Gene Summary

Gene:FGF1; fibroblast growth factor 1
Aliases: AFGF, ECGF, FGFA, ECGFA, ECGFB, FGF-1, HBGF1, HBGF-1, GLIO703, ECGF-beta, FGF-alpha
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This protein functions as a modifier of endothelial cell migration and proliferation, as well as an angiogenic factor. It acts as a mitogen for a variety of mesoderm- and neuroectoderm-derived cells in vitro, thus is thought to be involved in organogenesis. Multiple alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fibroblast growth factor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FGF1 (cancer-related)

Kim SS, Eun JW, Cho HJ, et al.
Effect of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and its Receptor Gene Polymorphisms on the Survival of Patients With Hepatitis B Virus-associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(4):2217-2226 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor, and hepatocyte growth factor play a critical role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FGF1, FGF2, FGF receptor (FGFR)-2, Flt-1, and c-MET genes in 245 HCC patients and 483 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers without HCC.
RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with the FGF2 rs308447 TT genotype had shorter overall survival than patients with the CC or CT genotype (p=0.016) and that FGF2 rs308379 A allele carriers had shorter overall survival than patients with the TT genotype (p=0.020).
CONCLUSION: Multivariate Cox proportional analysis revealed that the FGF2 rs308379 A allele (hazard ratio(HR)=1.663, p=0.004) and advanced tumor stage (HR=3.430, p<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with HCC.

Ishaque N, Abba ML, Hauser C, et al.
Whole genome sequencing puts forward hypotheses on metastasis evolution and therapy in colorectal cancer.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4782 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Incomplete understanding of the metastatic process hinders personalized therapy. Here we report the most comprehensive whole-genome study of colorectal metastases vs. matched primary tumors. 65% of somatic mutations originate from a common progenitor, with 15% being tumor- and 19% metastasis-specific, implicating a higher mutation rate in metastases. Tumor- and metastasis-specific mutations harbor elevated levels of BRCAness. We confirm multistage progression with new components ARHGEF7/ARHGEF33. Recurrently mutated non-coding elements include ncRNAs RP11-594N15.3, AC010091, SNHG14, 3' UTRs of FOXP2, DACH2, TRPM3, XKR4, ANO5, CBL, CBLB, the latter four potentially dual protagonists in metastasis and efferocytosis-/PD-L1 mediated immunosuppression. Actionable metastasis-specific lesions include FAT1, FGF1, BRCA2, KDR, and AKT2-, AKT3-, and PDGFRA-3' UTRs. Metastasis specific mutations are enriched in PI3K-Akt signaling, cell adhesion, ECM and hepatic stellate activation genes, suggesting genetic programs for site-specific colonization. Our results put forward hypotheses on tumor and metastasis evolution, and evidence for metastasis-specific events relevant for personalized therapy.

Gnatenko DA, Kopantzev EP, Sverdlov ED
Variable Effects of Growth Factors on Developmental Gene Expression in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.
Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2018; 481(1):217-218 [PubMed] Related Publications
Stimulation of BxPC-3, Panc-1, and MIA PaCA-2 pancreatic cancer cells with EGF, HGF, FGF-1, FGF-2, FGF-7, and FGF-10 growth factors caused changes in the expression of master genes regulating pancreatic development (SOX9, HNF3b, GATA-4, GATA-6, and HES1). This, in turn, caused changes in the expression profile of important transcription factors, embryonic development regulators. It was also found that the master genes belonging to the same family may cause opposite effects (suppression or enhancement of expression of a particular transcriptional regulator) in the same cell line.

Hide T, Komohara Y, Miyasato Y, et al.
Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells and Macrophages/Microglia Produce Glioma Stem Cell Niches at the Tumor Border.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 30:94-104 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) usually develops in adult brain white matter. Even after complete resection, GBM recurs around the tumor removal cavity, where GBM cells acquire chemo-radioresistance. Characterization of the tumor border microenvironment is critical for improving prognosis in patients with GBM. Here, we compared microRNA (miRNA) expression in samples from the tumor, tumor border, and periphery by miRNA microarray. The top three of miRNAs showing higher expression in the tumor border were related to oligodendrocyte differentiation, and pathologically oligodendrocyte lineage cells were increased in the border, where macrophages and microglia also colocalized. Medium cultured with oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and macrophages induced stemness and chemo-radioresistance in GBM cells, similar to that produced by FGF1, EGF and HB-EGF, IL-1β, corresponding to OPCs and macrophages, respectively. Thus, OPCs and macrophages/microglia may form a glioma stem cell niche at the tumor border, representing a promising target for prevention of recurrence.

Kostas M, Haugsten EM, Zhen Y, et al.
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type G (PTPRG) Controls Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) 1 Activity and Influences Sensitivity to FGFR Kinase Inhibitors.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(5):850-870 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recently, FGFR1 was found to be overexpressed in osteosarcoma and represents an important target for precision medicine. However, because targeted cancer therapy based on FGFR inhibitors has so far been less efficient than expected, a detailed understanding of the target is important. We have here applied proximity-dependent biotin labeling combined with label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to identify determinants of FGFR1 activity in an osteosarcoma cell line. Many known FGFR interactors were identified (

