Gene Summary

Gene:CREB1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 1
Aliases: CREB, CREB-1
Summary:This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. This protein binds as a homodimer to the cAMP-responsive element, an octameric palindrome. The protein is phosphorylated by several protein kinases, and induces transcription of genes in response to hormonal stimulation of the cAMP pathway. Alternate splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CREB1 (cancer-related)

Guo Y
Clinical significance of serum MicroRNA-203 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Bioengineered. 2019; 10(1):345-352 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to detect serum miR-203 expression levels in AML and explore its potential clinical significance. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to measure the serum miR-203 levels in 134 patients with AML and 70 healthy controls. The results demonstrated that serum miR-203 expression was significantly reduced in AML patients compared with healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis revealed miR-203 could distinguish AML cases from normal controls. Low serum miR-203 levels were associated with worse clinical features, as well as poorer overall survival and relapse free survival of AML patients. Moreover, multivariate analysis confirmed low serum miR-203 expression to be an independent unfavorable prognostic predictor for AML. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the downstream genes and pathways of miR-203 was closely associated with tumorigenesis. Downregulation of miR-203 in AML cell lines upregulated the expression levels of oncogenic promoters such as CREB1, SRC and HDAC1. Thus, these findings demonstrated that serum miR-203 might be a promising biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of AML.

Ando M, Saito Y, Xu G, et al.
Chromatin dysregulation and DNA methylation at transcription start sites associated with transcriptional repression in cancers.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):2188 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although promoter-associated CpG islands have been established as targets of DNA methylation changes in cancer, previous studies suggest that epigenetic dysregulation outside the promoter region may be more closely associated with transcriptional changes. Here we examine DNA methylation, chromatin marks, and transcriptional alterations to define the relationship between transcriptional modulation and spatial changes in chromatin structure. Using human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal carcinoma as a model, we show aberrant enrichment of repressive H3K9me3 at the transcriptional start site (TSS) with methylation-associated, tumor-specific gene silencing. Further analysis identifies a hypermethylated subtype which shows a functional convergence on MYC targets and association with CREBBP/EP300 mutation. The tumor-specific shift to transcriptional repression associated with DNA methylation at TSSs was confirmed in multiple tumor types. Our data may show a common underlying epigenetic dysregulation in cancer associated with broad enrichment of repressive chromatin marks and aberrant DNA hypermethylation at TSSs in combination with MYC network activation.

Zheng KB, Xie J, Li YT, et al.
Knockdown of CERB expression inhibits proliferation and migration of glioma cells line U251.
Bratisl Lek Listy. 2019; 120(4):309-315 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioma is a type of tumor that occurs in the brain and accounts for almost 30 % of all brain and central nervous system tumors and 80 % of all malignant brain tumors. In this study, we investigate the role of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the progression of glioma.
METHODS: Tissue samples from glioma patients were collected and examined for expression of CREB and its correlation with tumor grades. CREB was then knocked down via siRNA to see if reduced expression of CREB affects cell proliferation and migration. Factors involved in cell cycles, adhesion and apoptosis were examined as well. Moreover, CRESP/CAS9 mediated knockout of CREB was conducted and athymic Nude mice model was used to investigate CREB's role in vivo.
RESULTS: The evaluated expression level of CREB in glioma patients was correlated with tumor grades. Knockdown of CREB via siRNA in glioma cell line U251 significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of tumor cells. Moreover, CyclinD1 and Bcl-2 expression were reduced, as well as phosphorylation of IRK1/2 and AKT. Additionally, knockout of CREB via CRESP/CAS9 inhibited tumor formation of U251 cells in athymic Nude mice model.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our data suggest that over expression of CREB may contribute to progression of glioma and knockdown of CREB expression may serve as a novel target for therapy (Tab. 1, Fig. 6, Ref. 25).

Chen MK, Peng CC, Maner RS, et al.
Geniposide ameliorated fluoxetine-suppressed neurite outgrowth in Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells.
Life Sci. 2019; 226:1-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Fluoxetine (FXT), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is one of the most common psychiatric medications clinically prescribed; while over-produced serotonin may suppress neurite development. The role of major iridoids like geniposide (GPS) and genipin (GNP) from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit (family Rubiaceae) in ameliorating the anti-neurite outgrowth effect of FXT is poorly understood. In this study, the effects of these iridoids on FXT-suppressed neurite outgrowth in Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells were investigated.
MAIN METHODS: Neuro2a cells were treated with FXT and GPS. The effect of GPS-FXT co-treatment on neurite outgrowth was observed using inverted phase-contrast microscope imaging system, while neurite outgrowth markers - microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2) and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) were analyzed using RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The transcription factor-cAMP response element binding (CREB), and signaling pathways - mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (AKT/mTOR) were also analyzed with the help of Western blot.
KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that FXT decreased the neurite outgrowth in Neuro2a cells and also downregulated gene and protein expression of MAP2 and GAP43. It also downregulated the protein expression of phosphorylated-CREB, MAPK, and AKT/mTOR signaling pathways. In contrast, GPS counteracted the effects of FXT. GPS-FXT co-treatment increased the percentage of neurite-bearing cells by 3.6-fold at 200 μM as compared to FXT treatment only.
SIGNIFICANCE: This study has provided the possible molecular mechanism showing how FXT exerted its detrimental side-effects on the neurite differentiation, and via the same mechanism how GPS attenuated these side effects.

