Gene Summary

Gene:PTPRK; protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type K
Aliases: R-PTP-kappa
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP mu (MAM) domain, an Ig-like domain and four fibronectin type III-like repeats. This PTP was shown to mediate homophilic intercellular interaction, possibly through the interaction with beta- and gamma-catenin at adherens junctions. Expression of this gene was found to be stimulated by TGF-beta 1, which may be important for the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase kappa
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PTPRK (cancer-related)

Storm EE, Durinck S, de Sousa e Melo F, et al.
Targeting PTPRK-RSPO3 colon tumours promotes differentiation and loss of stem-cell function.
Nature. 2016; 529(7584):97-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer remains a major unmet medical need, prompting large-scale genomics efforts in the field to identify molecular drivers for which targeted therapies might be developed. We previously reported the identification of recurrent translocations in R-spondin genes present in a subset of colorectal tumours. Here we show that targeting RSPO3 in PTPRK-RSPO3-fusion-positive human tumour xenografts inhibits tumour growth and promotes differentiation. Notably, genes expressed in the stem-cell compartment of the intestine were among those most sensitive to anti-RSPO3 treatment. This observation, combined with functional assays, suggests that a stem-cell compartment drives PTPRK-RSPO3 colorectal tumour growth and indicates that the therapeutic targeting of stem-cell properties within tumours may be a clinically relevant approach for the treatment of colorectal tumours.

Song L, Jiang W, Liu W, et al.
Protein tyrosine phosphatases receptor type D is a potential tumour suppressor gene inactivated by deoxyribonucleic acid methylation in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia.
Acta Paediatr. 2016; 105(3):e132-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Protein tyrosine phosphatases receptor type D (PTPRD) is a tumour suppressor gene, and its epigenetic silencing is frequently found in glioblastoma. As aberrant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation patterning has been shown to play a role in leukaemogenesis, we studied the promoter methylation, expression profiles and molecular functions of PTPRD in paediatric patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).
METHODS: Bone marrow specimens were obtained from 32 Chinese patients with a mean age of 7.2 years (range 1.1-16.5). PTPRD and methylation status were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and methylation-specific PCR. Western blot and flow cytometry techniques were also used.
RESULTS: PTPRD expression was decreased by promoter region methylation in six AML cells and methylated in 21 (65.6%) of the 32 samples. In addition, PTPRD expression could be induced by the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Furthermore, functional studies showed that overexpression of PTPRD in AML cells inhibited cell proliferation and clonogenicity as well as inducing apoptosis. However, PTPRD knockdown increased cell proliferation. These effects were associated with downregulation of cyclin D1, c-myc and upregulation of Bax.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrated that PTPRD was a potential tumour suppressor gene inactivated by DNA methylation in paediatric AML.

Zhou R, Zhou X, Yin Z, et al.
Tumor invasion and metastasis regulated by microRNA-184 and microRNA-574-5p in small-cell lung cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(42):44609-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumor that has an extremely poor clinical prognosis. Metastasis is the key event in SCLC progression, but its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proven to participate in cancer processes, but their function in SCLC has not been thoroughly studied either. Here, we performed microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses to identify the miRNAs associated with metastasis and prognosis in SCLC as well as the correlation between serum and tissue. We also explored these miRNAs' promising molecular mechanisms by 3'UTR reporter assay and immunoblotting. We showed that miR-184 significantly attenuated the metastasis of SCLC, whereas miR-574-5p enhanced it. Both miRNAs were found to participate in β-catenin signaling by suppressing protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type U (PTPRU) or endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1). Furthermore, miR-574-5p was verified as an independent prognostic risk factor for SCLC. Taken together, our findings provide a comprehensive analysis of the miRNA expression pattern in SCLC and indicate that miRNAs may serve as potential therapeutic and prognostic predictors in SCLC.

Yuwanita I, Barnes D, Monterey MD, et al.
Increased metastasis with loss of E2F2 in Myc-driven tumors.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(35):38210-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In human breast cancer, mortality is associated with metastasis to distant sites. Therefore, it is critical to elucidate the biological mechanisms that underlie tumor progression and metastasis. Using signaling pathway signatures we previously predicted a role for E2F transcription factors in Myc induced tumors. To test this role we interbred MMTV-Myc transgenic mice with E2F knockouts. Surprisingly, we observed that the loss of E2F2 sharply increased the percentage of lung metastasis in MMTV-Myc transgenic mice. Examining the gene expression profile from these tumors, we identified genetic components that were potentially involved in mediating metastasis. These genes were filtered to uncover the genes involved in metastasis that also impacted distant metastasis free survival in human breast cancer. In order to elucidate the mechanism by which E2F2 loss enhanced metastasis we generated knockdowns of E2F2 in MDA-MB-231 cells and observed increased migration in vitro and increased lung colonization in vivo. We then examined genes that were differentially regulated between tumors from MMTV-Myc, MMTV-Myc E2F2-/-, and lung metastases samples and identified PTPRD. To test the role of PTPRD in E2F2-mediated breast cancer metastasis, we generated a knockdown of PTPRD in MDA-MB-231 cells. We noted that decreased levels of PTPRD resulted in decreased migration in vitro and decreased lung colonization in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that E2F2 loss results in increased metastasis in breast cancer, potentially functioning through a PTPRD dependent mechanism.

