Gene Summary

Gene:E2F3; E2F transcription factor 3
Aliases: E2F-3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of a small family of transcription factors that function through binding of DP interaction partner proteins. The encoded protein recognizes a specific sequence motif in DNA and interacts directly with the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) to regulate the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle. Altered copy number and activity of this gene have been observed in a number of human cancers. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 2 and 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor E2F3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: E2F3 (cancer-related)

Hua M, Qin Y, Sheng M, et al.
miR‑145 suppresses ovarian cancer progression via modulation of cell growth and invasion by targeting CCND2 and E2F3.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):3575-3583 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNA/miRs) have been demonstrated to be critical post‑transcriptional modulators of gene expression during tumorigenesis. Numerous miRNAs have been revealed to be downregulated in human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). In the present study, it was observed that the expression of miR‑145 was decreased in EOC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR‑145 inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of EOC cells. The D‑type cyclin 2, cyclin D2 (CCND2), and E2F transcription factor 3 (E2F3) were confirmed to be targets of miR‑145. In addition, restoration of these 2 genes significantly reversed the tumor suppressive effects of miR‑145. Collectively, the results indicated that miR‑145 serves a critical role in suppressing the biological behavior of EOC cells by targeting CCND2 and E2F3. Therefore, miR‑145 was suggested to be a potential miRNA‑based therapeutic target in ovarian cancer.

Lv J, Guo L, Wang JH, et al.
Biomarker identification and trans-regulatory network analyses in esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus.
World J Gastroenterol. 2019; 25(2):233-244 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is an aggressive disease with high mortality and an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the only known precursor of EAC, and patients with BE have a persistent and excessive risk of EAC over time. Individuals with BE are up to 30-125 times more likely to develop EAC than the general population. Thus, early detection of EAC and BE could significantly improve the 5-year survival rate of EAC. Due to the limitations of endoscopic surveillance and the lack of clinical risk stratification strategies, molecular biomarkers should be considered and thoroughly investigated.
AIM: To explore the transcriptome changes in the progression from normal esophagus (NE) to BE and EAC.
METHODS: Two datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) in NCBI Database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) were retrieved and used as a training and a test dataset separately, since NE, BE, and EAC samples were included and the sample sizes were adequate. This study identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the R/Bioconductor project and constructed trans-regulatory networks based on the Transcriptional Regulatory Element Database and Cytoscape software. Enrichment of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) terms was identified using the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) Bioinformatics Resources. The diagnostic potential of certain DEGs was assessed in both datasets.
RESULTS: In the GSE1420 dataset, the number of up-regulated DEGs was larger than that of down-regulated DEGs when comparing EAC
CONCLUSION: After the construction and analyses of the trans-regulatory networks in EAC and BE, the results indicate that COL1A1 and MMP1 could be potential biomarkers for EAC and BE, respectively.

Hartman ML, Sztiller-Sikorska M, Czyz M
Whole-exome sequencing reveals novel genetic variants associated with diverse phenotypes of melanoma cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2019; 58(4):588-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have extensively studied the phenotypic heterogeneity of patient-derived melanoma cells. Here, whole-exome sequencing revealed novel variants of genes associated with the MAPK, NOTCH, Hippo, cell-cycle, senescence, and ubiquitin-dependent pathways, which could contribute to the observed phenotypic diversity between cell lines. Focusing on mutations in the MAPK pathway-associated genes, we found BRAF (BRAF

Manicum T, Ni F, Ye Y, et al.
Prognostic values of
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is the second most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality in the world, with Eastern Asia having the highest incidence rates. E2F is a family of transcription factor proteins that has a variety of functions, which include control of cell cycle, cell differentiation, DNA damage response and cell death. E2F transcription factors are divided into two subfamilies: transcription activators (E2F transcription factors 1 (E2F1), 2 (E2F2) and 3a (E2F3a)) and repressors (E2F3b, E2F transcription factors 4 (E2F4), 5 (E2F5), 6 (E2F6), 7 (E2F7) and 8 (E2F8)). Studies have demonstrated that E2F had prognostic significance in a number of cancers. However, the entirety of the prognostic roles of

