Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CASP8 (cancer-related)
Qian Z, Yang J, Liu H, et al.The miR-1204 regulates apoptosis in NSCLC cells by targeting DEK.
Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2019; 57(2):64-73 [PubMed
] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: This study endeavors to analyze the effects of miR-1204 on the expression of DEK oncogene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and to study the molecular mechanisms of these effects.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The miR-1204 mimics and inhibitors were transfected into the (A549 and SPC) NSCLC cells. Then the mRNA levels, cell viability, apoptosis rate, morphology and caspase activity were determined. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax was also analyzed.
RESULTS: In NSCLC cell lines (A549 and SPC), DEK mRNA levels were down-regulated in miR-1204 overex-pression group. In miR-1204 inhibition group, the expression of DEK mRNA showed an opposite trend. The overexpression of miR-1204 increases the apoptosis rate in NSCLC cells. The Bcl-2 levels in the miR-1204 over-expression group were decreased, while the Bax level was increased. In the miR-1204 inhibition group, expression of Bcl-2 and Bax showed opposite trends. Cell staining revealed cell's morphological changes; the apoptosis in the miR-1204 overexpression group revealed significant morphological features, such as brighter nuclei and nu-clear condensation. Results indicated a typical characteristic of apoptosis in the miR-1204 overexpression group. Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 were involved in the apoptosis pathway, which was mediated by miR-1204 and DEK.
CONCLUSIONS: The miR-1204 induces apoptosis of NSCLC cells by inhibiting the expression of DEK. The mech-anism of apoptosis involves down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression. Moreover, the apoptosis was mediated by mitochondria-related caspase 9/3 pathway.
Wu MH, Hung YW, Gong CL, et al.Contribution of Caspase-8 Genotypes to Colorectal Cancer Risk in Taiwan.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(6):2791-2797 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the role of caspase-8 rs3834129 polymorphism on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in Taiwanese CRC patients and healthy controls.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The caspase-8 rs3834129 (-652 6N insertion/deletion) polymorphic genotypes were analyzed in 362 patients with CRC and the same number of age- and gender-matched healthy subjects. The interaction of caspase-8 rs3834129 genotypes with personal behaviors and clinicopathological features were also examined.
RESULTS: The percentage of variants ID and DD for caspase-8 rs3834129 genotype were 37.6 and 5.8% in CRC group and 39.0 and 6.6% in the control group, respectively (p for trend=0.7987). The allelic frequency distribution analysis showed that caspase-8 rs3834129 D allele conferred a non-significant lower susceptibility for CRC compared with I allele (OR=0.92, 95%CI=0.74-1.20, p=0.5063). There was no obvious link between caspase-8 rs3834129 genotype and CRC risk among ever-smokers, non-smokers, non-alcohol drinkers or alcohol drinkers. No statistically significant correlation was observed between caspase-8 rs3834129 genotypic distribution and age, gender, tumor size, location or metastasis status.
CONCLUSION: Overall, caspase-8 rs3834129 genotypes may not serve as predictors for CRC risk or prognosis.
Shen DW, Li YL, Hou YJ, et al.MicroRNA-543 promotes cell invasion and impedes apoptosis in pituitary adenoma via activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by negative regulation of Smad7.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2019; 83(6):1035-1044 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Pituitary adenomas (PA) are commonly occurring benign neoplasms. Identification of molecular pathway resulting in pituitary tumorigenesis remains challenges in endocrine oncology. The present study was conducted with aim of investigating the role of microRNA-543 (miR-543) in PA development. Up-regulated miR-543 and downregulated Smad7 were observed in PA tissues. Afterwards, the specific mechanism of miR-543 and Smad7 in PA were determined with the use of ectopic expression, depletion and reporter assay experiments. Smad7 was confirmed as a target gene of miR-543. HP75 cells treated with overexpressed miR-543 exhibited increased cell proliferation, migration and invasion, while decreased cell apoptosis as well as expression of Cleaved caspase-3 and Cleaved caspase-8 were observed. Suppression of miR-543 contributed to an opposite trend to the above findings. Based on the findings, the inhibition of miR-543 was found to play a tumor suppressive role in PA through the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway by negatively regulating Smad7.
Chen WT, Hsu FT, Liu YC, et al.Fluoxetine Induces Apoptosis through Extrinsic/Intrinsic Pathways and Inhibits ERK/NF-κB-Modulated Anti-Apoptotic and Invasive Potential in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells In Vitro.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(3) [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of fluoxetine on dysregulation of apoptosis and invasive potential in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) SK-Hep1 and Hep3B cells. Cells were treated with different concentrations of fluoxetine for different times. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assays were used for testing the effects of fluoxetine on cell viability. The regulation of apoptosis signaling, and anti-apoptotic, proliferation, and metastasis-associated proteins after fluoxetine treatment were assayed by flow cytometry and Western blotting assay. The detection of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation after fluoxetine treatment was performed by NF-κB reporter gene assay. The results demonstrated that fluoxetine significantly reduced cell viability, cell migration/invasion, NF-κB, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) activation, and expression of anti-apoptotic (Cellular FLICE (FADD-like IL-1β-converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein (C-FLIP), Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1), X-Linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XAIP), and Survivin), proliferation (Cyclin-D1), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)), and metastasis-associated proteins (matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)). Fluoxetine also significantly induced apoptosis, unregulated extrinsic (activation of first apoptosis signal protein and ligand (Fas/FasL), and caspase-8) and intrinsic (loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) pathways and increased Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer (BAK) apoptosis signaling. Taken together, these results demonstrated that fluoxetine induced apoptosis through extrinsic/intrinsic pathways and diminished ERK/NF-κB-modulated anti-apoptotic and invasive potential in HCC cells in vitro.
