|Population in 2012:||48.6m|
|People newly diagnosed with cancer (excluding NMSC) / yr:||219,500|
|Age-standardised rate, incidence per 100,000 people/yr:||307.8|
|Risk of getting cancer before age 75:||29.3%|
|People dying from cancer /yr:||81,500|
Latest Research Publications Related to Republic of Korea
Korean Cancer Organisations and Resources (13 links)
대한암학회 | Korean Cancer Association - 한국어 - Translate to English
Founded in 1974 to prevent and control cancer, and promote cooperation in research and education with open conferences, meetings and publications.
A quarterly peer-reviewed open access publication of the Korean Cancer Association.
Korean Breast Cancer Society
An Open Access peer reviewed journal.
Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology
International peer reviewed journal. Official journal of the Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology (ASGO) and the Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology (KSGO).
Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group - 한국어 - Translate to English
Founded 2002, running clinical trials in Korea.
국립암센터 | National Cancer Center, Republic of Korea - 한국어 - English
Established in 2000 to lessen the burden of cancer for Koreans by research, diagnosing and treating cancer patients, assisting in the National Cancer Control Initiatives, and educating and training cancer specialists.
대한방사선종양학회 | Korean Society for Radiation Oncology - 한국어 - English
Professional society established 1982.
서울대암연구소 | Cancer Research Institute - Seoul National Unviersity - 한국어 - English
An independent academic organsation founded in 1963.
한국백혈병소아암협회 | Korean Association for Children's Cancer and Leukemia - 한국어 - Translate to English
한국임상암학회 | Korean Association for Clinical Oncology - 한국어 - English
Professional society founded 1995.
Latest Research Publications Related to Republic of Korea
Pediatric minimally invasive surgery for malignant abdominal tumor: Single center experience.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(33):e16776 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dihydrotestosterone promotes kidney cancer cell proliferation by activating the STAT5 pathway via androgen and glucocorticoid receptors.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(9):2293-2301 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Steroid hormone receptor expression was evaluated using RT-PCR and Western blotting. The effect of DHT on cell proliferation and STAT5 phosphorylation was evaluated in RCC cell lines (Caki-2, A498, and SN12C) and primary RCC cells using cell viability assays and Western blotting. ARs and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) were knocked down with small interfering RNAs before assessing changes in cell proliferation and STAT5 activation.
RESULTS: DHT treatment promoted cell proliferation and increased STAT5 phosphorylation regardless of AR status. The AR antagonist bicalutamide reduced kidney cancer cell proliferation, regardless of AR status. AR and GR knockdown blocked STAT5 activation and reduced cell proliferation in all RCC cell lines. In patient-derived primary cells, DHT enhanced cell proliferation and this effect was diminished by treatment with the AR antagonists bicalutamide and enzalutamide and the GR antagonist mifepristone.
CONCLUSION: DHT promotes cell proliferation through STAT5 activation in RCC cells, regardless of AR status. DHT appears to utilize the AR and GR pathways to activate STAT5, and the inhibition of AR and GR showed antitumor activity in RCC cells. These data suggest that targeting AR and GR may be a promising new approach to the treatment of RCC.
Expression of CD133 is associated with poor prognosis in stage II colorectal carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(32):e16709 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type 1 with tarsal conjunctiva thickening: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(31):e16699 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 46-year-old female patient was diagnosed with neurofibroma after biopsy and removal of 2 lumbar level intradural masses 15 years ago. She was being monitored without recurrence. When the patient visited our hospital, multiple iris Lisch nodules were found in both her eyes with ill-defined, diffuse thickening in the upper eyelid tarsal conjunctiva of the right eye.
DIAGNOSIS: Neurofibroma was diagnosed by incisional biopsy and immunohistochemistry of the tarsal conjunctiva.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient of the present case did not undergo any additional surgical treatment because tarsal conjunctiva thickening caused little functional problem.
OUTCOMES: The patient has only been regularly examined for changes in size of neurofibroma, and there was no change in size over a 12-month period.
LESSONS: Neurofibroma should be considered as a differential diagnosis if a patient diagnosed with NF1 shows tarsal conjunctiva thickening.