Lange A, Jaskula E, Lange J, et al.
The sorafenib anti-relapse effect after alloHSCT is associated with heightened alloreactivity and accumulation of CD8+PD-1+ (CD279+) lymphocytes in marrow.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0190525 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We studied three FLT3 ITD acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients who relapsed after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) and received multikinase inhibitor (MKI) sorafenib as part of salvage therapy. MKI was given to block the effect of FLT3 ITD mutation which powers proliferation of blast cells. However, the known facts that sorafenib is more effective in patents post alloHSCT suggested that this MKI can augment the immune system surveillance on leukaemia. In the present study, we investigated in depth the effect of sorafenib on the alloreactivity seen post-transplant including that on leukaemia. The patients (i) responded to the treatment with cessation of blasts which lasted 1, 17 and 42+ months, (ii) developed skin lesions with CD3+ cell invasion of the epidermis, (iii) had marrow infiltrated with CD8+ lymphocytes which co-expressed PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1 receptor, CD279) in higher proportions than those in the blood (163±32 x103 cells/μl vs 38±8 x103 cells/μl, p<0.001). The Lymphoprep fraction of marrow cells investigated for the expression of genes involved in lymphocyte activation showed in the patients with long lasting complete remission (CR) a similar pattern characterized by (i) a low expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) as well as that of angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) (supporting the immune response and anti-angiogenic) genes, and (ii) higher expression of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) and collagen type IV alpha 3 chain (COL4A3) as well as toll like receptor 9 (TLR9) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) (pro-inflammatory expression profile) genes as compared with the normal individual. The positive effect in one patient hardly justified the presence of unwanted effects (progressive chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) and avascular necrosis of the femur), which were in contrast negligible in the other patient. The anti-leukemic and unwanted effects of sorafenib do not rely on each other.

Hu P, Chen H, McGowan EM, et al.
Assessment of FGFR1 Over-Expression and Over-Activity in Lung Cancer Cells: A Toolkit for Anti-FGFR1 Drug Screening.
Hum Gene Ther Methods. 2018; 29(1):30-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer, caused mainly by smoking, is one of the most prevalent diseases in China, resulting in high mortality rates. The increasing incidence of chronic disease due to lung cancer places a huge burden on the welfare and cost to the Chinese society. Amplification of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is associated with high incidence and mortality in lung cancer patients. FGFR1 signaling is implicated in oncogenic traits such as proliferation, cell survival, angiogenesis, and migration. Targeting FGFR1 and its ligand basic FGF (bFGF) is a key step forward in developing new therapies for this crippling disease. Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer. In this study, A549, a lung adenocarcinoma cell line widely used in vitro as a model for drug metabolism and as a transfection host, was used to study FGFR1. A stable lentiviral FGFR1 over-expression system in lung cancer cells is described for the study of anti-lung cancer drug candidates targeting FGFR1. Ligand binding to FGFR1 activates the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and increases adhesion, invasion, and migration in this model. Using a unique FGF monoclonal antibody developed in the laboratory, the overactive PI3K pathway was effectively blocked, abrogating the negative metastatic signaling pathways in lung cancer cells. Importantly, this model provides an effective and simple screening kit for anti-FGF1 drug compounds for lung cancer treatment and a tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms of the FGFR1 signaling pathway in lung cancer. Furthermore, this toolkit based on a FGFR1 lentiviral construct model is transferrable to study FGFR1 signaling in any type of cancer cell.

Eigner K, Filik Y, Mark F, et al.
The unfolded protein response impacts melanoma progression by enhancing FGF expression and can be antagonized by a chemical chaperone.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):17498 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mechanisms hallmarking melanoma progression are insufficiently understood. Here we studied the impact of the unfolded protein response (UPR) - a signalling cascade playing ambiguous roles in carcinogenesis - in melanoma malignancy. We identified isogenic patient-derived melanoma cell lines harboring BRAF

Yahya SMM, Abdelhamid AO, Abd-Elhalim MM, et al.
The effect of newly synthesized progesterone derivatives on apoptotic and angiogenic pathway in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Steroids. 2017; 126:15-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Due to its high potency and selectivity, anticancer agents consisting of combined molecules have gained great interests. The current study introduces newly synthesized progesterone derivatives of promising anticancer effect. Moreover, the pro-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of these compounds were studied extensively. Several thiazole, pyridine, pyrazole, thiazolopyridine and pyrazolopyridine progesterone derivatives were synthesized. The structure of the novel progesterone derivatives was elucidated and confirmed using the analytical and spectral data. This novel derivatives were tested for their cytotoxic effect against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) using neutral red uptake assay. Tested compounds showed anticancer activity against MCF-7 cancer cell line in the descending order of 7>2>3>8>6>9>4. The expression levels of Bcl-2, survivin, CCND1, CDC2, P53 and P21, VEGF, Hif-1α, MMP-2, MMP-9, Ang-1, Ang-2, and FGF-1 genes were investigated using QRT-PCR (Quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction). The study clarified that compounds 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 showed significant pro-apoptotic effect through the down regulation of Bcl-2., besides, survivin and CCND1 expression levels were down regulated by compounds 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9. However, Compound 4 may exert this pro-apoptotic effect through the up-regulation of P53 gene expression. On the other hand, the anti-angiogenic effect of these newly synthesized derivatives was due to their down regulation of VEGF, Ang-2, MMP-9 and FGF-1; and the up-regulation of HIF-1α and ang-1. This study recommended promising pro-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic anticancer agents acting through the regulation of key regulators of apoptosis, cell cycle genes, and pro-angiogenic genes.