METHODS: Lung cancer cells were cultured following the standard protocol and the cell lysates were prepared to detect the given proteins by Western Blot analysis, and the protein interaction was assayed by co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) or GST pull-down assay. CFLAR
RESULTS: We show that PRMT5 up-regulated the protein levels of CFLAR
CONCLUSIONS: PRMT5 and PRMT1 mediate the distinct effects on CFLAR
Lee MW, Kim DS, Kim HR, et al.Inhibition of N-myc expression sensitizes human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells expressing caspase-8 to TRAIL.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(3):e12577 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the roles of N-myc and caspase-8 in TRAIL-resistant IMR-32 cells which exhibit MYCN oncogene amplification and lack caspase-8 expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established N-myc-downregulated IMR-32 cells using shRNA lentiviral particles targeting N-myc and examined the effect the N-myc inhibition on TRAIL susceptibility in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells expressing caspase-8.
RESULTS: Cisplatin treatment in IMR-32 cells increased the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5; TRAIL-R2), but not other receptors, via downregulation of NF-κB activity. However, the cisplatin-mediated increase in DR5 failed to induce cell death following TRAIL treatment. Furthermore, interferon (IFN)-γ pretreatment increased caspase-8 expression in IMR-32 cells, but cisplatin failed to trigger TRAIL cytotoxicity. We downregulated N-myc expression in IMR-32 cells using N-myc-targeting shRNA. These cells showed decreased growth rate and Bcl-2 expression accompanied by a mild collapse in the mitochondrial membrane potential as compared with those treated with scrambled shRNA. TRAIL treatment in N-myc-negative cells expressing caspase-8 following IFN-γ treatment significantly triggered apoptotic cell death. Concurrent treatment with cisplatin enhanced TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity, which was abrogated by an additional pretreatment with DR5:Fc chimera protein.
CONCLUSIONS: N-myc and caspase-8 expressions are involved in TRAIL susceptibility in IMR-32 cells, and the combination of treatment with cisplatin and TRAIL may serve as a promising strategy for the development of therapeutics against neuroblastoma that is controlled by N-myc and caspase-8 expression.
Allegra M, De Cicco P, Ercolano G, et al.Indicaxanthin from Opuntia Ficus Indica (L. Mill) impairs melanoma cell proliferation, invasiveness, and tumor progression.
Phytomedicine. 2018; 50:19-24 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A strong, reciprocal crosstalk between inflammation and melanoma has rigorously been demonstrated in recent years, showing how crucial is a pro-inflammatory microenvironment to drive therapy resistance and metastasis.
PURPOSE: We investigated on the effects of Indicaxanthin, a novel, anti-inflammatory and bioavailable phytochemical from Opuntia Ficus Indica fruits, against human melanoma both in vitro and in vivo.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The effects of indicaxanthin were evaluated against the proliferation of A375 human melanoma cell line and in a mice model of cutaneous melanoma. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay, apoptosis by Annexin V-Fluorescein Isothiocyanate/Propidium Iodide staining, protein expression by western blotting, melanoma lesions were subcutaneously injected in mice with B16/F10 cells, chemokine release was quantified by ELISA.
RESULTS: Data herein presented demonstrate that indicaxanthin effectively inhibits the proliferation of the highly metastatic and invasive A375 cells as shown by growth inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell invasiveness reduction. More interestingly, in vitro data were paralleled by those in vivo showing that indicaxanthin significantly reduced tumor development when orally administered to mice. The results of our study also clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative effect of indicaxanthin, individuating the inhibition of NF-κB pathway as predominant.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we demonstrated that indicaxanthin represents a novel phytochemical able to significantly inhibit human melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and to impair tumor progression in vivo. When considering the resistance of melanoma to the current therapeutical approach and the very limited number of phytochemicals able to partially counteract it, our findings may be of interest to explore indicaxanthin potential in further and more complex melanoma studies in combo therapy, i.e. where different check points of melanoma development are targeted.