McPherson JR, Ong CK, Ng CC, et al.
Whole-exome sequencing of breast cancer, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and neurofibroma from a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.
Cancer Med. 2015; 4(12):1871-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of multiple neurofibromas, cafe-au-lait spots, and Lisch nodules. Individuals with NF1 are at increased risk of developing various tumors, such as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), pheochromocytoma, leukemia, glioma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and breast cancer. Here, we describe the exome sequencing of breast cancer, MPNST, and neurofibroma from a patient with NF1. We identified a germline mutation in the NF1 gene which resulted in conversion of leucine to proline at amino acid position 847. In addition, we showed independent somatic NF1 mutations in all the three tumors (frameshift insertion in breast cancer (p.A985fs), missense mutation in MPNST (p.G23R), and inframe deletion in dermal neurofibroma (p.L1876del-Inf)), indicating that a second hit in NF1 resulting in the loss of function could be important for tumor formation. Each tumor had a distinct genomic profile with mutually exclusive mutations in different genes. Copy number analysis revealed multiple copy number alterations in the breast cancer and the MPNST, but not the benign neurofibroma. Germline loss of chromosome 6q22.33, which harbors two potential tumor suppressor genes, PTPRK and LAMA2, was also identified; this may increase tumor predisposition further. In the background of NF1 syndrome, although second-hit NF1 mutation is critical in tumorigenesis, different additional mutations are required to drive the formation of different tumors.

Soulières D, Hirsch FR, Shepherd FA, et al.
PTPRF Expression as a Potential Prognostic/Predictive Marker for Treatment with Erlotinib in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.
J Thorac Oncol. 2015; 10(9):1364-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: EGFR mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements are, to date, the only approved biomarkers to select treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there is considerable interest in identifying other predictive markers. The PTPRF gene has been suggested as a marker of interest in NSCLC and other tumor types.
METHODS: This hypothesis-generating retrospective analysis examined data from two studies of erlotinib in NSCLC, Marker Identification Trial (MERIT; n = 102) and Sequential Tarceva in Unresectable NSCLC (SATURN; n = 262), to determine whether PTPRF expression was prognostic and/or predictive of patient outcomes. Exploratory analyses were conducted using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on existing formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, to assess gene expression levels, including PTPRF. High versus low levels of expression were dichotomized using the median with B2M as a control comparator. Progression-free survival and overall survival were then compared for patients with high versus low levels of PTPRF in the two studies.
RESULTS: PTPRF expression was found to be prognostic for shorter overall survival but was also significantly predictive of improved survival with erlotinib versus placebo in SATURN (hazard ratio, 0.45 [95% confidence interval, CI, 0.30-0.69] in PTPRF high versus 0.96 [95% CI, 0.62-1.48] in PTPRF low; interaction p = 0.02), even in the EGFR wild-type subpopulation (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.29-0.68] versus 0.96 [95% CI, 0.62-1.48]; interaction p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: PTPRF may have value as a predictive marker to identify which patients can obtain the greatest benefit from erlotinib in the post-first-line setting. Further research is warranted to determine the potential value of this marker in clinical decision-making.

Peyser ND, Du Y, Li H, et al.
Loss-of-Function PTPRD Mutations Lead to Increased STAT3 Activation and Sensitivity to STAT3 Inhibition in Head and Neck Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0135750 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D (PTPRD) is a putative tumor suppressor in several cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). STAT3 is a frequently hyperactivated oncogene in HNSCC. As STAT3 is a direct substrate of PTPRD, we sought to determine the genetic or epigenetic alterations of PTPRD that contribute to overactive STAT3 in HNSCC.
METHODS: We analyzed data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and our previous whole-exome sequencing study and summarized the mutation, methylation, and copy number status of PTPRD in HNSCC and other cancers. In vitro studies involved standard transfection and MTT protocols, as well as methylation-specific PCR.
RESULTS: Our findings indicate that PTPRD mutation, rather than methylation or copy number alteration, is the primary mechanism by which PTPRD function is lost in HNSCC. We demonstrate that overexpression of wild-type PTPRD in HNSCC cells significantly inhibits growth and STAT3 activation while PTPRD mutants do not, suggesting that mutation may lead to loss of function and subsequent hyper-phosphorylation of PTPRD substrates, especially STAT3. Importantly, we determined that HNSCC cells harboring an endogenous PTPRD mutation are more sensitive to STAT3 blockade than PTPRD wild-type cells. We additionally found that PTPRD mRNA expression does not correlate with pSTAT3 expression, suggesting that alterations that manifest through altered mRNA expression, including hypermethylation and gene copy number alterations, do not significantly contribute to STAT3 overactivation in HNSCC.
CONCLUSION: PTPRD mutation, but not methylation or copy number loss, may serve as a predictive biomarker of sensitivity to STAT3 inhibitors in HNSCC.

Beothe T, Zubakov D, Kovacs G
Homozygous losses detected by array comparative genomic hybridization in multiplex urothelial carcinomas of the bladder.
Cancer Genet. 2015; 208(9):434-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urothelial carcinomas (UCs) may present at first as a solitary or multifocal neoplasm. We applied high resolution array comparative genomic hybridization to 24 solitary and 32 multiplex UCs and used the hidden Markov model algorithm to identify the copy number changes at the probe level. Copy number losses and homozygous deletions at the chromosome 9p region affecting the CDKN2A and MTAP genes were the most frequent alterations in both groups of tumors. We have delineated two new tumor suppressor gene regions at chromosome 9p that harbor the PTPRD and BNC2 genes. Copy number losses at chromosomal regions 2q, 8p, and 18p occurred preferentially in solitary UCs, whereas multiplex UCs displayed loss of large chromosomal regions at 9q, 10q, 11q, 18q, and 21q. Homozygous deletions harboring loci of cell adhesion genes such as claudins, desmocollins, and desmogleins were seen exclusively in multiplex UCs. Amplifications occurred only in invasive G3 UCs irrespective of staging. Our study suggests that solitary and multiplex UCs may have divergent genetic pathways. The biallelic inactivation of cellular adhesion genes by homozygous deletions in multiplex UCs may explain the frequent intravesical spreading of tumor cells. .