Sun Y, Fan X, Zhang Q, et al.
Cancer-associated fibroblasts secrete FGF-1 to promote ovarian proliferation, migration, and invasion through the activation of FGF-1/FGFR4 signaling.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(7):1010428317712592 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, due to its high propensity for metastasis. Cancer-associated fibroblasts, as the dominant component of tumor microenvironment, are crucial for tumor progression. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ovarian cancer cells by cancer-associated fibroblasts remain little known. Here, we first isolated cancer-associated fibroblasts from patients' ovarian tissues and found that cancer-associated fibroblasts promoted SKOV3 cells' proliferation, migration, and invasion. Fibroblast growth factor-1 was identified as a highly increased factor in cancer-associated fibroblasts compared with normal fibroblasts by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (~4.6-fold, p < 0.01) and ELISA assays (~4-fold, p < 0.01). High expression of fibroblast growth factor-1 in cancer-associated fibroblasts either naturally or through gene recombination led to phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 in SKOV3 cells, which is followed by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-associated gene Snail1 and MMP3 expression. Moreover, treatment of SKOV3 cell with fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor PD173074 terminated cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion, reduced the phosphorylation level of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4, and suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway. In addition, the expression level of Snail1 and MMP3 was reduced, while the expression level of E-cadherin increased. These observations suggest a crucial role for cancer-associated fibroblasts and fibroblast growth factor-1/fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 signaling in the progression of ovarian cancer. Therefore, this fibroblast growth factor-1/fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 axis may become a potential target for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Li J, Chen H, Li X, et al.
Co-expression of podoplanin and fibroblast growth factor 1 predicts poor prognosis in patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(2):1643-1652 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Podoplanin and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1 have been detected more frequently in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) compared with lung adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, it has been previous demonstrated that FGF1 is located on the edge of tumor nests in certain lung SQCC sections, which resembles the characteristic expression pattern of podoplanin. Podoplanin and FGF1 have roles in lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis. Based on their consistently specific expression in lung SQCC and similar localization patterns, the present study aimed to investigate whether the expression of podoplanin in tumor cells is correlated with FGF1 expression in lung SQCC and whether their co‑expression has clinicopathological significance, particularly for lymphangiogenesis/angiogenesis. The correlation between podoplanin and FGF1 expression in tumor cells of 82 lung SQCC cases was investigated by immunohistochemical staining and the association between the co‑expression of podoplanin and FGF1, and clinicopathological factors such as microvessel density (MVD), was examined in these samples. In addition, the prognostic value of co‑expression of podoplanin and FGF1 in tumor cells was determined, and the regulation of FGF1 expression and angiogenesis by podoplanin was examined in vitro in a human lung SQCC cell line. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that there was a significant correlation between podoplanin and FGF1 expression in lung SQCC tumor cells (R=0.591; P<0.0001). Co‑expression of podoplanin and FGF1 was significantly associated with larger primary tumor size, advanced TNM stage and higher intratumoral MVD. Survival analysis demonstrated that cases with podoplanin and FGF1 double‑positive staining had a significantly lower survival rate compared with cases with double‑negative staining. In vitro experiments revealed that podoplanin regulated FGF1 expression and affected tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Combined, the results demonstrated that podoplanin was co‑expressed with FGF1 in lung SQCC and this co‑expression was correlated with poor prognosis.

Kondo A, Nonaka A, Shimamura T, et al.
Long Noncoding RNA JHDM1D-AS1 Promotes Tumor Growth by Regulating Angiogenesis in Response to Nutrient Starvation.
Mol Cell Biol. 2017; 37(18) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs play a pivotal role in tumor progression, but their role in cancer cells in the nutrient-starved tumor microenvironment remains unknown. Here, we show that a nutrient starvation-responsive long noncoding RNA, JHDM1D antisense 1 (JHDM1D-AS1), promotes tumorigenesis by regulating angiogenesis in response to nutrient starvation. Expression of JHDM1D-AS1 was increased in cancer cells. In addition, expression of JHDM1D-AS1 was increased in clinical tumor samples compared to that in normal tissue. Stable expression of JHDM1D-AS1 in human pancreatic cancer (PANC-1 and AsPC-1) cells promoted cell growth

Barón AE, Kako S, Feser WJ, et al.
Clinical Utility of Chromosomal Aneusomy in Individuals at High Risk of Lung Cancer.
J Thorac Oncol. 2017; 12(10):1512-1523 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer has a high false-positive rate with frequent discovery of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Noninvasive biomarkers are needed to reduce false positives and improve risk stratification. A retrospective longitudinal evaluation was performed to assess chromosomal aneusomy in sputum by fluorescence in situ hybridization (CA-FISH) in four nested case-control studies.
METHODS: Receiver operating characteristic analysis resulted in two grouped cohorts: a high-risk cohort (Colorado High-Risk Cohort and Colorado Nodule Cohort [68 case patients and 69 controls]) and a screening cohort (American College of Radiology Imaging Network/National Lung Screening Trial and Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study [97 case patients and 185 controls]). The CA-FISH assay was a four-target DNA panel encompassing the EGFR and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) genes, and the 5p15 and centromere 6 regions or the fibroblast growth factor 1 gene (FGFR1) and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha gene (PIK3CA). A four-category scale (normal, probably normal, probably abnormal, and abnormal) was applied. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) (with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were estimated for each cohort.
RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 0.67 (95% CI: 0.55-0.78) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.85-0.98) for high-risk participants and 0.20 (95% CI: 0.13-0.30) and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.78-0.89) for screening participants. The positive and negative LRs were, respectively, 11.66 (95% CI: 4.44-30.63) and 0.34 (95% CI: 0.24-0.48) for high-risk participants and 1.36 (95% CI: 0.81-2.28) and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.83-1.05) for screening participants.
CONCLUSION: The high positive LR of sputum CA-FISH indicates that it could be a useful adjunct to low-dose computed tomography for lung cancer in high-risk settings. For screening, however, its low positive LR limits clinical utility. Prospective assessment of CA-FISH in the incidentally identified indeterminate nodule setting is ongoing in the Colorado Pulmonary Nodule Biomarker Trial.