Maritoclax, an active constituent isolated from marine bacteria, has been known to induce Mcl-1 downregulation through proteasomal degradation. In this study, we investigated the sensitizing effect of maritoclax on tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells. We found that combined treatment with maritoclax and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in renal carcinoma (Caki, ACHN and A498), lung cancer (A549) and hepatocellular carcinoma (SK-Hep1) cells. The upregulation of death receptor 5 (DR5) and downregulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (cFLIP) were involved in maritoclax plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Maritoclax-induced DR5 upregulation was regulated by induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression. Interestingly, maritoclax induced cFLIP downregulation through the increased expression of miR-708. Ectopic expression of cFLIP prevented combined maritoclax and TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Taken together, maritoclax sensitized TRAIL-induced apoptosis through CHOP-mediated DR5 upregulation and miR-708-mediated cFLIP downregulation.
Palve V, Bagwan J, Krishnan NM, et al.Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Multiple Analytes and Their Role in Patient Survival.
J Glob Oncol. 2018; 4:1-33 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Accurate detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is essential to understanding the role of HPV in disease prognosis and management of patients. We used different analytes and methods to understand the true prevalence of HPV in a cohort of patients with OSCC with different molecular backgrounds, and we correlated HPV data with patient survival.
METHODS: We integrated data from multiple analytes (HPV DNA, HPV RNA, and p16), assays (immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction [PCR], quantitative PCR [qPCR], and digital PCR), and molecular changes (somatic mutations and DNA methylation) from 153 patients with OSCC to correlate p16 expression, HPV DNA, and HPV RNA with HPV incidence and patient survival.
RESULTS: High prevalence (33% to 58%) of HPV16/18 DNA did not correlate with the presence of transcriptionally active viral genomes (15%) in tumors. Eighteen percent of the tumors were p16 positive and only 6% were both HPV DNA and HPV RNA positive. Most tumors with relatively high copy number HPV DNA and/or HPV RNA, but not with HPV DNA alone (irrespective of copy number), were wild-type for TP53 and CASP8 genes. In our study, p16 protein, HPV DNA, and HPV RNA, either alone or in combination, did not correlate with patient survival. Nine HPV-associated genes stratified the virus-positive from the virus-negative tumor group with high confidence ( P < .008) when HPV DNA copy number and/or HPV RNA were considered to define HPV positivity, and not HPV DNA alone, irrespective of copy number ( P < .2).
CONCLUSION: In OSCC, the presence of both HPV RNA and p16 is rare. HPV DNA alone is not an accurate measure of HPV positivity and therefore may not be informative. HPV DNA, HPV RNA, and p16 do not correlate with patients' outcome.
Eustace AJ, Conlon NT, McDermott MSJ, et al.Development of acquired resistance to lapatinib may sensitise HER2-positive breast cancer cells to apoptosis induction by obatoclax and TRAIL.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):965 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lapatinib has clinical efficacy in the treatment of trastuzumab-refractory HER2-positive breast cancer. However, a significant proportion of patients develop progressive disease due to acquired resistance to the drug. Induction of apoptotic cell death is a key mechanism of action of lapatinib in HER2-positive breast cancer cells.
METHODS: We examined alterations in regulation of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways in cell line models of acquired lapatinib resistance both in vitro and in patient samples from the NCT01485926 clinical trial, and investigated potential strategies to exploit alterations in apoptosis signalling to overcome lapatinib resistance in HER2-positive breast cancer.
RESULTS: In this study, we examined two cell lines models of acquired lapatinib resistance (SKBR3-L and HCC1954-L) and showed that lapatinib does not induce apoptosis in these cells. We identified alterations in members of the BCL-2 family of proteins, in particular MCL-1 and BAX, which may play a role in resistance to lapatinib. We tested the therapeutic inhibitor obatoclax, which targets MCL-1. Both SKBR3-L and HCC1954-L cells showed greater sensitivity to obatoclax-induced apoptosis than parental cells. Interestingly, we also found that the development of acquired resistance to lapatinib resulted in acquired sensitivity to TRAIL in SKBR3-L cells. Sensitivity to TRAIL in the SKBR3-L cells was associated with reduced phosphorylation of AKT, increased expression of FOXO3a and decreased expression of c-FLIP. In SKBR3-L cells, TRAIL treatment caused activation of caspase 8, caspase 9 and caspase 3/7. In a second resistant model, HCC1954-L cells, p-AKT levels were not decreased and these cells did not show enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL. Furthermore, combining obatoclax with TRAIL improved response in SKBR3-L cells but not in HCC1954-L cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the possibility of targeting altered apoptotic signalling to overcome acquired lapatinib resistance, and identify potential novel treatment strategies, with potential biomarkers, for HER2-positive breast cancer that is resistant to HER2 targeted therapies.
Isono M, Sato A, Asano T, et al.Evaluation of Therapeutic Potential of Phenoxodiol, a Novel Isoflavone Analog, in Renal Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(10):5709-5716 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: In the present study, the antineoplastic activity and mechanism of action of phenoxodiol, a novel isoflavone analog, was investigated in renal cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel of renal cancer cells (769-P, 786-O, Caki-2) was treated with phenoxodiol in vitro, and the efficacy of treatment was evaluated.