Gabrielli AP, Manzardo AM, Butler MG
GeneAnalytics Pathways and Profiling of Shared Autism and Cancer Genes.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent research revealed that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and cancer may share common genetic architecture, with evidence first reported with the

Kang M, Park SH, Park SJ, et al.
p44/42 MAPK signaling is a prime target activated by phenylethyl resorcinol in its anti-melanogenic action.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 58:152877 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Melanin plays a crucial role in protecting human skin against exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, its overproduction induces hyperpigmentation disorders of the skin.
PURPOSE: To investigate effects of phenylethyl resorcinol as one resorcinol derivative on melanogenesis and its mechanisms using B16F10 mouse melanoma cells and human epidermal melanocytes.
METHODS: Effects of phenylethyl resorcinol on melanogenesis and its mechanism of action were examined using several in vitro assays (i.e., cell survival, melanin content, cellular tyrosinase activity, real-time PCR analysis, luciferase-reporter assay, Western blot analysis, and ELISAs for cyclic AMP (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)).
RESULTS: Phenylethyl resorcinol reduced both melanin content and tyrosinase activity in these cells. Phenylethyl resorcinol also suppressed tyrosinase activity in cell-free tyrosinase enzyme assay. Although phenylethyl resorcinol decreased mRNA levels of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-2, it did not affect mRNA levels of melanogenic gene microphthalmia-associated transcriptional factor (MITF) or TRP-1. Phenylethyl resorcinol had no effects on cAMP signaling or NF-κB signaling based on results of cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-luciferase reporter assay, cAMP production, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, Western blot assays for phosphorylated CRE-binding protein (CREB), NF-κB-luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot assays for phosphorylated NF-κB. However, phenylethyl resorcinol induced activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling. Specifically, phenylethyl resorcinol increased AP-1 reporter activity and increased phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK, but not p38 MAPK or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). MEK1/2 and Src, upstream molecules of p44/42 MAPK were also phosphorylated by phenylethyl resorcinol. In addition, phenylethyl resorcinol-induced decreases in melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and MITF protein levels were attenuated by PD98059, a p44/42 MAPK inhibitor.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the anti-melanogenic activity of phenylethyl resorcinol is mediated by activation of p44/42 MAPK, indicating that phenylethyl resorcinol may be a potential therapeutic agent for treating hyperpigmentation skin disorders.

Ku KE, Choi N, Oh SH, et al.
Src inhibition induces melanogenesis in human G361 cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(4):3061-3070 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Src kinase family (SKF) includes non‑receptor tyrosine kinases that interact with many cellular cytosolic, nuclear and membrane proteins, and is involved in the progression of cellular transformation and oncogenic activity. However, there is little to no evidence on the effect of SKF or its inhibitors on melanogenesis. Therefore, the present study investigated whether C‑terminal Src kinase inhibition can induce melanogenesis and examined the associated signaling pathways and mRNA expression of melanogenic proteins. First, whether stimulators of melanogenesis, such as ultraviolet B and α‑melanocyte‑stimulating hormone, can dephosphorylate Src protein was evaluated, and the results revealed that SU6656 and PP2 inhibited the phosphorylation of Src in G361 cells. Src inhibition by these chemical inhibitors induced melanogenesis in G361 cells and upregulated the mRNA expression levels of melanogenesis‑associated genes encoding microphthalmia‑associated transcription factor, tyrosinase‑related protein 1 (TRP1), TRP2, and tyrosinase. In addition, Src inhibition by small interfering RNA induced melanogenesis and upregulated the mRNA expression levels of melanogenesis‑associated genes. As the p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding (CREB) pathways serve key roles in melanogenesis, the present study further examined whether Src mediates melanogenesis via these pathways. As expected, Src inhibition via SU6656 or PP2 administration induced the phosphorylation of p38 or CREB, as determined by western blotting analysis, and increased the levels of phosphorylated p38 or CREB, as determined by immunofluorescence staining. In addition, the induced pigmentation and melanin content of G361 cells by Src inhibitors was significantly inhibited by p38 or CREB inhibitors. Taken together, these data indicate that Src is associated with melanogenesis, and Src inhibition induces melanogenesis via the MAPK and CREB pathways in G361 cells.

Li J, Feng D, Gao C, et al.
Isoforms S and L of MRPL33 from alternative splicing have isoform‑specific roles in the chemoresponse to epirubicin in gastric cancer cells via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(5):1591-1600 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Drug resistance is a major cause of cancer‑associated mortality. Epirubicin‑based chemotherapy initially benefits patients with metastatic or advanced gastric cancer; however, tumor recurrence can occur following several courses of treatment. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L33 (MRPL33)‑long (L) and MRPL33‑short (S), isoforms of MRPL33 that arise from AS, have been reported to regulate cell growth and apoptosis in cancer; however, few studies have evaluated the roles of MRPL33‑L and MRPL33‑S in gastric cancer. In the present study, MRPL33‑L was demonstrated to be significantly more abundant in gastric tumor tissues than the MRPL33‑S isoform. MRPL33‑S promoted chemosensitivity to epirubicin in gastric cancer as demonstrated by a chemoresponse assay; chemosensitivity was suppressed in response to MRPL33‑L. Gene microarray analysis was performed to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that overexpression of MRPL33‑L and MRPL33‑S served critical roles in transcription, signal transduction and apoptosis. In particular, the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT) signaling pathway was markedly regulated. A total of 36 target genes, including PIK3 regulatory subunit α, AKT2, cAMP response element‑binding protein (CREB) 1, forkhead box 3, glycogen synthase kinase 3β and mammalian target of rapamycin, which are involved in the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, were selected for further investigation via protein‑protein interaction network and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses. Furthermore, western blot analysis indicated that MRPL33‑S promoted the chemoresponse to epirubicin by deactivating PI3K/AKT/CREB signaling and inducing apoptosis, while MRPL33‑L had the opposite effects. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed that isoforms S and L of MRPL33, which arise from alternative splicing, exhibited opposing roles in the chemoresponse to epirubicin in gastric cancer via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. These findings may contribute to the development of potential therapeutic strategies for the resensitization of patients with gastric cancer to epirubicin treatment.

