PTPRG

Gene Summary

Gene:PTPRG; protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, G
Aliases: PTPG, HPTPG, RPTPG, R-PTP-GAMMA
Location:3p21-p14
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region of this PTP contains a carbonic anhydrase-like (CAH) domain, which is also found in the extracellular region of PTPRBETA/ZETA. This gene is located in a chromosomal region that is frequently deleted in renal cell carcinoma and lung carcinoma, thus is thought to be a candidate tumor suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase gamma
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (6)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Tyrosine
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Proteins
  • Skin Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Xenograft Models
  • RTPCR
  • Zeranol
  • Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cancer DNA
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Up-Regulation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Epigenetics
  • Chromosome 3
  • Mutation
  • ras Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • DNA Methylation
  • Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 5
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Tamoxifen
  • Translocation
  • Base Sequence
  • Down-Regulation
  • CpG Islands
  • Messenger RNA
  • Phosphorylation
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Virus Integration
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • TNF
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • PTPRG
Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PTPRG (cancer-related)

Linhares ND, Freire MC, Cardenas RG, et al.
Modulation of expressivity in PDGFRB-related infantile myofibromatosis: a role for PTPRG?
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(3):6287-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Infantile myofibromatosis is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the development of benign tumors in the skin, muscle, bone, and viscera. The molecular pathogenesis is still incompletely known. An autosomal dominant form had been reported as causally related with mutations in the gene for platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB). We report here two siblings with infantile myofibromatosis and with a PDGFRB mutation identified by exome sequence analysis. However, the unaffected mother also had the same PDGFRB mutation. We showed that both children had also inherited from their healthy father a heterozygous mutation in the gene for receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPRG), an enzyme known to dephosphorylate PDGFRB. We suggest that in this family, the additional mutation in PTPRG may explain the full phenotypic penetrance in the siblings affected, in comparison with the unaffected mother.

Xiao J, Lee ST, Xiao Y, et al.
PTPRG inhibition by DNA methylation and cooperation with RAS gene activation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(5):1101-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
While the cytogenetic and genetic characteristics of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL) are well studied, less clearly understood are the contributing epigenetic mechanisms that influence the leukemia phenotype. Our previous studies and others identified gene mutation (RAS) and DNA methylation (FHIT) to be associated with the most common cytogenetic subgroup of childhood ALL, high hyperdiploidy (having five more chromosomes). We screened DNA methylation profiles, using a genome-wide high-dimension platform of 166 childhood ALLs and 6 normal pre-B cell samples and observed a strong association of DNA methylation status at the PTPRG locus in human samples with levels of PTPRG gene expression as well as with RAS gene mutation status. In the 293 cell line, we found that PTPRG expression induces dephosphorylation of ERK, a downstream RAS target that may be critical for mutant RAS-induced cell growth. In addition, PTPRG expression is upregulated by RAS activation under DNA hypomethylating conditions. An element within the PTPRG promoter is bound by the RAS-responsive transcription factor RREB1, also under hypomethylating conditions. In conclusion, we provide evidence that DNA methylation of the PTPRG gene is a complementary event in oncogenesis induced by RAS mutations. Evidence for additional roles for PTPR family member genes is also suggested. This provides a potential therapeutic target for RAS-related leukemias as well as insight into childhood ALL etiology and pathophysiology.

Chatterton Z, Morenos L, Mechinaud F, et al.
Epigenetic deregulation in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(3):459-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Similar to most cancers, genome-wide DNA methylation profiles are commonly altered in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); however, recent observations highlight that a large portion of malignancy-associated DNA methylation alterations are not accompanied by related gene expression changes. By analyzing and integrating the methylome and transcriptome profiles of pediatric B-cell ALL cases and primary tissue controls, we report 325 genes hypermethylated and downregulated and 45 genes hypomethylated and upregulated in pediatric B-cell ALL, irrespective of subtype. Repressed cation channel subunits and cAMP signaling activators and transducers are overrepresented, potentially indicating a reduced cellular potential to receive and propagate apoptotic signals. Furthermore, we report specific DNA methylation alterations with concurrent gene expression changes within individual ALL subtypes. The ETV6-RUNX1 translocation was associated with downregulation of ASNS and upregulation of the EPO-receptor, while Hyperdiploid patients (> 50 chr) displayed upregulation of B-cell lymphoma (BCL) members and repression of PTPRG and FHIT. In combination, these data indicate genetically distinct B-cell ALL subtypes contain cooperative epimutations and genome-wide epigenetic deregulation is common across all B-cell ALL subtypes.

Stevenson WS, Best OG, Przybylla A, et al.
DNA methylation of membrane-bound tyrosine phosphatase genes in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(4):787-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant DNA promoter methylation with associated gene silencing is a common epigenetic abnormality in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and is associated with poor survival. We have identified a family of transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase proteins as targets of hypermethylation in ALL and high-grade B cell lymphoma and demonstrated that this abnormal methylation correlates with transcript expression. PTPRG was methylated in 63% of ALL samples, PTPRK in 47%, PTPRM in 64% and PTPRO in 54% of cases, with most ALL samples containing methylation at multiple phosphatase loci. PTPRK promoter methylation was associated with a decreased overall survival in the cohort. Restoration of PTPRK transcript levels in leukaemia cells, where phosphatase transcript was silenced, reduced cell proliferation, inhibited colony formation and increased sensitivity to cytotoxic chemotherapy. These biological changes were associated with a reduction in levels of phosphorylated Erk1/2, Akt, STAT3 and STAT5 suggesting functional phosphatase activity after transcript re-expression. Methylation of the phosphatase promoters was reversible with decitabine and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suggesting that PTPRK-mediated cell signalling pathways may be targeted with epigenetic therapies in lymphoid malignancy.

