Gene Summary

Gene:THBS1; thrombospondin 1
Aliases: TSP, THBS, TSP1, TSP-1, THBS-1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of a disulfide-linked homotrimeric protein. This protein is an adhesive glycoprotein that mediates cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions. This protein can bind to fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminin, type V collagen and integrins alpha-V/beta-1. This protein has been shown to play roles in platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: THBS1 (cancer-related)

Hao S, Lv J, Yang Q, et al.
Identification of Key Genes and Circular RNAs in Human Gastric Cancer.
Med Sci Monit. 2019; 25:2488-2504 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Globally, gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common source of cancer-associated mortality. The aim of this study was to identify key genes and circular RNAs (circRNAs) in GC diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy and to further explore the potential molecular mechanisms of GC. MATERIAL AND METHODS Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and circRNAs (DE circRNAs) between GC tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues were identified from 3 mRNA and 3 circRNA expression profiles. Functional analyses were performed, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed. The significant modules and key genes in the PPI networks were identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of these key genes. Potential miRNA-binding sites of the DE circRNAs and target genes of these miRNAs were predicted and used to construct DE circRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks. RESULTS A total of 196 upregulated and 311 downregulated genes were identified in GC. The results of functional analysis showed that these DEGs were significantly enriched in a variety of functions and pathways, including extracellular matrix-related pathways. Ten hub genes (COL1A1, COL3A1, COL1A2, COL5A2, FN1, THBS1, COL5A1, SPARC, COL18A1, and COL11A1) were identified via PPI network analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that 7 of these were associated with a poor overall survival in GC patients. Furthermore, we identified 2 DE circRNAs, hsa_circ_0000332 and hsa_circ_0021087. To reveal the potential molecular mechanisms of circRNAs in GC, DE circRNA-microRNA-mRNA networks were constructed. CONCLUSIONS Key candidate genes and circRNAs were identified, and novel PPI and circRNA-microRNA-mRNA networks in GC were constructed. These may provide useful information for the exploration of potential biomarkers and targets for the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of GC.

Singh V, Singh AP, Sharma I, et al.
Epigenetic deregulations of Wnt/β-catenin and transforming growth factor beta-Smad pathways in esophageal cancer: Outcome of DNA methylation.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2019 Jan-Mar; 15(1):192-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) is a well-reported portent in carcinogenesis; hence, it is worthy to investigate this in high-risk Northeast population of India. The study was designed to investigate methylation status of 94 TSGs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Further, the effect of OPCML promoter methylation on gene expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, in silico protein-protein interactions were examined among 8 TSGs identified in the present study and 23 epigenetically regulated genes reported previously by our group in ESCC.
Materials and Methods: Methylation profiling was carried out by polymerase chain reaction array and OPCML protein expression was examined by tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry.
Results: OPCML, NEUROG1, TERT, and WT1 genes were found hypermethylated and SCGB3A1, CDH1, THBS1, and VEGFA were hypomethylated in Grade 2 tumor. No significant change in OPCML expression was observed among control, Grade 1, and Grade 2 tumor. Conclusively, hypermethylation of the studied OPCML promoter in Grade 2 tumor produced no effect on expression. Unexpectedly, OPCML expression was downregulated in Grade 3 tumor in comparison to other groups signifying that downregulation of OPCML expression may lead to higher grade of tumor formation at the time of diagnosis of ESCC in patients. Significant interactions at protein level were found as VEGFA:PTK2, CTNNB1:CDH1, CTNNB1:VEGFA, CTNNB1:NEUROG1, CTNND2:CDH1, and CTNNB1:TERT. These interactions are pertinent to Wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β-Smad pathways.
Conclusions: Deranged OPCML expression may lead to high-grade ESCC as well as epigenetically regulated genes, that is, CDH1, CTNNB1, CTNND2, THBS1, PTK2, WT1, OPCML, TGFB1, and SMAD4 may alter the Wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β-Smad pathways in ESCC. Further study of these genes could be useful to understand the molecular pathology of ESCC with respect to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mediated by Wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β signaling pathways.

