Gene Summary

Gene:KDM5C; lysine demethylase 5C
Summary:This gene is a member of the SMCY homolog family and encodes a protein with one ARID domain, one JmjC domain, one JmjN domain and two PHD-type zinc fingers. The DNA-binding motifs suggest this protein is involved in the regulation of transcription and chromatin remodeling. Mutations in this gene have been associated with X-linked mental retardation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:lysine-specific demethylase 5C
Source:NCBIAccessed: 13 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Young Adult
  • X Chromosome Inactivation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Genetic Heterogeneity
  • DNA Methylation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
  • Kidney
  • Biopsy
  • Transcription Factors
  • Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Risk Factors
  • Histones
  • X-Ray Computed Tomography
  • VHL
  • Base Sequence
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Epigenetics
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Chromatin
  • Sirolimus
  • Mutation
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Promoter Regions
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Genome
  • Histone Demethylases
  • Phenotype
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Precision Medicine
  • Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
  • KDM5C
  • Oxidoreductases, N-Demethylating
  • X Chromosome
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KDM5C (cancer-related)

Lan TT, Keller-Ramey J, Fitzpatrick C, et al.
Unclassified renal cell carcinoma with tubulopapillary architecture, clear cell phenotype, and chromosome 8 monosomy: a new kid on the block.
Virchows Arch. 2016; 469(1):81-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accurate subtyping of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) has become clinically important for therapy and prognostication. RCC subtypes are defined by distinct morphologic and immunohistochemical profiles, and in some instances recurrent cytogenetic and molecular properties. However, some tumors exhibit overlapping morphologic and immunophenotypic features, frequent enough to pose diagnostic dilemmas. This report concerns six histologically unusual RCCs that showed tubulopapillary architecture, clear cell phenotype, and non-diagnostic immunohistochemical profiles. Further investigation of these tumors utilized a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray platform (OncoScan®, Affymetrix) that employed molecular inversion probe (MIP) technology to investigate genome-wide chromosomal copy number changes and loss of heterozygosity in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. The six tumors were assayed in parallel with and in comparison to RCC with typical morphologic or immunohistochemical features for a specific subtype (clear cell, clear cell papillary, and microphthalmia transcription factor (MiT) family translocation RCC). Three of the unusual RCCs showed a molecular signature of clear cell RCC and one of papillary RCC. The remaining two showed monosomy of chromosome 8. Those two cases were tested via next-generation sequencing, and no pathogenic variants were detected, including those in the genes VHL, PBRM1, SETD2, KDM5C, or BAP1. The addition of molecular investigations such as reported here as applied to histologically and immunohistochemically unusual RCC may help to define additional subtypes and contribute to the development of targeted therapy for renal cancer.

Shen H, Xu W, Guo R, et al.
Suppression of Enhancer Overactivation by a RACK7-Histone Demethylase Complex.
Cell. 2016; 165(2):331-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
Regulation of enhancer activity is important for controlling gene expression programs. Here, we report that a biochemical complex containing a potential chromatin reader, RACK7, and the histone lysine 4 tri-methyl (H3K4me3)-specific demethylase KDM5C occupies many active enhancers, including almost all super-enhancers. Loss of RACK7 or KDM5C results in overactivation of enhancers, characterized by the deposition of H3K4me3 and H3K27Ac, together with increased transcription of eRNAs and nearby genes. Furthermore, loss of RACK7 or KDM5C leads to de-repression of S100A oncogenes and various cancer-related phenotypes. Our findings reveal a RACK7/KDM5C-regulated, dynamic interchange between histone H3K4me1 and H3K4me3 at active enhancers, representing an additional layer of regulation of enhancer activity. We propose that RACK7/KDM5C functions as an enhancer "brake" to ensure appropriate enhancer activity, which, when compromised, could contribute to tumorigenesis.

Denis H, Van Grembergen O, Delatte B, et al.
MicroRNAs regulate KDM5 histone demethylases in breast cancer cells.
Mol Biosyst. 2016; 12(2):404-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Alteration of miRNA levels is common in tumors and contributes to the pathogenesis of human malignancies. In the present study we examined the role played by miR-137 in breast tumorigenesis. We found miR-137 levels to be lower in breast cancer cells than in their non-tumorigenic counterparts and observed reduced proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells overexpressing miR-137. We further identified KDM5B, a histone demethylase known to be involved in breast cancer tumorigenesis, as a target of miR-137. As the involvement of histone demethylases in cancer is still poorly understood and as the role of miRNAs in controlling epigenetic mechanisms in cancer is emerging, we broadened our study to the whole KDM5 histone demethylase family to see if the genes coding for these epigenetic enzymes might be regulated by miRNAs in cancer cells. We discovered that KDM5C is overexpressed in breast cancer cells, providing evidence that miR-138 regulates its expression. We found miR-138 overexpression to affect breast cancer cell proliferation. Altogether, our findings suggest that miRNAs may regulate KDM5 histone demethylase levels in breast cancer and thereby control breast cancer cell proliferation and migration.

Rondinelli B, Rosano D, Antonini E, et al.
Histone demethylase JARID1C inactivation triggers genomic instability in sporadic renal cancer.
J Clin Invest. 2015; 125(12):4625-37 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
Mutations in genes encoding chromatin-remodeling proteins are often identified in a variety of cancers. For example, the histone demethylase JARID1C is frequently inactivated in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC); however, it is largely unknown how JARID1C dysfunction promotes cancer. Here, we determined that JARID1C binds broadly to chromatin domains characterized by the trimethylation of lysine 9 (H3K9me3), which is a histone mark enriched in heterochromatin. Moreover, we found that JARID1C localizes on heterochromatin, is required for heterochromatin replication, and forms a complex with established players of heterochromatin assembly, including SUV39H1 and HP1α, as well as with proteins not previously associated with heterochromatin assembly, such as the cullin 4 (CUL4) complex adaptor protein DDB1. Transcription on heterochromatin is tightly suppressed to safeguard the genome, and in ccRCC cells, JARID1C inactivation led to the unrestrained expression of heterochromatic noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that in turn triggered genomic instability. Moreover, ccRCC patients harboring JARID1C mutations exhibited aberrant ncRNA expression and increased genomic rearrangements compared with ccRCC patients with tumors endowed with other genetic lesions. Together, these data suggest that inactivation of JARID1C in renal cancer leads to heterochromatin disruption, genomic rearrangement, and aggressive ccRCCs. Moreover, our results shed light on a mechanism that underlies genomic instability in sporadic cancers.