Laczmanska I, Sasiadek MM
Tyrosine phosphatases as a superfamily of tumor suppressors in colorectal cancer.
Acta Biochim Pol. 2011; 58(4):467-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation processes catalyzed by numerous kinases and phosphorylases are essential for cell homeostasis and may lead to disturbances in a variety of vital cellular pathways, such as cell proliferation and differentiation, and thus to complex diseases including cancer. As over 80 % of all oncogenes encode protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which can reverse the effects of tyrosine kinases, are very important tumor suppressors. Alterations in tyrosine kinase and phosphatase genes including point mutations, changes in epigenetic regulation, as well as chromosomal aberrations involving regions critical to these genes, are frequently observed in a variety of cancers. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in humans. CRCs occur in a familial (about 15 % of all cases), hereditary (about 5%) and sporadic (almost 75-80 %) form. As genetic-environmental interrelations play an important role in the susceptibility to sporadic forms of CRCs, many studies are focused on genetic alterations in such tumors. Mutational analysis of the tyrosine phosphatome in CRCs has identified somatic mutations in PTPRG, PTPRT, PTPN3, PTPN13 and PTPN14. The majority of these mutations result in a loss of protein function. Also, alterations in the expression of these genes, such as decreased expression of PTPRR, PTPRO, PTPRG and PTPRD, mediated by epigenetic mechanisms have been observed in a variety of tumors. Since cancer is a social and global problem, there will be a growing number of studies on alterations in the candidate cancer genes, including protein kinases and phosphatases, to determine the origin, biology and potential pathways for targeted anticancer therapy.

Lin G, Aranda V, Muthuswamy SK, Tonks NK
Identification of PTPN23 as a novel regulator of cell invasion in mammary epithelial cells from a loss-of-function screen of the 'PTP-ome'.
Genes Dev. 2011; 25(13):1412-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We used an RNAi-mediated loss-of-function screen to study systematically the role of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) superfamily of enzymes in mammary epithelial cell motility in the absence or presence of the oncoprotein tyrosine kinase ERBB2. We report that although shRNAs directed against most of the PTP family were without effect, suppression of three PTPs-PRPN23, PTPRG, and PTPRR-enhanced cell motility. Furthermore, we found that suppression of PTPN23, but not PTPRG or PTPRR, induced cell invasion. Suppression of PTPN23 increased E-cadherin internalization, impaired early endosome trafficking of E-cadherin, induced the expression of mesenchymal proteins, and caused cell scattering. The activity of SRC and β-catenin was elevated when PTPN23 was suppressed. Moreover, we identified SRC, E-cadherin, and β-catenin as direct substrates of PTPN23. Inhibition of SRC with the small molecular inhibitor SU6656 blocked the effects of PTPN23 depletion. These findings suggest that loss of PTPN23 may increase the activity of SRC and the phosphorylation status of the E-cadherin/β-catenin signaling complex to promote tumor growth and invasive behavior in breast cancer. In addition, our studies highlight functional specificity among PTPs and reveal new roles for PTPs in mammary epithelial cell biology.

van Roon EH, de Miranda NF, van Nieuwenhuizen MP, et al.
Tumour-specific methylation of PTPRG intron 1 locus in sporadic and Lynch syndrome colorectal cancer.
Eur J Hum Genet. 2011; 19(3):307-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA methylation is a hallmark in a subset of right-sided colorectal cancers. Methylation-based screening may improve prevention and survival rate for this type of cancer, which is often clinically asymptomatic in the early stages. We aimed to discover prognostic or diagnostic biomarkers for colon cancer by comparing DNA methylation profiles of right-sided colon tumours and paired normal colon mucosa using an 8.5 k CpG island microarray. We identified a diagnostic CpG-rich region, located in the first intron of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase gamma gene (PTPRG) gene, with altered methylation already in the adenoma stage, that is, before the carcinoma transition. Validation of this region in an additional cohort of 103 sporadic colorectal tumours and 58 paired normal mucosa tissue samples showed 94% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Interestingly, comparable results were obtained when screening a cohort of Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. Functional studies showed that PTPRG intron 1 methylation did not directly affect PTPRG expression, however, the methylated region overlapped with a binding site of the insulator protein CTCF. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed that methylation of the locus was associated with absence of CTCF binding. Methylation-associated changes in CTCF binding to PTPRG intron 1 could have implications on tumour gene expression by enhancer blocking, chromosome loop formation or abrogation of its insulator function. The high sensitivity and specificity for the PTPRG intron 1 methylation in both sporadic and hereditary colon cancers support biomarker potential for early detection of colon cancer.

Della Peruta M, Martinelli G, Moratti E, et al.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type {gamma} is a functional tumor suppressor gene specifically downregulated in chronic myeloid leukemia.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(21):8896-906 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is the most common myeloproliferative disease. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type γ (PTPRG) is a tumor suppressor gene and a myeloid cell marker expressed by CD34(+) cells. Downregulation of PTPRG increases colony formation in the PTPRG-positive megakaryocytic cell lines MEG-01 and LAMA-84 but has no effect in the PTPRG-negative cell lines K562 and KYO-1. Its overexpression has an oncosuppressive effect in all these cell lines and is associated with myeloid differentiation and inhibition of BCR/ABL-dependent signaling. The intracellular domain of PTPRG directly interacts with BCR/ABL and CRKL, but not with signal transducers and activators of transcription 5. PTPRG is downregulated at the mRNA and protein levels in leukocytes of CML patients in both peripheral blood and bone marrow, including CD34(+) cells, and is reexpressed following molecular remission of disease. Reexpression was associated with a loss of methylation of a CpG island of PTPRG promoter occurring in 55% of the patients analyzed. In K562 cell line, the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine induced PTPRG expression and caused an inhibition of colony formation, partially reverted by downregulation of PTPRG expression. These findings establish, for the first time, PTPRG as a tumor suppressor gene involved in the pathogenesis of CML, suggesting its use as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target.