Peyser ND, Freilino M, Wang L, et al.
Frequent promoter hypermethylation of PTPRT increases STAT3 activation and sensitivity to STAT3 inhibition in head and neck cancer.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(9):1163-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) overactivation is a common event in many cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), where STAT3 represents a promising therapeutic target. HNSCC is not characterized by frequent kinase mutations, in contrast to some malignancies where mutational activation of kinases upstream of STAT3 is common. Instead, STAT3 may be activated by loss-of-function of negative regulators of STAT3, including by promoter hypermethylation of PTPRT. Here we first analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas data and determined that the PTPRT promoter is frequently hypermethylated in several cancers, including HNSCC (60.1% of tumors analyzed) in association with downregulation of PTPRT mRNA expression and upregulation of pSTAT3 expression. These findings were confirmed in an independent cohort of HNSCC tumors by methylation-specific PCR and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrate that PTPRT promoter methylation and gene silencing is reversible in HNSCC cells, leading to PTPRT-specific downregulation of pSTAT3 expression. We further show that PTPRT promoter methylation is significantly associated with sensitivity to STAT3 inhibition in HNSCC cells, suggesting that PTPRT promoter methylation may serve as a predictive biomarker for responsiveness to STAT3 inhibitors in clinical development.

Yao Y, Shao J, Wu J, et al.
The Functional Variant in the 3'UTR of PTPRT with the Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Chinese Population.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015; 36(1):306-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: PTPRT is an essential tumor suppressor that plays crucial roles in regulating the mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Polymorphisms in PTPRT have been reported associated with human longevity, but their association with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been found so far. In this study, we focused on the miRNAs associated SNPs in the 3'-UTR of PTPRT to investigate the further relationship of the SNPs with miRNAs among Chinese ESCC patients.
METHODS: We performed case-control study including 790 ESCC patients and 749 cancer-free controls. Genotyping, real time PCR assay, cell transfection and the dual luciferase reporter assay were used in our study.
RESULTS: We found that patients suffering from smoking exposure, drinking exposure and the history of cancer indicated to be the susceptible population by comparing with controls. Besides, SNP rs2866943 in PTPRT 3'-UTR was involved in the occurrence of ESCC by acting as a protective factor while rs6029959 acting a risk factor. SNP rs2866943 was also could be regulated by miR-218 which caused a down-regulation of PTPRT in patients with CT and TT genotype. Furthermore, the carriers of CT and TT genotype presented a small tumor size as well as the low probability of metastasis.
CONCLUSION: Our findings have shown that the SNP rs2866943 in PTPRT 3'-UTR, through disrupting the regulatory role of miR-218 in PTPRT expression, rs2866943 in PTPRT might act as a protective factor in the pathogenesis of ESCC.

Wang D, Tan J, Xu Y, et al.
Identification of MicroRNAs and target genes involvement in hepatocellular carcinoma with microarray data.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):378-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the study is to identify the differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples and controls and provide new diagnostic potential miRNAs for HCC. The miRNAs expression profile data GSE20077 included 7 HCC samples, 1 HeLa sample and 3 controls. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DE-miRNAs) were identified by t-test and wilcox test. The miRNA with significantly differential expression was chosen for further analysis. Target genes for this miRNA were selected using TargetScan and miRbase database. STRING software was applied to construct the target genes interaction network and topology analysis was carried out to identify the hub gene in the network. And we identified the mechanism for affecting miRNA function. A total of 54 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, in which there were 13 miRNAs published to be related to HCC. The differentially expressed hsa-miR-106b was chosen for further analysis and PTPRT (Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase T) was its potential target gene. The target genes interaction network was constructed among 33 genes, in which PTPRT was the hub gene. We got the conclusion that the differentially expressed hsa-miR-106b may play an important role in the development of HCC by regulating the expression of its potential target gene PT-PRT.

Sudhir PR, Lin ST, Chia-Wen C, et al.
Loss of PTPRM associates with the pathogenic development of colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:9633 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification and functional analysis of genes from genetically altered chromosomal regions would suggest new molecular targets for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Here we performed a genome-wide analysis of chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) in matching sets of colon mucosa-adenoma-carcinoma samples using high-throughput oligonucleotide microarray analysis. In silico analysis of NCBI GEO and TCGA datasets allowed us to uncover the significantly altered genes (p ≤ 0.001) associated with the identified CNAs. We performed quantitative PCR analysis of the genomic and complementary DNA derived from primary mucosa, adenoma, and carcinoma samples, and confirmed the recurrent loss and down-regulation of PTPRM in colon adenomas and carcinomas. Functional characterization demonstrated that PTPRM negatively regulates cell growth and colony formation, whereas loss of PTPRM promotes oncogenic cell growth. We further showed that, in accordance to Knudson's two-hit hypothesis, inactivation of PTPRM in colon cancer was mainly attributed to loss of heterozygosity and promoter hypermethylation. Taken together, this study demonstrates a putative tumor suppressive role for PTPRM and that genetic and epigenetic alterations of PTPRM may contribute to early step of colorectal tumorigenesis.