Yang Q, Yu W, Han X
Overexpression of microRNA‑101 causes anti‑tumor effects by targeting CREB1 in colon cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(4):3159-3167 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the initiation and progression of numerous types of human cancer. Although a number of miRNAs have been demonstrated to be associated with the diagnosis, progression and prognosis of colon cancer, the function of miRNA‑101 (miR‑101) in colon cancer remains unclear, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of miR‑101 in colon cancer require further investigation. The present study investigated the role of miR‑101 in colon cancer, and the results suggested that miR‑101 expression levels were significantly decreased in colorectal carcinoma tissues and in three types of colorectal cancer cell lines. Furthermore, overexpression of miR‑101 inhibited cell proliferation and migration in HT29 cells. The transcription factor cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) was identified to be a direct target of miR‑101 using a luciferase reporter assay, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis and western blot assay. miR‑101 overexpression in tumor xenografts in vivo decreased the expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and CREB1, and suppressed tumor growth. The present results suggested that miR‑101 may serve a role in colon cancer by directly targeting CREB1. Collectively, the present study may contribute to the development of improved diagnosis and prognostics for colon cancer.

Bai L, Zhang S, Zhou X, et al.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces thioredoxin-1 expression through TrkB/Akt/CREB pathway in SH-SY5Y cells.
Biochimie. 2019; 160:55-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the neurotrophic factors that are vital to the survival and proliferation of neuron. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a redox regulating protein and plays various roles in regulating transcript factors and inhibiting apoptosis. It has been reported that Trx-1 is required for nerve growth factor-mediated signal transduction and neurite outgrowth, and is involved in synaptic protein expression induced by BDNF. However, the molecular mechanism on BDNF inducing Trx-1 expression has not been fully verified. The present study investigated the expression of Trx-1 after treatment with BDNF in SH-SY5Y cells. We first demonstrated that cell viability and the expression of Trx-1 were increased by BDNF in SH-SY5Y cells, which were inhibited by the tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) inhibitor, K252a, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, LY294002. Moreover, BDNF increased the activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) through TrkB/PI3-K/Akt pathway. Whereas the expression of Trx-1 induced by BDNF was suppressed by CREB siRNA. Thus, our data suggest that BDNF induces the expression of Trx-1 through the TrkB/Akt/CREB pathway.

Won SY, Park JJ, Shin EY, Kim EG
PAK4 signaling in health and disease: defining the PAK4-CREB axis.
Exp Mol Med. 2019; 51(2):11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
p21-Activated kinase 4 (PAK4), a member of the PAK family, regulates a wide range of cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and survival. Dysregulation of its expression and activity thus contributes to the development of diverse pathological conditions. PAK4 plays a pivotal role in cancer progression by accelerating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and metastasis. Therefore, PAK4 is regarded as an attractive therapeutic target in diverse types of cancers, prompting the development of PAK4-specific inhibitors as anticancer drugs; however, these drugs have not yet been successful. PAK4 is essential for embryonic brain development and has a neuroprotective function. A long list of PAK4 effectors has been reported. Recently, the transcription factor CREB has emerged as a novel effector of PAK4. This finding has broad implications for the role of PAK4 in health and disease because CREB-mediated transcriptional reprogramming involves a wide range of genes. In this article, we review the PAK4 signaling pathways involved in prostate cancer, Parkinson's disease, and melanogenesis, focusing in particular on the PAK4-CREB axis.

Oyama R, Kito F, Takahashi M, et al.
Establishment and characterization of a novel dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cell line, NCC-dCS1-C1.
Hum Cell. 2019; 32(2):202-213 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma is an aggressive mesenchymal tumor of the bone, and novel therapies are needed to improve its clinical outcomes. Patient-derived cell lines are essential tools for elucidating disease mechanisms associated with poor prognosis and for developing therapies. However, few lines and xenografts have been previously reported in dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma. We established a novel patient-derived dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cell line, NCC-dCS1-C1. Primary dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma tissues were obtained at the time of surgery and subjected to primary tissue culture. The cell line was established and authenticated by assessing DNA microsatellite short tandem repeats. The cells maintained in monolayer cultures exhibited constant growth, spheroid formation capacity, and invasion ability. When the cells were implanted into mice, they exhibited histological features similar to those of the original tumor. Genomic analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms showed aberrant genomic contents. The DNA sequencing revealed the absence of IDH1/2 mutations. The global targeted sequencing revealed that the cell line preserved homozygous deletion of CDKN2A and CREBBP. A proteomic study by mass spectrometry unveiled similar but distinct molecular backgrounds in the original tumor and the established cell line, suggesting that tumor cell functions might be altered during the establishment of the cell line. Using a screening approach, four anti-cancer drugs with anti-proliferative effects at a low concentration were identified. In conclusion, a novel dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma cell line, NCC-dCS1-C1, was successfully established from primary tumor tissues. The NCC-dCS1-C1 cell line will be a useful tool for investigations of the mechanisms underlying dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas.