Kryza T, Silva LM, Bock N, et al.
Kallikrein-related peptidase 4 induces cancer-associated fibroblast features in prostate-derived stromal cells.
Mol Oncol. 2017; 11(10):1307-1329 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The reciprocal communication between cancer cells and their microenvironment is critical in cancer progression. Although involvement of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) in cancer progression is long established, the molecular mechanisms leading to differentiation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts are poorly understood. Here, we report that kallikrein-related peptidase-4 (KLK4) promotes CAF differentiation. KLK4 is highly expressed in prostate epithelial cells of premalignant (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) and malignant lesions compared to normal prostate epithelia, especially at the peristromal interface. KLK4 induced CAF-like features in the prostate-derived WPMY1 normal stromal cell line, including increased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, ESR1 and SFRP1. KLK4 activated protease-activated receptor-1 in WPMY1 cells increasing expression of several factors (FGF1, TAGLN, LOX, IL8, VEGFA) involved in prostate cancer progression. In addition, KLK4 induced WPMY1 cell proliferation and secretome changes, which in turn stimulated HUVEC cell proliferation that could be blocked by a VEGFA antibody. Importantly, the genes dysregulated by KLK4 treatment of WPMY1 cells were also differentially expressed between patient-derived CAFs compared to matched nonmalignant fibroblasts and were further increased by KLK4 treatment. Taken together, we propose that epithelial-derived KLK4 promotes tumour progression by actively promoting CAF differentiation in the prostate stromal microenvironment.

Wang M, Wu C, Guo Y, et al.
The primary growth of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro is effectively supported by paired cancer-associated fibroblasts alone.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(5):1010428317705512 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most primarily cultured laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells are difficult to propagate in vitro and have a low survival rate. However, in our previous work to establish a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line, we found that laryngeal cancer-associated fibroblasts appeared to strongly inhibit the apoptosis of primarily cultured laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated whether paired laryngeal cancer-associated fibroblasts alone can effectively support the growth of primarily cultured laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro. In all, 29 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma specimens were collected and primarily cultured. The laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells were separated from cancer-associated fibroblasts by differential trypsinization and continuously subcultured. Morphological changes of the cultured laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells were observed. Immunocytofluorescence was used to authenticate the identity of the cancer-associated fibroblasts and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the proportion of apoptotic cells. Western blot was used to detect the protein levels of caspase-3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7, hepatocyte growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor 1 in the supernatants of the laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and control cells. AMD3100 (a chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 antagonist) and an anti-chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 7 antibody were used to block the tumor-supporting capacity of cancer-associated fibroblasts. Significant apoptotic changes were detected in the morphology of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells detached from cancer-associated fibroblasts. The percentage of apoptotic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells and the protein levels of caspase-3 increased gradually in subsequent subcultures. In contrast, no significant differences in the proliferation capacity of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells cocultured with cancer-associated fibroblasts were detected during subculturing. High level of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 was detected in the culture supernatant of cancer-associated fibroblasts. The tumor-supporting effect of cancer-associated fibroblasts was significantly inhibited by AMD3100. Our findings demonstrate that the paired laryngeal cancer-associated fibroblasts alone are sufficient to support the primary growth of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and that the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12/chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 axis is one of the major contributors.

Beltrami CM, Dos Reis MB, Barros-Filho MC, et al.
Integrated data analysis reveals potential drivers and pathways disrupted by DNA methylation in papillary thyroid carcinomas.
Clin Epigenetics. 2017; 9:45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a common endocrine neoplasm with a recent increase in incidence in many countries. Although PTC has been explored by gene expression and DNA methylation studies, the regulatory mechanisms of the methylation on the gene expression was poorly clarified. In this study, DNA methylation profile (Illumina HumanMethylation 450K) of 41 PTC paired with non-neoplastic adjacent tissues (NT) was carried out to identify and contribute to the elucidation of the role of novel genic and intergenic regions beyond those described in the promoter and CpG islands (CGI). An integrative and cross-validation analysis were performed aiming to identify molecular drivers and pathways that are PTC-related.
RESULTS: The comparisons between PTC and NT revealed 4995 methylated probes (88% hypomethylated in PTC) and 1446 differentially expressed transcripts cross-validated by the The Cancer Genome Atlas data. The majority of these probes was found in non-promoters regions, distant from CGI and enriched by enhancers. The integrative analysis between gene expression and DNA methylation revealed 185 and 38 genes (mainly in the promoter and body regions, respectively) with negative and positive correlation, respectively. Genes showing negative correlation underlined FGF and retinoic acid signaling as critical canonical pathways disrupted by DNA methylation in PTC.
CONCLUSIONS: DNA methylation loss in non-promoter, poor CGI and enhancer-enriched regions was a significant event in PTC, especially in tumors harboring