Gao L, He RQ, Wu HY, et al.
Expression Signature and Role of miR-30d-5p in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: a Comprehensive Study Based on in Silico Analysis of Public Databases and in Vitro Experiments.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 50(5):1964-1987 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose of this study was to probe the clinico-pathological significance and the underlying mechanism of miR-30d-5p expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
METHODS: We initially examined the level of miR-30d-5p expression in NSCLC and non-cancer tissues using RT-qPCR. Then, a series of validation analyses including a meta-analysis of data from microarray chips in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), data mining of the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and an integrated meta-analysis incorporating GEO microarray chips, TCGA data, in-house RT-qPCR and literature studies were performed to examine the clinico-pathological value of miR-30d-5p expression in NSCLC. In vitro experiments were further conducted to investigate the impact of miR-30d-5p on NSCLC cell growth. The molecular mechanism by which miR-30d-5p regulates the pathogenesis of NSCLC was probed through a bioinformatics analysis of its target genes. Moreover, dual luciferase reporter assay was conducted to verify the targeting regulatory relationship between miR-30d-5p and CCNE2.
RESULTS: Based on results from RT-qPCR, GEO meta-analysis, TCGA data mining and the integrated meta-analysis incorporating GEO microarray chips, TCGA data, in-house RT-qPCR and literature studies, miR-30d-5p expression was decreased in NSCLC tissues, and patients with NSCLC who presented with lower miR-30d-5p expression tended to display an advanced clinical progression. Significant pathways including the Mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis pathway, cell cycle pathway and cysteine and methionine metabolism pathway (all P< 0.05) revealed potential roles of the target genes of miR-30d-5p in the oncogenesis of NSCLC. Results from in vitro experiments indicated that miR-30d-5p could attenuate proliferation and viability of NSCLC cells. Among the 12 identified hub genes, nine genes including E2F3, CCNE2, SKP2, CDK6, TFDP1, LDHA, GOT2, DNMT3B and ST6GALNAC1 were validated by Pearson's correlation test and the human protein atlas (HPA) database as targets of miR-30d-5p with higher probability. Specifically, dual luciferase reporter assay confirmed that CCNE2 was directly targeted by miR-30d-5p.
CONCLUSION: In summary, miR-30d-5p expression is decreased in NSCLC, and it might play the role as tumor suppressor in NSCLC by regulating target genes.

Ramos J, Das J, Felty Q, et al.
NRF1 motif sequence-enriched genes involved in ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve breast cancer signaling pathways.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 172(2):469-485 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) transcription factor has recently been shown to control breast cancer progression. However, mechanistic aspects by which NRF1 may contribute to susceptibility to different breast tumor subtypes are still not fully understood. Since transcriptional control of NRF1 seems to be dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, herein, we investigated the role of NRF1 in estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor negative, but human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve) breast cancer. We found that both mRNA and protein levels of NRF1 and its transcriptional activity were significantly higher in ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve breast cancer samples compared to normal breast tissues. This was consistent with our observation of higher NRF1 protein expression in the experimental model of HER2+ breast cancer brain metastasis. To identify network-based pathways involved in the susceptibility to the ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve breast cancer subtype, the NRF1 transcriptional regulatory genome-wide landscape was analyzed using the approach consisting of a systematic integration of ChIP DNA-seq, RNA-Microarray, NRF1 protein-DNA motif binding, signal pathway analysis, and Bayesian machine learning. Our findings show that a high percentage of known HER2+ breast cancer susceptibility genes, including EGFR, IGFR, and E2F1, are under transcriptional control of NRF1. Promoters of several genes from the KEGG HER2+ breast cancer pathway and 11 signaling pathways linked to 6 hallmarks of cancer contain the NRF1 motif. By pathway analysis, key breast cancer hallmark genes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness, cell apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, chromosomal integrity, and DNA damage/repair were highly enriched with NRF1 motifs. In addition, we found using Bayesian network-based machine learning that 30 NRF1 motif-enriched genes including growth factor receptors-FGFR1, IGF1R; E2Fs transcription factor family-E2F1, E2F3; MAPK pathway-SHC2, GRB2, MAPK1; PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway-PIK3CD, PIK3R1, PIK3R3, RPS6KB2; WNT signaling pathway-WNT7B, DLV1, DLV2, GSK3B, NRF1, and DDB2, known for its role in DNA repair and involvement in early events associated with metastatic progression of breast cancer cells, were associated with HER2-amplified breast cancer. Machine learning search further revealed that the likelihood of HER2-positive breast cancer is almost 100% in a patient with the high NRF1 expression combined with expression patterns of high E2F3, GSK3B, and MAPK1, low or no change in E2F1 and FGFR1, and high or no change in PIK3R3. In summary, our findings suggest novel roles of NRF1 and its regulatory networks in susceptibility to the ER/PR -ve HER2 +ve aggressive breast cancer subtype. Clinical confirmation of our machine learned Bayesian networks will have significant impact on our understanding of the role of NRF1 as a valuable biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis as well as provide strong rationale for future studies to develop NRF1 signaling-based therapeutics to target HER2+ breast cancer.

Liu Y, Lu C, Zhou Y, et al.
Circular RNA hsa_circ_0008039 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and migration by regulating miR-432-5p/E2F3 axis.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 502(3):358-363 [PubMed] Related Publications
As the development of sequencing technology, more and more circular RNAs (circRNAs) are identified in human cancer tissues. Increasing evidences imply circRNAs are important regulators in tumor progression. Nevertheless, how circRNAs participate in breast cancer development and progression is not well understood. In the present study, we identified a novel circRNA hsa_circ_0008039 with upregulated expression level in breast cancer tissues. By functional experiments, we found that hsa_circ_0008039 depletion significantly suppressed the proliferation, arrested cell-cycle progression and reduced migration in breast cancer. Mechanistic investigations suggested that hsa_circ_0008039 served as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-432-5p. Subsequently, E2F3 was identified as the functional target of miR-432-5p and overexpression of hsa_circ_0008039 elevated E2F3 expression in breast cancer. On the whole, our study indicated that hsa_circ_0008039 exerted oncogenic roles in breast cancer and suggested the hsa_circ_0008039/miR-432-5p/E2F3 axis might be a potential therapeutic target.