Wang R, Liu Y, Liu L, et al.
Tumor cells induce LAMP2a expression in tumor-associated macrophage for cancer progression.
EBioMedicine. 2019; 40:118-134 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor cells benefit from tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promoting tumor growth and modulating functions of other cells in tumor microenvironment (TME). However, how tumor cells regulate the property of TAMs during tumor invasion remains to be defined.
METHODS: Mouse tumor models and cancer patients' samples were analyzed to determine LAMP2a expression in TAMs. In vitro mouse primary macrophages were used to assess LAMP2a-modulated macrophage activation, and to verify LAMP2a's target proteins. The effect of LAMP2a-knockdown on tumor progression and TME maintaining was determined by using mouse tumor models.
FINDINGS: Lysosome associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) is upregulated in TAMs by tumor cells and important for tumor progression. LAMP2a expression in TAMs, but not in tumor cells, is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. LAMP2a inactivation induced by either shRNA or CRISPR/Cas9 prevents TAMs activation and tumor growth. LAMP2a degrades PRDX1 (peroxiredoxin 1) and CRTC1 (CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1) to promote macrophage pro-tumorigenic activation.
INTERPRETATION: Our study suggests that tumor cells utilize LAMP2a-PRDX1/CRTC1 axis to modulate TAMs activation and promote tumor growth, reveals the role of LAMP2a in macrophage study and TAM-targeting tumor immunotherapy. FUND: National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81602492); National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2016YFA0201402).

Smid M, Wilting SM, Uhr K, et al.
The circular RNome of primary breast cancer.
Genome Res. 2019; 29(3):356-366 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of RNAs that is under increasing scrutiny, although their functional roles are debated. We analyzed RNA-seq data of 348 primary breast cancers and developed a method to identify circRNAs that does not rely on unmapped reads or known splice junctions. We identified 95,843 circRNAs, of which 20,441 were found recurrently. Of the circRNAs that match exon boundaries of the same gene, 668 showed a poor or even negative (

Li Z, Yu D, Li H, et al.
Long non‑coding RNA UCA1 confers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer endocrinotherapy through regulation of the EZH2/p21 axis and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(3):1033-1042 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tamoxifen is the gold standard for breast cancer endocrinotherapy. However, drug resistance remains a major limiting factor of tamoxifen treatment. Long non‑coding (lnc) RNA serves an important role in drug resistance; however, the molecular mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer endocrinotherapy are largely unclear. lncRNA urothelial cancer associated 1 (lncRNA UCA1, UCA1) has been proven to be dysregulated in human breast cancer and promotes cancer progression. In the present study, it was demonstrated that UCA1 was significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues compared with healthy tissues. Furthermore, the expression level of UCA1 was significantly greater in tamoxifen‑resistant breast cancer cells (LCC2 and LCC9) when compared with those in the tamoxifen‑sensitive breast cancer cells (MCF‑7 and T47D). UCA1 silencing in LLC2 and LLC9 cells increased tamoxifen drug sensitivity by promoting cell apoptosis and arresting the cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Notably, the induced overexpression of UCA1 in MCF‑7 and T47D cells decreased the drug sensitivity of tamoxifen. The molecular mechanism involved in UCA1‑induced tamoxifen‑resistance was also investigated. It was identified that UCA1 was physically associated with the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), which suppressed the expression of p21 through histone methylation (H3K27me3) on the p21 promoter. In addition, it was demonstrated that UCA1 expression was paralleled to the phosphorylation of CAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and AKT. When LCC2 cells were treated with the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway inhibitor LY294002, the phosphorylation levels of CREB and AKT were significantly downregulated. Taken together, it was concluded that UCA1 regulates the EZH2/p21 axis and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in breast cancer, and may be a potential therapeutic target for solving tamoxifen resistance.

Dong H, Hu J, Zou K, et al.
Activation of LncRNA TINCR by H3K27 acetylation promotes Trastuzumab resistance and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by targeting MicroRNA-125b in breast Cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab resistance followed by metastasis is a major obstacle for improving the clinical outcome of patients with advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER-2+) breast cancer. While long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) can modulate cell behavior, the contribution of these RNAs in trastuzumab resistance and metastasis of HER-2+ breast cancer is not well known. In this study, we sought to identify the regulatory role of lncRNA in trastuzumab resistance and accompanied Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition (EMT) process in advanced HER-2+ breast cancer.
METHODS: Trastuzumab-resistant SKBR-3-TR and BT474-TR cell lines were established by grafting SKBR-3 and BT474 cells into mouse models and subjected to trastuzumab treatment. LncRNA microarray followed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) was carried out to verify the differentially expressed lncRNAs. Western blotting, bioinformatics analysis, immunofluorescence assay and immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP and RIP) were performed to identify the involvement and functional interactions between H3K27 acetylation and terminal differentiation-induced non-coding RNA (TINCR) or between TINCR and its downstream genes including miR-125b, HER-2 and Snail-1. In addition, a series of in vitro and in vivo assays were performed to assess the functions of TINCR.
RESULTS: An increase in both, IC
CONCLUSION: TINCR could promote trastuzumab resistance and the accompanied EMT process in breast cancer. Therefore, TINCR might be a potential indicator for prognosis and a therapeutic target to enhance the clinical efficacy of trastuzumab treatment.