Daubon T, Léon C, Clarke K, et al.
Deciphering the complex role of thrombospondin-1 in glioblastoma development.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1146 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We undertook a systematic study focused on the matricellular protein Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) to uncover molecular mechanisms underlying the role of THBS1 in glioblastoma (GBM) development. THBS1 was found to be increased with glioma grades. Mechanistically, we show that the TGFβ canonical pathway transcriptionally regulates THBS1, through SMAD3 binding to the THBS1 gene promoter. THBS1 silencing inhibits tumour cell invasion and growth, alone and in combination with anti-angiogenic therapy. Specific inhibition of the THBS1/CD47 interaction using an antagonist peptide decreases cell invasion. This is confirmed by CD47 knock-down experiments. RNA sequencing of patient-derived xenograft tissue from laser capture micro-dissected peripheral and central tumour areas demonstrates that THBS1 is one of the gene with the highest connectivity at the tumour borders. All in all, these data show that TGFβ1 induces THBS1 expression via Smad3 which contributes to the invasive behaviour during GBM expansion. Furthermore, tumour cell-bound CD47 is implicated in this process.

Feng Z, Song Y, Qian J, et al.
Differential expression of a set of microRNA genes reveals the potential mechanism of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2019; 80(2):77-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to explore the potential mechanism underlying papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) development.
METHODS: Gene expression profile data GSE3467 and microRNA (miRNA) expression profile data E-TABM-68 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus and Array Express database respectively. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and miRNAs between PTC patients and normal individuals were screened. Then, the significant target DEGs regulated by differentially expressed miRNAs were mapped to protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and functional modules were screened. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analysis for miRNA genes were performed using DAVID (the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integration Discovery) tool.
RESULTS: Total 4307 DEGs and 23 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. A PPI subnetwork containing 612 nodes and 713 edges was constructed. Total 5 DEGs such as SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), FN1 (fibronectin 1), THBS1 (thrombospondin 1), COL1A1 (collagen, type I, alpha 1) and COL7A1 (collagen, type VII, alpha 1) were found in module M1. The up-regulated DEGs were significantly related with cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), response to wounding and immune response. The down-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in metabolism related pathways and transcription related with GO terms.
CONCLUSIONS: ECM-receptor interaction and amino acid degradation may play key roles in the mechanism of PTC progression.

Fiscon G, Conte F, Paci P
SWIM tool application to expression data of glioblastoma stem-like cell lines, corresponding primary tumors and conventional glioma cell lines.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2018; 19(Suppl 15):436 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is well-known that glioblastoma contains self-renewing, stem-like subpopulation with the ability to sustain tumor growth. These cells - called cancer stem-like cells - share certain phenotypic characteristics with untransformed stem cells and are resistant to many conventional cancer therapies, which might explain the limitations in curing human malignancies. Thus, the identification of genes controlling the differentiation of these stem-like cells is becoming a successful therapeutic strategy, owing to the promise of novel targets for treating malignancies.
METHODS: Recently, we developed SWIM, a software able to unveil a small pool of genes - called switch genes - critically associated with drastic changes in cell phenotype. Here, we applied SWIM to the expression profiling of glioblastoma stem-like cells and conventional glioma cell lines, in order to identify switch genes related to stem-like phenotype.
RESULTS: SWIM identifies 171 switch genes that are all down-regulated in glioblastoma stem-like cells. This list encompasses genes like CAV1, COL5A1, COL6A3, FLNB, HMMR, ITGA3, ITGA5, MET, SDC1, THBS1, and VEGFC, involved in "ECM-receptor interaction" and "focal adhesion" pathways. The inhibition of switch genes highly correlates with the activation of genes related to neural development and differentiation, such as the 4-core OLIG2, POU3F2, SALL2, SOX2, whose induction has been shown to be sufficient to reprogram differentiated glioblastoma into stem-like cells. Among switch genes, the transcription factor FOSL1 appears as the brightest star since: it is down-regulated in stem-like cells; it highly negatively correlates with the 4-core genes that are all up-regulated in stem-like cells; the promoter regions of the 4-core genes harbor a consensus binding motif for FOSL1.
CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the inhibition of switch genes in stem-like cells could induce the deregulation of cell communication pathways, contributing to neoplastic progression and tumor invasiveness. Conversely, their activation could restore the physiological equilibrium between cell adhesion and migration, hampering the progression of cancer. Moreover, we posit FOSL1 as promising candidate to orchestrate the differentiation of cancer stem-like cells by repressing the 4-core genes' expression, which severely halts cancer growth and might affect the therapeutic outcome. We suggest FOSL1 as novel putative therapeutic and prognostic biomarker, worthy of further investigation.