Sun CC, Zhou Q, Hu W, et al.
Transcriptional E2F1/2/5/8 as potential targets and transcriptional E2F3/6/7 as new biomarkers for the prognosis of human lung carcinoma.
Aging (Albany NY). 2018; 10(5):973-987 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
E2F is a group of genes that encode a family of transcription factors (TFs) in higher eukaryotes and participate in cell cycle regulation and DNA synthesis in mammalian cells. Evidence from cell lines, mouse models, and human tissues indicates that TFs are implicated in lung cancer (LC) tumorigenesis. However, the diverse expression patterns and prognostic values of eight E2Fs have yet to be elucidated. In the current study, we examined the transcriptional and survival data of E2Fs in patients with LC from ONCOMINE, GEPIA, Kaplan-Meier Plotter, and cBioPortal databases. We found that the expression levels of E2F1/2/3/5/6/7/8 were higher in lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell lung carcinoma tissues than in lung tissues, whereas the expression level of E2F4 was lower in the former than in the latter. The expression levels of E2F2/4/5/7/8 were correlated with advanced tumor stage. Survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier Plotter database revealed that the high transcription levels of E2F1/2/4/5/7/8 were associated with low relapse-free survival (RFS) in all of the patients with LC. Conversely, high E2F3/6 levels predicted high RFS in these patients. This study implied that E2F3/6/7 are potential targets of precision therapy for patients with LC and that E2F1/2/4/5/8 are new biomarkers for the prognosis of LC.

Li Q, Li C, Chen J, et al.
High expression of long noncoding RNA NORAD indicates a poor prognosis and promotes clinical progression and metastasis in bladder cancer.
Urol Oncol. 2018; 36(6):310.e15-310.e22 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To explore the function of NORAD in bladder cancer (BC), and to verify whether NORAD could be used as a biomarker to determine preoperative presence of progression and lymph node metastasis. To our knowledge, it is the first study investigating NORAD and its implications in BC.
METHODS: BC specimens of 90 patients underwent bladder cystectomy or transurethral resection between January 2012 to December 2016 were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The association between NORAD expression and clinicopathological features and prognosis of the patients was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed in 4 BC cell lines and 10 fresh tumor sample together with adjacent tissues. MTT, colony formation assay, and Annexin-V apoptosis detection were performed after knockdown of NORAD using shRNA in TSSCUP cells. Western blot was performed to related proteins extracted from these cells.
RESULTS: Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that high NORAD expression was associated with more advanced histological grade and clinical stage for patients with BC. Higher NORAD expression resulted in lower overall survival, and was an independent prognostic indicator. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of NORAD in BC tissues was higher than those measured in adjacent normal tissues. MTT and colony formation assay demonstrated that knockdown of NORAD results in lower proliferation in TSSCUP cells, whereas PUM2 expression was upregulated and E2F3 downregulated.
CONCLUSIONS: High NORAD expression could serve as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of patients with transitional BC. NORAD could be considered as a promising candidate for novel biomarker and therapeutic target for human BC.

De Keuckelaere E, Hulpiau P, Saeys Y, et al.
Nanos genes and their role in development and beyond.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2018; 75(11):1929-1946 [PubMed] Related Publications
The hallmark of Nanos proteins is their typical (CCHC)

Luan W, Zhou Z, Ni X, et al.
Long non-coding RNA H19 promotes glucose metabolism and cell growth in malignant melanoma via miR-106a-5p/E2F3 axis.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2018; 144(3):531-542 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: lncRNA H19 has been considered as an oncogenic lncRNA in many human tumours. In the present study, we identify the role and molecular mechanism of lncRNA H19 in melanoma.
METHOD: QRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of lncRNA H19 and E2F3 was detected in melanoma tissues. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK8), representative metabolites analysis was used to explore the biological function of lncRNA H19, miR-106a-5p and E2F3 in melanoma cells. Bioinformatics, luciferase reporter assays, MS2-RIP and RNA pull-down assay was used to demonstrate the molecular mechanism of lncRNA H19 in melanoma. We further test the function of lncRNA H19 in vivo though Xenograft tumour assay.
RESULTS: We found that lncRNA H19 was increased in melanoma tissue, and lncRNA H19 was correlated with poor prognosis of melanoma patients. miR-106a-5p acts as a tumour suppressor in melanoma by targeting E2F3. E2F3 affects the melanoma cell glucose metabolism and growth. We also demonstrated that lncRNA H19 may function as the sponge of miR-106a-5p to up-regulate E2F3 expression, and consequently promote the glucose metabolism and growth of melanoma.
CONCLUSIONS: This result elucidates a new mechanism for lncRNA H19 in melanoma development and provides a survival indicator and potential therapeutic target for melanoma patients.