Ji X, Jin S, Qu X, et al.
Lysine-specific demethylase 5C promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion through inhibition BMP7 expression.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:801 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of tumor and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Patients with HCC routinely undergo surgery followed by adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Despite such aggressive treatment approaches, median survival times remain under 1 year in most cases. KDM5C is a member of the family of JmjC domain-containing proteins that removes methyl residues from methylated lysine 4 on histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4). KDM5C has been proposed as an oncogene in many types of tumors; however, its role and underlying mechanisms in HCC remain unclear.
METHODS: Expression level of KDM5C was examined by RT-PCR, and IHC. Forced expression of KDM5C was mediated by retroviruses, and KDM5C was downregulated by shRNAs expressing lentiviruses. Migration and invasion of HCC cells was measured by wound healing, Transwell and Matrigel assays respectively.
RESULTS: In this study, we report that KDM5C is abundantly expressed in invasive human HCC cells. Cellular depletion of KDM5C by shRNA inhibited HCC cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro, and markedly decreased the metastasis capacity of invasive HCC cells in the liver and lung. Furthermore, ectopic expression of KDM5C in HCC cells promoted cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the inactivation of BMP7. Knockdown of BMP7 significantly promotes shKDM5C-induced cell migration inhibition.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data suggest that KDM5C-mediated BMP7 inactivation is essential for HCC cell invasion.

Ricketts CJ, Linehan WM
Gender Specific Mutation Incidence and Survival Associations in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (CCRCC).
PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0140257 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is diagnosed in >200,000 individuals worldwide each year, accounting for ~2% of all cancers, but the spread of this disease amongst genders is distinctly uneven. In the U.S. the male:female incidence ratio is approximately 2:1. A potential hypothesis is mutation spectra may differ between tumors dependent upon the gender of the patient, such as mutations of X chromosome encoded genes being more prevalent in male-derived tumors. Combined analysis of three recent large-scale clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) mutation sequencing projects identified a significantly increased mutation frequency of PBRM1 and the X chromosome encoded KDM5C in tumors from male patients and BAP1 in tumors from female patients. Mutation of BAP1 had previously been significantly associated with poorer overall survival; however, when stratified by gender, mutation of BAP1 only significantly affected overall survival in female patients. Mutation of chromatin remodeling genes alters gene regulation, but the overall effect of these alterations may also be modified by the presence of other gender specific factors. Thus, the combination of gender and mutation of a specific gene, such as BAP1, may have implications not only for prognosis but also for understanding the role of chromatin remodeling gene mutations in kidney cancer progression.

Lee SH, Lee EH, Lee SH, et al.
Epigenetic Role of Histone 3 Lysine Methyltransferase and Demethylase in Regulating Apoptosis Predicting the Recurrence of Atypical Meningioma.
J Korean Med Sci. 2015; 30(8):1157-66 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
Alteration of apoptosis is related with progression and recurrence of atypical meningiomas (AMs). However, no comprehensive study has been conducted regarding histone modification regulating apoptosis in AMs. This study aimed to determine the prognostic values of certain apoptosis-associated factors, and examine the role of histone modification on apoptosis in AMs. The medical records of 67 patients with AMs, as diagnosed during recent 13 yr, were reviewed retrospectively. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on archived paraffin-embedded tissues for pro-apoptotic factors (CASP3, IGFBP, TRAIL-R1, BAX, and XAF1), anti-apoptotic factors (survivin, ERK, RAF1, MDM2, and BCL2), and the histone modifying enzymes (MLL2, RIZ, EZH1, NSD2, KDM5c, JMJD2a, UTX, and JMJD5). Twenty-six (38.8%) patients recurred during the follow-up period (mean duration 47.7 months). In terms of time-to-recurrence (TTR), overexpression of CASP3, TRAIL-R1, and BAX had a longer TTR than low expression, and overexpression of survivin, MDM2, and BCL2 had a shorter TTR than low expression (P<0.05). Additionally, overexpression of MLL2, UTX, and JMJ5 had shorter TTRs than low expression, and overexpression of KDM5c had a longer TTR than low expression. However, in the multi-variate analysis of predicting factors for recurrence, low expression of CASP3 (P<0.001), and BAX (P<0.001), and overexpression of survivin (P=0.007), and MDM2 (P=0.037) were associated with recurrence independently, but any enzymes modifying histone were not associated with recurrence. Conclusively, this study suggests certain apoptosis-associated factors should be associated with recurrence of AMs, which may be regulated epigenetically by histone modifying enzymes.

Wang Q, Wei J, Su P, Gao P
Histone demethylase JARID1C promotes breast cancer metastasis cells via down regulating BRMS1 expression.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 464(2):659-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis is the leading cause of death in breast cancer patients. However, until now, the mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis remain elusive. Epigenetic switch, including histone methylation or demethylation, which can either activates or represses transcription. The JARID1C is a histone demethylase that promotes cancer cell growth and is involved in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling, cause X-linked mental retardation. But the pathogenic breadth and mechanistic aspects of this effect relative to breast cancer have not been defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of JARID1C in breast cancer. In clinical breast cancer samples, we found that JARID1C expression was significantly upregulated in cancer lesions compared with paired normal breast tissues and its expression level is positively correlated with metastasis. Silencing JARID1C in breast cancer cells could inhibit cell migration and invasion. Moreover, we also found that the expression of BRMS1 was modulated by JARID1C. Silencing of JARID1C dramatically increased BRMS1 expression both at mRNA and protein level. Mechanistically, we found JARID1C exerts its function through modulation of H3K4me3 at the BRMS1 gene promoter, which was associated with inactive BRMS1 transcription. BRMS1 knockdown reversed shJARID1C-induced migration inhibition. Further, BRMS1 expression in human breast cancer is negatively correlated with JARID1C expression. Our results, for the first time, portray a pivotal role of JARID1C in regulating metastatic behaviors of breast cancer cells.