Helmbold P, Lahtz C, Enk A, et al.
Frequent occurrence of RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation and Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma.
Mol Carcinog. 2009; 48(10):903-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is one of the most aggressive cancers of the skin. It has recently been reported that integration of a Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in receptor tyrosine phosphates type G (PTPRG) gene occurs in MCC, and that viral infections are associated with epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) in cancer. To examine whether a correlation between TSG inactivation and viral infection can be found in MCC, we investigated the promoter hypermethylation of RASSF1A, TP73, PTPRG, FHIT, and CDKN2A and the presence of MCPyV and SV40 in 98 MCC by PCR. Hypermethylation of RASSF1A was frequently found in 42 of 83 (51%) of MCC. Methylation of CDKN2A was present in 9 of 41 (22%) of MCC. Hypermethylation of TP73 (0%), PTPRG (4%), and FHIT (0%) was infrequent in MCC. Interestingly, MCPyV was found in 90 of 98 (92%) MCC, however, no SV40 signal was detected. No correlation between TSG hypermethylation and viral infection was found. Our results show frequent hypermethylation of RASSF1A and the presence of MCPyV in primary MCC, and that these events may contribute to the pathogenesis of MCC.

Guggenheim ER, Xu D, Zhang CX, et al.
Photoaffinity isolation and identification of proteins in cancer cell extracts that bind to platinum-modified DNA.
Chembiochem. 2009; 10(1):141-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The activity of the anticancer drug cisplatin is a consequence of its ability to bind DNA. Platinum adducts bend and unwind the DNA duplex, creating recognition sites for nuclear proteins. Following DNA damage recognition, the lesions will either be repaired, facilitating cell viability, or if repair is unsuccessful and the Pt adduct interrupts vital cellular functions, apoptosis will follow. With the use of the benzophenone-modified cisplatin analogue Pt-BP6, 25 bp DNA duplexes containing either a 1,2-d(G*pG*) intrastrand or a 1,3-d(G*pTpG*) intrastrand crosslink were synthesized, where the asterisks designate platinated nucleobases. Proteins having affinity for these platinated DNAs were photocrosslinked and identified in cervical, testicular, pancreatic and bone cancer-cell nuclear extracts. Proteins identified in this manner include the DNA repair factors RPA1, Ku70, Ku80, Msh2, DNA ligase III, PARP-1, and DNA-PKcs, as well as HMG-domain proteins HMGB1, HMGB2, HMGB3, and UBF1. The latter strongly associate with the 1,2-d(G*pG*) adduct and weakly or not at all with the 1,3-d(G*pTpG*) adduct. The nucleotide excision repair protein RPA1 was photocrosslinked only by the probe containing a 1,3-d(G*pTpG*) intrastrand crosslink. The affinity of PARP-1 for platinum-modified DNA was established using this type of probe for the first time. To ensure that the proteins were not photocrosslinked because of an affinity for DNA ends, a 90-base dumbbell probe modified with Pt-BP6 was investigated. Photocrosslinking experiments with this longer probe revealed the same proteins, as well as some additional proteins involved in chromatin remodeling, transcription, or repair. These findings reveal a more complete list of proteins involved in the early steps of the mechanism of action of the cisplatin and its close analogue carboplatin than previously was available.

Cheung AK, Lung HL, Hung SC, et al.
Functional analysis of a cell cycle-associated, tumor-suppressive gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type G, in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(19):8137-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Functional studies to identify the potential role of a chromosome 3p14-21 gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type G (PTPRG), were performed. PTPRG was identified as a candidate tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by differential gene profiling of tumorigenic and nontumorigenic NPC chromosome 3 microcell hybrids (MCH). Down-regulation of this gene was found in tumor segregants when compared with their corresponding tumor-suppressive MCHs, as well as in NPC cell lines and tumor biopsies. Promoter hypermethylation and loss of heterozygosity were found to be important mechanisms contributing to PTPRG silencing. PTPRG overexpression in NPC cell lines induces growth suppression and reduced anchorage-independent growth in vitro. This is the first study to use a tetracycline-responsive vector expression system to study PTPRG stable transfectants. Results indicate its ability to induce significant tumor growth suppression in nude mice under conditions activating transgene expression. These studies now provide functional evidence indicating critical interactions of PTPRG in the extracellular matrix milieu induce cell arrest and changes in cell cycle status. This is associated with inhibition of pRB phosphorylation through down-regulation of cyclin D1. These novel findings enhance our current understanding of how PTPRG may contribute to tumorigenesis.

Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y, Moore PS
Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma.
Science. 2008; 319(5866):1096-100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive human skin cancer that typically affects elderly and immunosuppressed individuals, a feature suggestive of an infectious origin. We studied MCC samples by digital transcriptome subtraction and detected a fusion transcript between a previously undescribed virus T antigen and a human receptor tyrosine phosphatase. Further investigation led to identification and sequence analysis of the 5387-base-pair genome of a previously unknown polyomavirus that we call Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV). MCV sequences were detected in 8 of 10 (80%) MCC tumors but only 5 of 59 (8%) control tissues from various body sites and 4 of 25 (16%) control skin tissues. In six of eight MCV-positive MCCs, viral DNA was integrated within the tumor genome in a clonal pattern, suggesting that MCV infection and integration preceded clonal expansion of the tumor cells. Thus, MCV may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of MCC.

Wang JF, Dai DQ
Metastatic suppressor genes inactivated by aberrant methylation in gastric cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2007; 13(43):5692-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To screen out the differentially methylated DNA sequences between gastric primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes, test the methylation difference of gene PTPRG between primary gastric tumor and metastatic lymph nodes, and test the regulatory function of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine which is an agent with suppression on methylation and the level of methylation in gastric cancer cell line.
METHODS: Methylated DNA sequences in genome were enriched with methylated CpG islands amplification (MCA) to undergo representational difference analysis (RDA), with MCA production of metastatic lymph nodes as tester and that of primary tumor as driver. The obtained differentially methylated fragments were cloned and sequenced to acquire the base sequence, which was analyzed with bioinformatics. With methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and RT-PCR, methylation difference of gene PTPRG was detected between primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes in 36 cases of gastric cancer. Methylation of gene PTPRG and its regulated expression were observed in gastric cancer cell line before and after being treated with methylation-suppressive agent.
RESULTS: Nineteen differentially methylated sequences were obtained and located at 5' end, exons, introns and 3' end, in which KL59 was observed to be located at 9p21 as the first exon of gene p16 and KL22 to be located at promoter region of PRPRG. KL22, as the probes, was hybridized with driver, tester and 3-round RDA products respectively with all positive signals except with the driver. Significant difference was observed in both methylation rate of gene PTPRG and PTPRG mRNA expression rate between primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes. Demethylation of gene PTPRG, with recovered expression of PTPRG mRNA, was observed after gastric cancer cell line being treated with methylation-suppressive agent.
CONCLUSION: Difference exists in DNA methylation between primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes of gastric cancer, with MCA-RDA as one of the good analytical methods. Significant difference exists in methylation of gene PTPRG between primary tumor and metastatic lymph nodes of gastric cancer. Methylation level in gastric cancer cell line can be decreased by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, which is the methylation-suppressive agent, with PTPRG expression being recovered.