Nguyen L, Masouminia M, Mendoza A, et al.
Alcoholic hepatitis versus non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Levels of expression of some proteins involved in tumorigenesis.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2018; 104(1):45-49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is commonly associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and/or hypertriglyceridemia, while alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) is associated with alcohol abuse. Both NASH and ASH patients can develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) if left untreated. However, the rate of tumorigenesis in NASH and ASH appears to be different. Individuals with NASH progress to HCC at a rate of 0.5% annually (Lindenmeyer and McCullough, 2018), when individuals with ASH progress to HCC at a rate of 3-10% annually (Schwartz and Reinus, 2012). Thus, the objective of our study is to determine if there are differences in NASH versus ASH in the levels of different proteins expressed involved in cancer development. The method used was measuring the proteins expressed in liver biopsied sections from NASH and ASH patients using immunohistochemical staining with fluorescent antibodies and then quantitating the fluorescence intensity morphometrically. The 20 proteins tested are parts of the Ingenuity Canonical Pathway of Molecular Mechanisms of Cancer and include: RAP2B, NAIP, FYN, PAK6, SUV39H1, GNAI1, BAX, E2F3, CKDN2B, BAK1, BCL2, DIABLO, RASGRF2, GNA15, PIK3CB, BRCA1, MAP2K1, BIRC3, CDK2, and ATM. In ASH, the proteins that showed upregulated levels of expression were SUV39H1, E2F3, BCL2, BAK1, BIRC3, and GNAI1. In NASH, the proteins that showed upregulated levels of expression were BAK1 and GNAI1 and the protein that showed downregulated level of expression was BCL2. Additionally, levels of expression for SUV39H1, E2F3, BCL2, BAK1, BIRC3, and GNAI1 were significant upregulated in ASH compared to NASH. These results showed significant differences in ASH compared to normal liver, and significant differences in ASH compared to NASH. Thus, we conclude that there are more proteins involved in tumorigenesis in ASH compared to NASH and in ASH compared to normal liver, which is consistent with the known tumor development rate in ASH and NASH.

Lu Y, Li W
Functional characterization of E2F3b in human HepG2 liver cancer cell line.
J Cell Biochem. 2018; 119(4):3429-3439 [PubMed] Related Publications
E2F3 is a transcription factor that has been shown to be overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is well-known that the E2F3 gene encodes two proteins E2F3a and E2F3b. Therefore, the functions of the two distinct isoforms need to be clarified separately. To characterize the function of E2F3b in HCC, the effects of ectopic expression of E2F3b on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and gene expression were investigated. E2F3b promoted G1/S phase transition and markedly increased cell proliferation, but had minor effect on apoptosis. Microarray analyses identified 366 differentially expressed genes (171 upregulated and 195 downregulated) in E2F3b- overexpressing cells. Differential expression of 16 genes relevant to cell cycle and cell proliferation were further verified by real-time PCR. Six genes, including CDC2, CCNE1, ARF, MAP4K2, MUSK, and PAX2 were confirmed to be upregulated by more than twofold; one gene, CCNA2 was validated to be downregulated by more than twofold. We also confirmed that E2F3b increased the protein levels of both cyclin E and Arf but did not affect cyclin D1 protein. These results suggest that E2F3b functions as an important promoter for cell proliferation and plays important roles in transcriptional regulation in HepG2 liver cancer cells.

Toraih EA, Aly NM, Abdallah HY, et al.
MicroRNA-target cross-talks: Key players in glioblastoma multiforme.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(11):1010428317726842 [PubMed] Related Publications
The role of microRNAs in brain cancer is still naive. Some act as oncogene and others as tumor suppressors. Discovery of efficient biomarkers is mandatory to debate that aggressive disease. Bioinformatically selected microRNAs and their targets were investigated to evaluate their putative signature as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in primary glioblastoma multiforme. Expression of a panel of seven microRNAs (hsa-miR-34a, hsa-miR-16, hsa-miR-17, hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-221, hsa-miR-326, and hsa-miR-375) and seven target genes ( E2F3, PI3KCA, TOM34, WNT5A, PDCD4, DFFA, and EGFR) in 43 glioblastoma multiforme specimens were profiled compared to non-cancer tissues via quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry staining for three proteins (VEGFA, BAX, and BCL2) was performed. Gene enrichment analysis identified the biological regulatory functions of the gene panel in glioma pathway. MGMT ( O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) promoter methylation was analyzed for molecular subtyping of tumor specimens. Our data demonstrated a significant upregulation of five microRNAs (hsa-miR-16, hsa-miR-17, hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-221, and hsa-miR-375), three genes ( E2F3, PI3KCA, and Wnt5a), two proteins (VEGFA and BCL2), and downregulation of hsa-miR-34a and three other genes ( DFFA, PDCD4, and EGFR) in brain cancer tissues. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that miR-34a (area under the curve = 0.927) and miR-17 (area under the curve = 0.900) had the highest diagnostic performance, followed by miR-221 (area under the curve = 0.845), miR-21 (area under the curve = 0.836), WNT5A (area under the curve = 0.809), PDCD4 (area under the curve = 0.809), and PI3KCA (area under the curve = 0.800). MGMT promoter methylation status was associated with high miR-221 levels. Moreover, patients with VEGFA overexpression and downregulation of TOM34 and BAX had poor overall survival. Nevertheless, miR-17, miR-221, and miR-326 downregulation were significantly associated with high recurrence rate. Multivariate analysis by hierarchical clustering classified patients into four distinct groups based on gene panel signature. In conclusion, the explored microRNA-target dysregulation could pave the road toward developing potential therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma multiforme. Future translational and functional studies are highly recommended to better understand the complex bio-molecular signature of this difficult-to-treat tumor.