Kiflemariam S, Ljungström V, Pontén F, Sjöblom T
Tumor vessel up-regulation of INSR revealed by single-cell expression analysis of the tyrosine kinome and phosphatome in human cancers.
Am J Pathol. 2015; 185(6):1600-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tyrosine kinome and phosphatome harbor oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and important regulators of angiogenesis and tumor stroma formation. To provide a better understanding of their potential roles in cancer, we analyzed the expression of 85 tyrosine kinases and 42 tyrosine phosphatases by in situ hybridization 48 human normal and 24 tumor tissue specimens. Nine-tenths of the assessed transcripts had tumor cell expression concordant with expression array databases. Further, pan-cancer expression of AATK, PTPRK, and PTPRU and expression of PTPRS in a subset of tumors were observed. To demonstrate tumor subcompartment resolution, we validated the predicted tumor stroma-specific markers HTRA1, HTRA3, MXRA5, MXRA8, and SERPING1 in situ. In addition to known vascular and stromal markers such as PDGFRB, we observed stromal expression of PTK6 and TNS1 and vascular expression of INSR, PTPRF, PTPRG, PTPRU, and TNS1, of which INSR emerged as a tumor-specific vessel marker. This study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale analyses to chart the transcriptome in situ in human cancers and their ability to identify novel cancer biomarkers.

Acun T, Demir K, Oztas E, et al.
PTPRD is homozygously deleted and epigenetically downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinomas.
OMICS. 2015; 19(4):220-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PTPRD (protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, D) is a tumor suppressor gene, frequently inactivated through deletions or epigenetic mechanisms in several cancers with importance for global health. In this study, we provide new and functionally integrated evidence on genetic and epigenetic alterations of PTPRD gene in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Importantly, HCC is the sixth most common malignancy and the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. We used a high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray assay (Affymetrix, 10K2.0 Assay) covering the whole genome to screen an extensive panel of HCC cell lines (N=14 in total) to detect DNA copy number changes. PTPRD expression was determined in human HCCs by Q-RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Promoter hypermethylation was assessed by combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA). DNA methyl transferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) and/or histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostain A (TSA) were used to restore the expression. We identified homozygous deletions in Mahlavu and SNU475 cells, in the 5'UTR and coding regions, respectively. PTPRD mRNA expression was downregulated in 78.5% of cell lines and 82.6% of primary HCCs. PTPRD protein expression was also found to be lost or reduced in HCC tumor tissues. We found promoter hypermethylation in 22.2% of the paired HCC samples and restored PTPRD expression by 5-AzaC and/or TSA treatments. In conclusion, PTPRD is homozygously deleted and epigenetically downregulated in HCCs. We hypothesize PTPRD as a tumor suppressor candidate and potential cancer biomarker in human HCCs. This hypothesis is consistent with compelling evidences in other organ systems, as discussed in this article. Further functional assays in larger samples may ascertain the contribution of PTPRD to hepatocarcinogenesis in greater detail, not to forget its broader importance for diagnostic medicine and the emerging field of personalized medicine in oncology.

Chen YW, Guo T, Shen L, et al.
Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase κ directly targets STAT3 activation for tumor suppression in nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma.
Blood. 2015; 125(10):1589-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is an aggressive disease characterized by frequent deletions on 6q, and constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Phosphorylation at Tyr705 activates STAT3, inducing dimerization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding. In this study, we investigated whether receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase κ (PTPRK), the only protein tyrosine phosphatase at 6q that contains a STAT3-specifying motif, negatively regulates STAT3 activation in NKTCL. PTPRK was highly expressed in normal NK cells but was underexpressed in 4 of 5 (80%) NKTCL cell lines and 15 of 27 (55.6%) primary tumors. Significantly, PTPRK protein expression was inversely correlated with nuclear phospho-STAT3(Tyr705) expression in NKTCL cell lines (P = .025) and tumors (P = .040). PTPRK restoration decreased nuclear phospho-STAT3(Tyr705) levels, whereas knockdown of PTPRK increased such levels in NKTCL cells. Phosphatase substrate-trapping mutant assays demonstrated the binding of PTPRK to STAT3, and phosphatase assays showed that PTPRK directly dephosphorylated phospho-STAT3(Tyr705). Restoration of PTPRK inhibited tumor cell growth and reduced the migration and invasion ability of NKTCL cells. Monoallelic deletion and promoter hypermethylation caused underexpression of PTPRK messenger RNA in NKTCL, and methylation of the PTPRK promoter significantly correlated with inferior overall survival (P = .049) in NKTCL patients treated with the steroid-dexamethasone, methotrexate, ifosfamide, l-asparaginase, and etoposide regimen. Altogether, our findings show that PTPRK underexpression leads to STAT3 activation and contributes to NKTCL pathogenesis.