RESULTS: MTS assay results showed that phenoxodiol decreased renal cancer viability in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, it inhibited colony formation significantly and perturbed the cell cycle. Treatment with phenoxodiol increased the number of annexin-V-positive cells as well as the expression of cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase, demonstrating that phenoxodiol induced apoptosis in renal cancer cells. Phenoxodiol also inhibited Akt pathway via dephosphorylation of Akt.
CONCLUSION: Phenoxodiol inhibited Akt pathway and induced apoptosis of renal cancer cells. The present study provides a theoretical basis for future development of a novel therapy effective against renal cancer.
Ahmadian E, Dizaj SM, Rahimpour E, et al.Effect of silver nanoparticles in the induction of apoptosis on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2018; 93:465-471 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) serve numerous chief functions in cosmetics, engineering, textile, food technology and medicine. These nanoparticles are also utilized in the pharmaceutical industry particularly in the production of novel antimicrobial agents. However, despite the various studies of Ag NPs induced toxicity, there is a lack of information concerning cellular toxicity mechanisms of these nanoparticles on human cells. In the current project, we investigate the anti-cancer effects of Ag NPs in HepG2 (liver hepatocellular adenocarcinoma) cells. The mean particle size and morphology for the prepared nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, cytochrome c amount and expression level of BAX/CASP 3/CASP 8/CASP 9 were assayed in HepG2 cells after incubation with Ag NPs. The prepared nanoparticles showed the mean particle size of 30.71 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.21. Our results revealed decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner and the IC50 of 75 μg/mL for Ag NPs. Ag NPs cytotoxicity was associated with induction of ROS and cell apoptosis in HepG2 cell line. According to our findings, Ag NPs could be considered as potential chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of liver hepatocellular carcinoma.
Talib WH, Al Kury LTParthenolide inhibits tumor-promoting effects of nicotine in lung cancer by inducing P53 - dependent apoptosis and inhibiting VEGF expression.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:1488-1495 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The correlation between cigarette smoking and the onset of non-small cell lung cancer is well documented. Enhanced proliferation, angiogenesis induction, and resistance to apoptosis were reported as direct results associated with exposure to nicotine (the active ingredient of cigarettes). Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone with anticancer activity against different cancer types. In this study, we tested the ability of parthenolide to inhibit the proliferating effect of nicotine in lung cancer cell lines. MTT assay was used to measure cell survival of A549 and H526 cells treated with nicotine, parthenolide, and their combination. Angiogenesis inhibition was measured using VEGF detection kit and apoptosis induction was evaluated by measuring caspase-3 activity. Real time PCR assay was used to detect the change in expression of several genes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis (CASP3, CASP7, CASP8, CASP9, P53, GADD45, BAX, BIM, Bcl-2, TOPO I, and TOPO II). Parthenolide inhibited lung cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner and decreased the proliferation stimulating effect of nicotine. Caspase-3 activity and VEGF assays evidenced an apoptosis-inducing and VEGF- inhibiting effects of parthenolide. The real time PCR assay demonstrated that parthenolide down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulated the expression of E2F1, P53, GADD45, BAX, BIM, and CASP 3,7,8,9, which indicates an activation of P53- dependent apoptosis pathway in response to parthenolide. Furthermore, this pathway remained active in the presence of nicotine suggesting the ability of parthenolide to exclude the anti-apoptotic effect of nicotine. Our results indicate that parthenolide inhibits nicotine proliferating effect on lung cancer. The anticancer effect of parthenolide is mediated by angiogenesis inhibition and activation of P53- dependent apoptosis. Parthenolide is a promising natural product for inhibiting and treating nicotine-associated lung cancer. However, further studied on more lung cancer cell lines and on protein level are needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action.
Ghantous Y, Bahouth Z, Abu El-Naaj IClinical and genetic signatures of local recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch Oral Biol. 2018; 95:141-148 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Recurrent and metastatic Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is often incurable. There are large gaps in the understanding of the clinical course, biology and genetic biomarkers of OSCC which could help us identify patients with high-risk of recurrence who may benefit from intensified therapy or novel targeted therapy trials. The purpose of this study was to identify significant clinical, pathological and genomic risk factors for local recurrence in OSCC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Molecular data sets and clinicopathological characteristics of 159 head and neck carcinoma patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data portal and analyzed using the Genome Data Analysis Center and cBioPortal to find significant risk factors for tumor recurrence.
RESULTS: The local recurrence rate was 24%. OSCC originating from the buccal mucosa composed 13% of all the tumors in the recurrent group, making it a statistically significant risk of recurrence (P value = 0.03). Likewise, positive surgical margins, pathological T staging, and alcohol consumption were found to be significantly associated with recurrence (P value < 0.05). Genetic profiling revealed the top 5 mutated genes (using the MutSigCV analysis). Only one of these genes, CASP8 was the only gene that was significantly altered only in the recurrent group (Q value = 8.7 × 10
CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, we found several clinical and genetic characteristics that could define patients with high-risk of OSCC recurrence. This provides a means of identifying patients that may benefit from intensified therapy or novel targeted therapy trials.