Toraih EA, Ibrahiem AT, Fawzy MS, et al.
MicroRNA-34a: A Key Regulator in the Hallmarks of Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017; 2017:3269379 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) incidence has increased over the past two decades. Recent studies reported microRNAs as promising biomarkers for early cancer detection, accurate prognosis, and molecular targets for future treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the expression levels of miR-34a and 11 of its bioinformatically selected target genes and proteins to test their potential dysregulation in RCC. Quantitative real-time PCR for miR-34a and its targets;

Ye J, Zhang W, Liu S, et al.
miR-363 inhibits the growth, migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by regulating E2F3.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(6):3677-3684 [PubMed] Related Publications
A growing body of evidence suggests that microRNA-363 (miR-363) plays crucial roles in tumor progression, development and metastasis, and confer resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in several types of cancers. However, the biological function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-363 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the biological function and mechanism of miR-363 in the regulation of HCC progression. We found that miR-363 was downregulated in HCC cell lines and tissues, and a low expression level of miR-363 was associated with tumor differentiation, TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Forced overexpression of miR-363 significantly suppressed HCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion and decreased epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro, as well as inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms revealed that miR-363 regulated E2F transcription factor 3 (E2F3) expression by directly targeting its 3' untranslated region. E2F3 overexpression partially attenuated the tumor-suppressive effects of miR-363 in HCC cells. In addition, E2F3 expression was upregulated in the HCC tissues, and was negatively correlated with the level of miR-363 in human HCC tissues. Taken together, these results revealed that miR-363 is involved in HCC growth and invasion and functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating E2F3.

Yang J, Zhang HF, Qin CF
MicroRNA-217 functions as a prognosis predictor and inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion via targeting E2F3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(18):4050-4057 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most malignant tumor among all the tumors in the digestive system. MiR-217 has been reported to take a critical part in various malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to explore the function of MiR-217 in pancreatic cancer and its target genes.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty pairs of PC tissues and matched normal adjacent pancreatic tissues were collected. The expression of miR-217 in PC tissues and normal pancreatic tissues was detected by Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PC cells were transfected with miR-217 mimics, inhibitors and negative control, respectively. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to detect cell viability. Cell apoptosis was checked via Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis kit. The protein expression of E2F3 was detected by Western blot. To detect repression by miR-217, HEK293T cells were co-transfected with the indicated E2F3 3'-UTR luciferase reporter.
RESULTS: The expression of miR-217 was reduced in PC tissues comparing to normal pancreatic tissues. Meantime, the in-vitro study revealed that miR-217 suppressed PC cell growth, invasion but promoted apoptosis. Next, we proved that E2F3 was the target of miR-217 on PC cell function.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-217 suppresses PC cell growth, invasion but promotes apoptosis in vitro through targeting E2F3. The miR-217-E2F3 axis may be used for PC therapy.

Wu S, Wu F, Jiang Z
Identification of hub genes, key miRNAs and potential molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(4):2043-2050 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer of the digestive system. The aim of the present study was to identify the potential biomarkers and uncover the underlying mechanisms. The gene and miRNA expression profiles were obtained from GEO database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and miRNAs (DE miRNAs) were identified by GEO2R. The gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed by KOBAS 3.0. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and miRNA-gene network were constructed by Cytoscape software. Then, the identified genes were verified by quantitative real-time PCR in both CRC tissue samples and cell lines. A total of 600 upregulated DEGs, 283 downregulated DEGs, 13 upregulated DE miRNAs and 7 downregulated DE miRNAs were identified. GO analysis results showed that upregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in binding, organelle and cellular process. Downregulated DEGs were enriched in binding, extracellular region and chemical homeostasis. KEGG analysis showed that the DEGs were mostly enriched in cell cycle and pathways in cancer. A total of eight genes were identified as biomarkers, including CAD, ITGA2, E2F3, BCL2, PRKACB, IGF1, SGK1 and NR3C1. Experimental validation showed that seven of the eight identified genes had the same expression trend as predicted, except for ITGA2. Besides, hsa-miR-552 and hsa‑miR-30a were identified as key miRNAs. the present study provides a series of biomarkers and mechanisms for the diagnosis and therapy of CRC. We also prove that although bioinformatics analysis is a wonderful approach, experiment validation is necessary.