Choi YW, Bae SM, Kim YW, et al.
Gene expression profiles in squamous cell cervical carcinoma using array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007 May-Jun; 17(3):687-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our aim was to identify novel genomic regions of interest and provide highly dynamic range information on correlation between squamous cell cervical carcinoma and its related gene expression patterns by a genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). We analyzed 15 cases of cervical cancer from KangNam St Mary's Hospital of the Catholic University of Korea. Microdissection assay was performed to obtain DNA samples from paraffin-embedded cervical tissues of cancer as well as of the adjacent normal tissues. The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) array used in this study consisted of 1440 human BACs and the space among the clones was 2.08 Mb. All the 15 cases of cervical cancer showed the differential changes of the cervical cancer-associated genetic alterations. The analysis limit of average gains and losses was 53%. A significant positive correlation was found in 8q24.3, 1p36.32, 3q27.1, 7p21.1, 11q13.1, and 3p14.2 changes through the cervical carcinogenesis. The regions of high level of gain were 1p36.33-1p36.32, 8q24.3, 16p13.3, 1p36.33, 3q27.1, and 7p21.1. And the regions of homozygous loss were 2q12.1, 22q11.21, 3p14.2, 6q24.3, 7p15.2, and 11q25. In the high level of gain regions, GSDMDC1, RECQL4, TP73, ABCF3, ALG3, HDAC9, ESRRA, and RPS6KA4 were significantly correlated with cervical cancer. The genes encoded by frequently lost clones were PTPRG, GRM7, ZDHHC3, EXOSC7, LRP1B, and NR3C2. Therefore, array-CGH analyses showed that specific genomic alterations were maintained in cervical cancer that were critical to the malignant phenotype and may give a chance to find out possible target genes present in the gained or lost clones.

Vezzalini M, Mombello A, Menestrina F, et al.
Expression of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPgamma) in normal and neoplastic human tissues.
Histopathology. 2007; 50(5):615-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To establish the conditions for protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPgamma) detection in paraffin tissues using two antibodies raised against its NH(2)- (anti-P4) and COOH-termini (gammaTL1); to analyse its expression in normal tissues and to perform an initial screening of neoplastic tissues.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Membranous and/or cytoplasmic PTPgamma expression was detected in the majority of epithelial cell types and in endocrine cells, with the highest expression in adrenal medulla, endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreatic islets. Both antibodies stained the thyroid follicular epithelium, but only anti-P4 antibody stained the colloid matrix, suggesting shedding/secretion of the PTPgamma extracellular domain. Marked loss of PTPgamma immunoreactivity was detected in subsets of ovarian (21%), breast (56%) and lung (80%) neoplasms. Conversely, cytoplasmic positivity was found in 37% of lymphomas, mainly of high-grade histotypes, while normal lymphocytes were negative. Brain tissue showed PTPgamma expression in a few neuronal and glial elements and PTPgamma was overexpressed in the majority of high-grade astrocytomas.
CONCLUSIONS: We have analysed PTPgamma expression in archival paraffin-embedded tissues for the first time, demonstrating particularly high expression in endocrine cells and both down- and up-regulation in neoplasia, the latter possibly reflecting the undifferentiated state of the neoplastic cells, suggesting a complex role for this phosphatase.

Lissandrini D, Vermi W, Vezzalini M, et al.
Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPgamma), a new identifier for myeloid dendritic cells and specialized macrophages.
Blood. 2006; 108(13):4223-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPgamma) is a receptor-like molecule with a known role in murine hematopoiesis. We analyzed the regulation of PTPgamma expression in the human hematopoietic system, where it was detected in human peripheral blood monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) of myeloid and plasmacytoid phenotypes. Its expression was maintained during in vitro monocyte differentiation to dendritic cells (moDC) and was further increased after maturation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CD40L, and TNFalpha. But PTPgamma was absent when monocytes from the same donor were induced to differentiate in macrophages. B and T lymphocytes did not express PTPgamma. Rather, PTPgamma mRNA was expressed in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues, and the highest expression was in the spleen. PTPgamma was detected by immunohistochemistry in subsets of myeloid-derived DCs and specialized macrophages (tingible bodies, sinus and alveolar macrophages). Classic macrophages in infective or reactive granulomatous reactions did not express PTPgamma. Increased PTPgamma expression was associated with a decreased ability to induce proliferation and interferon-gamma secretion in T cells by moDCs from patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Taken together, these results indicate that PTPgamma is a finely regulated protein in DC and macrophage subsets in vitro and in vivo.