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of primary breast cancer. Using a custom-made breast cancer gene sequencing panel, we investigated somatic mutations in IBC to better understand the genomic differences compared with non-IBC and to consider new targeted therapy in IBC patients.
METHODS: Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 91 candidate breast cancer-associated genes was performed on 156 fresh-frozen breast tumor tissues from IBC patients. Mutational profiles from 197 primary breast tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used as non-IBC controls for comparison analysis. The mutational landscape of IBC was correlated with clinicopathological data and outcomes.
RESULTS: After genotype calling and algorithmic annotations, we identified 392 deleterious variants in IBC and 320 variants in non-IBC cohorts, respectively. IBC tumors harbored more mutations than non-IBC (2.5 per sample vs. 1.6 per sample, p < 0.0001). Eighteen mutated genes were significantly different between the two cohorts, namely TP53, CDH1, NOTCH2, MYH9, BRCA2, ERBB4, POLE, FGFR3, ROS1, NOTCH4, LAMA2, EGFR, BRCA1, TP53BP1, ESR1, THBS1, CASP8, and NOTCH1. In IBC, the most frequently mutated genes were TP53 (43.0%), PIK3CA (29.5%), MYH9 (8.3%), NOTCH2 (8.3%), BRCA2 (7.7%), ERBB4 (7.1%), FGFR3 (6.4%), POLE (6.4%), LAMA2 (5.8%), ARID1A (5.1%), NOTCH4 (5.1%), and ROS1 (5.1%). After grouping 91 genes on 10 signaling pathways, we found that the DNA repair pathway for the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subgroup, the RTK/RAS/MAPK and cell cycle pathways for the HR
CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer-specific targeted NGS uncovered a high frequency of deleterious somatic mutations in IBC, some of which may be relevant for clinical management.
Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Hyperplasia suppressor gene (HSG) has been reported to inhibit cell proliferation, migration, and remodeling in cardiovascular diseases. However, there lacks systematic researches on the effect of HSG on the apoptosis and proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and data of
BACKGROUND: With the development of sequencing technologies, there may be some disputes on sequencing analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate different allele frequency thresholds of mutations in targeted genes on prognostic analyses using a panel of cancer associated gene exons (CAGE) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
METHODS: Forty-six patients were included in this study. Twelve genes were sequenced and analyzed using next-generation sequencing from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Allele frequency thresholds of 10, 5, and 3% were used for prognostic analyses.
RESULTS: With a mean sequence depth of 3199-fold, 99% of CAGE were represented by at least 10 reads. Ninety-four non-synonymous (missense [70.2%], nonsense [11.7%], splice site [10.6%], and insertion/deletion [7.5%]) mutations were detected in 40 OSCC patients with an allele frequency threshold of 10%. TP53 (78.3%), NOTCH1 (30.4%), CASP8 (13.0%), CDKN2A (10.9%), and CDH1 (6.5%) were the most frequently mutated genes. Using allele frequency thresholds of 10, 5, and 3%, there were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between patients with non-synonymous mutations and wild type genotypes.
CONCLUSIONS: TP53, NOTCH1, CASP8, CDKN2A, and CDH1 are the most frequently mutated genes in OSCC patients. The allele frequency threshold used in this study does not affect the results of clinical outcome analysis.
Ling ZA, Xiong DD, Meng RM, et al.LncRNA NEAT1 Promotes Deterioration of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Based on In Vitro Experiments, Data Mining, and RT-qPCR Analysis.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(2):540-555 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Accumulated evidence indicates that lncRNA NEAT1 has important roles in various malignant tumors. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis to explore the exact role of NEAT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: The effects of NEAT1 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were measured by in vitro experiments. The expression level and clinical value of NEAT1 in HCC was evaluated based on data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Oncomine, and in-house real-time quantitative (RT-qPCR). Gene Ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analyses were conducted to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms of NEAT1.
RESULTS: NEAT1 siRNA not only inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cells but also induced HCC cell apoptosis. A total of four records from TCGA, Oncomine, and RT-qPCR analysis were combined to assess the expression level of NEAT1 in HCC. The pooled standard mean deviation (SMD) indicated that NEAT1 was up-regulated in HCC (SMD = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.36-0.73; P < 0.0001). The area under the curve value of the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.71. NEAT1 expression was also related to race (P = 0.025) and distant metastasis (P = 0.002). Additionally, the results of GO, KEGG pathway, and PPI network analyses suggest that NEAT1 may promote the progression of HCC by interacting with several tumor-related genes (SP1, MDM4, CREBBP, TRAF5, CASP8, TRAF1, KAT2A, and HIST4H4).
CONCLUSIONS: NEAT1 contributes to the deterioration of HCC and provides a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and therapy of HCC.
Kuguyo O, Tsikai N, Thomford NE, et al.Genetic Susceptibility for Cervical Cancer in African Populations: What Are the Host Genetic Drivers?