Ma C, Han J, Dong D, Wang N
MicroRNA-152 Suppresses Human Osteosarcoma Cell Proliferation and Invasion by Targeting E2F Transcription Factor 3.
Oncol Res. 2018; 26(5):765-773 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-152 (miR-152) expression has been reported to be downregulated in osteosarcoma (OS). However, the role of miR-152 in OS is not well documented. In the present study, we aimed to explore the function and underlying mechanism of miR-152 in OS. We found that miR-152 was underexpressed in OS tissues and cell lines. Decreased miR-152 was inversely correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced clinical stage. Overexpression of miR-152 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion of OS cells. Bioinformatics analyses showed that miR-152 directly targeted E2F transcription factor 3 (E2F3), as further confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. E2F3 expression was upregulated and inversely correlated with miR-152 expression level in human OS tissues. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of miR-152 on OS growth and invasion were attenuated by E2F3 overexpression. Taken together, our findings indicated that miR-152 reduced OS growth and invasion by targeting E2F3 and provided new evidence of miR-152 as a potential therapeutic target for OS.

Maag JLV, Fisher OM, Levert-Mignon A, et al.
Novel Aberrations Uncovered in Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Using Whole Transcriptome Sequencing.
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(11):1558-1569 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has one of the fastest increases in incidence of any cancer, along with poor five-year survival rates. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the main risk factor for EAC; however, the mechanisms driving EAC development remain poorly understood. Here, transcriptomic profiling was performed using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) on premalignant and malignant Barrett's tissues to better understand this disease. Machine-learning and network analysis methods were applied to discover novel driver genes for EAC development. Identified gene expression signatures for the distinction of EAC from BE were validated in separate datasets. An extensive analysis of the noncoding RNA (ncRNA) landscape was performed to determine the involvement of novel transcriptomic elements in Barrett's disease and EAC. Finally, transcriptomic mutational investigation of genes that are recurrently mutated in EAC was performed. Through these approaches, novel driver genes were discovered for EAC, which involved key cell cycle and DNA repair genes, such as BRCA1 and PRKDC. A novel 4-gene signature (CTSL, COL17A1, KLF4, and E2F3) was identified, externally validated, and shown to provide excellent distinction of EAC from BE. Furthermore, expression changes were observed in 685 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) and a systematic dysregulation of repeat elements across different stages of Barrett's disease, with wide-ranging downregulation of Alu elements in EAC. Mutational investigation revealed distinct pathways activated between EAC tissues with or without TP53 mutations compared with Barrett's disease. In summary, transcriptome sequencing revealed altered expression of numerous novel elements, processes, and networks in EAC and premalignant BE.

Nakashima S, Jinnin M, Kanemaru H, et al.
The role of miR-210, E2F3 and ephrin A3 in angiosarcoma cell proliferation.
Eur J Dermatol. 2017; 27(5):464-471 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although angiosarcoma exhibits aggressive progression and is associated with unfavourable prognosis, its pathogenesis is poorly understood.
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we investigated the possibility that microRNAs play a role in the pathogenesis of angiosarcoma.
MATERIALS & METHODS: microRNA expression was evaluated by array analysis and real-time PCR, and protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting.
RESULTS: miR-210 expression was decreased in angiosarcoma cells both in vivo and in vitro. E2F3 and ephrin A3 are putative targets of miR-210, and their protein expression was up-regulated in the tumour cells. Knockdown of E2F3 or ephrin A3 resulted in a significant decrease in the number of angiosarcoma cells.
CONCLUSION: Further investigations into the regulatory mechanisms of oncogenesis associated with miR-210/E2F3/ephrin A3 signalling may lead to a new therapeutic approach against angiosarcoma.

Zhu L, Feng H, Jin S, et al.
High expressions of BCL6 and Lewis y antigen are correlated with high tumor burden and poor prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(7):1010428317711655 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant regulation of BCL6 plays crucial oncogenic roles in various malignant tumors; howbeit, the function of BCL6 in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of BCL6 in ovarian cancer. The methods of immunohistochemical staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemical staining, and gene expression profile enrichment analysis were performed to identify the possible role of BCL6 in ovarian cancer. We observed that the expression of BCL6 was significantly higher in ovarian cancer tissues and correlated with higher tumor burden including advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages, poor differentiation, Type II ovarian cancer, the presence of >1 cm residual tumor size, and appearance of recurrence or death (all p < 0.05). The expression patterns of Lewis y were similar to these of BCL6. Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, lymph node metastasis, residual tumor size >1 cm, as well as high expressions of BCL6 and Lewis y antigen were independent factors of worse progression-free survival and overall survival (all p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation of the expressions of BCL6 and Lewis y antigen. The associated genes with BCL6 in response to Lewis y antigen were identified, including four upregulated genes ( SOCS3, STAT1, PPARG, and GADD45A) and three downregulated genes ( ACAN, E2F3, and ZBTB7B). In conclusion, the high expressions of BCL6 and Lewis y antigen are associated with development, high tumor burden, and worse prognosis of ovarian cancer and targeting BCL6 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer treatment.