Chang HL, Sugimoto Y, Liu S, et al.
Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) induces tamoxifen (Tam) resistance in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.
Anticancer Res. 2006 May-Jun; 26(3A):1773-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Both estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) are good prognostic factors and indicators of benefit from endocrine therapy in breast cancer patients. The relationship of the ER-alpha and PR status and the difference in clinical benefit from endocrine therapy in breast cancer is currently unclear. It has been suggested that keratinocyte growth factors (KGFs) are important regulatory factors in breast cancer. Our laboratory has demonstrated that KGF can act as an estromedin for the stimulation of breast cancer cell growth. Also, KGF stimulates aromatase activity in primary cultured human breast cells. This enzyme is a key to the conversion of androgens to estrogens. In the present study, ER-alpha, two estrogen-regulated genes, PR and PTPgamma, KGF and their relationship with endocrine resistance in human breast cancer cells were investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: MCF-7 cells were treated with KGF (1, 5, 10, 20 ng/ml), KGF-13 (0.1, 1, 10 microM) or vehicles as control for 24 hours. KGF-13 is a potential receptor-binding pentapeptide constructed using the KGF peptide residues 101-105 (RTVAV) as a template, located within the beta 4--beta 5 loop. Total RNA were isolated and real-time PCR was employed to identify ER-alpha, PR and PTPgamma gene expressions in response to KGF and KGF-13. Western blot analysis was used to verify the levels of ER-alpha and PR protein, whereas immunohistochemical staining was used to detect PTPgamma expression in MCF-7 cells. To determine the response of MCF-7 cells to endocrine therapy, MCF-7 was treated with either 20 ng/ml KGF or 10 microM KGF-13 combined with 1, 3 and 5 microM of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4OH-Tam). A non-radioactive cell proliferation assay was applied to determine the growth rate of MCF-7 cells. The results of real-time PCR and the cell proliferation assay were analyzed by Student's t-test and p-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: Our data showed that KGF significantly suppressed ER-alpha, PR and PTPgamma expression in MCF-7 cells. KGF suppressed ER-alpha, PR and PTPgamma mRNA to a maximal inhibition at 20 ng/ml by 88%, 57% and 61%, respectively. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the down-regulation of ER-alpha, PR and PTPgamma by KGF in protein levels. Ten microM KGF-13 also decreased ER-alpha expression. Ten microM KGF-13 significantly decreased ER-alpha, PR and PTPgamma mRNA expressions by 51%, 57% and 67%, respectively. These KGF-13-mediated mRNA down-regulations were also observed in protein levels. In a cell proliferation assay, 4OH-Tam (3, 5 microM) induced MCF-7 cell death. KGF and KGF-13 alone did not stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. KGF significantly disrupted 4OH-Tam cell killing effects by 1.2- and 1.3-fold at 4OH-Tam concentrations of 3 microM and 5 microM, respectively. KGF-13 significantly disrupted 4OH-Tam cell killing effects by 1.2- and 1.7-fold at 4OH-Tam concentrations of 3 microM and 5 microM, respectively.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that not only ER-alpha and PR but also PTPgamma could be potential bio-makers for growth factor-induced endocrine resistant in breast cancer. KGF might increase the endocrine resistance via decreasing ER-alpha, PR and PTPgamma as well. Moreover, the functional analysis of KGF-13 implied possible applications of using short receptor-binding peptides derived from intact KGF as breast cancer therapeutic agents. Thus, our experimental data provided evidence of KGF-induced anti-hormone resistance in human breast cancer and suggested novel strategies for breast cancer via interference with KGF signaling.

Furuta J, Nobeyama Y, Umebayashi Y, et al.
Silencing of Peroxiredoxin 2 and aberrant methylation of 33 CpG islands in putative promoter regions in human malignant melanomas.
Cancer Res. 2006; 66(12):6080-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands (CGI) is involved in silencing of tumor suppressor genes and is also a potential cancer biomarker. Here, to identify CGIs aberrantly methylated in human melanomas, we did a genome-wide search using methylation-sensitive representational difference analysis. CGIs in putative promoter regions of 34 genes (ABHD9, BARHL1, CLIC5, CNNM1, COL2A1, CPT1C, DDIT4L, DERL3, DHRS3, DPYS, EFEMP2, FAM62C, FAM78A, FLJ33790, GBX2, GPR10, GPRASP1, HOXA9, HOXD11, HOXD12, HOXD13, p14ARF, PAX6, PRDX2, PTPRG, RASD1, RAX, REC8L1, SLC27A3, TGFB2, TLX2, TMEM22, TMEM30B, and UNC5C) were found to be methylated in at least 1 of 13 melanoma cell lines but not in two cultured normal melanocytes. Among these genes, Peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) was expressed in normal melanocytes, and its expression was lost in melanomas with methylation. The loss of expression was restored by treatment of melanomas with a demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. In surgical melanoma specimens, methylation of PRDX2 was detected in 3 of 36 (8%). Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of PRDX2 showed that disappearance of immunoreactivity tends to associate with its methylation. PRDX2 was recently reported to be a negative regulator of platelet-derived growth factor signaling, and its silencing was suggested to be involved in melanomas. On the other hand, 12 CGIs were methylated in >or=9 of the 13 melanoma cell lines and are considered as candidate melanoma biomarkers.

Wang LS, Huang YW, Sugimoto Y, et al.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) up-regulates the estrogen-regulated cancer suppressor gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPgama), in human breast cells.
Anticancer Res. 2006 Jan-Feb; 26(1A):27-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a naturally occurring compound found in ruminants products, has been shown to possess anticancer properties in vivo and in vitro. There are several CLA isomers in ruminant-produced foods, among which t10, c12-CLA and c9, t11-CLA are the most potent. Protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPgamma) has been implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in kidney and lung cancers. Our previous results indicated that estradiol-17beta (E2)-induced suppression of PTPgamma may play a role in mammary tumorigenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of t10, c12-CLA and c9, t11-CLA on PTPgamma mRNA expression in human breast epithelial cells and stromal cells, isolated from surgical specimens of mammoplasty and breast cancer patients, were detected and quantified by RT-PCR RESULTS: The PTPgamma mRNA expression was lower in cancer than in normal breast cells. Both t10, c12-CLA and c9, t11-CLA significantly (p < 0.05) increased the PTPgamma mRNA levels in primary cultured normal breast epithelial cells, normal breast stromal cells and breast cancer epithelial cells, but not in breast cancer stromal cells. t10, c12-CLA appeared to be the most active isomer in estrogen receptor a (ERalpha)-positive human breast cancer epithelial cells.
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that dietary CLA might serve as a chemo-preventive and chemo-therapeutic agent in human breast cancers by up-regulating the estrogen-regulated tumor suppressor gene, PTPgamma expression.