Clinicopathologic parameters associated with the FDG-avidity in staging of early gastric cancer using 18F-FDG PET.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(31):e16690 [PubMed] Related Publications
Serum thyroglobulin elevation after needle aspiration of the lymph nodes: the predictive value for detecting metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer patients - a pilot study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(31):e16461 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphopenia as a Potential Predictor of Ipsilateral Breast Tumor Recurrence in Early Breast Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4467-4474 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined 216 EBC patients treated with partial mastectomy followed by radiotherapy (RT), none of whom received chemotherapy. Absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs) during the two years after RT were collected from each patient: pretreatment ALC, ALC at 3-5 months (ALC1), ALC at 9-11 months, ALC at 15-17 months, and ALC at 21-23 months.
RESULTS: The 102 patients with ALC1 ≤1,479 cells/μl (defined as lymphopenia) had significantly higher 10-year IBTR rate than the 102 patients with ALC1 >1,479 cells/μl (16.2% vs. 1%, p=0.0034). The multivariate analysis showed that age, resection margins, human epidermal growth factor receptor, and lymphopenia were significant predictors of IBTR.
CONCLUSION: Lymphopenia is a potential predictor for IBTR in EBC patients treated with BCT.
Displacement of Vitamin D Receptor Is Related to Lower Histological Grade of Endometrioid Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4143-4147 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor samples were collected from 60 patients who had undergone surgery, and the pattern of VDR expression assessed in tissue microarray (TMA) blocks of tumor samples. When VDR expression in the cytoplasm was higher than that in the nucleus, this was noted as 'displacement'. Using statistical analysis, the relationship between VDR expression and clinicopathological factors was evaluated.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining of nuclear VDR was as follows: Negative: 32 (53.3%); mild: 13 (21.7%); moderate: 14 (23.3%); strong: 1 (1.7%). For cytoplasmic VDR expression: Negative: 2 (3.3%); mild: 19 (31.7%); moderate: 31 (51.7%); strong: 7 (11.7%). VDR displacement was found in 42 (70%) cores. VDR displacement was significantly positively correlated with endometrioid carcinoma having lower histological grade (1, p=0.03).
CONCLUSION: Displacement of VDR was significantly correlated with lower histological grade. Clinicians might be able to predict prognosis and decide therapies related to vitamin D analogs using this remarkable biomarker for endometrial carcinoma.
Tumor-sealing Surgical Orthotopic Implantation of Human Colon Cancer in Nude Mice Induces Clinically-relevant Metastases Without Early Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4065-4071 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: HCT116 colon cancer cells transfected with green fluorescence protein (GFP) were cultured and then injected into the subcutaneous layer of athymic nude mice. Subcutaneous tumors were allowed to grow sufficiently to supply adequate tumor for orthotopic implantation. For SSI, a 1 mm
RESULTS: At 20 days after implantation, PC rates in the SSI group and the TSM group were 80% (12/15) and 20% (3/15), respectively (p<0.001). The liver metastasis rate was 41.7% (5/12) in the SSI group and 50% (5/10) in the TSM group (p=0.696). The lung metastasis rate was 0% (0/12) in the SSI group and 10% (1/10) in the TSM group (p=0.201). The mean survival of mice without PC on the 20th day was significantly longer than that of mice with PC on the 20th day (69.1±14.7 vs. 44.5±12.4 days, p=0.001).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that TSM might be a more patient-like and useful method as a model of metastatic colon cancer than SSI.
Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Epstein-Barr Virus Associated Gastric Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4003-4010 [PubMed] Related Publications
Retrospective evaluation of the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in patients with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism: A single-center study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(30):e16514 [PubMed] Related Publications
Effective therapeutic options for elderly patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: A nationwide cohort study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(30):e16150 [PubMed] Related Publications
Erdafitinib in Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma.