Sivunen J, Karlberg S, Lohi J, et al.
Renal findings in patients with Mulibrey nanism.
Pediatr Nephrol. 2017; 32(9):1531-1536 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a rare inherited disease caused by genetic defects affecting peroxisomal TRIM37 protein. MUL affects multiple organs, leading to growth retardation and early onset type 2 diabetes. We aimed to characterize the structure and function of kidneys and the urinary tract in a large cohort of Finnish MUL patients.
METHODS: Ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and autopsy findings of the kidneys and urinary tract from 101 MUL patients were retrospectively analyzed. Renal function was examined using blood and urine biochemistry. Kidney pathology was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry from biopsy and autopsy samples.
RESULTS: Structural anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract were found in 13 % of MUL patients and renal tumors and macroscopic cystic lesions in 14 % and 43 % respectively. Overall, kidney histology was well preserved, but glomerular cysts with a wide Bowman's space were observed in most samples (87 %). Also, prominent and abundant blood vessels with thick walls were typically seen. Expression of endothelial cell markers and angiogenic growth factors PDGF-B and FGF1 (but not VEGF-A) was significantly increased in MUL kidneys. Markers of fibrosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, α-SMA, and vimentin were moderately up-regulated. Despite radiological and histological changes, most MUL patients (age 0.2-51 years) had normal kidney function. However, 9 out of 36 patients (25 %) had hypertension and 6 out of 26 (23 %) had mildly decreased glomerular filtration.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic defects in the TRIM37 gene lead to an increased risk for kidney anomalies, renal tumors, and solitary cysts in addition to glomerular cystic lesions, but not to progressive deterioration of renal function.

Garimella R, Tadikonda P, Tawfik O, et al.
Vitamin D Impacts the Expression of Runx2 Target Genes and Modulates Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Membrane Vesicle Biogenesis Gene Networks in 143B Osteosarcoma Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignancy of bone affecting children, adolescents and young adults. Understanding vitamin D metabolism and vitamin D regulated genes in OS is an important aspect of vitamin D/cancer paradigm, and in evaluating vitamin D as adjuvant therapy for human OS. Vitamin D treatment of 143B OS cells induced significant and novel changes in the expression of genes that regulate: (a) inflammation and immunity; (b) formation of reactive oxygen species, metabolism of cyclic nucleotides, sterols, vitamins and mineral (calcium), quantity of gap junctions and skeletogenesis; (c) bone mineral density; and (d) cell viability of skeletal cells, aggregation of bone cancer cells and exocytosis of secretory vesicles. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed significant reduction in Runx2 target genes such as fibroblast growth factor -1, -12 (

Zhang QH, Xu P, Lu YX, Dou HT
Acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor expression levels in cervical cancer and their effects on tumor cell proliferation.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(4) [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play important roles in angiogenesis, wound healing, embryonic development, and endocrine signaling pathways. Increasingly, recent studies have reported aberrant FGF expression in various malignancies. However, the involvement of FGFs in cervical carcinoma pathogenesis remains unclear. We aimed to investigate expression of acidic (aFGF) and basic FGF (bFGF) in patients with this disease, and assess their effects on cervical cancer cell proliferation. Twenty cervical cancer patients and 10 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients were recruited, and 10 cancer-free individuals were included as controls. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were employed to detect FGF mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Furthermore, HeLa cells were treated with FGFs and subjected to thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assays to quantify proliferation. Compared with CIN and normal cervical tissues, aFGF and bFGF mRNA and protein levels were significantly elevated in cervical carcinomas (P < 0.05). CIN tissues exhibited higher expression of these FGFs than normal tissues (P < 0.05). Moreover, their mRNA levels were increased in advanced cancer stages (P < 0.05), although no significant difference was detected between tumors of different differentiation grades in this regard (P > 0.05). HeLa cell proliferation increased in an aFGF- and bFGF-dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05), the latter exerting a more potent proliferative influence, with its effect peaking at 75 ng/mL. aFGF and bFGF were highly expressed in cervical cancer tissues and their levels positively correlated with clinical stage. Both facilitate proliferation of cervical carcinoma cells and are implicated in cancer pathogenesis and progression.

Huang Y, Wan G, Tao J
C1q/TNF-related protein-3 exerts the chondroprotective effects in IL-1β-treated SW1353 cells by regulating the FGFR1 signaling.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:41-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cartilage degeneration is known as a major cause of osteoarthritis (OA). C1q/TNF-related protein-3 (CTRP3) is an adipokine relative to chondrogenesis in vitro. However, its effect on cartilage degeneration in OA remains unclearly. In the present study, SW1353 cells were treated with IL-1β to imitate the microenvironment of OA for vitro research. Then, an obvious down-regulation of CTRP3 were validated in IL-1β-treated SW1353 cells. In addition, CTRP3 overexpression significantly attenuated the decrease in cell proliferation and increase in cell apoptosis triggered by IL-1β. Moreover, CTRP3 up-regulation significantly inhibited the expression of FGFR1, but with slight decrease in FGFR3 levels. Further analysis corroborated that FGFR1 overexpression markedly ameliorated the pro-proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects of CTRP3 elevation in cells upon IL-1β. Down-regulation of FGFR1 attenuated the increase in Ras-GTP expression caused by IL-1β stimulation. Moreover, EGFR1 elevation also abated the inhibitory effect of CTRP3 on Ras expression and the CRTP3-induced activation of PI3K/AKT in cells upon IL-1β. Furthermore, Ras inhibitor manumycin A antagonized the decrease in phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt caused by IL-1β treatment. Both Manumycin A and PI3K/Akt agonist FGF-1 attenuated the inhibitory effect of IL-1β on cell growth. Together, this research suggested that CTRP3 might protect chondrocytes against IL-1β-induced injury by suppressing the FGFR1- Ras/PI3K/Akt signaling-mediated growth inhibitory pathway, indicating a potential agent against osteoarthritis.