Soultati A, Stares M, Swanton C, et al.
How should clinicians address intratumour heterogeneity in clear cell renal cell carcinoma?
Curr Opin Urol. 2015; 25(5):358-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the availability of multiple targeted therapies, the 5-year survival rate of patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) rarely exceeds 10%. Recent insights into the mutational landscape and evolutionary dynamics of ccRCC have offered up a plausible explanation for these outcomes. The purpose of this review is to link the research findings to potential changes in clinical practice.
RECENT FINDINGS: Intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) dominates the evolutionary landscape in ccRCC at the genetic, transcriptomic and proteomic level. Spatial and temporal separation of tumour subclones within the primary tumour as well as between primary and metastatic sites has been demonstrated at single nucleotide resolution. In the cases analysed to date, approximately two-thirds of somatic mutations are not shared between multiple biopsies from the same primary tumour. Very few of the key disease-driving events are shared across all primary tumour regions (with the exception of VHL and loss of chromosome 3p), whereas the majority are restricted to one or more tumour regions (TP53, SETD2, BAP1, PTEN, mTOR, PIK3CA and KDM5C).
SUMMARY: ITH must be considered in the management of ccRCC with respect to diagnostic procedures, prognostic and predictive biomarkers and drug development.

Liao L, Testa JR, Yang H
The roles of chromatin-remodelers and epigenetic modifiers in kidney cancer.
Cancer Genet. 2015; 208(5):206-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the major subtype of kidney cancer that is characterized by frequent inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene in 80-90% of the tumors. Recent reports using massive parallel sequencing technologies have discovered additional cancer driver genes. PBRM1 was found to be mutated in about 40% of ccRCC tumors, whereas BAP1 and SETD2 were each mutated in about 10-15% of ccRCC tumors. JARID1C and UTX, two histone H3 demethylases, were also found to harbor mutations in ccRCC, albeit at lower rates. ccRCC tumors display a high degree of intra-tumoral heterogeneity, with some mutations present in all cancer cells (ubiquitous), whereas others are subclonal. The VHL mutations were always ubiquitous in the tumors; PBRM1 mutations were also ubiquitous but to a lesser extent. On the contrary, mutations in BAP1, SETD2, JARID1C, and UTX were all subclonal, meaning that they were present in a subset of cancer cells in a tumor. The prognostic value of PBRM1 mutations in ccRCC is still controversial, whereas BAP1 mutations were tightly linked to worse clinical outcomes in multiple studies. The molecular functions of these newly identified cancer driver genes are discussed, and they were known readers, writers, or erasers of histone marks on histone H2 and H3 tails that are very close to each other, suggesting that these factors might functionally interact and affect common pathways. The studies on these newly identified tumor suppressors will shed light on ccRCC tumorigenesis and development, and will likely lead to development of novel therapeutic interventions for ccRCC patients.

Chaligné R, Popova T, Mendoza-Parra MA, et al.
The inactive X chromosome is epigenetically unstable and transcriptionally labile in breast cancer.
Genome Res. 2015; 25(4):488-503 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
Disappearance of the Barr body is considered a hallmark of cancer, although whether this corresponds to genetic loss or to epigenetic instability and transcriptional reactivation is unclear. Here we show that breast tumors and cell lines frequently display major epigenetic instability of the inactive X chromosome, with highly abnormal 3D nuclear organization and global perturbations of heterochromatin, including gain of euchromatic marks and aberrant distributions of repressive marks such as H3K27me3 and promoter DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling of chromatin and transcription reveal modified epigenomic landscapes in cancer cells and a significant degree of aberrant gene activity from the inactive X chromosome, including several genes involved in cancer promotion. We demonstrate that many of these genes are aberrantly reactivated in primary breast tumors, and we further demonstrate that epigenetic instability of the inactive X can lead to perturbed dosage of X-linked factors. Taken together, our study provides the first integrated analysis of the inactive X chromosome in the context of breast cancer and establishes that epigenetic erosion of the inactive X can lead to the disappearance of the Barr body in breast cancer cells. This work offers new insights and opens up the possibility of exploiting the inactive X chromosome as an epigenetic biomarker at the molecular and cytological levels in cancer.

Sandgren J, Holm S, Marino AM, et al.
Whole Exome- and mRNA-Sequencing of an AT/RT Case Reveals Few Somatic Mutations and Several Deregulated Signalling Pathways in the Context of SMARCB1 Deficiency.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:862039 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: AT/RTs are rare aggressive brain tumours, mainly affecting young children. Most cases present with genetic inactivation of SMARCB1, a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. We have performed whole exome- and mRNA-sequencing on an early onset AT/RT case for detection of genetic events potentially contributing to the disease.
RESULTS: A de novo germline variant in SMARCB1, c.601C>T p.Arg201∗, in combination with somatic deletion of the healthy allele is likely the major tumour causing event. Only seven somatic small scale mutations were discovered (hitting SEPT03, H2BFM, ZIC4, HIST2H2AB, ZIK1, KRTAP6-3, and IFNA8). All were found with subclonal allele frequencies (range 5.7-17%) and none were expressed. However, besides SMARCB1, candidate genes affected by predicted damaging germline variants that were expressed were detected (KDM5C, NUMA1, and PCM1). Analysis of differently expressed genes revealed many dysregulated pathways in the tumour, such as cell cycle, CXCR4 pathway, GPCR-signalling, and neuronal system. FGFR1, CXCR4, and MDK were upregulated and may represent possible drug targets.
CONCLUSION: The loss of SMARCB1 function leads to AT/RT development and deregulated genes and pathways. Additional predisposing events may however contribute. Studies utilizing NGS technologies in larger cohorts will probably identify recurrent genetic and epigenetic alterations and molecular subgroups with implications for clinical practice and development of targeted therapies.