N Engl J Med. 2019; 381(4):338-348 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: In this open-label, phase 2 study, we enrolled patients who had locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with prespecified
RESULTS: A total of 99 patients in the selected-regimen group received a median of five cycles of erdafitinib. Of these patients, 43% had received at least two previous courses of treatment, 79% had visceral metastases, and 53% had a creatinine clearance of less than 60 ml per minute. The rate of confirmed response to erdafitinib therapy was 40% (3% with a complete response and 37% with a partial response). Among the 22 patients who had undergone previous immunotherapy, the confirmed response rate was 59%. The median duration of progression-free survival was 5.5 months, and the median duration of overall survival was 13.8 months. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher, which were managed mainly by dose adjustments, were reported in 46% of the patients; 13% of the patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. There were no treatment-related deaths.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of erdafitinib was associated with an objective tumor response in 40% of previously treated patients who had locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with
Primary intraosseous osteolytic meningioma: a case report and review of the literature.
BMC Neurol. 2019; 19(1):176 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CASE PRESENTATION: An 80-year-old man presented with decreased hearing on the right side accompanied by a disturbance of balance 10 months prior to admission. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an 8 × 7 cm osteolytic mass in the right posterior fossa related to the petrous bone, with extension to the cervical region. During surgery, the tumor was found to be located extradurally, with no invasion of the dura. The tumor was removed entirely, apart from a small portion around the jugular foramen to avoid lower cranial nerve injury.
CONCLUSION: The final diagnosis was primary intraosseous osteolytic meningioma with atypical pathology. Here, we report a rare case of an osteolytic skull lesion in the skull base not invading the dura and with extensive bone destruction.
Evaluating the tumor biology of lung adenocarcinoma: A multimodal analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(29):e16313 [PubMed] Related Publications
The erector spinae plane block for effective analgesia after lung lobectomy: Three cases report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(29):e16262 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENT CONCERNS: Three patients were scheduled for video assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy with mediastinal lymph node dissection. All the patients denied any past medical history to be noted.
DIAGNOSES: They were diagnosed with primary adenocarcinoma requiring lobectomy of lung.
INTERVENTIONS: The continuous ESPB was performed at the level of the T5 transverse process. The patient was received the multimodal analgesia consisted of oral celecoxib 200 mg twice daily, intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (Fentanyl 700 mcg, ketorolac 180 mg, total volume 100 ml), and local anesthetic (0.375% ropivacaine 30 ml with epinephrine 1:200000) injection via indwelling catheter every 12 hours for 5 days. Additionally, we injected a mixture of ropivacaine and contrast through the indwelling catheter for verifying effect of ESPB and performed Computed tomography 30 minutes later.
OUTCOMES: The pain score was maintained below 3 points for postoperative 5 days, and no additional rescue analgesics were administered during this period. In the computed tomography, the contrast spread laterally from T2-T12 deep to the erector spinae muscle. On coronal view, the contrast spread to the costotransverse ligament connecting the rib and the transverse process. In the 3D reconstruction, the contrast spread from T6-T10 to the costotransverse foramen.
LESSONS: Our contrast imaging data provides valuable information about mechanism of ESPB from a living patient, and our report shows that ESPB can be a good option as a multimodal analgesia after lung lobectomy.
Targeting the Difficult-to-Drug CD71 and MYCN with Gambogic Acid and Vorinostat in a Class of Neuroblastomas.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2019; 53(1):258-280 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: Microarray analysis of cohorts of neuroblastoma patients indicated a subset of neuroblastomas overexpressing both CD71 and MYCN. The viability with proliferation changes were measured by MTT and colony formation assays in neuroblastoma cells. Transfection with CD71 or MYCN along with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect expression changes. For pathway analysis, gene ontology (GO) and Protein-protein interaction analyses were performed to evaluate the potential mechanisms of GA and vorinostat in treated cells.
RESULTS: For both GA and vorinostat, their pathways were explored for specificity and dependence on their targets for efficacy. For GA-treated cells, the viability/proliferation loss due to GA was dependent on the expression of CD71 and involved activation of caspase-3 and degradation of EGFR. It relied on the JNK-IRE1-mTORC1 pathway. The drug vorinostat also reduced cell viability/proliferation in the treated cells and this was dependent on the presence of MYCN as MYCN siRNA transfection led to a blunting of vorinostat efficacy and conversely, MYCN overexpression improved the vorinostat potency in those cells. Vorinostat inhibition of MYCN led to an increase of the pro-apoptotic miR183 levels and this, in turn, reduced the viability/proliferation of these cells. The combination treatment with GA and vorinostat synergistically reduced cell survival in the MYCN and CD71 overexpressing tumor cells. The same treatment had no effect or minimal effect on HEK293 and HEF cells used as models of non-cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: A combination therapy with GA and vorinostat may be suitable for MYCN and CD71 overexpressing neuroblastomas.