Wang WJ, Li HT, Yu JP, et al.
Identification of key genes and associated pathways in KIT/PDGFRA wild‑type gastrointestinal stromal tumors through bioinformatics analysis.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(5):4499-4515 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common type of mesenchymal tumor in the gastrointestinal tract. The present study aimed to identify the potential candidate biomarkers that may be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of v‑kit Hardy‑Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT)/platelet‑derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) wild‑type GISTs. A joint bioinformatics analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in wild‑type GIST samples compared with KIT/PDGFRA mutant GIST samples. Gene Ontology function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs was conducted using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery and KEGG Orthology‑Based Annotation System (KOBAS) online tools, respectively. Protein‑protein interaction (PPI) networks of the DEGs were constructed using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes online tool and Cytoscape, and divided into sub‑networks using the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plug‑in. Furthermore, enrichment analysis of DEGs in the modules was analyzed with KOBAS. In total, 546 DEGs were identified, including 238 upregulated genes primarily enriched in 'cell adhesion', 'biological adhesion', 'cell‑cell signaling', 'PI3K‑Akt signaling pathway' and 'ECM‑receptor interaction', while the 308 downregulated genes were predominantly involved in 'inflammatory response', 'sterol metabolic process' and 'fatty acid metabolic process', 'small GTPase mediated signal transduction', 'cAMP signaling pathway' and 'proteoglycans in cancer'. A total of 25 hub genes were obtained and four modules were mined from the PPI network, and sub‑networks also revealed these genes were primarily involved in significant pathways, including 'PI3K‑Akt signaling pathway', 'proteoglycans in cancer', 'pathways in cancer', 'Rap1 signaling pathway', 'ECM‑receptor interaction', 'phospholipase D signaling pathway', 'ras signaling pathway' and 'cGMP‑PKG signaling pathway'. These results suggested that several key hub DEGs may serve as potential candidate biomarkers for wild‑type GISTs, including phosphatidylinositol‑4,5‑bisphosphate 3‑kinase, catalytic subunit γ, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor, hepatocyte growth factor, thrombospondin 1, Erb‑B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 and matrix metallopeptidase 2. However, further experiments are required to confirm these results.

Mirzoeva S, Tong X, Bridgeman BB, et al.
Apigenin Inhibits UVB-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis: The Role of Thrombospondin-1 as an Anti-Inflammatory Factor.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(9):930-942 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have previously demonstrated that apigenin promotes the expression of antiangiogenic protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) via a mechanism driven by mRNA-binding protein HuR. Here, we generated a novel mouse model with whole-body THBS-1 gene knockout on SKH-1 genetic background, which allows studies of UVB-induced acute skin damage and carcinogenesis and tests TSP1 involvement in apigenin's anticancer effects. Apigenin significantly inhibited UVB-induced carcinogenesis in the wild-type (WT) animals but not in TSP1 KO (TKO) mice, suggesting that TSP1 is a critical component of apigenin's chemopreventive function in UVB-induced skin cancer. Importantly, TKO mice presented with the elevated cutaneous inflammation at baseline, which was manifested by increased inflammatory infiltrates (neutrophils and macrophages) and elevated levels of the two key inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-12. In agreement, maintaining normal TSP1 expression in the UVB-irradiated skin of WT mice using topical apigenin application caused a marked decrease of circulating inflammatory cytokines. Finally, TKO mice showed an altered population dynamics of the bone marrow myeloid progenitor cells (CD11b