Takano M, Shimada K, Fujii T, et al.
Keratin 19 as a key molecule in progression of human hepatocellular carcinomas through invasion and angiogenesis.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16(1):903 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Keratin (K) 19-positive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is well known to have a higher malignant potential than K19-negative HCC: However, the molecular mechanisms involved in K19-mediated progression of HCC remain unclear. We attempted to clarify whether K19 directly affects cell survival and invasiveness in association with cellular senescence or epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in K19-positive HCC.
METHODS: K19 expression was analysed in 136 HCC surgical specimens. The relationship of K19 with clinicopathological factors and survival was analysed. Further, the effect of K19 on cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis was examined by silencing K19 in the human HCC cell lines, HepG2, HuH-7, and PLC/PRF/5. Finally, we investigated HCC invasion, proliferation, and angiogenesis using K19-positive HCC specimens.
RESULTS: Analysis of HCC surgical specimens revealed that K19-positive HCC exhibited higher invasiveness, metastatic potential, and poorer prognosis. In vitro experiments using the human HCC cell lines revealed that K19 silencing suppressed cell growth by inducting apoptosis or upregulating p16 and p27, resulting in cellular senescence. In addition, transfection with K19 siRNA upregulated E-cadherin gene expression, significantly inhibited the invasive capacity of the cells, downregulated angiogenesis-related molecules such as vasohibin-1 (VASH1) and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGFR1), and upregulated vasohibin-2 (VASH2). K19-positive HCC specimens exhibited a high MIB-1 labelling index, decreased E-cadherin expression, and high microvessel density around cancer foci.
CONCLUSION: K19 directly promotes cancer cell survival, invasion, and angiogenesis, resulting in HCC progression and poor clinical outcome. K19 may therefore be a novel drug target for the treatment of K19-positive HCC.

Lee JC, Su SY, Changou CA, et al.
Characterization of FN1-FGFR1 and novel FN1-FGF1 fusion genes in a large series of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors.
Mod Pathol. 2016; 29(11):1335-1346 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors typically cause paraneoplastic osteomalacia, chiefly as a result of FGF23 secretion. In a prior study, we identified FN1-FGFR1 fusion in 9 of 15 phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors. In this study, a total of 66 phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors and 7 tumors resembling phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor but without known phosphaturia were studied. A novel FN1-FGF1 fusion gene was identified in two cases without FN1-FGFR1 fusion by RNA sequencing and cross-validated with direct sequencing and western blot. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed FN1-FGFR1 fusion in 16 of 39 (41%) phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors and identified an additional case with FN1-FGF1 fusion. The two fusion genes were mutually exclusive. Combined with previous data, the overall prevalence of FN1-FGFR1 and FN1-FGF1 fusions was 42% (21/50) and 6% (3/50), respectively. FGFR1 immunohistochemistry was positive in 82% (45/55) of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors regardless of fusion status. By contrast, 121 cases of potential morphologic mimics (belonging to 13 tumor types) rarely expressed FGFR1, the main exceptions being solitary fibrous tumors (positive in 40%), chondroblastomas (40%), and giant cell tumors of bone (38%), suggesting a possible role for FGFR1 immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. With the exception of one case reported in our prior study, none of the remaining tumors resembling phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor had either fusion type or expressed significant FGFR1. Our findings provide insight into possible mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor and imply a central role of the FGF1-FGFR1 signaling pathway. The novel FN1-FGF1 protein is expected to be secreted and serves as a ligand that binds and activates FGFR1 to achieve an autocrine loop. Further study is required to determine the functions of these fusion proteins.

Qiao Z, Pan X, Parlayan C, et al.
Proteomic study of hepatocellular carcinoma using a novel modified aptamer-based array (SOMAscan™) platform.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom. 2017; 1865(4):434-443 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vascular invasion is a pathological hallmark of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), associated with poor prognosis; it is strongly related to the early recurrence and poor survival after curative resection. In order to determine the proteomic backgrounds of HCC carcinogenesis and vascular invasion, we employed a novel modified aptamer-based array (SOMAscan) platform. SOMAscan is based on the Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamers (SOMAmers), which rely on the natural 3D folding of single-stranded DNA-based protein affinity reagents. Currently, the expression level of 1129 proteins can be assessed quantitatively. Correlation matrix analysis showed that the overall proteomic features captured by SOMAscan differ between tumor and non-tumor tissues. Non-tumor tissues were shown to have more homogeneous proteome backgrounds than tumor tissues. A comparative study identified 68 proteins with differential expression between tumor and non-tumor tissues, together with eight proteins associated with vascular invasion. Gene Ontology analysis showed that the extracellular space and extracellular region proteins were predominantly detected. Network analysis revealed the linkage of seven proteins, AKT1, MDM2, PTEN, FGF1, MAPK8, PRKCB, and FN1, which were categorized as the components of "Pathways in cancer" in pathway analysis. The results of SOMAscan analysis were not concordant with those obtained by western blotting; only the determined FN1 levels were concordant between the two platforms. We demonstrated that the proteome captured by SOMAscan includes the proteins relevant to carcinogenesis and vascular invasion in HCC. The identified proteins may serve as candidates for the future studies of disease mechanisms and clinical applications.

Weaver AN, Burch MB, Cooper TS, et al.
Notch Signaling Activation Is Associated with Patient Mortality and Increased FGF1-Mediated Invasion in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity.
Mol Cancer Res. 2016; 14(9):883-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a cancer subtype that lacks validated prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers, and human papillomavirus status has not proven beneficial in predicting patient outcomes. A gene expression pathway analysis was conducted using OSCC patient specimens to identify molecular targets that may improve management of this disease. RNA was isolated from 19 OSCCs treated surgically at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB; Birmingham, AL) and evaluated using the NanoString nCounter system. Results were confirmed using the oral cavity subdivision of the Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cancer (HNSCC) study generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network. Further characterization of the in vitro phenotype produced by Notch pathway activation in HNSCC cell lines included gene expression, proliferation, cell cycle, migration, invasion, and radiosensitivity. In both UAB and TCGA samples, Notch pathway upregulation was significantly correlated with patient mortality status and with expression of the proinvasive gene FGF1 In vitro Notch activation in HNSCC cells increased transcription of FGF1 and induced a marked increase in cell migration and invasion, which was fully abrogated by FGF1 knockdown. These results reveal that increased Notch pathway signaling plays a role in cancer progression and patient outcomes in OSCC. Accordingly, the Notch-FGF interaction should be further studied as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for OSCC.
IMPLICATIONS: Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity who succumb to their disease are more likely to have upregulated Notch signaling, which may mediate a more invasive phenotype through increased FGF1 transcription. Mol Cancer Res; 14(9); 883-91. ©2016 AACR.