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by direct invasion of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma into the stomach in a patient with HIV infection: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(28):e16363 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a rare case of direct invasion of DLBCL to the stomach wall that presented as upper GI bleeding in a patient with HIV.
DIAGNOSIS: Upper endoscopy showed a large ulcerofungating mass in the lesser curvature of upper stomach body. The computed tomography scan showed an about 22 × 12 cm sized huge mass that invades into the stomach wall in the abdominal cavity. A diagnosis of DLBCL was established after histological examination.
INTERVENTION: The patient was treated with 6 courses of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP).
OUTCOMES: The patient achieved a complete response with 6 courses of R-CHOP treatment. No recurrence was observed during the 4-month follow-up period.
LESSONS: Because of the high incidence of lymphoma in patients with HIV, if such patients complain of dyspepsia, epigastric soreness, or melena, malignant tumors, such as lymphomas or stomach cancers, should be suspected. As in this patient, doctors should be aware that intra-abdominal lymphoma can invade into the stomach wall and cause bleeding.
Nonsurgical integrative Korean Medicine treatment of discal cyst: A case report and a retrospective chart review analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(27):e16189 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 31-year-old woman had low back pain and radiating pain equivalent to a numeral rating scale (NRS) of 8 and had limitations in daily work and activities.
DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed as having discal cysts that compressed the left S1 based on findings of L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at our hospital.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient received nonsurgical Korean Medicine treatment and after 24 days of treatment in the hospital, she underwent 16 additional treatments as an outpatient.
OUTCOMES: Spontaneous regression was confirmed in the L-spine MRI follow-up at 36 days and 99 days after the initial test, and the patient underwent once-a-week follow up to examine NRS, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), and fear-avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ) after 4 weeks, and 2, 3, and 6-month follow-ups after that. The patient was discharged in a painless condition, and she was able to carry on for 5 months without increased pain.
LESSONS: Discal cysts are more rapid progress than disc herniation, it seems valid to attempt nonsurgical treatment. Epidemiologically, this is the first study to present the clinical epidemiological characteristics of discal cysts, it would provide valuable information to clinicians who treat and study discal cysts.
Differentiation of postoperative changes and residual tumors in dynamic contrast-enhanced sella MRI after transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(27):e16089 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sarcomatoid carcinoma after radiotherapy for early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma: Case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(27):e16003 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PATIENT CONCERNS: We describe a case of a 57-year-old man presented with a painless mass in the left supraclavicular area. Five years before, he was diagnosed with SCC in floor of mouth (FOM) and underwent radiotherapy (RT).
DIAGNOSES: Sonography-guided biopsy on the supraclavicular lymph node revealed diffuse spindle cell proliferation with a focus of squamous differentiation. Local recurrence on primary site or distant metastasis was not obvious on both computed tomography (CT) of the neck and F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT. The final diagnosis was confirmed as sarcomatoid carcinoma via surgery.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent surgery including explorative resection of the mouth floor, excision of the submandibular gland, and modified radical neck dissection. Following surgery, the patient received adjuvant radiation therapy.
OUTCOMES: There were no complications according to the surgery. Six months after adjuvant therapy, distant metastasis to liver was identified. The patient is currently undergoing palliative chemotherapy.
LESSONS: This may be the first reported case of sarcomatoid carcinoma arising from early-stage SCC in FOM that was previously treated with RT alone. When RT is performed as a single modality for oral SCC, even in an early stage, rigorous follow-up should be performed.
Preventing deoxygenation with high flow nasal cannula oxygen during induction of general anesthesia for rigid bronchoscopy: Two case reports.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(27):e15998 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: Case 1: A 70-year-old female patient was diagnosed with lung cancer in the left lower lobe and a tracheal mass of about 2.6 cm * 0.8 cm in size.Case 2: A male patient, 77 years old, 55.7 kg and 157.3 cm in height, had been diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and was scheduled for the bronchoscopic volume reduction surgery upon exacerbation of his symptoms of dyspnea and cough with sputum.