Liang X, Vacher S, Boulai A, et al.
Targeted next-generation sequencing identifies clinically relevant somatic mutations in a large cohort of inflammatory breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of primary breast cancer. Using a custom-made breast cancer gene sequencing panel, we investigated somatic mutations in IBC to better understand the genomic differences compared with non-IBC and to consider new targeted therapy in IBC patients.
METHODS: Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 91 candidate breast cancer-associated genes was performed on 156 fresh-frozen breast tumor tissues from IBC patients. Mutational profiles from 197 primary breast tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used as non-IBC controls for comparison analysis. The mutational landscape of IBC was correlated with clinicopathological data and outcomes.
RESULTS: After genotype calling and algorithmic annotations, we identified 392 deleterious variants in IBC and 320 variants in non-IBC cohorts, respectively. IBC tumors harbored more mutations than non-IBC (2.5 per sample vs. 1.6 per sample, p < 0.0001). Eighteen mutated genes were significantly different between the two cohorts, namely TP53, CDH1, NOTCH2, MYH9, BRCA2, ERBB4, POLE, FGFR3, ROS1, NOTCH4, LAMA2, EGFR, BRCA1, TP53BP1, ESR1, THBS1, CASP8, and NOTCH1. In IBC, the most frequently mutated genes were TP53 (43.0%), PIK3CA (29.5%), MYH9 (8.3%), NOTCH2 (8.3%), BRCA2 (7.7%), ERBB4 (7.1%), FGFR3 (6.4%), POLE (6.4%), LAMA2 (5.8%), ARID1A (5.1%), NOTCH4 (5.1%), and ROS1 (5.1%). After grouping 91 genes on 10 signaling pathways, we found that the DNA repair pathway for the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subgroup, the RTK/RAS/MAPK and cell cycle pathways for the HR
CONCLUSIONS: Breast cancer-specific targeted NGS uncovered a high frequency of deleterious somatic mutations in IBC, some of which may be relevant for clinical management.

Shen J, Cao B, Wang Y, et al.
Hippo component YAP promotes focal adhesion and tumour aggressiveness via transcriptionally activating THBS1/FAK signalling in breast cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):175 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Focal adhesion plays an essential role in tumour invasiveness and metastasis. Hippo component YAP has been widely reported to be involved in many aspects of tumour biology. However, its role in focal adhesion regulation in breast cancer remains unexplored.
METHODS: Tissue microarray was used to evaluate YAP expression in clinical breast cancer specimens by immunohistochemical staining. Cell migration and invasion abilities were measured by Transwell assay. A cell adhesion assay was used to measure the ability of cell adhesion to gelatin. The focal adhesion was visualized through immunofluorescence. Phosphorylated FAK and other proteins were detected by Western blot analysis. Gene expression profiling was used to screen differently expressed genes, and gene ontology enrichment was performed using DAVID software. The gene mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. The activity of the THBS1-promoter was evaluated by dual luciferase assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was used to verify whether YAP could bind to the THBS1-promoter region. The prediction of potential protein-interaction was performed with the String program. The ChIP sequence data of TEAD was obtained from the ENCODE database and analysed via the ChIP-seek tool. The gene expression dataset (GSE30480) of purified tumour cells from primary breast tumour tissues and metastatic lymph nodes was used in the gene set enrichment analysis. Prognostic analysis of the TCGA dataset was performed by the SurvExpress program. Gene expression correlation of the TCGA dataset was analysed via R2: Genomics Analysis and Visualization Platform.
RESULTS: Our study provides evidence that YAP acts as a promoter of focal adhesion and tumour invasiveness via regulating FAK phosphorylation in breast cancer. Further experiments reveal that YAP could induce FAK phosphorylation through a TEAD-dependent manner. Using gene expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis, we identify the FAK upstream gene, thrombospondin 1, as a direct transcriptional target of YAP-TEAD. Silencing THBS1 could reverse the YAP-induced FAK activation and focal adhesion.
CONCLUSION: Our results unveil a new signal axis, YAP/THBS1/FAK, in the modulation of cell adhesion and invasiveness, and provides new insights into the crosstalk between Hippo signalling and focal adhesion.

Benkheil M, Paeshuyse J, Neyts J, et al.
HCV-induced EGFR-ERK signaling promotes a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic signature contributing to liver cancer pathogenesis.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2018; 155:305-315 [PubMed] Related Publications
HCV is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC development in chronically infected HCV patients has until now been attributed to persistent inflammation and interference of viral proteins with host cell signaling. Since activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) presents a crucial step in HCV entry, we aimed at investigating whether EGFR signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of HCV-related HCC. By applying microarray analysis, we generated a gene expression signature for secreted proteins in HCV-infected hepatoma cells. This gene signature was enriched for inflammatory and angiogenic processes; both crucially involved in HCC development. RT-qPCR analysis, conducted on the entire list of upregulated genes, confirmed induction of 11 genes (AREG, IL8, CCL20, CSF1, GDF15, IGFBP1, VNN3, THBS1 and PAI-1) in a virus titer- and replication-dependent manner. EGFR activation in hepatoma cells largely mimicked the gene signature seen in the infectious HCV model. Further, the EGFR-ERK pathway, but not Akt signaling, was responsible for this gene expression profile. Finally, microarray analysis conducted on clinical data from the GEO database, revealed that our validated gene expression profile is significantly represented in livers of patients with HCV-related liver pathogenesis (cirrhosis and HCC) compared to healthy livers. Taken together, our data indicate that persistent activation of EGFR-ERK signaling in chronically infected HCV patients may induce a specific pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic signature that presents a new mechanism by which HCV can promote liver cancer pathogenesis. A better understanding of the key factors in HCV-related oncogenesis, may efficiently direct HCC drug development.