Gong X, Yi J, Carmon KS, et al.
Aberrant RSPO3-LGR4 signaling in Keap1-deficient lung adenocarcinomas promotes tumor aggressiveness.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(36):4692-701 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The four R-spondins (RSPO1-4) and their three related receptors LGR4, 5 and 6 (LGR4-6) have emerged as a major ligand-receptor system with critical roles in development and stem cell survival through modulation of Wnt signaling. Recurrent, gain-of-expression gene fusions of RSPO2 (to EIF3E) and RSPO3 (to PTPRK) occur in a subset of human colorectal cancer. However, the exact roles and mechanisms of the RSPO-LGR system in oncogenesis remain largely unknown. We found that RSPO3 is aberrantly expressed at high levels in approximately half of Keap1-mutated lung adenocarcinomas (ADs). This high RSPO3 expression is driven by a combination of demethylation of its own promoter region and deficiency in Keap1 instead of gene fusion as in colon cancer. Patients with RSPO3-high tumors (~9%, 36/412) displayed much poorer survival than the rest of the cohort (median survival of 28 vs 163 months, log-rank test P<0.0001). Knockdown (KD) of RSPO3, LGR4 or their signaling mediator IQGAP1 in lung cancer cell lines with Keap1 deficiency and high RSPO3-LGR4 expression led to reduction in cell proliferation and migration in vitro, and KD of LGR4 or IQGAP1 resulted in decrease in tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These findings suggest that aberrant RSPO3-LGR4 signaling potentially acts as a driving mechanism in the aggressiveness of Keap1-deficient lung ADs.

Wang D, Wang L, Zhou J, et al.
Reduced expression of PTPRD correlates with poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e113754 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PTPRD, encoding protein tyrosine phosphatases receptor type D, is located at chromosome 9p23-24.1, a loci frequently lost in many types of tumors. Recently, PTPRD has been proposed to function as a tumor suppressor gene. The current study aimed to investigate PTPRD expression and its prognostic significance in primary gastric adenocarcinoma.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting were used to examine PTPRD expression in paired gastric tumourous and paracancerous tissues. Compared with the matched normal gastric mucosa tissues, both the mRNA (P = 0.0138) and protein (P = 0.0093) expression of PTPRD in fresh surgical specimens were significantly reduced. Clinicopathological and prognostic roles of PTPRD in gastric adenocarcinoma were investigated using immunohistochemistry with 513 paraffin-embedded gastric adenocarcinoma tissue blocks. Statistical analysis revealed that reduced PTPRD expression was significantly associated with T stage (P = 0.004), TNM stage (P<0.001) and tumor size (P = 0.003). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that low expression of PTPRD significantly correlated with poor survival of gastric cancer patients (P<0.001). Cox regression analysis confirmed PTPRD expression as independent predictor of the overall survival of gastric cancer patients. The MTT assay determined the effects of PTPRD on cell proliferation of MGC803 and GES1 cell lines. Restoring PTPRD expression in MGC803 cells significantly inhibited their growth rate. Silencing PTPRD expression by siRNA treatment in GES1 significantly enhanced cell proliferation compared with mock siRNA treatment. Methylation analysis of PTPRD promoter CpG island in 3 primary GC samples showed one case with partial methylation.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that PTPRD is a candidate tumour suppressor in gastric cancer. Thus, PTPRD may play an important role in gastric tumorigenesis and serve as a valuable prognostic marker of gastric adenocarcinoma.

Liu Y, Zhu Z, Xiong Z, et al.
Knockdown of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor U inhibits growth and motility of gastric cancer cells.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(9):5750-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor U (PTPRU) has been shown to be a tumor suppressor in colon cancer by dephosphorylating β-catenin and reducing the activation of β-catenin signaling. Here, we investigate the expression of PTPRU protein in gastric cancer cell lines, gastric cancer tissues and respective adjacent non-cancer tissues and find that the 130 kDa nuclear-localized PTPRU fragment is the main PTPRU isoform in gastric cancer cells, whereas the full-length PTPRU is relatively lowly expressed. The level of the 130 kDa PTPRU is higher in gastric cancer tissues than in adjacent non-cancer tissues. Knockdown of endogenous PTPRU in gastric cancer cells using lentivirus-delivered specific shRNA results in the attenuation of cell growth, migration, invasion and adhesion. Knockdown of PTPRU also inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of β-catenin as well as levels of focal adhesion proteins and lysine methylation of histone H3. These results indicate that PTPRU is required for gastric cancer progression and may serve as a potential therapeutic target.

Chaudhary F, Lucito R, Tonks NK
Missing-in-Metastasis regulates cell motility and invasion via PTPδ-mediated changes in SRC activity.
Biochem J. 2015; 465(1):89-101 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MIM (Missing-in-Metastasis), also known as MTSS1 (metastasis suppressor 1), is a scaffold protein that is down-regulated in multiple metastatic cancer cell lines compared with non-metastatic counterparts. MIM regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and actin polymerization, and has been implicated in the control of cell motility and invasion. MIM has also been shown to bind to a receptor PTP (protein tyrosine phosphatase), PTPδ, an interaction that may provide a link between tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent signalling and metastasis. We used shRNA-mediated gene silencing to investigate the consequences of loss of MIM on the migration and invasion of the MCF10A mammary epithelial cell model of breast cancer. We observed that suppression of MIM by RNAi enhanced migration and invasion of MCF10A cells, effects that were associated with increased levels of PTPδ. Furthermore, analysis of human clinical data indicated that PTPδ was elevated in breast cancer samples when compared with normal tissue. We demonstrated that the SRC protein tyrosine kinase is a direct substrate of PTPδ and, upon suppression of MIM, we observed changes in the phosphorylation status of SRC; in particular, the inhibitory site (Tyr527) was hypophosphorylated, whereas the activating autophosphorylation site (Tyr416) was hyperphosphorylated. Thus the absence of MIM led to PTPδ-mediated activation of SRC. Finally, the SRC inhibitor SU6656 counteracted the effects of MIM suppression on cell motility and invasion. The present study illustrates that both SRC and PTPδ have the potential to be therapeutic targets for metastatic tumours associated with loss of MIM.