Shivakumar M, Lee Y, Bang L, et al.
Identification of epigenetic interactions between miRNA and DNA methylation associated with gene expression as potential prognostic markers in bladder cancer.
BMC Med Genomics. 2017; 10(Suppl 1):30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: One of the fundamental challenges in cancer is to detect the regulators of gene expression changes during cancer progression. Through transcriptional silencing of critical cancer-related genes, epigenetic change such as DNA methylation plays a crucial role in cancer. In addition, miRNA, another major component of epigenome, is also a regulator at the post-transcriptional levels that modulate transcriptome changes. However, a mechanistic role of synergistic interactions between DNA methylation and miRNA as epigenetic regulators on transcriptomic changes and its association with clinical outcomes such as survival have remained largely unexplored in cancer.
METHODS: In this study, we propose an integrative framework to identify epigenetic interactions between methylation and miRNA associated with transcriptomic changes. To test the utility of the proposed framework, the bladder cancer data set, including DNA methylation, miRNA expression, and gene expression data, from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was analyzed for this study.
RESULTS: First, we found 120 genes associated with interactions between the two epigenomic components. Then, 11 significant epigenetic interactions between miRNA and methylation, which target E2F3, CCND1, UTP6, CDADC1, SLC35E3, METRNL, TPCN2, NACC2, VGLL4, and PTEN, were found to be associated with survival. To this end, exploration of TCGA bladder cancer data identified epigenetic interactions that are associated with survival as potential prognostic markers in bladder cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Given the importance and prevalence of these interactions of epigenetic events in bladder cancer it is timely to understand further how different epigenetic components interact and influence each other.

Hu CE, Du PZ, Zhang HD, Huang GJ
Long Noncoding RNA CRNDE Promotes Proliferation of Gastric Cancer Cells by Targeting miR-145.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017; 42(1):13-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed (CRNDE) gene is a long noncoding RNA (lncRNAs) that is upregulated in colorectal cancer and glioma. Here, we investigated the regulatory function of CRNDE in gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: CRNDE and miR-145 expression were assayed by qRT-PCR, and E2F3 protein expression was measured by western blotting. A luciferase reporter assay was used to detect the direct regulation of miR-145 by CRNDE. Cell viability and colony formation of human GC cells were detected using MTT and colony formation assay, respectively.
RESULTS: CRNDE was highly expressed in GC cell lines and tissues; overexpression of CRNDE increased GC cell viability and promoted colony formation. Knockdown of CRNDE did not result in loss of expression-related effects on cell proliferation and colony formation. Further investigation revealed that the miR-145 target gene E2F3 was strongly expressed following CRNDE competitive molecular sponging of miR-145.
CONCLUSION: CRNDE acted as a growth-promoting lncRNA in GC and maybe a potential target of GC treatment.

Maurus K, Hufnagel A, Geiger F, et al.
The AP-1 transcription factor FOSL1 causes melanocyte reprogramming and transformation.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(36):5110-5121 [PubMed] Related Publications
The MAPK pathway is activated in the majority of melanomas and is the target of therapeutic approaches. Under normal conditions, it initiates the so-called immediate early response, which encompasses the transient transcription of several genes belonging to the AP-1 transcription factor family. Under pathological conditions, such as continuous MAPK pathway overactivation due to oncogenic alterations occurring in melanoma, these genes are constitutively expressed. The consequences of a permanent expression of these genes are largely unknown. Here, we show that FOSL1 is the main immediate early AP-1 member induced by melanoma oncogenes. We first examined its role in established melanoma cells. We found that FOSL1 is involved in melanoma cell migration as well as cell proliferation and anoikis-independent growth, which is mediated by the gene product of its target gene HMGA1, encoding a multipotent chromatin modifier. As FOSL1 expression is increased in patient melanoma samples compared to nevi, we investigated the effect of enhanced FOSL1 expression on melanocytes. Intriguingly, we found that FOSL1 acts oncogenic and transforms melanocytes, enabling subcutaneous tumor growth in vivo. During the process of transformation, FOSL1 reprogrammed the melanocytes and downregulated MITF in a HMGA1-dependent manner. At the same time, AXL was upregulated, leading to a shift in the MITF/AXL balance. Furthermore, FOSL1 re-enforced pro-tumorigenic transcription factors MYC, E2F3 and AP-1. Together, this led to the enhancement of several growth-promoting processes, such as ribosome biogenesis, cellular detachment and pyrimidine metabolism. Overall, we demonstrate that FOSL1 is a novel reprogramming factor for melanocytes with potent tumor transformation potential.

Ren J, Ding L, Xu Q, et al.
LF-MF inhibits iron metabolism and suppresses lung cancer through activation of P53-miR-34a-E2F1/E2F3 pathway.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):749 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous studies showed that low frequency magnetic fields (LF-MF) suppressed tumor growth and influenced the function of immune system. Nevertheless the mechanisms behind the effect of LF-MF still remain to be elucidated. In this study, Tumor- bearing mice subcutaneously inoculated with Lewis lung cancer cells were exposed to a LF-MF (0.4T, 7.5 Hz) for 35 days and Survival rate, tumor growth and the tumor markers were measured. Results showed that tumor growth was obviously inhibited with a prolonged survival of tumor- bearing mice by LF-MF exposure. In vitro experiments, LF-MF was found to induce cell growth arrest, cell senescence and inhibit iron metabolism of lung cancer cells. Moreover, LF-MF stabilized p53 protein via inhibiting cell iron metabolism and the stabilized p53 protein enhanced miR-34a transcription. Furthermore, increased expression of miR-34a induced cell proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest and cell senescence of lung cancer cells by targeting E2F1/E2F3. We also detected the relevant indicator in tumor tissue such as the iron content, the level of miR-34a and related protein, corresponding results were obtained. Taken together, these observations imply that LF-MF suppressed lung cancer via inhibiting cell iron metabolism, stabilizing p53 protein and activation P53- miR-34a-E2F1/E2F3 pathway.