Pellatt AJ, Mullany LE, Herrick JS, et al.
The TGFβ-signaling pathway and colorectal cancer: associations between dysregulated genes and miRNAs.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):191 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The TGFβ-signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Loss of function of several genes within this pathway, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been seen as key events in CRC progression.
METHODS: In this study we comprehensively evaluate differential gene expression (RNASeq) of 81 genes in the TGFβ-signaling pathway and evaluate how dysregulated genes are associated with miRNA expression (Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0). We utilize paired carcinoma and normal tissue from 217 CRC cases. We evaluate the associations between differentially expressed genes and miRNAs and sex, age, disease stage, and survival months.
RESULTS: Thirteen genes were significantly downregulated and 14 were significantly upregulated after considering fold change (FC) of > 1.50 or < 0.67 and multiple comparison adjustment. Bone morphogenetic protein genes BMP5, BMP6, and BMP2 and growth differentiation factor GDF7 were downregulated. BMP4, BMP7, INHBA (Inhibin beta A), TGFBR1, TGFB2, TGIF1, TGIF2, and TFDP1 were upregulated. In general, genes with the greatest dysregulation, such as BMP5 (FC 0.17, BMP6 (FC 0.25), BMP2 (FC 0.32), CDKN2B (FC 0.32), MYC (FC 3.70), BMP7 (FC 4.17), and INHBA (FC 9.34) showed dysregulation in the majority of the population (84.3, 77.4, 81.1, 80.2, 82.0, 51.2, and 75.1% respectively). Four genes, TGFBR2, ID4, ID1, and PITX2, were un-associated or slightly upregulated in microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors while downregulated in microsatellite-unstable (MSI) tumors. Eight dysregulated genes were associated with miRNA differential expression. E2F5 and THBS1 were associated with one or two miRNAs; RBL1, TGFBR1, TGIF2, and INHBA were associated with seven or more miRNAs with multiple seed-region matches. Evaluation of the joint effects of mRNA:miRNA identified interactions that were stronger in more advanced disease stages and varied by survival months.
CONCLUSION: These data support an interaction between miRNAs and genes in the TGFβ-signaling pathway in association with CRC risk. These interactions are associated with unique clinical characteristics that may provide targets for further investigations.

Sp N, Kang DY, Kim DH, et al.
Nobiletin Inhibits CD36-Dependent Tumor Angiogenesis, Migration, Invasion, and Sphere Formation Through the Cd36/Stat3/Nf-Κb Signaling Axis.
Nutrients. 2018; 10(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Targeted cancer therapy with natural compounds is more effective than nontargeted therapy. Nobiletin is a flavonoid derived from citrus peel that has anticancer activity. Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a member of the class B scavenger receptor family that is involved in importing fatty acids into cells. CD36 plays a role in tumor angiogenesis by binding to its ligand, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and then interacting with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1). CD36 is implicated in tumor metastasis through its roles in fatty acid metabolism. This study investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying nobiletin's anticancer activity by characterizing its interactions with CD36 as the target molecule. We hypothesize that the anti-angiogenic activity of nobiletin involving its regulation of CD36 via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) rather than through TSP-1. Gene analysis identified a Gamma interferon activation site (GAS) element in the CD36 gene promoter that acts as a STAT3 binding site, an interaction that was confirmed by ChIP assay. STAT3 interacts with nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), suggesting that nobiletin also acts through the CD36/ (STAT3)/NF-κB signaling axis. Nobiletin inhibited CD36-dependent breast cancer cell migration and invasion as well as CD36-mediated tumor sphere formation. Taken together, these results suggest that nobiletin inhibits cancer stem cells in multiple ways.