Sankin A, Hakimi AA, Mikkilineni N, et al.
The impact of genetic heterogeneity on biomarker development in kidney cancer assessed by multiregional sampling.
Cancer Med. 2014; 3(6):1485-92 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
Primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) genetic heterogeneity may lead to an underestimation of the mutational burden detected from a single site evaluation. We sought to characterize the extent of clonal branching involving key tumor suppressor mutations in primary ccRCC and determine if genetic heterogeneity could limit the mutation profiling from a single region assessment. Ex vivo core needle biopsies were obtained from three to five different regions of resected renal tumors at a single institution from 2012 to 2013. DNA was extracted and targeted sequencing was performed on five genes associated with ccRCC (von-Hippel Lindau [VHL], PBRM1, SETD2, BAP1, and KDM5C). We constructed phylogenetic trees by inferring clonal evolution based on the mutations present within each core and estimated the predictive power of detecting a mutation for each successive tumor region sampled. We obtained 47 ex vivo biopsy cores from 14 primary ccRCC's (median tumor size 4.5 cm, IQR 4.0-5.9 cm). Branching patterns of various complexities were observed in tumors with three or more mutations. A VHL mutation was detected in nine tumors (64%), each time being present ubiquitously throughout the tumor. Other genes had various degrees of regional mutational variation. Based on the mutations' prevalence we estimated that three different tumor regions should be sampled to detect mutations in PBRM1, SETD2, BAP1, and/or KDM5C with 90% certainty. The mutational burden of renal tumors varies by region sampled. Single site assessment of key tumor suppressor mutations in primary ccRCC may not adequately capture the genetic predictors of tumor behavior.

Ross JS, Wang K, Rand JV, et al.
Next-generation sequencing of adrenocortical carcinoma reveals new routes to targeted therapies.
J Clin Pathol. 2014; 67(11):968-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
AIMS: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) carries a poor prognosis and current systemic cytotoxic therapies result in only modest improvement in overall survival. In this retrospective study, we performed a comprehensive genomic profiling of 29 consecutive ACC samples to identify potential targets of therapy not currently searched for in routine clinical practice.
METHODS: DNA from 29 ACC was sequenced to high, uniform coverage (Illumina HiSeq) and analysed for genomic alterations (GAs).
RESULTS: At least one GA was found in 22 (76%) ACC (mean 2.6 alterations per ACC). The most frequent GAs were in TP53 (34%), NF1 (14%), CDKN2A (14%), MEN1 (14%), CTNNB1 (10%) and ATM (10%). APC, CCND2, CDK4, DAXX, DNMT3A, KDM5C, LRP1B, MSH2 and RB1 were each altered in two cases (7%) and EGFR, ERBB4, KRAS, MDM2, NRAS, PDGFRB, PIK3CA, PTEN and PTCH1 were each altered in a single case (3%). In 17 (59%) of ACC, at least one GA was associated with an available therapeutic or a mechanism-based clinical trial.
CONCLUSIONS: Next-generation sequencing can discover targets of therapy for relapsed and metastatic ACC and shows promise to improve outcomes for this aggressive form of cancer.

Stein J, Majores M, Rohde M, et al.
KDM5C is overexpressed in prostate cancer and is a prognostic marker for prostate-specific antigen-relapse following radical prostatectomy.
Am J Pathol. 2014; 184(9):2430-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Currently, few prognostic factors are available to predict the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer and no curative options are available. Epigenetic gene regulation has been shown to trigger prostate cancer metastasis and androgen independence. Histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) are epigenetic enzymes that can remove both repressive and activating histone marks. KDM5 family members are capable of removing the histone H3 lysine 4 dimethylation-activating mark, rendering them potential players in the down-regulation of tumor suppressors and suggesting that their activity could repress oncogenes. Here, we systematically investigated KDM5C expression patterns in two independent radical prostatectomy cohorts (822 prostate tumors in total) by immunohistochemistry. Positive nuclear KDM5C staining was significantly associated with a reduced prostate-specific antigen relapse-free survival. Our study confirmed that nuclear KDM5C expression is an independent prognostic parameter. Most strikingly, the prognostic value of nuclear KDM5C expression for progression-free survival was exclusively pronounced for the Gleason group 7. In addition, KDM5C knockdown resulted in growth retardation of prostate cancer cells in vitro and induced regulation of several proliferation-associated genes. Our data indicate that KDM5C is functionally involved in proliferation control of prostate cancer cells and might represent a novel attractive therapy target. Moreover, overexpression of KDM5C is an independent new predictive marker for therapy failure as determined by biochemical recurrence in patients after prostatectomy.

