We studied a series of 30 consecutive patients who had had reconstruction for severe ORN with free tissue transfer in relation to their outcomes and complications for a number of risk factors including TFG-β1 genotype, age, sex, comorbidities, site and stage of tumour, type of initial operation, and dose of radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Two patients died and 2 flaps failed. Using the Clavien-Dindo classification, 16 patients developed grade III complications and 6 grade II. Median (IQR) duration of inpatient stay was 19.5 (12-25) days and the median (IQR) duration of outpatient treatment was 6 (4-11) weeks. No specific risk factors for postoperative complications were identified. In view of the severity and unpredictability of the complications, careful preoperative counselling of patients is essential.

Lim B, Kim AY, Jun HJ, Kim J
A TFG-TEC nuclear localization mutant forms complexes with the wild-type TFG-TEC oncoprotein and suppresses its activity.
Biochem J. 2013; 456(3):361-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human EMCs (extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas) are soft tissue tumours characterized by specific chromosomal abnormalities. Recently, a proportion of EMCs were found to harbour a characteristic translocation, t(3;9)(q11-12;q22), involving the TFG (TRK-fused gene) at 3q11-12 and the TEC (translocated in extraskeletal chondrosarcoma) gene at 9q22. The present study used both in vitro and in vivo systems to show that the TFG-TEC protein self-associates, and that this is dependent upon the CC (coiled-coil) domain (amino acids 97-124), the AF1 (activation function 1) domain (amino acids 275-562) and the DBD (DNA-binding domain) (amino acids 563-655). The TFG-TEC protein also associated with a mutant NLS-TFG-TEC (AAAA) protein, which harbours mutations in the NLS (nuclear localization signal). Subcellular localization assays showed that the NLS mutant TFG-TEC (AAAA) protein interfered with the nuclear localization of wild-type TFG-TEC. Most importantly, the mutant protein inhibited TFG-TEC-mediated transcriptional activation in vivo. Thus mutations in the TFG-TEC NLS yield a dominant-negative protein. These results show that the biological functions of the TFG-TEC oncogene can be modulated by a dominant-negative mutant.

Lim B, Jun HJ, Kim AY, et al.
The TFG-TEC fusion gene created by the t(3;9) translocation in human extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas encodes a more potent transcriptional activator than TEC.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(8):1450-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(3;9)(q11-q12;q22) translocation associated with human extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas results in a chimeric molecule in which the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the TFG (TRK-fused gene) is fused to the TEC (Translocated in Extraskeletal Chondrosarcoma) gene. Little is known about the biological function of TFG-TEC. Because the NTDs of TFG-TEC and TEC are structurally different, and the TFG itself is a cytoplasmic protein, the functional consequences of this fusion in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas were examined. The results showed that the chimeric gene encoded a nuclear protein that bound DNA with the same sequence specificity as the parental TEC protein. Comparison of the transactivation properties of TFG-TEC and TEC indicated that the former has higher transactivation activity for a known target reporter containing TEC-binding sites. Additional reporter assays for TFG (NTD) showed that the TGF (NTD) of TFG-TEC induced a 12-fold increase in the activation of luciferase from a reporter plasmid containing GAL4 binding sites when fused to the DNA-binding domain of GAL4, indicating that the TFG (NTD) of the TFG-TEC protein has intrinsic transcriptional activation properties. Finally, deletion analysis of the functional domains of TFG (NTD) indicated that the PB1 (Phox and Bem1p) and SPYGQ-rich region of TFG (NTD) were capable of activating transcription and that full integrity of TFG (NTD) was necessary for full transactivation. These results suggest that the oncogenic effect of the t(3;9) translocation may be due to the TFG-TEC chimeric protein and that fusion of the TFG (NTD) to the TEC protein produces a gain-of-function chimeric product.

Dutton-Regester K, Aoude LG, Nancarrow DJ, et al.
Identification of TFG (TRK-fused gene) as a putative metastatic melanoma tumor suppressor gene.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012; 51(5):452-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
High density SNP arrays can be used to identify DNA copy number changes in tumors such as homozygous deletions of tumor suppressor genes and focal amplifications of oncogenes. Illumina Human CNV370 Bead chip arrays were used to assess the genome for unbalanced chromosomal events occurring in 39 cell lines derived from stage III metastatic melanomas. A number of genes previously recognized to have an important role in the development and progression of melanoma were identified including homozygous deletions of CDKN2A (13 of 39 samples), CDKN2B (10 of 39), PTEN (3 of 39), PTPRD (3 of 39), TP53 (1 of 39), and amplifications of CCND1 (2 of 39), MITF (2 of 39), MDM2 (1 of 39), and NRAS (1 of 39). In addition, a number of focal homozygous deletions potentially targeting novel melanoma tumor suppressor genes were identified. Because of their likely functional significance for melanoma progression, FAS, CH25H, BMPR1A, ACTA2, and TFG were investigated in a larger cohort of melanomas through sequencing. Nonsynonymous mutations were identified in BMPR1A (1 of 43), ACTA2 (3 of 43), and TFG (5 of 103). A number of potentially important mutation events occurred in TFG including the identification of a mini mutation "hotspot" at amino acid residue 380 (P380S and P380L) and the presence of multiple mutations in two melanomas. Mutations in TFG may have important clinical relevance for current therapeutic strategies to treat metastatic melanoma.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. TFG, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 01 September, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999