Kobayashi K, Yamaguchi M, Miyazaki K, et al.
Expressions of SH3BP5, LMO3, and SNAP25 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells and their association with clinical features.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(8):1802-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is clinicopathologically and genetically heterogeneous with variable clinical outcomes. We previously identified signature genes overexpressed in CD5-positive (CD5(+) ) DLBCL, which is a poor prognostic subgroup of DLBCL. To elucidate the clinical significance of the protein expression of the signature genes overexpressed in CD5(+) DLBCL with regard to all DLBCL, not otherwise specified (NOS), 10 genes (SH3BP5, LMO3, SNAP25, SYT5, SV2C, CABP1, FGF1, FGFR2, NEUROD1, and SYN2) were selected and examined immunohistochemically with samples from 28 patients with DLBCL, NOS. Only three protein expressions, SH3BP5, LMO3, and SNAP25, were detected in DLBCL cells and then analyzed further with samples from 187 patients with DLBCL, NOS. The SH3BP5, LMO3, and SNAP25 proteins were expressed in 60% (103/173), 34% (59/175), and 46% (77/168) of DLBCL patients, respectively. These protein expressions were associated with CD5 expression, and only SH3BP5 was frequently expressed in activated B-cell-like DLBCL (P = 0.046). Compared to the SH3BP5-negative group, the SH3BP5(+) group was correlated with elderly onset (>60 years, P = 0.0096) and advanced-stage disease (stage III/IV, P = 0.037). The LMO3(+) group showed a worse performance status (>1, P = 0.0004). The SH3BP5(+) group and the LMO3(+) group had significantly worse overall survival than the negative groups (P = 0.030, 0.034; respectively) for the entire group. In a subgroup analysis of patients treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy, there was no significant difference between groups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the protein expressions of SH3BP5, LMO3, and SNAP25 in DLBCL cells and their clinical significance in patients with DLBCL. The SH3BP5 and LMO3 protein expressions are associated with the baseline clinical characteristics of DLBCL.

Hsu YC, Kao CY, Chung YF, et al.
Activation of Aurora A kinase through the FGF1/FGFR signaling axis sustains the stem cell characteristics of glioblastoma cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2016; 344(2):153-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) binds and activates FGF receptors, thereby regulating cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Human FGF1 gene 1B promoter (-540 to +31)-driven SV40 T antigen has been shown to result in tumorigenesis in the brains of transgenic mice. FGF1B promoter (-540 to +31)-driven green fluorescent protein (F1BGFP) has also been used in isolating neural stem cells (NSCs) with self-renewal and multipotency from developing and adult mouse brains. In this study, we provide six lines of evidence to demonstrate that FGF1/FGFR signaling is implicated in the expression of Aurora A (AurA) and the activation of its kinase domain (Thr288 phosphorylation) in the maintenance of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and NSCs. First, treatment of FGF1 increases AurA expression in human GBM cell lines. Second, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we observed that F1BGFP reporter facilitates the isolation of F1BGFP(+) GBM cells with higher expression levels of FGFR and AurA. Third, both FGFR inhibitor (SU5402) and AurA inhibitor (VX680) could down-regulate F1BGFP-dependent AurA activity. Fourth, inhibition of AurA activity by two different AurA inhibitors (VX680 and valproic acid) not only reduced neurosphere formation but also induced neuronal differentiation of F1BGFP(+) GBM cells. Fifth, flow cytometric analyses demonstrated that F1BGFP(+) GBM cells possessed different NSC cell surface markers. Finally, inhibition of AurA by VX680 reduced the neurosphere formation of different types of NSCs. Our results show that activation of AurA kinase through FGF1/FGFR signaling axis sustains the stem cell characteristics of GBM cells.
IMPLICATIONS: This study identified a novel mechanism for the malignancy of GBM, which could be a potential therapeutic target for GBM.

Tong Q, Weaver MR, Kosmacek EA, et al.
MnTE-2-PyP reduces prostate cancer growth and metastasis by suppressing p300 activity and p300/HIF-1/CREB binding to the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2016; 94:185-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To improve radiation therapy-induced quality of life impairments for prostate cancer patients, the development of radio-protectors is needed. Our previous work has demonstrated that MnTE-2-PyP significantly protects urogenital tissues from radiation-induced damage. So, in order for MnTE-2-PyP to be used clinically as a radio-protector, it is fully necessary to explore the effect of MnTE-2-PyP on human prostate cancer progression. MnTE-2-PyP inhibited prostate cancer growth in the presence and absence of radiation and also inhibited prostate cancer migration and invasion. MnTE-2-PyP altered p300 DNA binding, which resulted in the inhibition of HIF-1β and CREB signaling pathways. Accordingly, we also found that MnTE-2-PyP reduced the expression of three genes regulated by HIF-1β and/or CREB: TGF-β2, FGF-1 and PAI-1. Specifically, MnTE-2-PyP decreased p300 complex binding to a specific HRE motif within the PAI-1 gene promoter region, suppressed H3K9 acetylation, and consequently, repressed PAI-1 expression. Mechanistically, less p300 transcriptional complex binding is not due to the reduction of binding between p300 and HIF-1/CREB transcription factors, but through inhibiting the binding of HIF-1/CREB transcription factors to DNA. Our data provide an in depth mechanism by which MnTE-2-PyP reduces prostate cancer growth and metastasis, which validates the clinical use of MnTE-2-PyP as a radio-protector to enhance treatment outcomes in prostate cancer radiotherapy.