Gossage L, Murtaza M, Slatter AF, et al.
Clinical and pathological impact of VHL, PBRM1, BAP1, SETD2, KDM6A, and JARID1c in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(1):38-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
VHL is mutated in the majority of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), with conflicting clinical relevance. Recent studies have identified recurrent mutations in histone modifying and chromatin remodeling genes, including BAP1, PBRM1, SETD2, KDM6A, and JARID1c. Current evidence suggests that BAP1 mutations are associated with aggressive disease. The clinical significance of the remaining genes is unknown. In this study, targeted sequencing of VHL and JARID1c (entire genes) and coding regions of BAP1, PBRM1, SETD2, and KDM6A was performed on 132 ccRCCs and matched normal tissues. Associations between mutations and clinical and pathological outcomes were interrogated. Inactivation of VHL (coding mutation or promoter methylation) was seen in 75% of ccRCCs. Somatic noncoding VHL alterations were identified in 29% of ccRCCs and may be associated with improved overall survival. BAP1 (11%), PBRM1 (33%), SETD2 (16%), JARID1c (4%), and KDM6A (3%) mutations were identified. BAP1-mutated tumors were associated with metastatic disease at presentation (P = 0.023), advanced clinical stage (P = 0.042) and a trend towards shorter recurrence free survival (P = 0.059) when compared with tumors exclusively mutated for PBRM1. Our results support those of recent publications pointing towards a role for BAP1 and PBRM1 mutations in risk stratifying ccRCCs. Further investigation of noncoding alterations in VHL is warranted.

Karlo CA, Di Paolo PL, Chaim J, et al.
Radiogenomics of clear cell renal cell carcinoma: associations between CT imaging features and mutations.
Radiology. 2014; 270(2):464-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate associations between computed tomographic (CT) features of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and mutations in VHL, PBRM1, SETD2, KDM5C, or BAP1 genes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective, hypothesis-generating study of 233 patients with clear cell RCC and waived the informed consent requirement. The study was HIPAA compliant. Three radiologists independently reviewed pretreatment CT images of all clear cell RCCs without knowledge of their genomic profile. One radiologist measured largest diameter and enhancement parameters of each clear cell RCC. Associations between CT features and mutations in VHL, PBRM1, SETD2, KDM5C, and BAP1 genes were tested by using the Fisher exact test. Associations between mutations and size and enhancement were assessed by using the independent t test. Interreader agreement was calculated by using the Fleiss κ.
RESULTS: Mutation frequencies among clear cell RCCs were as follows: VHL, 53.2% (124 of 233); PBRM1, 28.8% (67 of 233); SETD2, 7.3% (17 of 233); KDM5C, 6.9% (16 of 233); and BAP1, 6.0% (14 of 233). Mutations of VHL were significantly associated with well-defined tumor margins (P = .013), nodular tumor enhancement (P = .021), and gross appearance of intratumoral vascularity (P = .018). Mutations of KDM5C and BAP1 were significantly associated with evidence of renal vein invasion (P = .022 and .046, respectively). The genotype of solid clear cell RCC differed significantly from the genotype of multicystic clear cell RCC. While mutations of SETD2, KDM5C, and BAP1 were absent in multicystic clear cell RCC, mutations of VHL (P = .016) and PBRM1 (P = .017) were significantly more common among solid clear cell RCC. Interreader agreement for CT feature assessments ranged from substantial to excellent (κ = 0.791-0.912).
CONCLUSION: This preliminary radiogenomics analysis of clear cell RCC revealed associations between CT features and underlying mutations that warrant further investigation and validation.

Arnesen T, Glomnes N, Strømsøy S, et al.
Outcome after surgery for primary hyperaldosteronism may depend on KCNJ5 tumor mutation status: a population-based study from Western Norway.
Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2013; 398(6):869-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a frequent cause (about 10 %) of hypertension. Some cases of PA were recently found to be caused by mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5. Our objective was to determine the mutation status of KCNJ5 and seven additional candidate genes for tumorigenesis: YY1, FZD4, ARHGAP9, ZFP37, KDM5C, LRP1B, and PDE9A and, furthermore, the surgical outcome of PA patients who underwent surgery in Western Norway.
METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with aldosterone-producing adrenal tumors (20 patients with single adenoma, 8 patients with unilateral multiple adenomas or hyperplasia) who underwent surgery were included in this study. All patients were operated on by uncomplicated laparoscopic total adrenalectomy. Genomic DNA was isolated from tumor and non-tumor adrenocortical tissue, and DNA sequencing revealed the mutation status.
RESULTS: Ten out of 28 (36 %) patients with PA displayed tumor mutations in KCNJ5 (p. G151R and L168R) while none were found in the corresponding non-tumor samples. No mutations were found in the other seven candidate genes screened. The presence of KCNJ5 mutations was associated with lower blood pressure and a higher chance for cure by surgery when compared to patients harboring the KCNJ5 wild type.
CONCLUSIONS: KCNJ5 mutations are associated with a better surgical outcome. Preoperative identification of the mutation status might have impact on surgical strategy (total vs. subtotal adrenalectomy).

Ibragimova I, Maradeo ME, Dulaimi E, Cairns P
Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of PBRM1, BAP1, SETD2, KDM6A and other chromatin-modifying genes is absent or rare in clear cell RCC.
Epigenetics. 2013; 8(5):486-93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
Recent sequencing studies of clear cell (conventional) renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have identified inactivating point mutations in the chromatin-modifying genes PBRM1, KDM6A/UTX, KDM5C/JARID1C, SETD2, MLL2 and BAP1. To investigate whether aberrant hypermethylation is a mechanism of inactivation of these tumor suppressor genes in ccRCC, we sequenced the promoter region within a bona fide CpG island of PBRM1, KDM6A, SETD2 and BAP1 in bisulfite-modified DNA of a representative series of 50 primary ccRCC, 4 normal renal parenchyma specimens and 5 RCC cell lines. We also interrogated the promoter methylation status of KDM5C and ARID1A in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) ccRCC Infinium data set. PBRM1, KDM6A, SETD2 and BAP1 were unmethylated in all tumor and normal specimens. KDM5C and ARID1A were unmethylated in the TCGA 219 ccRCC and 119 adjacent normal specimens. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of PBRM1, BAP1 and the other chromatin-modifying genes examined here is therefore absent or rare in ccRCC.