Guo RQ, Xiong GY, Yang KW, et al.
Detection of urothelial carcinoma, upper tract urothelial carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, and urothelial carcinoma with gross hematuria using selected urine-DNA methylation biomarkers: A prospective, single-center study.
Urol Oncol. 2018; 36(7):342.e15-342.e23 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Hematuria is the most common symptom of urothelial carcinomas (UC) but is often idiopathic. Cystoscopy is expensive which involves considerable patient discomfort, and conventional urine cytology for noninvasive UC detection and disease monitoring suffers from poor sensitivity. We aim to evaluate the performance of genes selected from a previous study in detecting UC, especially among patients with gross hematuria, as well as upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and bladder carcinoma separately, in voided urine samples.
METHODS: Using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, we examined the promoter methylation status of 10 genes in voided urine samples among 473 patients at our institution, including 217 UC patients and 256 control subjects.
RESULTS: The final combination of VIM, CDH1, SALL3, TMEFF2, RASSF1A, BRCA1, GDF15, and ABCC6 identified UC with a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.60. Additionally, a panel of selected genes (CDH1, HSPA2, RASSF1A, TMEFF2, VIM, and GDF15) identified UTUC with a sensitivity of 0.82 and a specificity of 0.68, while a panel of selected genes (VIM, RASSF1A, GDF15, and TMEFF2) identified bladder carcinoma with a sensitivity of 0.82 and a specificity of 0.53. Remarkably, a different panel (CDH1, SALL3, THBS1, TMEFF2, VIM, and GDF15) identified UC in patients with gross hematuria with 0.89 sensitivity and 0.74 specificity, and sensitivity (0.91) and specificity (0.92) could be achieved when cytology was included.
CONCLUSIONS: The selected urine-DNA methylation biomarkers are reliable, noninvasive, and cost-effective diagnostic tools for bladder carcinoma and UTUC, especially among patients with gross hematuria.

Hamadneh L, Al-Majawleh M, Jarrar Y, et al.
Culturing conditions highly affect DNA methylation and gene expression levels in MCF7 breast cancer cell line.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2018; 54(5):331-334 [PubMed] Related Publications
The levels of DNA methylation and their role in gene expression are key factors that could affect diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options of different diseases. In this study, the methylation levels of 22 genes that are mostly correlated to breast cancer were determined using EpiTect methyl II PCR array. This analysis was performed to determine the effect of cells' passage number and the use of antibiotics in the culturing media on gene methylation levels in MCF7 cell line. DNA methylation levels of PTGS2, ADAM23, HIC1, and PYCARD were found to be significantly different among different passages. While the DNA methylation levels of CCNA1, RASSF1, and THBS1 were found to be affected by the use of 1% of penicillin/streptomycin in the culture media. Gene expression analysis after demethylation using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine showed that the gene expression levels of the hypermethylated genes varied between different passage numbers. This study shows that the presence of antibiotic within cultured media and cell line's passage number could greatly affect the methylation levels that need to be considered in future studies on cell lines.