Ruiz-Narváez EA, Haddad SA, Lunetta KL, et al.
Gene-based analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway in relation to breast cancer in African American women: the AMBER consortium.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 155(2):355-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We conducted gene-based analysis in 26 genes in the FGFR signaling pathway to identify genes carrying genetic variation affecting risk of breast cancer and the specific estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes. Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each gene were selected and genotyped on a customized Illumina Exome Array. Imputation was carried out using 1000 Genomes haplotypes. The analysis included 3237 SNPs in 3663 breast cancer cases (including 1983 ER-positive, and 1098 ER-negative) and 4687 controls from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk consortium, a collaborative project of four large studies of breast cancer in African American women (Carolina Breast Cancer Study, Black Women's Health Study, Women's Circle of Health Study, and Multiethnic Cohort). We used a multi-locus adaptive joint (AdaJoint) test to determine the association of each gene in the FGFR signaling pathway with overall breast cancer and ER subtypes. The FGF1 gene was significantly associated with risk of ER-negative breast cancer (P = 0.001). The FGFR2 gene was associated with risk of overall breast cancer (P = 0.002) and ER-positive breast cancer (P = 0.002). The FGF1 gene affects risk of ER-negative breast cancer in African American women. We confirmed the association of the FGFR2 gene with risk of overall and ER-positive breast cancer. These results highlight the importance of the FGFR signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, and suggest that different genes in the same pathway may be associated with different ER breast cancer subtypes.

Jiao J, Zhao X, Liang Y, et al.
FGF1-FGFR1 axis promotes tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 466(3):327-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidences suggest a close association between tumor metastasis and the inflammatory factors secreted by tumor microenvironment. It has been reported that epithelial mesenchymal-transition (EMT) plays a significant role during multiple types of tumor metastasis and progression induced by inflammatory factor from tumor microenvironment. Previous researches implied that fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) can promote tumor progression and cause poor prognosis in several types of malignant tumors via interacting with its receptor fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1). However, the effects of FGF1-FGFR1 on tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) are not yet completely understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effects and function of FGF1-FGFR1 axis on TSCC metastasis. In addition, we investigated whether the EMT pathway is involved in these effects, thus modulating the TSCC progression. The expression of FGFR1 was measured both in tongue cancer cell lines and tissues by qRT-PCR and western blot. We found that FGFR1 was up-regulated in TSCC tissues compared to non-neoplastic tongue tissues. Additionally, overexpression of FGFR1 is positively associated with poor differentiation and metastasis potential. Furthermore, the function of FGF1-FGFR1 was examined in TSCC cell line. The results implied that FGF1 can obviously promote Cal27 cells migration and invasion abilities through FGFR1, while the motile and invasive capabilities can be severely attenuated when knockdown the expression of FGFR1 by specific siRNAs. Further investigation results show that FGF1-FGFR1 axis promotes TSCC metastasis by modulating EMT pathway. However, this effect can be inhibited by blocking the FGF1-FGFR1 axis using FGFR1 specific siRNAs. In conclusion, our findings of the present study provide the evidences that FGF1-FGFR1 axis promotes the TSCC metastasis through the EMT pathway.

Kwak Y, Cho H, Hur W, Sim T
Antitumor Effects and Mechanisms of AZD4547 on FGFR2-Deregulated Endometrial Cancer Cells.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(10):2292-302 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uncontrolled activation of FGFRs induces the progression of various cancers. It was recently reported that FGFR2-activating mutants are implicated in about 12% of endometrial carcinomas. AZD4547, a potent pan-FGFR inhibitor, is currently being evaluated in clinical trials for several FGFR-driven cancers. However, AZD4547 has not been examined yet against FGFR2 mutant-driven endometrial cancers. Thus, we evaluated the activity of AZD4547 against four different endometrial cancer cells, including AN3-CA, MFE296, MFE280, and HEC1A, where all but HEC1A cells express distinctive FGFR2 mutations. We found that AZD4547 exhibits potent antiproliferative activity (EC50 = 31 nmol/L) against AN3-CA cells harboring FGFR2-K310R/N550K mutant. Analysis using a phospho-kinase array revealed that AZD4547 blocks FGFR2 downstream signaling, such as p38, ERK1/2, JNK, p70S6K, and PLCγ. Moreover, oral administration of AZD4547 (30 mg/kg, every day) remarkably delayed tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model of AN3-CA cells. Unbiased reporter gene assay showed that AZD4547 antagonizes the aFGF-induced activation of several transcription factors, including EGR1, ELK-1/SRF, AP-1, and NFκB. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that AZD4547 perturbs a number of transcriptions, and EGR1 was identified as one of the major targets of AZD4547. The significance of the FGFR2-EGR1 axis in endometrial cancer progression has not been reported. In addition, using kinome-wide inhibition profiling analysis, we first identified potential new target kinases of AZD4547, including MAP4K3, MAP4K5, IRR, RET, and FLT3. Our study demonstrated that AZD4547 exhibits its therapeutic activity against endometrial cancer cells by perturbing various regulatory mechanisms related to FGFR signaling.

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