Hakimi AA, Chen YB, Wren J, et al.
Clinical and pathologic impact of select chromatin-modulating tumor suppressors in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Eur Urol. 2013; 63(5):848-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Historically, VHL was the only frequently mutated gene in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), with conflicting clinical relevance. Recent sequencing efforts have identified several novel frequent mutations of histone modifying and chromatin remodeling genes in ccRCC including PBRM1, SETD2, BAP1, and KDM5C. PBRM1, SETD2, and BAP1 are located in close proximity to VHL within a commonly lost (approximately 90%) 3p locus. To date, the clinical and pathologic significance of mutations in these novel candidate tumor suppressors is unknown.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of and render the first clinical and pathologic outcome associated with mutations of these novel candidate tumor suppressors in ccRCC.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Targeted sequencing was performed in 185 ccRCCs and matched normal tissues from a single institution. Pathologic features, baseline patient characteristics, and follow-up data were recorded.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The linkage between mutations and clinical and pathologic outcomes was interrogated with the Fisher exact test (for stage and Fuhrman nuclear grade) and the permutation log-rank test (for cancer-specific survival [CSS]).
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: PBRM1, BAP1, SETD2, and KDM5C are mutated at 29%, 6%, 8%, and 8%, respectively. Tumors with mutations in PBRM1 or any of BAP1, SETD2, or KDM5C (19%) are more likely to present with stage III disease or higher (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively). Small tumors (<4 cm) with PBRM1 mutations are more likely to exhibit stage III pathologic features (odds ratio: 6.4; p = 0.001). BAP1 mutations tend to occur in Fuhrman grade III-IV tumors (p = 0.052) and are associated with worse CSS (p = 0.01). Clinical outcome data are limited by the number of events.
CONCLUSIONS: Most mutations of chromatin modulators discovered in ccRCC are loss of function, associated with advanced stage, grade, and possibly worse CSS. Further studies validating the clinical impact of these novel mutations and future development of therapeutics remedying these tumor suppressors are warranted.

Pawłowski R, Mühl SM, Sulser T, et al.
Loss of PBRM1 expression is associated with renal cell carcinoma progression.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(2):E11-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene alterations dominate the genetic landscape of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), recent studies have identified new ccRCC genes, including SETD2, KDM6A, KDM5C, BAP1 and PBRM1. Strikingly, all these genes fall into a category of histone/chromatin regulators. Polybromo-1 (PBRM1) is the second most frequently mutated gene after VHL; however, the clinical relevance of its loss in ccRCC has not yet been reported. Here, we analyzed the expression of PBRM1, the product encoded by PBRM1, in ccRCC cell lines and in more than 300 RCC tumor samples. The data were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and VHL mutation status. We found that a significant number of ccRCC cancer cell lines lack detectable PBRM1 expression. Loss of PBRM1 was predominant in the clear cell subtype of RCC (~ 70%) and correlated with advanced tumor stage (p < 0.0001), low differentiation grade (p = 0.0002) and worse patient outcome (p = 0.025), but not with the VHL mutation status. Our results indicate a critical role for PBRM1 in the suppression of ccRCC progression. Moreover, the results suggest that functional inactivation of PBRM1 in the context of pVHL loss-of-function may represent a key event in facilitating the development of key aspects of an aggressive tumor behavior. Given the role of PBRM1 in chromatin modification, the gene expression pathways disrupted by the inactivation of this protein may lead to new treatment strategies for ccRCC.

Gerlinger M, Rowan AJ, Horswell S, et al.
Intratumor heterogeneity and branched evolution revealed by multiregion sequencing.
N Engl J Med. 2012; 366(10):883-92 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Intratumor heterogeneity may foster tumor evolution and adaptation and hinder personalized-medicine strategies that depend on results from single tumor-biopsy samples.
METHODS: To examine intratumor heterogeneity, we performed exome sequencing, chromosome aberration analysis, and ploidy profiling on multiple spatially separated samples obtained from primary renal carcinomas and associated metastatic sites. We characterized the consequences of intratumor heterogeneity using immunohistochemical analysis, mutation functional analysis, and profiling of messenger RNA expression.
RESULTS: Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed branched evolutionary tumor growth, with 63 to 69% of all somatic mutations not detectable across every tumor region. Intratumor heterogeneity was observed for a mutation within an autoinhibitory domain of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, correlating with S6 and 4EBP phosphorylation in vivo and constitutive activation of mTOR kinase activity in vitro. Mutational intratumor heterogeneity was seen for multiple tumor-suppressor genes converging on loss of function; SETD2, PTEN, and KDM5C underwent multiple distinct and spatially separated inactivating mutations within a single tumor, suggesting convergent phenotypic evolution. Gene-expression signatures of good and poor prognosis were detected in different regions of the same tumor. Allelic composition and ploidy profiling analysis revealed extensive intratumor heterogeneity, with 26 of 30 tumor samples from four tumors harboring divergent allelic-imbalance profiles and with ploidy heterogeneity in two of four tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Intratumor heterogeneity can lead to underestimation of the tumor genomics landscape portrayed from single tumor-biopsy samples and may present major challenges to personalized-medicine and biomarker development. Intratumor heterogeneity, associated with heterogeneous protein function, may foster tumor adaptation and therapeutic failure through Darwinian selection. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and others.).

Larkin J, Goh XY, Vetter M, et al.
Epigenetic regulation in RCC: opportunities for therapeutic intervention?
Nat Rev Urol. 2012; 9(3):147-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a constellation of malignancies of different histological subtypes arising from the renal parenchyma. The clear cell histological subtype (ccRCC) accounts for around 75% of RCCs and is characterized by distinct genetic abnormalities, of which the loss of function of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene is the most common. Inactivation of other tumor suppressor genes such as SETD2, KDM6A, KDM5C and PBRM1 has been reported in ccRCC--notably, the proteins encoded by these genes are involved in histone and chromatin regulation. Furthermore, the PBRM1 and SETD2 genes are located on the short arm of chromosome 3 near the VHL locus. Chromatin and histones modify gene expression and, as a consequence, their function is tightly regulated. Data from RNA interference (RNAi) assays suggest that loss of function of PBRM1 drives proliferation and growth of ccRCC, but the clinical relevance of this is unclear and restoring the function of these genes for therapeutic purposes is likely to be challenging. An improved understanding of histone and chromatin regulation in RCC biology and the consequences of intratumor heterogeneity might identify novel targets in RCC and present alternative therapeutic opportunities.