Reutzel M, Grewal R, Silaidos C, et al.
Effects of Long-Term Treatment with a Blend of Highly Purified Olive Secoiridoids on Cognition and Brain ATP Levels in Aged NMRI Mice.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018; 2018:4070935 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aging represents a major risk factor for developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). As components of the Mediterranean diet, olive polyphenols may play a crucial role in the prevention of AD. Since mitochondrial dysfunction acts as a final pathway in both brain aging and AD, respectively, the effects of a mixture of highly purified olive secoiridoids were tested on cognition and ATP levels in a commonly used mouse model for brain aging. Over 6 months, female NMRI mice (12 months of age) were fed with a blend containing highly purified olive secoiridoids (POS) including oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and oleurosid standardized for 50 mg oleuropein/kg diet (equivalent to 13.75 mg POS/kg b.w.) or the study diet without POS as control. Mice aged 3 months served as young controls. Behavioral tests showed deficits in cognition in aged mice. Levels of ATP and mRNA levels of NADH-reductase, cytochrome-c-oxidase, and citrate synthase were significantly reduced in the brains of aged mice indicating mitochondrial dysfunction. Moreover, gene expression of Sirt1, CREB, Gap43, and GPx-1 was significantly reduced in the brain tissue of aged mice. POS-fed mice showed improved spatial working memory. Furthermore, POS restored brain ATP levels in aged mice which were significantly increased. Our results show that a diet rich in purified olive polyphenols has positive long-term effects on cognition and energy metabolism in the brain of aged mice.

Panossian A, Seo EJ, Efferth T
Novel molecular mechanisms for the adaptogenic effects of herbal extracts on isolated brain cells using systems biology.
Phytomedicine. 2018; 50:257-284 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Adaptogens are natural compounds or plant extracts that increase adaptability and survival of organisms under stress. Adaptogens stimulate cellular and organismal defense systems by activating intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways and expression of stress-activated proteins and neuropeptides. The effects adaptogens on mediators of adaptive stress response and longevity signaling pathways have been reported, but their stress-protective mechanisms are still not fully understood.
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to identify key molecular mechanisms of adaptogenic plants traditionally used to treat stress and aging-related disorders, i.e., Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Withania somnifera, Rhaponticum carthamoides, and Bryonia alba.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptogens, we conducted RNA sequencing to profile gene expression alterations in T98G neuroglia cells upon treatment of adaptogens and analyzed the relevance of deregulated genes to adaptive stress-response signaling pathways using in silico pathway analysis software.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: At least 88 of the 3516 genes regulated by adaptogens were closely associated with adaptive stress response and adaptive stress-response signaling pathways (ASRSPs), including neuronal signaling related to corticotropin-releasing hormone, cAMP-mediated, protein kinase A, and CREB; pathways related to signaling involving CXCR4, melatonin, nitric oxide synthase, GP6, Gαs, MAPK, neuroinflammation, neuropathic pain, opioids, renin-angiotensin, AMPK, calcium, and synapses; and pathways associated with dendritic cell maturation and G-coupled protein receptor-mediated nutrient sensing in enteroendocrine cells. All samples tested showed significant effects on the expression of genes encoding neurohormones CRH, GNRH, UCN, G-protein-coupled and other transmembrane receptors TLR9, PRLR, CHRNE, GP1BA, PLXNA4, a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor RORA, transmembrane channels, transcription regulators FOS, FOXO6, SCX, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, ZNF467, protein kinases MAPK10, MAPK13, MERTK, FLT1, PRKCH, ROS1, TTN), phosphatases PTPRD, PTPRR, peptidases, metabolic enzymes, a chaperone (HSPA6), and other proteins, all of which modulate numerous life processes, playing key roles in several canonical pathways involved in defense response and regulation of homeostasis in organisms. It is for the first time we report that the molecular mechanism of actions of melatonin and plant adaptogens are alike, all adaptogens tested activated the melatonin signaling pathway by acting through two G-protein-coupled membrane receptors MT1 and MT2 and upregulation of the ligand-specific nuclear receptor RORA, which plays a role in intellectual disability, neurological disorders, retinopathy, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cancer, which are common in aging. Furthermore, melatonin activated adaptive signaling pathways and upregulated expression of UCN, GNRH1, TLR9, GP1BA, PLXNA4, CHRM4, GPR19, VIPR2, RORA, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, FLT1, MAPK10, MERTK, PRKCH, and TTN, which were commonly regulated by all adaptogens tested. We conclude that melatonin is an adaptation hormone playing an important role in regulation of homeostasis. Adaptogens presumably worked as eustressors ("stress-vaccines") to activate the cellular adaptive system by inducing the expression of ASRSPs, which then reciprocally protected cells from damage caused by distress. Functional investigation by interactive pathways analysis demonstrated that adaptogens activated ASRSPs associated with stress-induced and aging-related disorders such as chronic inflammation, cardiovascular health, neurodegenerative cognitive impairment, metabolic disorders, and cancer.
CONCLUSION: This study has elucidated the genome-wide effects of several adaptogenic herbal extracts in brain cells culture. These data highlight the consistent activation of ASRSPs by adaptogens in T98G neuroglia cells. The extracts affected many genes playing key roles in modulation of adaptive homeostasis, indicating their ability to modify gene expression to prevent stress-induced and aging-related disorders. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive look at the molecular mechanisms by which adaptogens exerts stress-protective effects.