Vater I, Montesinos-Rongen M, Schlesner M, et al.
The mutational pattern of primary lymphoma of the central nervous system determined by whole-exome sequencing.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(3):677-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
To decipher the mutational pattern of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL), we performed whole-exome sequencing to a median coverage of 103 × followed by mutation verification in 9 PCNSL and validation using Sanger sequencing in 22 PCNSL. We identified a median of 202 (range: 139-251) potentially somatic single nucleotide variants (SNV) and 14 small indels (range: 7-22) with potentially protein-changing features per PCNSL. Mutations affected the B-cell receptor, toll-like receptor, and NF-κB and genes involved in chromatin structure and modifications, cell-cycle regulation, and immune recognition. A median of 22.2% (range: 20.0-24.7%) of somatic SNVs in 9 PCNSL overlaps with the RGYW motif targeted by somatic hypermutation (SHM); a median of 7.9% (range: 6.2-12.6%) affects its hotspot position suggesting a major impact of SHM on PCNSL pathogenesis. In addition to the well-known targets of aberrant SHM (aSHM) (PIM1), our data suggest new targets of aSHM (KLHL14, OSBPL10, and SUSD2). Among the four most frequently mutated genes was ODZ4 showing protein-changing mutations in 4/9 PCNSL. Together with mutations affecting CSMD2, CSMD3, and PTPRD, these findings may suggest that alterations in genes having a role in CNS development may facilitate diffuse large B-cell lymphoma manifestation in the CNS. This may point to intriguing mechanisms of CNS tropism in PCNSL.

Laczmanska I, Karpinski P, Kozlowska J, et al.
Copy number alterations of chromosomal regions enclosing protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-like genes in colorectal cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2014; 210(12):893-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatases that act in different cellular pathways are described most commonly as tumor suppressors, but also as oncogenes. Their role has previously been described in colorectal cancer, as well as in gastric, breast, thyroid, prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, glioma, liver, leukemia and many other cancers. In a previous study, we have described protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type T, M, Z1 and Q genes (PTPRT, PTPRM, PTPRZ1 and PTPRQ) hypermethylated in sporadic colorectal cancer. Thus, in this study, we examined the relation of unbalanced chromosomal alterations within regions covering these four protein tyrosine phosphatase genes with this cancer. One hundred and two cancer tissues were molecularly characterized, including analysis of the BRAF and K-ras mutations and methylator phenotype. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations was performed using Comparative Genomic Hybridization. We observed amplification of three regions containing genes coding for PTPs, such as PTPRZ1 (7q31.3, amplified in 23.5% of cases), PTPRQ (12q21.2, amplified in 5.9% of cases), PTPRT (20q12, amplified in 29.4% of cases), along with deletions in the region of PTPRM (18p11.2, deleted in 21.6% of cases). These data may suggest that in sporadic colorectal cancer PTPRZ1, PTPRT, PTPRQ probably act as oncogenes, while PTPRM acts as a tumor suppressor gene. Our study also revealed that gains on chromosome 20q12 and losses on chromosome 18p11.2 are connected with the absence of the BRAF mutation and the conventional adenocarcinoma pathway.

Ortiz B, White JR, Wu WH, Chan TA
Deletion of Ptprd and Cdkn2a cooperate to accelerate tumorigenesis.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(16):6976-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PTPRD encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D and is frequently inactivated across many human cancers. Despite its frequent inactivation, it is unknown whether loss of PTPRD promotes tumorigenesis in vivo. PTPRD is located on chromosome 9p, as is CDKN2A, and the two loci are frequently deleted together. Here, we show that co-deletion of Ptprd and Cdkn2a cooperate to accelerate tumorigenesis. Interestingly,heterozygous loss of Ptprd was sufficient to promote tumorigenesis in our model, suggesting that Ptprd may be a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. The loss of Ptprd resulted in changes to the tumor spectrum in mice and increased the frequency of lymphomas. In total, we reveal that Ptprd is a tumor suppressor that can promote tumorigenesis in concert with Cdkn2a loss.

Walia V, Prickett TD, Kim JS, et al.
Mutational and functional analysis of the tumor-suppressor PTPRD in human melanoma.
Hum Mutat. 2014; 35(11):1301-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) tightly regulate tyrosine phosphorylation essential for cell growth, adhesion, migration, and survival. We performed a mutational analysis of the PTP gene family in cutaneous metastatic melanoma and identified 23 phosphatase genes harboring somatic mutations. Among these, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase delta (PTPRD) was one of the most highly mutated genes, harboring 17 somatic mutations in 79 samples, a prevalence of 21.5%. Functional evaluation of six PTPRD mutations revealed enhanced anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth. Interestingly, melanoma cells expressing mutant PTPRD were significantly more migratory than cells expressing wild-type PTPRD or vector alone, indicating a novel gain-of-function associated with mutant PTPRD. To understand the molecular mechanisms of PTPRD mutations, we searched for its binding partners by converting the active PTPRD enzyme into a "substrate trap" form. Using mass spectrometry and coimmunoprecipitation, we report desmoplakin, a desmosomal protein that is implicated in cell-cell adhesion, as a novel PTPRD substrate. Further analysis showed reduced phosphatase activity of mutant PTPRD against desmoplakin. Our findings identify an essential signaling cascade that is disrupted in melanoma. Moreover, because PTPRD is also mutated in glioblastomas and adenocarcinoma of the colon and lung, our data might be applicable to a large number of human cancers.