OMICS. 2018; 22(7):468-483 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an essential but not a sufficient cervical cancer etiological factor. Cancer promoters, such as host genetic mutations, significantly modulate therapeutic responses and susceptibility. In cervical cancer, of interest have been viral clearing genes and HPV oncoprotein targets, for which conflicting data have been reported among different populations. This expert analysis evaluates cervical cancer genetic susceptibility biomarkers studied in African populations. Notably, the past decade has seen Africa as a hotbed of biomarker and precision medicine innovations, thus potentially informing worldwide biomarker development strategies. We conducted a critical literature search in PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases for case-control studies reporting on cervical cancer genetic polymorphisms among Africans. We found that seven African countries conducted cervical cancer molecular epidemiology studies in one of Casp8, p53, CCR2, FASL, HLA, IL10, TGF-beta, and TNF-alpha genes. This analysis reveals a remarkable gap in cervical cancer molecular epidemiology among Africans, whereas cervical cancer continues to disproportionately have an impact on African populations. Genome-wide association, whole exome- and whole-genome sequencing studies confirmed the contribution of candidate genes in cervical cancer. With such advances and omics technologies, the role of genetic susceptibility biomarkers can be exploited to develop novel interventions to improve current screening, diagnostic and prognostic methods worldwide. Exploring these genetic variations is crucial because African populations are genetically diverse and some variants or their combined effects are yet to be discovered and translated into tangible clinical applications. Thus, translational medicine and flourishing system sciences in Africa warrant further emphasis in the coming decade.
This paper demonstrates the ability of mach- ine learning approaches to identify a few genes among the 23,398 genes of the human genome to experiment on in the laboratory to establish new drug mechanisms. As a case study, this paper uses MDA-MB-231 breast cancer single-cells treated with the antidiabetic drug metformin. We show that mixture-model-based unsupervised methods with validation from hierarchical clustering can identify single-cell subpopulations (clusters). These clusters are characterized by a small set of genes (1% of the genome) that have significant differential expression across the clusters and are also highly correlated with pathways with anticancer effects driven by metformin. Among the identified small set of genes associated with reduced breast cancer incidence, laboratory experiments on one of the genes, CDC42, showed that its downregulation by metformin inhibited cancer cell migration and proliferation, thus validating the ability of machine learning approaches to identify biologically relevant candidates for laboratory experiments. Given the large size of the human genome and limitations in cost and skilled resources, the broader impact of this work in identifying a small set of differentially expressed genes after drug treatment lies in augmenting the drug-disease knowledge of pharmacogenomics experts in laboratory investigations, which could help establish novel biological mechanisms associated with drug response in diseases beyond breast cancer.
Mutiah R, Widyawaruyanti A, Sukardiman SCalotroposid A: a Glycosides Terpenoids from Calotropis gigantea Induces Apoptosis of Colon Cancer WiDr Cells
through Cell Cycle Arrest G2/M and Caspase 8 Expression
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018; 19(6):1457-1464 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: This study aims to isolate the active anticancer compound from ethyl acetate fraction extracted from
the roots of Calotropis gigantea and to determine the operating mechanism of the isolates towards WiDr colon cancer
cells. Methods: the isolation was conducted by using bioassay guided isolation approach method. The cytotoxic
potential was determined by using MTT method. The chemical structure was identified by using UPLCMS/MS and
NMR-1H spectroscopy. The cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction were determined by flow cytometry method.
The expression of caspase-8 was determined by immunocytochemistry method. Results: The results showed that
the active compounds are obtained calotroposid A compound which is glycosides terpenoids. Calotroposide A
is capable of inhibiting the growth of WiDr colon cancer cells at IC50 17.23μg/ml. Cell apoptosis induction took place
and was indicated by cell apoptosis increase, S and G2/M accumulation and by caspase-8 expression. Conclusion:
Calotroposide A induces anticancer activity against WiDr colon cancer cells by means of apoptosis induction mechanism
through extrinsic pathway with increased expression of caspase-8.
Giacaman A, Bauzá Alonso A, Salinas Sanz JA, et al.Cutaneous involvement in an 8-year-old boy with Ras-associated autoimmune leucoproliferative disorder (RALD).
Clin Exp Dermatol. 2018; 43(8):913-916 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Ras-associated autoimmune leucoproliferative disorder (RALD) is a nonmalignant syndrome associated with somatic KRAS mutations. We report a patient with RALD and cutaneous lesions, the first such case reported, to our knowledge. An 8-year-old boy presented with erythematous plaques on his face and body, along with lymphadenopathies and spleen enlargement without systemic symptoms. An increased number of monocytes were found in skin biopsy, peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM). Juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML) was suspected. Genetic study using peripheral blood showed no mutations in the KRAS, PTPN11, NRAS, CBL or BCR-ABL genes, but bone marrow analysis revealed a mutation (p-G12S/c.34 G>A) in the KRAS gene. The karyotype was normal. No KRAS mutations were found using molecular analysis of saliva. The diagnosis of RALD was proposed. The differential diagnosis between RALD and JMML is challenging because there are no established criteria to differentiate between them. The clinical course of RALD is uncertain, so long-term follow-up is recommended.