Gnani D, Romito I, Artuso S, et al.
Focal adhesion kinase depletion reduces human hepatocellular carcinoma growth by repressing enhancer of zeste homolog 2.
Cell Death Differ. 2017; 24(5):889-902 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer in humans. The focal adhesion tyrosine kinase (FAK) is often over-expressed in human HCC and FAK inhibition may reduce HCC cell invasiveness. However, the anti-oncogenic effect of FAK knockdown in HCC cells remains to be clarified. We found that FAK depletion in HCC cells reduced in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity, by inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis, decreasing anchorage-independent growth, and modulating the expression of several cancer-related genes. Among these genes, we showed that FAK silencing decreased transcription and nuclear localization of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and its tri-methylation activity on lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3). Accordingly, FAK, EZH2 and H3K27me3 were concomitantly upregulated in human HCCs compared to non-tumor livers. In vitro experiments demonstrated that FAK affected EZH2 expression and function by modulating, at least in part, p53 and E2F2/3 transcriptional activity. Moreover, FAK silencing downregulated both EZH2 binding and histone H3K27me3 levels at the promoter of its target gene NOTCH2. Finally, we found that pharmacological inhibition of FAK activity resembled these effects although milder. In summary, we demonstrate that FAK depletion reduces HCC cell growth by affecting cancer-promoting genes including the pro-oncogene EZH2. Furthermore, we unveil a novel unprecedented FAK/EZH2 crosstalk in HCC cells, thus identifying a targetable network paving the way for new anticancer therapies.

Al Ahmed HA, Nada O
E2F3 transcription factor: A promising biomarker in lung cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2017; 19(1):21-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many researches aiming to explore the pathogenesis of lung cancer have extensively studied the molecular alteration in such disease.
OBJECTIVE: In the present study we measured the blood E2F3 mRNA using real-time RT-PCR technique in order to evaluate its clinical significance in early diagnosis and monitoring of lung cancer.
METHODS: This case-control study included 50 lung cancer patients, 20 patients with benign lung diseases and 20 healthy controls. Relative quantification of blood E2F3 mRNA was done by real-time RT-PCR.
RESULTS: Blood E2F3 mRNA levels were significantly higher in lung cancer patients when compared to either patients with benign lung diseases or healthy subjects. This elevation was significant in those with metastatic lung cancer as compared to those with localized lung cancer. At a cutoff^{(2-Δ Δ CT)} 1.5, blood E2F3 mRNA was able to distinguish malignant from benign lung conditions with a diagnostic sensitivity of 100%; while at a cutoff^{(2-Δ Δ CT)} 5.3, blood E2F3 mRNA discriminated localized from metastatic lung cancer with a sensitivity of 93.6%.
CONCLUSIONS: Blood E2F3 mRNA is a sensitive diagnostic marker in lung cancer; moreover, it is a promising prognostic marker capable of efficiently discriminating early from late stages of the disease.

Kent LN, Bae S, Tsai SY, et al.
Dosage-dependent copy number gains in E2f1 and E2f3 drive hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Clin Invest. 2017; 127(3):830-842 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Disruption of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway, either through genetic mutation of upstream regulatory components or mutation of RB1 itself, is believed to be a required event in cancer. However, genetic alterations in the RB-regulated E2F family of transcription factors are infrequent, casting doubt on a direct role for E2Fs in driving cancer. In this work, a mutation analysis of human cancer revealed subtle but impactful copy number gains in E2F1 and E2F3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using a series of loss- and gain-of-function alleles to dial E2F transcriptional output, we have shown that copy number gains in E2f1 or E2f3b resulted in dosage-dependent spontaneous HCC in mice without the involvement of additional organs. Conversely, germ-line loss of E2f1 or E2f3b, but not E2f3a, protected mice against HCC. Combinatorial mapping of chromatin occupancy and transcriptome profiling identified an E2F1- and E2F3B-driven transcriptional program that was associated with development and progression of HCC. These findings demonstrate a direct and cell-autonomous role for E2F activators in human cancer.

Nakaoka T, Saito Y, Shimamoto Y, et al.
Cluster microRNAs miR-194 and miR-215 suppress the tumorigenicity of intestinal tumor organoids.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(4):678-684 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor stem cells with self-renewal and multipotent capacity play critical roles in the initiation and progression of cancer. Recently, a new 3-D culture system known as organoid culture has been developed, allowing Lgr5-positive stem cells to form organoids that resemble the properties of original tissues. Here we established organoids derived from intestinal tumors of Apc

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