Wu K, Wang W, Ye Y, et al.
Integration of protein interaction and gene co-expression information for identification of melanoma candidate genes.
Melanoma Res. 2019; 29(2):126-133 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer that causes death worldwide. Although much has been learned about the molecular basis of melanoma genesis and progression, there is also increasing appreciation for the continuing discovery of melanoma genes to improve the genetic understanding of this malignancy. In the present study, melanoma candidate genes were identified by analysis of the common network from cancer type-specific RNA-Seq co-expression data and protein-protein interaction profiles. Then, an integrated network containing the known melanoma-related genes represented as seed genes and the putative genes represented as linker genes was generated using the subnetwork extraction algorithm. According to the network topology property of the putative genes, we selected seven key genes (CREB1, XPO1, SP3, TNFRSF1B, CD40LG, UBR1, and ZNF484) as candidate genes of melanoma. Subsequent analysis showed that six of these genes are melanoma-associated genes and one (ZNF484) is a cancer-associated gene on the basis of the existing literature. A signature comprising these seven key genes was developed and an overall survival analysis of 461 cutaneous melanoma cases was carried out. This seven-gene signature can accurately determine the risk profile for cutaneous melanoma tumors (log-rank P=3.27E-05) and be validated on an independent clinical cohort (log-rank P=0.028). The presented seven genes might serve as candidates for studying the molecular mechanisms and help improve the prognostic risk assessment, which have clinical implications for melanoma patients.

Gao F, Zafar MI, Jüttner S, et al.
Expression and Molecular Regulation of the Cox2 Gene in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors and Antiproliferation of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs).
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:8125-8140 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) has had a significant increase over the past 4 decades. The pathophysiological role of the cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) gene and factors responsible for the expression in GEP-NETs is of clinical value. Current study determined the expression of cox-2 gene in human GEP-NET tissues and corresponding cell lines, investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cox-2 gene expression and assessed the effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on both anchorage-dependent and independent growth of GEP-NET cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS GEP-NET tissues and QGP-1, BON, and LCC-18 GEP-NET cell lines were used. The expression of cox-2 gene was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, western blot, RT-PCR, and enzyme immunoassay. Transient transfection and luciferase assays along with electrophoretic mobility shift assays were conducted to explore the regulation of cox-2 gene expression. The effect of COX-inhibitors on GEP-NET cell growth was determined by proliferation assays and colony growth assessment. RESULTS We found 87.8% of GEP-NET tissues stained positive for COX-2. QGP-1 and LCC-18 cells expressed cox-2 gene. PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) amounts quantified in the supernatants of NET cells matched to cox-2 expression level. The CRE-E-box element (-56 to -48 bp) and binding of USF1, USF2, and CREB transcription factors to this proximal promoter element were essential for cox-2 promoter activity in GEP-NET cells. COX-2-specific inhibitor NS-398 potently and dose-dependently inhibited PGE2 release from QGP-1 cells. Interestingly, both NS-398 and acetylic salicylic acid effectively suppressed proliferation of QGP-1 and BON cells in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS The majority of GEP-NETs over express cox-2 gene. The binding of CREB and USF-1/-2 transcription factors to a proximal, overlapping CRE-Ebox element is the underlying mechanism for cox-2 gene expression. NSAIDs potently suppressed the proliferations and may offer a novel approach for chemoprevention and therapy of GEP-NETs.

Subbaramaiah K, Iyengar NM, Morrow M, et al.
Prostaglandin E
J Biol Chem. 2019; 294(1):361-371 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
Obesity increases the risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, are increased in the breast tissue of obese women. Both prostaglandin E

Ma R, Zhai X, Zhu X, Zhang L
LINC01585 functions as a regulator of gene expression by the CAMP/CREB signaling pathway in breast cancer.
Gene. 2019; 684:139-148 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women. Nowadays, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified and emerged as critical bio-markers in breast cancer tumorigenesis and progression. However, only a handful of lncRNAs which are implicated in BC have been characterized. The underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown.
METHODS: In this study, we explored 12 nominated lncRNAs at breast cancer susceptibility loci identified by genome-wide association studies to contribute to the risk and effects of breast cancer. We then analyzed these lncRNAs in a total of 132 pairs of breast cancer tissues and surrounding non-tumor tissues from southern China population.
RESULTS: Here, we report a novel lncRNA, LINC01585, is aberrantly down regulated during breast cancer (BC). Next, to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activity of LINC01585, we identified LINC01585 binding protein by RNA pull-down experiments. Functionally, we found that LINC01585 overexpression inhibited breast cancer proliferation and growth by prototypical experiments. Mechanistically, LINC01585 was located in nuclear and binding with NONO protein. Interestingly, when LINC01585 was down-expressed, NONO separated from LINC01585 and then interacted with CRTC. The complex promotes CAMP/CREB target gene transcription and thus promotes the growth of breast cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: A series of discoveries suggest to us that LINC01585 has a potential value in anti-carcinoma therapy and deserves further investigation.

Linder M, Glitzner E, Srivatsa S, et al.
EGFR is required for FOS-dependent bone tumor development via RSK2/CREB signaling.
EMBO Mol Med. 2018; 10(11) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is a rare tumor of the bone occurring mainly in young adults accounting for 5% of all childhood cancers. Because of the limited therapeutic options, there has been no survival improvement for OS patients in the past 40 years. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly expressed in OS; however, its clinical relevance is unclear. Here, we employed an autochthonous c-Fos-dependent OS mouse model (H2