Shinmura K, Kahyo T, Kato H, et al.
RSPO fusion transcripts in colorectal cancer in Japanese population.
Mol Biol Rep. 2014; 41(8):5375-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
R-spondin (RSPO) gene fusions have recently been discovered in a subset of human colorectal cancer (CRC) in the U.S. population; however, whether the fusion is recurrent in CRC arising in patients from the other demographic areas and whether it is specific for CRC remain uncertain. In this study, we examined 75 primary CRCs and 121 primary lung cancers in the Japanese population for EIF3E-RSPO2 and PTPRK-RSPO3 fusion transcripts using RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing analyses. Although the expression of EIF3E-RSPO2 and PTPRK-RSPO3 was not detected in any of the lung carcinomas, RSPO fusions were detected in three (4%) of the 75 CRCs. Two CRCs contained EIF3E-RSPO2 fusion transcripts, and another CRC contained PTPRK-RSPO3 fusion transcripts. Interestingly, in one of the two EIF3E-RSPO2 fusion-positive CRCs, a novel fusion variant form of EIF3E-RSPO2 was identified: exon 1 of EIF3E was connected to exon 2 of RSPO2 by a 351-bp insertion. A quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that RSPO mRNA expression was upregulated in the three CRCs containing RSPO fusion transcripts, while it was downregulated in nearly all of the other CRCs. An immunohistochemical analysis and a mutational analysis revealed that the RSPO fusion-containing CRC had a CDX2 cell lineage, was positive for mismatch repair protein expression, and had the wild-type APC allele. Finally, the forced expression of RSPO fusion proteins were shown to endow colorectal cells with an increased growth ability. These results suggest that the expression of RSPO fusion transcripts is related to a subset of CRCs arising in the Japanese population.

Ortiz B, Fabius AW, Wu WH, et al.
Loss of the tyrosine phosphatase PTPRD leads to aberrant STAT3 activation and promotes gliomagenesis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(22):8149-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PTPRD, which encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-δ, is one of the most frequently inactivated genes across human cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). PTPRD undergoes both deletion and mutation in cancers, with copy number loss comprising the primary mode of inactivation in GBM. However, it is unknown whether loss of PTPRD promotes tumorigenesis in vivo, and the mechanistic basis of PTPRD function in tumors is unclear. Here, using genomic analysis and a glioma mouse model, we demonstrate that loss of Ptprd accelerates tumor formation and define the oncogenic context in which Ptprd loss acts. Specifically, we show that in human GBMs, heterozygous loss of PTPRD is the predominant type of lesion and that loss of PTPRD and the CDKN2A/p16(INK4A) tumor suppressor frequently co-occur. Accordingly, heterozygous loss of Ptprd cooperates with p16 deletion to drive gliomagenesis in mice. Moreover, loss of the Ptprd phosphatase resulted in phospho-Stat3 accumulation and constitutive activation of Stat3-driven genetic programs. Surprisingly, the consequences of Ptprd loss are maximal in the heterozygous state, demonstrating a tight dependence on gene dosage. Ptprd loss did not increase cell proliferation but rather altered pathways governing the macrophage response. In total, we reveal that PTPRD is a bona fide tumor suppressor, pinpoint PTPRD loss as a cause of aberrant STAT3 activation in gliomas, and establish PTPRD loss, in the setting of CDKN2A/p16(INK4A) deletion, as a driver of glioma progression.

Wang L, Sato-Otsubo A, Sugita S, et al.
High-resolution genomic copy number profiling of primary intraocular lymphoma by single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(5):592-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) is a rare lymphoma. Because of difficulties in obtaining tissue samples, little is known about the disease's genetic features. In order to clarify these features, we carried out single nucleotide polymorphism array karyotyping of IOL using genomic DNA extracted from vitreous fluid. We analyzed 33 samples of IOLs consisting of 16 PIOLs, 12 IOLs with a central nervous system (CNS) lesion at diagnosis (IOCNSL), and five secondary IOLs following systemic lymphoma. All were B-cell type. We identified recurrent copy number (CN) gain regions in PIOLs, most frequently on chromosome 1q followed by 18q and 19q. Chromosome 6q was the most frequent loss region. Although these CN gain regions of PIOL were in common with those of IOCNSL, loss of 6q22.33 containing PTPRK and 9p21.3 containing CDKN2A were more frequently deleted in IOCNSL. Large CN loss in 6q was detected in three of four PIOL patients who had early CNS development and short survival periods, whereas long-term survivors did not have such deletions. There was a correlation between gain of the IL-10 gene located on 1q and intravitreal interleukin-10 concentration, which was higher in IOL than in benign uveitis. The results suggest that IOCNSL is a highly malignant form of PIOL that infiltrates into the CNS at an early stage. They also indicate that genetic differences between PIOL and primary CNS lymphoma need to be clarified.