Conemans EB, Lodewijk L, Moelans CB, et al.DNA methylation profiling in MEN1-related pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors reveals a potential epigenetic target for treatment.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2018; 179(3):153-160 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Epigenetic changes contribute to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) development. Hypermethylation of promoter DNA as a cause of tumor suppressor gene silencing is a well-established oncogenic mechanism that is potentially reversible and therefore an interesting therapeutic target. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is the most frequent cause of inherited PanNETs. The aim of this study was to determine promoter methylation profiles in MEN1-related PanNETs.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to assess promoter methylation of 56 tumor suppressor genes in MEN1-related (
RESULTS: We found promoter methylation of a large number of potential tumor suppressor genes. CMI (median CMI: 912 vs 876,
CONCLUSION: Promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in MEN1-related and sporadic PanNETs. Targeting DNA methylation could be of therapeutic value in MEN1 patients with advanced PanNETs.
Meng Q, Chen Y, Lian B, et al.miR‑218 promotes apoptosis of SW1417 human colon cancer cells by targeting c‑FLIP.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(2):916-922 [PubMed
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are suggested to act as either tumor oncogenes or tumor suppressors in different types of cancer. miRNA‑218 (miR‑218) is a type of short, non-coding RNA which is involved in gastric cancer development. In the present study, we evaluated the functions of miR‑218 in SW1417 human colon cancer cells and its potential mechanisms. Following overexpression of miR‑218 in human colon cancer cells, cell viability was determined by CKK‑8 assay, cell apoptosis was observed using a TUNEL Kit, the expression of caspase‑8, and its inhibitor cellular Fas‑associated death domain‑like interleukin‑1β‑converting enzyme inhibitory protein (c‑FLIP) was assessed by RT‑PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that miR‑218 and caspase‑8 expression was decreased while c‑FLIP expression was elevated in human colon cancer tissues. In cultured SW1417 human colon cancer cells, miR‑218 overexpression potently inhibited cell viability and promoted cell apoptosis. Furthermore, downregulation of c‑FLIP expression and upregulation of caspase‑8 expression were detected in miR‑218‑stimulated SW1417 cells. In addition, following the knockdown of c‑FLIP using c‑FLIP siRNA, the apoptotic effects of miR‑218 on SW1417 cells were significantly reduced. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that miR‑218 induced the apoptosis of SW1417 cells by targeting c‑FLIP. Therefore, miR‑218 may represent a potential therapeutic method for screening and treating colon cancer.
Visalli M, Bartolotta M, Polito F, et al.miRNA expression profiling regulates necroptotic cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(2):771-780 [PubMed
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive types of cancer and is among the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Although the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) has often been reported in HCC, the precise molecular mechanisms by which miRNAs modulate the process of tumorigenesis and the behavior of cancer cells are not yet clearly understood. In this study, we identified a novel three‑miRNA signature, including miR‑371-5p, miR‑373 and miR‑543, that appears to orchestrate programmed cell necrosis in HCC by directly targeting the caspase‑8 gene (Casp‑8). Our results demonstrated that miR‑371-5p, miR‑373 and miR‑543 were overexpressed in HCC tissues compared with paired adjacent normal tissues. The upregulation of these miRNAs specifically and markedly downregulated the expression of Casp‑8, as well as significantly enhanced the Z-VAD/TNF‑α-induced necroptosis of HCC cells. By contrast, the selective knockdown of miRNA expression led to a significant increase in Casp‑8 levels and a marked reduction in programmed cell necrosis. Intriguingly, the sustained overexpression of Casp‑8 reversed the pro‑necroptotic effects exerted by miRNA mimics. Finally, a strong inverse association between the level of miR‑223 and the expression levels of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing-3 inflammasome was observed in our HCC specimens. On the whole, the present study revealed a molecular link between the three‑miRNA signature, comprising miR‑371-5p, miR‑373 and miR‑543, and the negative necroptotic regulator Casp‑8, and presents evidence for its employment as a novel potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic target in HCC.
BACKGROUND: Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death around the world, where incidence and mortality rates are at a constant increase. Tumourigenic cells are characteristically seen to over-express the 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) compared to their normal cell counterparts. This receptor has numerous roles in tumourigenesis including metastasis, angiogenic enhancement, telomerase activation, cell viability and apoptotic evasion. This study aimed to expose the role of LRP/LR on the cellular viability of early (SW-480) and late (DLD-1) stage colorectal cancer cells.
METHODS: siRNA were used to down-regulate the expression of LRP/LR in SW-480 and DLD-1 cells which was assessed using western blotting. Subsequently, cell survival was evaluated using the MTT cell survival assay and confocal microscopy. Thereafter, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and caspase activity assays were used to investigate the mechanism underlying the cell death observed upon LRP/LR knockdown. The data was analysed using Student's t-test with a confidence interval of 95%, with p-values of less than 0.05 seen as significant.