Wu CW, Kao HL, Li AF, et al.
Protein tyrosine-phosphatase expression profiling in gastric cancer tissues.
Cancer Lett. 2006; 242(1):95-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein phosphorylation is an important regulatory mechanism involved in signal transduction and cancers. In comparison to the extensive tyrosine-kinase oncogenesis research, there are only relatively few studies of protein tyrosine-phosphatase expression in cancers. The expression profile for tyrosine-phosphatases was investigated in gastric cancers using RT-PCR and molecular cloning. The present study showed a general PTP expression profile in gastric cancer tissues, with the identification of 22 distinct tyrosine-phosphatases. Following the examination of five PTPs (PTPRA, PTPRB, PTPRD, PTPRG and PTPRZ) using immunohistochemistry, strong association was observed between PTPRA/PTPRZ expression and gastric cancer progression including lymphovascular invasion and liver/peritoneal dissemination.

van Doorn R, Zoutman WH, Dijkman R, et al.
Epigenetic profiling of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: promoter hypermethylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes including BCL7a, PTPRG, and p73.
J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23(17):3886-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To analyze the occurrence of promoter hypermethylation in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) on a genome-wide scale, focusing on epigenetic alterations with pathogenetic significance.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA isolated from biopsy specimens of 28 patients with CTCL, including aggressive CTCL entities (transformed mycosis fungoides and CD30-negative large T-cell lymphoma) and an indolent entity (CD30-positive large T-cell lymphoma), were investigated. For genome-wide DNA methylation screening, differential methylation hybridization using CpG island microarrays was applied, which allows simultaneous detection of the methylation status of 8640 CpG islands. Bisulfite sequence analysis was applied for confirmation and detection of hypermethylation of eight selected tumor suppressor genes.
RESULTS: The DNA methylation patterns of CTCLs emerging from differential methylation hybridization analysis included 35 CpG islands hypermethylated in at least four of the 28 studied CTCL samples when compared with benign T-cell samples. Hypermethylation of the putative tumor suppressor genes BCL7a (in 48% of CTCL samples), PTPRG (27%), and thrombospondin 4 (52%) was confirmed and demonstrated to be associated with transcriptional downregulation. BCL7a was hypermethylated at a higher frequency in aggressive (64%) than in indolent (14%) CTCL entities. In addition, the promoters of the selected tumor suppressor genes p73 (48%), p16 (33%), CHFR (19%), p15 (10%), and TMS1 (10%) were hypermethylated in CTCL.
CONCLUSION: Malignant T cells of patients with CTCL display widespread promoter hypermethylation associated with inactivation of several tumor suppressor genes involved in DNA repair, cell cycle, and apoptosis signaling pathways. In view of this, CTCL may be amenable to treatment with demethylating agents.

Wang Z, Shen D, Parsons DW, et al.
Mutational analysis of the tyrosine phosphatome in colorectal cancers.
Science. 2004; 304(5674):1164-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tyrosine phosphorylation, regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and kinases (PTKs), is important in signaling pathways underlying tumorigenesis. A mutational analysis of the tyrosine phosphatase gene superfamily in human cancers identified 83 somatic mutations in six PTPs (PTPRF, PTPRG, PTPRT, PTPN3, PTPN13, PTPN14), affecting 26% of colorectal cancers and a smaller fraction of lung, breast, and gastric cancers. Fifteen mutations were nonsense, frameshift, or splice-site alterations predicted to result in truncated proteins lacking phosphatase activity. Five missense mutations in the most commonly altered PTP (PTPRT) were biochemically examined and found to reduce phosphatase activity. Expression of wild-type but not a mutant PTPRT in human cancer cells inhibited cell growth. These observations suggest that the mutated tyrosine phosphatases are tumor suppressor genes, regulating cellular pathways that may be amenable to therapeutic intervention.

Liu S, Sugimoto Y, Sorio C, et al.
Function analysis of estrogenically regulated protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPgamma) in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7.
Oncogene. 2004; 23(6):1256-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPgamma) is a member of the receptor-like family of tyrosine phosphatases and has been implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in kidney and lung cancers. Based on our previous findings, we hypothesize that PTPgamma is a potential estrogen-regulated tumor suppressor gene in human breast cancer. To examine the effects of PTPgamma on growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and compare the estrogenic responses of human breast cells with different PTPgamma expression levels, we established several stably transfected MCF-7 cell lines expressing different levels of PTPgamma, which were confirmed by RT-PCR and immunostaining. In our work, we used the antisense construct to breakdown endogenous PTPgamma level in MCF-7 cells. The results from doubling time assay suggested that PTPgamma is capable of inhibiting MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth. We further demonstrated that PTPgamma is able to inhibit anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells in soft agar and reduce the estrogenic responses of MCF-7 cell proliferation to estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and zeranol (Z, a nonsteroidal growth promoter with estrogenic activity). Our data suggest that PTPgamma may function as an important modulator in regulating the process of tumorigenesis in human breast.

Liu S, Sugimoto Y, Kulp SK, et al.
Estrogenic down-regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTP gamma) in human breast is associated with estrogen receptor alpha.
Anticancer Res. 2002 Nov-Dec; 22(6C):3917-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have reported PTP gamma expression was downregulated by 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and Zeranol (Z) and that PTP gamma may function as an estrogen-regulated cancer suppressor in human breast. We utilized RT-PCR to examine expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) and beta (ER beta) mRNA in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and to investigate the regulation of PTP gamma expression by E2 and Z in the absence or presence of ICI 182,780 (ICI) in both cells, and immunohistochemistry to examine ER alpha and ER beta protein in normal and cancerous human breast. Results show that MCF-7 express both ER alpha and ER beta, and MDA-MB-231 express only ER beta. Both E2 and Z (30 nM; 24 h) suppressed PTP gamma by approximately 56% in MCF-7 cells and these effects were completely blocked by 1 mM of ICI. In contrast, E2, Z and ICI had no effects on PTP gamma expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. Interestingly, both E2 and Z suppressed PTP gamma by approximately 45% in MDA-MB-231 cells transfected with ER alpha, and these effects were completely blocked by 100 nM of ICI. Both RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining showed that ER alpha expression was significantly higher in cancerous human breast than in normal breast, while ER beta was higher in normal human breast than in cancerous breast. In combination with our previous findings of greater PTP gamma expression levels in normal human breast than cancerous breast, current results show that lower PTP gamma was associated with higher ER alpha in cancerous human breast tissues. In conclusion, results indicate that Z induces estrogenic effects in human breast relative of PTP gamma expression and the estrogenic down-regulation of PTP gamma expression in human breast is associated with ER alpha.