INTERVENTIONS: Preoxygenation was performed with HFNC (Fisher&Paykel Optiflow Thrive, New Zealand) for 3 minutes before the administration of anesthetic medications. The oxygen flow was set at 50 L/min and the FiO2 at 1.0. SpO2 increased to 100%.
OUTCOMES: The HFNC oxygen has shown its effectiveness in safely maintaining the patients' SpO2 during the prolonged apneic period of inserting bronchoscope.
LESSONS: HFNC oxygen is an effective tool in oxygenating the patients during the induction of rigid bronchoscopy, and that it may be a superior alternative to the conventional method of preoxygenation.
Lymph-node ratio is an important clinical determinant for selecting the appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for curative D2-resected gastric cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(8):2157-2166 [PubMed] Related Publications
METHODS: We reviewed the data of 819 patients who underwent curative D2 gastrectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Of them, 353 patients received platinum-based chemotherapy and 466 received TS-1. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their LNR (LNR 1, 0-0.1; LNR 2, > 0.1-0.25; and LNR 3, > 0.25), and their disease-free survival (DFS) was evaluated.
RESULTS: The DFS curves of the patients were well separated according to stage and LNR. In multivariate analyses, an LNR > 0.1 was strongly associated with the 3-year DFS (hazard ratio 2.402, 95% confidence interval 1.607-3.590, P < 0.001). Platinum-based chemotherapy improved the 3-year DFS compared to TS-1 in patients with LNR 3 group in stage III gastric cancer (platinum vs. TS-1, median DFS 26.87 vs. 16.27 months, P = 0.028). An LNR > 0.1 was associated with benefiting from platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III gastric cancer patients with lymphovascular invasion (platinum vs. TS-1, median DFS 47.57 vs. 21.77 months, P = 0.011).
CONCLUSIONS: The LNR can be used to select the appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with D2-resected gastric cancer, particularly in stage III.
Random Allocated Study of Wrapping Oblate for Prevention of Everolimus-associated Stomatitis in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3937-3944 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with mRCC prescribed everolimus after failure of vascular endothelial growth factor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor were enrolled. Patients were consecutively assigned to take everolimus covered with or without oblate. The primary end-points were the incidence of and time to grade 2 or more stomatitis. Additionally, we assessed whether grade 2 or more stomatitis that occurred in the non-oblate group could be prevented with crossover application of oblate.
RESULTS: This study included 79 patients [oblate group: 42(53%); non-oblate group: 37(47%)]. Thirty (38%) patients developed grade 2 or more stomatitis [incidence: oblate group, 31% (13/42); non-oblate group, 46% (17/37), p=0.245; median time to grade 2 or more stomatitis: oblate group, not reached; non-oblate group, 6.0 months, p=0.251]. Among 10 patients who developed grade 2 or more stomatitis in the non-oblate group and received oblate-covered everolimus, nine (90%) showed complete recovery or improved to grade 1, which persisted until discontinuation of everolimus.
CONCLUSION: Oblate-covered everolimus improved the incidence of and time to grade 2 or more stomatitis, although it was not statistically significantly different compared to the non-oblate group. Oblate wrapping prevented recurrence of grade 2 or more stomatitis in patients who took uncovered everolimus and developed significant stomatitis.
Reduction of Intrahepatic Tumour by Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy Prolongs Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3909-3916 [PubMed] Related Publications
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2010 and 2017, a total of 187 consecutive patients with advanced HCC were treated with HAIC. The survival outcomes and response rates to HAIC were analysed.
RESULTS: The intrahepatic objective response (OR) rate of all enrolled patients was 18.7%. The survival outcome of patients with OR was significantly better from those without OR, irrespective of initial distant metastasis. Achievement of intrahepatic OR by HAIC and favourable liver function at the time of best response evaluation were two independent factors associated with better OS.
CONCLUSION: HAIC-induced intrahepatic tumour reduction significantly prolonged patient survival, irrespective of PVTT or initial distant metastasis.