Patani N, Jiang WG, Newbold RF, Mokbel K
Histone-modifier gene expression profiles are associated with pathological and clinical outcomes in human breast cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2011; 31(12):4115-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is under normal circumstances tightly controlled by the specific methylation of cytosine residues in CpG dinucleotides and coordinated by adjustments in the histone-dependent configuration of chromatin. Following our original report, providing the first description of potential tumor suppressor function associated with the histone methyltransferase SET domain containing 2 (SETD2) in breast cancer, the objective of this study was to determine the expression profiles of 16 further histone-modifier genes in a well annotated cohort of patients with primary operable breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Breast cancer tissues (n=127) and normal tissues (n=33) underwent RNA extraction and reverse transcription, and histone-modifier gene transcript levels were determined using real-time quantitative PCR. The histone-modifier genes included: histone acetyltransferases (cAMP response element-binding protein-binding protein (CREBBP)); class I (histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2)), II (histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5)) and III (sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)) histone deacetylases; and histone methyltransferases (SET domain containing suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 1 (SUV39H1) and suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 2 (SUV39H2)) amongst others. Expression levels were analysed against tumor size, grade, nodal involvement, histological subtype, receptor status, TNM stage, Nottingham Prognostic Index, and disease-free and overall survival over a 10-year follow-up period.
RESULTS: Expression of histone-modifier genes in breast cancer differed significantly from those in normal tissue (HDAC5, HDAC1, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 4A (KDM4A) and lysine (K)-specific demethylase 6A (KDM6A)). Differences in expression profiles were also found to exist between individual breast tumors and, in some cases, were significantly associated with conventional pathological parameters and prognostic indices: tumor grade (K (lysine) acetyltransferase 5 (KAT5), HDAC1, KDM4A, SUV39H1 and KDM6A)); TNM stage (SUV39H1, K (lysine) acetyltransferase 2B (KAT2B), lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1A (KDM1A), KDM4A, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5C (KDM5C), K (lysine) acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8), HDAC5 and KAT5)); Nottingham Prognostic Index (KDM5C, myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), KAT8 and SET and MYND domain containing 3 (SMYD3)); receptor status (KAT5, SMYD3 and KDM1A); histological type (KAT5, KDM5C, KAT8, KDM4A and MLL); disease-free survival (SUV39H1, SMYD3, HDAC5, KDM6A, HDAC1, KDM1A, KDM4A, KAT8, KDM5C, KAT5 and MLL) and overall survival (KAT8). Significant correlations were identified between the differential expression profiles of particular histone-modifying genes.
CONCLUSION: Expression levels of histone-modifier genes in breast cancer differ significantly from normal tissue. Differences in expression profiles exist between breast tumors and are significantly associated with conventional pathological parameters and clinical outcomes. Further study is warranted to determine the consequences of altered expression for each specific histone-modifier gene and the biological and clinical implications of combinatorial variations in expression profiles. Histone-modifier enzymes offer utility as biomarkers and potential for targeted therapeutic strategies.

Wang L, Tsutsumi S, Kawaguchi T, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing of human pancreatic cancers and characterization of genomic instability caused by MLH1 haploinsufficiency and complete deficiency.
Genome Res. 2012; 22(2):208-19 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
Whole-exome sequencing (Exome-seq) has been successfully applied in several recent studies. We here sequenced the exomes of 15 pancreatic tumor cell lines and their matched normal samples. We captured 162,073 exons of 16,954 genes and sequenced the targeted regions to a mean coverage of 56-fold. This study identified a total of 1517 somatic mutations and validated 934 mutations by transcriptome sequencing. We detected recurrent mutations in 56 genes. Among them, 41 have not been described. The mutation rates varied widely among cell lines. The diversity of the mutation rates was significantly correlated with the distinct MLH1 copy-number status. Exome-seq revealed intensive genomic instability in a cell line with MLH1 homozygous deletion, indicated by a dramatically elevated rate of somatic substitutions, small insertions/deletions (indels), as well as indels in microsatellites. Notably, we found that MLH1 expression was decreased by nearly half in cell lines with an allelic loss of MLH1. While these cell lines were negative in conventional microsatellite instability assay, they showed a 10.5-fold increase in the rate of somatic indels, e.g., truncating indels in TP53 and TGFBR2, indicating MLH1 haploinsufficiency in the correction of DNA indel errors. We further analyzed the exomes of 15 renal cell carcinomas and confirmed MLH1 haploinsufficiency. We observed a much higher rate of indel mutations in the affected cases and identified recurrent truncating indels in several cancer genes such as VHL, PBRM1, and JARID1C. Together, our data suggest that MLH1 hemizygous deletion, through increasing the rate of indel mutations, could drive the development and progression of sporadic cancers.