Liu S, Kulp SK, Sugimoto Y, et al.
Involvement of breast epithelial-stromal interactions in the regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase-gamma (PTPgamma) mRNA expression by estrogenically active agents.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2002; 71(1):21-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTPgamma) has been implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in kidney and lung cancers. Our previous results indicate that estradiol-17beta (E2)-induced suppression of PTPgamma may play a role in mammary tumorigenesis. Zeranol (Z), a nonsteroidal growth promoter with estrogenic activity that is used by the US meat industry, induces estrogenic responses in primary cultured breast cells and breast cancer cell lines.
METHODS: PTPgamma mRNA expression in human breast tissues and cells isolated from surgical specimens of mammoplasty and breast cancer patients were detected and quantified by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining was used to localize PTPgamma in human breast tissues. Breast epithelial and stromal cells were isolated and co-cultured to determine the involvement of cell-cell interaction in the regulation of PTPgamma mRNA expression by E2 and Z.
RESULTS: PTPgamma mRNA expression was lower in cancerous than in normal breast tissues. Both E2 and Z suppressed PTPgamma mRNA levels in cultured normal breast tissues by approximately 80%, but had a lesser effect in cultured epithelial cells isolated from normal breast tissues. In the co-culture system, both E2 and Z suppressed PTPgamma mRNA to a greater degree in epithelial cells than in stromal cells. In whole breast tissues, PTPgamma was immunolocalized to the epithelium. Treatment with E2 or Z diminished PTPgamma staining indicating reductions in PTPgamma at the protein level.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that both E2 and Z regulate PTPgamma expression in human breast and that epithelial-stromal cells interaction is important in the regulation of PTPgamma expression by estrogenically active agents.

Kholodnyuk ID, Szeles A, Yang Y, et al.
Inactivation of the human fragile histidine triad gene at 3p14.2 in monochromosomal human/mouse microcell hybrid-derived severe combined immunodeficient mouse tumors.
Cancer Res. 2000; 60(24):7119-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have previously shown that inoculation of human chromosome 3 (chr3)/A9 mouse fibrosarcoma microcell hybrids (MCHs) into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice was followed by the regular elimination of some 3p regions whereas a 3q region was retained even after prolonged mouse passage. Using this approach, referred to as the elimination test (Et), we have defined a common eliminated region (CER) of approximately 7 cM at 3p21.3 that was absent in all of the 27 tumors generated from five MCHs. Later, CER was reduced to a 1-Mb region, designated as CER1. Another eliminated region (ER2) at 3p21.1-p14.2 was absent in 21 of the 27 tumors. ER2 borders at but does not include the fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene, considered as a putative tumor suppressor gene. In the present work, two new and two previously studied MCHs, and 13 derived SCID mouse tumors were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting and by PCR, using 72 chr3p-specific and 11 chr3q-specific markers. Nine tumors generated from three MCHs that carried cytogenetically normal chr3, remained PCR-positive for all of the chr3 markers tested. Designated as "PCR+" tumors, they were examined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, together with four of six previously studied tumors derived from MCH910.7, which carried a del(3)(pter-p21.1), for the expression of 14 human genes: 5 genes within CER1 (LIMD1, CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR5), 5 genes located within regions that were homozygously deleted in a variety of carcinomas (ITGA4L, LUCA1, PTPRG, FHIT, DUTT1), and 4 other genes in chr3p (VHL, MLH1, TGM4, UBE1L). We found that VHL, MLH1, ITGA4L, LIMD1, UBE1L, LUCA1, PTPRG, and DUTT1 were expressed in the MCH lines in vitro and also in the derived SCID tumors. No transcripts that originated from the four CCR genes or from TGM4 could be detected in any of the MCH lines. Alone among the 14 genes examined, FHIT showed a tumor growth-associated change. It was expressed in vitro in five of seven MCH lines. Nine of 13 derived tumors had no FHIT transcript. The remaining 4 expressed a truncated mRNA and a reduced amount of the full-length mRNA. We have previously found that FHIT was deleted at the DNA level in 17 of 21 tumors derived from four MCHs. The remaining 4 of 21 had no FHIT transcript. Our compiled data show that FHIT was either physically or functionally impaired in all 34 of the 34 analyzed tumors. Variants with deleted or down-regulated FHIT have a selective growth advantage.

Zheng J, Kulp SK, Zhang Y, et al.
17 beta-estradiol-regulated expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma gene in cultured human normal breast and breast cancer cells.
Anticancer Res. 2000 Jan-Feb; 20(1A):11-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma (PTP gamma) has been implicated as a potential tumor suppressor gene in kidney and lung adenocarcinomas. We have previously shown that PTP gamma mRNA expression levels are lower in DES-induced kidney tumors than in normal kidneys of Syrian hamsters. The goals of the present study were to determine if PTP gamma mRNA is present in both normal and cancerous human breast cells, and to investigate the estrogenic regulation of PTP gamma mRNA expression in these cell types.
METHODS: Primary cultured human breast cells derived from surgical specimens of mammoplasty and breast cancer patients, as well as human breast cancer cell lines were used for the study. RT-PCR and RNase protection assay was utilized to detect and quantify levels of PTP gamma mRNA among the cell types used and between control and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)-treated cells. Transient transfection of human estrogen receptor (ER) into MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells was performed to establish the role of ER in the regulation of PTP gamma mRNA expression.
RESULTS: The results show that PTP gamma mRNA is expressed in primary cultured human breast cells isolated from mammoplasty and breast cancer patients, as well as in human cancer cell lines, and that E2 significantly inhibits PTP gamma expression in ER-positive human breast cancer cells via an ER-mediated mechanism. We show that PTP gamma mRNA levels are lower in human breast cancer cells than in normal human breast cells. Furthermore, we report that PTP gamma mRNA expression is inhibited by E2 in a dose-dependent manner in primary cultured breast cells. After treatment with 20 nM E2 for 24 hours, PTP gamma mRNA was significantly suppressed in primary cultured cancerous and non-cancerous cells from breast cancer patients, as well as in the ER-positive MCF-7 cell line by 50%, 85%, and 66%, respectively. In contrast, the PTP gamma mRNA expression levels did not change in similarly treated ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Sensitivity to E2-induced suppression could be restored (94% inhibition) by transfecting MDA-MB-231 cells with an ER expression plasmid.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results are the first to suggest that PTP gamma is a potential estrogen-regulated tumor suppressor gene in human breast cancer which may play an important role in neoplastic processes of human breast epithelium.