Suber TL, Nikolli I, O'Brien ME, et al.
FBXO17 promotes cell proliferation through activation of Akt in lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Respir Res. 2018; 19(1):206 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, mediated in part, by ubiquitin E3 ligases, is critical in regulating cellular processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and migration. FBXO17 was recently identified as an F-box protein that targets glycogen synthase kinase-3β to the E3 ubiquitin ligase protein complex for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Here, we identified that in several lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, FBXO17 cellular protein was detected at relatively high levels, as was expression in a subset of lung cancers. Hence, we investigated the effects of FBXO17 on cell proliferation.
METHODS: Single cell RNA sequencing analysis was performed on a resection of a non-small cell lung carcinoma tumor to examine FBXO17 expression. Multiple lung cancer cell lines were immunoblotted, and The Cancer Genome Atlas was analyzed to determine if FBXO17 expression was amplified in a subset of lung cancers. A549 cells were transfected with empty vector or FBXO17-V5 plasmid and immunoblotted for Akt pathway mediators including PDK1, ERK1/2, ribosomal protein S6, and CREB. Cell proliferation and viability were analyzed by trypan blue exclusion, BrdU incorporation and an MTS-based fluorometric assay. Studies were also performed after transfecting with sifbxo17. Samples were used in an RNA microarray analysis to evaluate pathways affected by reduced FBXO17 gene expression.
RESULTS: We observed that overexpression of FBXO17 increased A549 cell proliferation coupled with Akt activation. Ectopically expressed FBXO17 also increased ERK1/2 kinase activation and increased phosphorylation of RPS6, a downstream target of mTOR. We also observed an increased number of cells in S-phase and increased metabolic activity of lung epithelial cells expressing FBXO17. FBXO17 knockdown reduced Akt Ser 473 phosphorylation approaching statistical significance with no effect on Thr 308. However, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, cellular metabolic activity, and overall cell numbers were reduced. When we analyzed RNA profiles of A549 cells with reduced FBXO17 expression, we observed downregulation of several genes associated with cell proliferation and metabolism.
CONCLUSIONS: These data support a role for FBXO17 abundance, when left unchecked, in regulating cell proliferation and survival through modulation of Akt and ERK kinase activation. The data raise a potential role for the F-box subunit in modulating tumorigenesis.

Shao H, Ma L, Jin F, et al.
Immune inhibitory receptor LILRB2 is critical for the endometrial cancer progression.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 506(1):243-250 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 2 (LILRB2) is known as an immune inhibitory receptor to suppress the immune system, its function in cancer development remains largely unknown. Herein, we provide the first body of information showing that LILRB2 is highly expressed in the endometrial cancer. More importantly, the expression levels of LILRB2 are inversely correlated with the overall patients' survival. Knockdown of LILRB2 results in a dramatic decrease in the proliferation, colony formation and migration in several endometrial cancer cell lines in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo xenograft experiments reveal a notable reduction of tumor cell growth. Mechanistically, LILRB2 enhances the SHP2/CaMK1/CREB signaling pathways to support the expansion and migration of the endometrial cancer cells. These findings unravel an unexpected role of LILRB2 in solid cancers except for its canonical role in immune surveillance, which may serve as a potential endometrial stem cell marker and may benefit the development of novel strategies for the treatment of endometrial cancers.

Yang J, Zhang Z, Zhang Y, et al.
ZIP4 Promotes Muscle Wasting and Cachexia in Mice With Orthotopic Pancreatic Tumors by Stimulating RAB27B-Regulated Release of Extracellular Vesicles From Cancer Cells.
Gastroenterology. 2019; 156(3):722-734.e6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cachexia, which includes muscle wasting, is a frequent complication of pancreatic cancer. There are no therapies that reduce cachexia and increase patient survival, so it is important to learn more about its mechanisms. The zinc transporter ZIP4 promotes growth and metastasis of pancreatic tumors. We investigated its effects on muscle catabolism via extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (p38 MAPK).
METHODS: We studied nude mice with orthotopic tumors grown from human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1 and BxPC-3); tumors were removed 8 days after cell injection and analyzed by histology. Mouse survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves. ZIP4 was knocked down in AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells with small hairpin RNAs; cells with empty vectors were used as controls. Muscle tissues were collected from mice and analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Conditioned media from cell lines and 3-dimensional spheroid/organoid cultures of cancer cells were applied to C2C12 myotubes. The myotubes and the media were analyzed by immunoblots, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunofluorescence microscopy. EVs were isolated from conditioned media and analyzed by immunoblots.
RESULTS: Mice with orthotopic tumors grown from pancreatic cancer cells with knockdown of ZIP4 survived longer and lost less body weight and muscle mass than mice with control tumors. Conditioned media from cancer cells activated p38 MAPK, induced expression of F-box protein 32 and UBR2 in C2C12 myotubes, and also led to loss of myofibrillar protein myosin heavy chain and myotube thinning. Knockdown of ZIP4 in cancer cells reduced these effects. ZIP4 knockdown also reduced pancreatic cancer cell release of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and HSP90, which are associated with EVs, by decreasing CREB-regulated expression of RAB27B.
CONCLUSIONS: ZIP4 promotes growth of orthotopic pancreatic tumors in mice and loss of muscle mass by activating CREB-regulated expression of RAB27B, required for release of EVs from pancreatic cancer cells. These EVs activate p38 MAPK and induce expression of F-box protein 32 and UBR2 in myotubes, leading to loss of myofibrillar myosin heavy chain and myotube thinning. Strategies to disrupt these pathways might be developed to reduce pancreatic cancer progression and accompanying cachexia.

Infantino V, Dituri F, Convertini P, et al.
Epigenetic upregulation and functional role of the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2019; 1865(1):38-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metabolic reprogramming is a common hallmark of cancer cells. Although some biochemical features have been clarified, there is still much to learn about cancer cell metabolism and its regulation. Aspartate-glutamate carrier isoform 1 (AGC1), encoded by SLC25A12 gene, catalyzes an exchange between intramitochondrial aspartate and cytosolic glutamate plus a proton across the mitochondrial membrane, so supplying aspartate to the cytosol. SLC25A12, expressed in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle, is silenced in normal liver. Here, we demonstrate that SLC25A12 gene is reactivated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 cell line through histone acetylation and CREB recruitment. Furthermore, SLC25A12 knockdown by small interfering RNA, impairs HepG2 cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest. AGC1 sustains HCC cell growth by supplying cytosolic aspartate for nucleotide biosynthesis. In addition, SLC25A12-silenced HCC cells show a strong reduction of cell migration. Overall, we have provided evidence for molecular mechanisms controlling SLC25A12 gene expression in liver and pointing to an important role for AGC1 in HCC.