Niu X, Zhang T, Liao L, et al.
The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein regulates gene expression and tumor growth through histone demethylase JARID1C.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(6):776-86 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
In clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), inactivation of the tumor suppressor von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) occurs in the majority of the tumors and is causal for the pathogenesis of ccRCC. Recently, a large-scale genomic sequencing study of ccRCC tumors revealed that enzymes that regulate histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4Me3), such as JARID1C/KDM5C/SMCX and MLL2, were mutated in ccRCC tumors, suggesting that H3K4Me3 might have an important role in regulating gene expression and tumorigenesis. In this study we report that in VHL-deficient ccRCC cells, the overall H3K4Me3 levels were significantly lower than that of VHL+/+ counterparts. Furthermore, this was hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) dependent, as depletion of HIF subunits by small hairpin RNA in VHL-deficient ccRCC cells restored H3K4Me3 levels. In addition, we demonstrated that only loss of JARID1C, not JARID1A or JARID1B, abolished the difference of H3K4Me3 levels between VHL-/- and VHL+/+ cells, and JARID1C displayed HIF-dependent expression pattern. JARID1C in VHL-/- cells was responsible for the suppression of HIF-responsive genes insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), DNAJC12, COL6A1, growth and differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) and density-enhanced phosphatase 1. Consistent with these findings, the H3K4Me3 levels at the promoters of IGFBP3, DNAJC12, COL6A1 and GDF15 were lower in VHL-/- cells than in VHL+/+ cells, and the differences disappeared after JARID1C depletion. Although HIF2α is an oncogene in ccRCC, some of its targets might have tumor suppressive activity. Consistent with this, knockdown of JARID1C in 786-O VHL-/- ccRCC cells significantly enhanced tumor growth in a xenograft model, suggesting that JARID1C is tumor suppressive and its mutations are tumor promoting in ccRCC. Thus, VHL inactivation decreases H3K4Me3 levels through JARID1C, which alters gene expression and suppresses tumor growth.

Varela I, Tarpey P, Raine K, et al.
Exome sequencing identifies frequent mutation of the SWI/SNF complex gene PBRM1 in renal carcinoma.
Nature. 2011; 469(7331):539-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
The genetics of renal cancer is dominated by inactivation of the VHL tumour suppressor gene in clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the commonest histological subtype. A recent large-scale screen of ∼3,500 genes by PCR-based exon re-sequencing identified several new cancer genes in ccRCC including UTX (also known as KDM6A), JARID1C (also known as KDM5C) and SETD2 (ref. 2). These genes encode enzymes that demethylate (UTX, JARID1C) or methylate (SETD2) key lysine residues of histone H3. Modification of the methylation state of these lysine residues of histone H3 regulates chromatin structure and is implicated in transcriptional control. However, together these mutations are present in fewer than 15% of ccRCC, suggesting the existence of additional, currently unidentified cancer genes. Here, we have sequenced the protein coding exome in a series of primary ccRCC and report the identification of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex gene PBRM1 (ref. 4) as a second major ccRCC cancer gene, with truncating mutations in 41% (92/227) of cases. These data further elucidate the somatic genetic architecture of ccRCC and emphasize the marked contribution of aberrant chromatin biology.

Smith JA, White EA, Sowa ME, et al.
Genome-wide siRNA screen identifies SMCX, EP400, and Brd4 as E2-dependent regulators of human papillomavirus oncogene expression.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010; 107(8):3752-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
An essential step in the pathogenesis of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers is the dysregulated expression of the viral oncogenes. The papillomavirus E2 protein can silence the long control region (LCR) promoter that controls viral E6 and E7 oncogene expression. The mechanisms by which E2 represses oncogene expression and the cellular factors through which E2 mediates this silencing are largely unknown. We conducted an unbiased, genome-wide siRNA screen and series of secondary screens that identified 96 cellular genes that contribute to the repression of the HPV LCR. In addition to confirming a role for the E2-binding bromodomain protein Brd4 in E2-mediated silencing, we identified a number of genes that have not previously been implicated in E2 repression, including the demethylase JARID1C/SMCX as well as EP400, a component of the NuA4/TIP60 histone acetyltransferase complex. Each of these genes contributes independently and additively to E2-mediated silencing, indicating that E2 functions through several distinct cellular complexes to repress E6 and E7 expression.

Dalgliesh GL, Furge K, Greenman C, et al.
Systematic sequencing of renal carcinoma reveals inactivation of histone modifying genes.
Nature. 2010; 463(7279):360-3 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 07/04/2017 Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common form of adult kidney cancer, characterized by the presence of inactivating mutations in the VHL gene in most cases, and by infrequent somatic mutations in known cancer genes. To determine further the genetics of ccRCC, we have sequenced 101 cases through 3,544 protein-coding genes. Here we report the identification of inactivating mutations in two genes encoding enzymes involved in histone modification-SETD2, a histone H3 lysine 36 methyltransferase, and JARID1C (also known as KDM5C), a histone H3 lysine 4 demethylase-as well as mutations in the histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase, UTX (KMD6A), that we recently reported. The results highlight the role of mutations in components of the chromatin modification machinery in human cancer. Furthermore, NF2 mutations were found in non-VHL mutated ccRCC, and several other probable cancer genes were identified. These results indicate that substantial genetic heterogeneity exists in a cancer type dominated by mutations in a single gene, and that systematic screens will be key to fully determining the somatic genetic architecture of cancer.

Delbridge ML, Longepied G, Depetris D, et al.
TSPY, the candidate gonadoblastoma gene on the human Y chromosome, has a widely expressed homologue on the X - implications for Y chromosome evolution.
Chromosome Res. 2004; 12(4):345-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
TSPY, a candidate gene for a factor that promotes gonadoblastoma formation (GBY), is a testis-specific multicopy gene family in the male-specific region of the human Y (MSY) chromosome. Although it was originally proposed that male-specific genes on the Y originated from a transposed copy of an autosomal gene (Lahn & Page 1999b), at least two male-specific genes (RBMY and SRY) descended from a formerly recombining X-Y identical gene pair. Here we show that a TSPY homologue with similar gene structure lies in conserved positions, close to SMCX, on the X chromosome in human (TSPX ) and mouse (Tspx). TSPX is widely expressed and subject to X inactivation. TSPX and TSPY therefore evolved from an identical gene pair on the original mammalian sex chromosomes. This supports the hypothesis that even male-specific genes on the Y chromosome may have their origin in ubiquitously expressed genes on the X. It also strengthens the case for TSPY as a candidate for GBY, since independent functional studies link TSPX to cell cycle regulation.

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