Peroxiredoxin V Reduces β-Lapachone-induced Apoptosis of Colon Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3677-3686 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: β-lapachone-induced apoptosis was analyzed by the MTT assay, western blotting, fluorescence microscopy, Annexin V staining and flow cytometry.
RESULTS: Overexpression of Prx V, significantly decreased β-lapachone-induced cellular apoptosis and Prx V silencing increased β-lapachone-induced cellular apoptosis via modulating ROS scavenging activity compared to mock SW480 cells. In addition, to further explore the mechanism of Prx V regulated β-lapachone-induced SW480 cells apoptosis, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling was studied. The Wnt/ β-catenin signaling pathway was found to be induced by β-lapachone.
CONCLUSION: Prx V regulates SW480 cell apoptosis via scavenging ROS cellular levels and mediating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which was induced by β-lapachone.
Selective Wnt/β-catenin Small-molecule Inhibitor CWP232228 Impairs Tumor Growth of Colon Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3661-3667 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of CWP2228 on HCT116 cells was analysed in vitro via flow cytometry, western immunoblotting, and luciferase reporter assays. NOD-scid IL2Rgamma
RESULTS: CWP232228 treatment decreased the promoter activity and nuclear expression of β-catenin and induced a significant cytotoxic effect in HCT116 cells. CWP232228 treatment induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in the G
CONCLUSION: Collectively, CWP232228 may be used as a potential therapeutic drug in CRC.
Down-regulation of Survivin by BIX-01294 Pretreatment Overcomes Resistance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to TRAIL.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3571-3578 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Compound screening, proliferation assays, western blotting, and flow cytometry were used to examine the sensitizer activity of methyl transferase inhibitor BIX-01294 in combination with TRAIL, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. RNA sequencing analysis and single guide (sg)RNA-mediated gene deletion were used to investigate the role of survivin in sensitization.
RESULTS: In HCC cells, BIX-01294 enhanced TRAIL sensitivity by reducing survivin expression at the RNA level. Small interference RNA-mediated gene knockdown demonstrated the mechanism of sensitization to be via the reduction of survivin.
CONCLUSION: Euchromatin histone methyltransferase 2 (EHMT2) inhibition by BIX-01294 may be a potent anti-tumor therapeutic strategy for human HCC.
Phenformin Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis of FaDu Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3499-3506 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cytotoxicity was measured by the MTT and live/dead cell assay. Phenformin-induced apoptotic FaDu cell death and its associated cellular signaling pathways were investigated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, caspase-3 activity assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and western blotting.
RESULTS: Phenformin promoted death of and apoptotic processes in FaDu cells, including morphological alterations and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, treatment with phenformin increased caspase-3 activity and apoptotic populations via the caspase cascade through cleavage of capspase-8, -9, and -3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in FaDu cells. Moreover, phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-κB, and AKT were down-regulated in FaDu cells by phenformin.
CONCLUSION: Phenformin induced death of FaDu cells via caspase-dependent extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways and is a promising novel therapeutic agent for HNSCC.
Peritoneal Metastases in a Patient-derived Orthotopic Xenograft (PDOX) Model of Colon Cancer Imaged Non-invasively
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3463-3467 [PubMed] Related Publications
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumor fragments originating from a colon cancer patient with peritoneal metastases were implanted in transgenic RFP nude mice. Resultant tumors were harvested, and fragments were implanted in the same strain a second time. Passaged tumors stably acquired RFP-expressing stroma from their transgenic hosts. The tumor with RFP-expressing stromal cells were harvested and implanted orthotopically in non-transgenic nude mice. At eight weeks post-implantation, non-invasive external RFP images were obtained. RFP area and intensity were measured and correlated with tumor weight and volume.
RESULTS: Metastatic patient colon cancer can be stably and brightly labeled by passage in transgenic RFP-expressing nude mice such that tumor growth could be non-invasively imaged. Tumor growing could be non-invasively imaged when passaged to non-transgenic nude mice. A strong correlation between fluorescence intensity and area values with tumor weight and volume were established by external fluorescence imaging.
CONCLUSION: This new tumor model of metastatic colon cancer can be used to evaluate novel therapeutics in real time for this recalcitrant disease.