van Niekerk CC, Poels LG
Reduced expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma in lung and ovarian tumors.
Cancer Lett. 1999; 137(1):61-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
Based on LOH studies protein tyrosine phosphatasegamma (PTPgamma) has been suggested as a candidate tumor suppressor gene involved in the oncogenesis of lung and renal cancers. In order to assess the involvement of PTPgamma in tumor development we developed a PTPgamma-specific monoclonal antibody (gammaTL1) (IgM isotype) by immunization with a synthetic peptide of 15 amino acids corresponding to the amino acid sequence nos. 1423-1438 just outside the phosphatase domain-II. In line with the fact that the antibody was raised to an intracellular domain of the PTPgamma molecule the antibody labeled the cell membrane of fixed cells but did not stain the outside of the cell membrane in the immunofluorescence assay. The Mab gammaTL1 recognized a full-length baculovirus recombinant PTPgamma protein of 185 kDa, in addition to putative cleavage products of 120 kDa, 114/110 kDa and 80 kDa, on Western blots of lysates of PTPgamma-gene transfected Sf9 insect cells but not of tumor cell lysates. Based on immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence assays on cryostat sections, however, PTPgamma was expressed in more than 90% of both normal, human tissue samples and in the (non-) tumor cells of carcinoma samples. However, PTPgamma was not found in 28% of the overall lung tumor samples, i.e. in 50% of the lung adenocarcinoma samples, while the expression was weak and heterogeneous in 71% of squamous lung cell carcinomas. PTPgamma was not suppressed in the normal cells between the lung carcinoma cells. The presence of PTPgamma, assayed by immunofluorescence in lung tumor cell lines (H69, H128, H82, C3) was confirmed by RT-PCR assay. Interestingly, the 90% expression score of PTPgamma protein in normal ovarian tissue samples was reduced dramatically to 44 and 38% in both the non-tumorous and tumorous cells, respectively, in ovarian tumor samples. PTPgamma was absent in the HT29 human colon carcinoma cell line both by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR assay. In summary, we have developed a PTPgamma-specific monoclonal antibody, that demonstrated that the expression of PTPgamma is severely reduced (>50%) in lung tumors and ovarian tumors.

Pitterle DM, Jolicoeur EM, Bepler G
Hot spots for molecular genetic alterations in lung cancer.
In Vivo. 1998 Nov-Dec; 12(6):643-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancers are a heterogeneous group of tumors broadly classified as small cell or non-small cell lung cancers. In each case, numerous DNA mutations precede tumor formation, resulting in the activation of growth stimulatory genes and the loss of tumor suppressor genes. The known cellular functions of the tumor suppressor genes most commonly affected in lung cancer are reviewed herein, including the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene on chromosome 13q14, the p53 gene on 17p13, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN2) gene on 9p21. The chromosomal locations for other potential tumor suppressor genes are on chromosomes 3p, 9p, and 11p. Candidate genes in these regions include the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene at 3p25, the ubiquitin-activating enzyme homologue (UBE1L at 3p21, the genes for the dinucleoside polyphosphate hydrolase FHIT and receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase gamma PTPRG at 3p14.2, the genes for tropomyosin beta (TM1) and a talin homologue (talin) at 9p21, and the H-ras gene at 11p15.

Iwai T, Yokota S, Nakao M, et al.
Frequent aberration of FHIT gene expression in acute leukemias.
Cancer Res. 1998; 58(22):5182-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
We analyzed the mRNA expression of the FHIT gene by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) in 54 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 11 cases of T-cell ALL [T-ALL] and 43 cases of non-T-ALL) and 40 cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In 46% of the ALL cases and 55% of the AML cases, FHIT expression was absent or markedly decreased. Only abnormal short bands were detected in 30% of the ALL cases and 5% of the AML cases. Eighteen of 19 abnormal transcripts had the same fusion of exons 2-7, and all lacked the starting codon in exon 5. No obvious normal-sized PCR products were detected in cases exhibiting abnormal transcripts. These findings suggest that the expression of functional FHIT protein was lost in the majority of ALL (76%) and AML (60%) cases. Differential quantitative PCR of exons 3-9 of the FHIT gene and RT-PCR of the PTPRG gene, which is centromeric to the FHIT gene, showed the presence of the target sequences. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using probes covering exons 5 and 8 revealed no difference in the signal patterns between leukemia and normal cells, showing one or two signal doublets in more than 90% of nuclei, and indicated that gross segments of the FHIT gene were not homozygously deleted in these cases. A small number of transcripts with an aberrant fusion between exons 2 and 7 were detected by RT-PCR in the bone marrow cells from four healthy individuals. Granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in the bone marrow cells of a healthy individual contained transcripts with the same fusion. This unique fusion of exons 2 and 7 might be preferentially seen in either neoplastic or normal hematopoietic cells, regardless of their lineage. The finding that FHIT expression was abolished in the majority of leukemia cases might support the hypothesis that the FHIT gene acts as a tumor suppressor, at least in leukemia.

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