Jeong JW, Park C, Cha HJ, et al.
Cordycepin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cell migration and invasion in human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells through down-regulation of prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4.
BMB Rep. 2018; 51(10):532-537 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major product of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of many solid tumors, including colorectal cancer. Because PGE2 functions by signaling through PGE2 receptors (EPs), which regulate tumor cell growth, invasion, and migration, there has been a growing amount of interest in the therapeutic potential of targeting EPs. In the present study, we investigated the role of EP4 on the effectiveness of cordycepin in inhibiting the migration and invasion of HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Our data indicate that cordycepin suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-enhanced cell migration and invasion through the inactivation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 as well as the down-regulation of COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. These events were shown to be associated with the inactivation of EP4 and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Moreover, the EP4 antagonist AH23848 prevented LPS-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion in HCT116 cells. However, the AMPK inhibitor, compound C, as well as AMPK knockdown via siRNA, attenuated the cordycepin-induced inhibition of EP4 expression. Cordycepin treatment also reduced the activation of CREB. These findings indicate that cordycepin suppresses the migration and invasion of HCT116 cells through modulating EP4 expression and the AMPK-CREB signaling pathway. Therefore, cordycepin has the potential to serve as a potent anti-cancer agent in therapeutic strategies against colorectal cancer metastasis. [BMB Reports 2018; 51(10): 533-538].

Segawa K, Sugita S, Aoyama T, et al.
Detection of specific gene rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 16 cases of clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue and 6 cases of clear cell sarcoma-like gastrointestinal tumor.
Diagn Pathol. 2018; 13(1):73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 04/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue (CCSST) and clear cell sarcoma-like gastrointestinal tumor (CCSLGT) are malignant mesenchymal tumors that share some pathological features, but they also have several different characteristics. They are well known to express chimeric fusions of Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) family members; namely, EWSR1-activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) and EWSR1-CREB1. In addition, recent studies have suggested the presence of other fusions.
METHODS: We used fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect specific rearrangements including EWSR1, ATF1, CREB1, and cAMP response element modulator (CREM) in 16 CCSST and 6 CCSLGT cases. We also used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect specific chimeric fusions of EWSR1-ATF1 and EWSR1-CREB1 using fresh tumor samples in available cases.
RESULTS: A total of 15 of 16 CCSST cases (93.8%) had EWSR1 rearrangement, of which 11 (68.8%) also had ATF1 rearrangement, suggestive of the presence of EWSR1-ATF1 fusions. One CCSST case (6.3%) was found to have EWSR1 and CREM rearrangements, and 4 of 6 CCSLGT cases (66.7%) had EWSR1 rearrangement, of which 2 (33.3%) showed ATF1 rearrangement and the other 2 cases (33.3%) showed CREB1 rearrangement. These cases most likely had EWSR1-ATF1 and EWSR1-CREB1 fusions, respectively. RT-PCR was performed in 8 available cases, including 6 CCSSTs and 2 CCSLGTs. All CCSSTs showed EWSR1-ATF1 fusions. Among the 2 CCSLGT cases, one had EWSR1-ATF1 fusion and the other had EWSR1-CREB1 fusion.
CONCLUSIONS: Rearrangements of EWSR1 and ATF1 or EWSR1-ATF1 fusion were predominantly found in CCSST, whereas those of EWSR1 and CREB1 or EWSR1-CREB1 tended to be detected in CCSLGT. A novel CREM fusion was also detected in a few cases of CCSST and CCSLGT. The cases in which EWSR1 rearrangement was detected without definitive partner genes should be considered for the presence of CREM rearrangement.

Chen YJ, Huang CH, Shi YJ, et al.
The suppressive effect of arsenic trioxide on TET2-FOXP3-Lyn-Akt axis-modulated MCL1 expression induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2018; 358:43-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been reported to inhibit the activity of Ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET). TET modulates FOXP3 expression, while dysregulation of FOXP3 expression promotes the malignant progression of leukemia cells. We examined the role of TET-FOXP3 axis in the cytotoxic effects of ATO on the human acute myeloid leukemia cell line, U937. ATO-induced apoptosis in U937 cells was characterized by activation of caspase-3/-9, mitochondrial depolarization, and MCL1 downregulation. In addition, ATO-treated U937 cells showed ROS-mediated inhibition of TET2 transcription, leading to downregulation of FOXP3 expression and in turn, suppression of FOXP3-mediated activation of Lyn and Akt. Overexpression of FOXP3 or Lyn minimized the suppressive effect of ATO on Akt activation and MCL1 expression. Promoter luciferase activity and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed the crucial role of Akt-mediated CREB phosphorylation in MCL1 transcription. Further, ATO-induced Akt inactivation promoted GSK3β-mediated degradation of MCL1. Transfection of constitutively active Akt expression abrogated ATO-induced MCL1 downregulation. MCL1 overexpression lessened the ATO-induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane and increased the viability of ATO-treated cells. Thus, our data suggest that ATO induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in U937 cells through its suppressive effect on TET2-FOXP3-Lyn-Akt axis-modulated MCL1 transcription and protein stabilization. Our findings also indicate that the same pathway underlies ATO-induced death in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

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