RESULTS: Here we reveal that siRNA-mediated knock-down of LRP led to notable decreases in cell viability through increased levels of apoptosis, apparent by compromised membrane integrity and significantly high caspase-3 activity. Down-regulated LRP resulted in a significant increase in caspase-8 and -9 activity in both cell lines.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that the receptor is critically implicated in apoptosis and that LRP/LR down-regulation induces apoptosis in early and late stage colorectal cancer cells through both apoptotic pathways. Thus, this study suggests that siRNA-mediated knock-down of LRP could be a possible therapeutic strategy for the treatment of early and late stage colorectal carcinoma.
BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer and one of the most lethal and prevalent cancers. Aberrant glycosylation was common and essential in tumorigenesis, with fucosylation as one of the most common types disrupted in cancers. However, it is still unknown whether genes involved in fucosylation are important for lung adenocarcinoma development and process.
METHODS: GMDS is involved in cellular fucosylation. Here we examined GMDS expression level at both mRNA and protein level in lung adenocarcinoma. The impact of GMDS knockdown on lung adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo was investigated. Transcriptome changes with GMDS knockdown in lung adenocarcinoma cells were also examined to provide insights into related molecular mechanisms.
RESULTS: GMDS expression is significantly upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma at both mRNA and protein levels. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA strategy inhibited GMDS expression efficiently in human lung adenocarcinoma cells A549 and H1299, and GMDS knockdown impaired cell proliferation, colony formation ability, induced cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in both cell lines. Furthermore, GMDS knockdown inhibited tumorigenesis in a xenograft mice model of lung adenocarcinoma. Microarray analysis explored the GMDS-mediated molecular network and revealed that the CASP8-CDKN1A axis might be critical for lung adenocarcinoma development.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that GMDS upregulation is critical for cell proliferation and survival in human lung adenocarcinoma and might serve as a potential biomarker for lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and treatment.
Background: Caspases proteins are protease enzymes involved in the initiation and execution of apoptosis process.
Regulation of apoptosis process plays an important role in the normal biological events and development. In addition
to developmental abnormalities, dysregulated apoptosis system may lead to tumorigenesis, autoimmunity, and other
serious health problems. Aberrant regulation of apoptosis may also be the paramount cause of chemoresistance during
cancer therapy. It is aimed through this study to evaluate the transcript levels of Caspase 3, 8, and 9 in tumoral tissues
from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and compare it with normal marginal tissues. Methods: Fifty tumor tissues
and their matched marginal tissues, as control group, were obtained from CRC patients. Total mRNA of all tissue
samples was extracted and cDNA was synthesized. Using SYBR Green PCR master mix and Real-time gene expression
technique, the transcript level of target genes was quantified. Results: Experiments indicated that mRNA expressions
of caspase 9 and 3 were downregulated in tumoral tissues from CRC patients in comparison to marginal tissues. In
contrast, tumoral tissues expressed mRNA of caspase 8 higher than normal marginal tissues. Modified transcript levels
of caspase 3, 8, and 9 were correlated with the clinical manifestations of the patients. Conclusions: Alteration in the
mRNA level of caspase genes may be involved in the development of CRC.
Eroğlu C, Avcı E, Vural H, Kurar EAnticancer mechanism of Sinapic acid in PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cell lines.
Gene. 2018; 671:127-134 [PubMed
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Sinapic acid (SA) is a derivative of hydroxycinnamic acid and found in various vegetables and fruit species. Aim was to evaluate the anticancer effects of SA in PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. The effect of SA on cell viability was determined using XTT assay. Expressions of 8 genes for apoptosis and 6 genes for metastasis were evaluated by qPCR. Caspase-3 activity was determined using caspase-3 colorimetric assay kit. Effect of SA on cell invasion was evaluated with cell invasion assay. The IC
Liu J, Gao Q, Xie T, et al.Synergistic effect of TRAIL and irradiation in elimination of glioblastoma stem-like cells.
Clin Exp Med. 2018; 18(3):399-411 [PubMed
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignancy in central nervous system. A small subpopulation of GBM cells known as GBM stem-like cells (GSLCs) were supposed to be the most malignant cells among GBM cells as they are resistant to multiple therapies including radiotherapy. In this study, we set up two GSLCs cell lines from the two parental U87 and U251 glioma cell lines, and studied the expression of apoptosis-related genes alteration in GSLCs before and after irradiation. We found that one of the receptors of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), DR5, was dramatically up-regulated in GSLCs after irradiation (IR). Although GSLCs are resistant to both TRAIL and radiation treatment alone, the combined treatment with TRAIL and irradiation achieved maximum killing effect of GSLCs due to inducing the expression of DR5 and inhibiting the expression of cFLIP. Therefore, TRAIL and IR combined treatment would be a simple but practical therapeutic strategy for clinical application.