Bera R, Chiou CY, Yu MC, et al.
Functional genomics identified a novel protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type F-mediated growth inhibition in hepatocarcinogenesis.
Hepatology. 2014; 59(6):2238-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: It is unclear how proliferating cells elicit suppression on cell proliferation and how cancer cells evade this growth suppression. Using a loss-of-function screening of the human kinome and phosphatome to identify genes suppressing tumor initiation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we identified 19 genes and characterized one of the top-scoring tumor suppressor candidates, protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type F (PTPRF). We found that PTPRF was induced during cell proliferation by cell-cell contact. Ectopic expression of wild-type PTPRF, but not the phosphatase-inactive mutant, suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation in soft-agar assays. In contrast, PTPRF silencing led to cell hyperproliferation, enhanced tumor colony formation in soft agar, and increased xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Mechanistically, PTPRF silencing showed aberrant ERK-dependent signaling including the phosphorylation/stabilization of v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) through the direct activation of v-src avian sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (SRC) and suppression of PP2A. This PTPRF-mediated growth suppression during cell proliferation functioned independently of the Hippo-Yap pathway. Clinically, PTPRF was down-regulated in 42% HCC (37/89), 67% gastric cancer (27/40), and 100% colorectal cancer (40/40). PTPRF up-regulation was found in 24% HCC (21/89) and associated with better clinical outcomes.
CONCLUSION: A novel PTPRF-mediated growth suppression pathway was identified by way of a functional genomics screening in human hepatoma cells. Induction of PTPRF by cell-cell contact during cell proliferation quenched the activated ERK-dependent proliferation signaling to prevent cell hyperproliferation and tumor initiation. PTPRF down-regulation in HCC facilitated tumor development. Our findings shed light on how cancer cells can evade growth suppression and open a new avenue for future development of anticancer therapies.

Liu F, You X, Chi X, et al.
Hepatitis B virus X protein mutant HBxΔ127 promotes proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 444(2):128-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mutant of virus is a frequent event. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a vital role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, the identification of potent mutant of HBx in hepatocarcinogenesis is significant. Previously, we identified a natural mutant of the HBx gene (termed HBxΔ127). Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhanced cell proliferation and migration in HCC. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanism of HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells. Our data showed that both wild type HBx and HBxΔ127 could increase the expression of miR-215 in hepatoma HepG2 and H7402 cells. However, HBxΔ127 was able to significantly increase miR-215 expression relative to wild type HBx in the cells. We identified that protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type T (PTPRT) was one of the target genes of miR-215 through targeting 3'UTR of PTPRT mRNA. In function, miR-215 was able to promote the proliferation of hepatoma cells. Meanwhile anti-miR-215 could partially abolish the enhancement of cell proliferation mediated by HBxΔ127 in vitro. Knockdown of PTPRT by siRNA could distinctly suppress the decrease of cell proliferation mediated by anti-miR-215 in HepG2-XΔ127/H7402-XΔ127 cells. Moreover, we found that anti-miR-215 remarkably inhibited the tumor growth of hepatoma cells in nude mice. Collectively, relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhances proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of HBx mutant HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells.

Lui VW, Peyser ND, Ng PK, et al.
Frequent mutation of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases provides a mechanism for STAT3 hyperactivation in head and neck cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(3):1114-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The underpinnings of STAT3 hyperphosphorylation resulting in enhanced signaling and cancer progression are incompletely understood. Loss-of-function mutations of enzymes that dephosphorylate STAT3, such as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are encoded by the PTPR gene family, represent a plausible mechanism of STAT3 hyperactivation. We analyzed whole exome sequencing (n = 374) and reverse-phase protein array data (n = 212) from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). PTPR mutations are most common and are associated with significantly increased phospho-STAT3 expression in HNSCC tumors. Expression of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase T (PTPRT) mutant proteins induces STAT3 phosphorylation and cell survival, consistent with a "driver" phenotype. Computational modeling reveals functional consequences of PTPRT mutations on phospho-tyrosine-substrate interactions. A high mutation rate (30%) of PTPRs was found in HNSCC and 14 other solid tumors, suggesting that PTPR alterations, in particular PTPRT mutations, may define a subset of patients where STAT3 pathway inhibitors hold particular promise as effective therapeutic agents.

Stevenson WS, Best OG, Przybylla A, et al.
DNA methylation of membrane-bound tyrosine phosphatase genes in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(4):787-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant DNA promoter methylation with associated gene silencing is a common epigenetic abnormality in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and is associated with poor survival. We have identified a family of transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase proteins as targets of hypermethylation in ALL and high-grade B cell lymphoma and demonstrated that this abnormal methylation correlates with transcript expression. PTPRG was methylated in 63% of ALL samples, PTPRK in 47%, PTPRM in 64% and PTPRO in 54% of cases, with most ALL samples containing methylation at multiple phosphatase loci. PTPRK promoter methylation was associated with a decreased overall survival in the cohort. Restoration of PTPRK transcript levels in leukaemia cells, where phosphatase transcript was silenced, reduced cell proliferation, inhibited colony formation and increased sensitivity to cytotoxic chemotherapy. These biological changes were associated with a reduction in levels of phosphorylated Erk1/2, Akt, STAT3 and STAT5 suggesting functional phosphatase activity after transcript re-expression. Methylation of the phosphatase promoters was reversible with decitabine and a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suggesting that PTPRK-mediated cell signalling pathways may be targeted with epigenetic therapies in lymphoid malignancy.

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