Zhao J, Shi L, Zeng S, et al.
Importin-11 overexpression promotes the migration, invasion, and progression of bladder cancer associated with the deregulation of CDKN1A and THBS1.
Urol Oncol. 2018; 36(6):311.e1-311.e13 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We recently determined that a novel oncogene, IPO11 from 5q12, participates in bladder cancer (BCa) progression. However, the biological function of IPO11 and the molecular mechanisms through which it contributes to BCa progression remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IPO11 in BCa aggressiveness and elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects in BCa.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA expression levels of IPO11 in BIU-87, RT4, UMUC3, EJ, 5637, T24, J82, and HT-1376 cell lines were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of importin-11 was detected in 134 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) BCa tissues and 10 paired nonneoplastic bladder tissue specimens by immunohistochemistry. The copy number of IPO11 was examined in 25 FFPE BCa specimens using fluorescent in situ hybridization. The effects of IPO11 on migration, invasion, and cell proliferation were investigated in EJ and 5637 cell lines using RNA interference. Potential molecular mechanisms were investigated using whole transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatic approaches in EJ cells and IPO11-silenced EJ cells and verified using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Endogenous IPO11 mRNA was highly expressed in 6 invasive BCa cell lines (EJ, HT-1376, UMUC3, 5637, J82, and T24) but had a low expression in the noninvasive BCa cell line BIU-87 and the papillary BCa cell line RT4. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that 87 (64.9%) of 134 FFPE BCa tissues displayed importin-11 overexpression. Moreover, importin-11 overexpression was positively associated with increased tumor stages and tumor grades, lymphatic invasion, and lymph node metastasis. Furthermore, importin-11 overexpression was detected in 100% (14/14) of BCa tissues with IPO11 amplification, and IPO11 amplification was not observed in 2 additional BCa tissues with importin-11 overexpression. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of IPO11 is sufficient to inhibit the motility and invasiveness of EJ and 5637 cells. IPO11 knockdown also inhibited cell proliferation in EJ cells, whereas this was not observed in 5637 cells or the in vivo experiments. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, we found that 22 genes (including IPO11) were differentially expressed in IPO11-silenced EJ cells compared with wild-type EJ cells, 4 of which were upregulated, and 18 of which were downregulated. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of the significantly differentially expressed genes showed that the proteoglycans in cancer pathway (pathway Id: hsa05205) was most significantly enriched among 10 genetically altered pathways and referred to 6 significantly altered genes (CDKN1A, HBEGF, PTK2, THBS1, CCNG2, and EGR1). The next 3 most significantly enriched pathways in order were the p53, ErbB, and BCa pathways. CDKN1A and THBS1 were the most 2 frequently covered genes and were involved in 9 and 6 pathways, respectively. They were also 2 key proteins in the BCa pathway (pathway Id: hsa05219) that were downregulated in IPO11-knockdown EJ cells compared with wild-type EJ cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Importin-11 overexpression can promote BCa cell invasiveness, probably associated with the deregulation of CDKN1A and THBS1 primarily through the activation of the proteoglycans in cancer pathway and the classical BCa pathway. Importin-11 may be a useful target through which the progression of noninvasive BCa to invasive BCa can be blocked.

Wang Y, Guo W, Xu H, et al.
An extensive study of the mechanism of prostate cancer metastasis.
Neoplasma. 2018; 65(2):253-261 [PubMed] Related Publications
The study aimed to identify the pivotal genes and pathways involved in prostate cancer metastasis. Using the expression profile dataset GSE7930, downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between primary and highly metastatic prostate cell samples were screened, followed by functional analysis and tumor associated genes (TAG) screening. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of DEGs was constructed and module analysis was performed. The expression of DEGs and pathway related genes were evaluated by PCR analysis and the migra- tion ability of prostate tumor cells was observed after FABP4-siRNA blocking. Upregulated FABP4 and GK were signifi- cantly enriched in the PPAR signaling pathway, whereas downregulated IGFBP3 and THBS1 were involved in p53 signaling pathway. Among the identified DEGs, 4 downregulated genes (IGFBP3, NPP4B, THBS1, and PCDH1) and 2 upregulated genes (GJA1 and TUSC3) were TAGs. The module was associated with focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, p53 signaling, and gap junction pathways with the hub node GJA1. After FABP4 silencing by siRNAs in LNcap and metastatic DU-145 cells, the numbers of migrated cells were all significantly declined. The expressions of IGFBP3, TP53 and PPAR were significantly lower in DU-145 cells than in LNcap cells. In conclusion, FABP4, IGFBP3, THBS1, and GJA1 were determined to be potential markers of prostate cancer cell metastasis, and P53, PPAR and gap junction pathways were found to play important roles in prostate cancer cell metastasis. This study may provide helpful guidelines for clinical management.

Medeiros Tavares Marques JC, Cornélio DA, Nogueira Silbiger V, et al.
Identification of new genes associated to senescent and tumorigenic phenotypes in mesenchymal stem cells.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):17837 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a powerful tool for cell therapy, prolonged culture times result in replicative senescence or acquisition of tumorigenic features. To identify a molecular signature for senescence, we compared the transcriptome of senescent and young hMSCs with normal karyotype (hMSCs/n) and with a constitutional inversion of chromosome 3 (hMSC/inv). Senescent and young cells from both lineages showed differentially expressed genes (DEGs), with higher levels in senescent hMSCs/inv. Among the 30 DEGs in senescent hMSC/inv, 11 are new candidates for biomarkers of cellular senescence. The functional categories most represented in senescent hMSCs were related to cellular development, cell growth/proliferation, cell death, cell signaling/interaction, and cell movement. Mapping of DEGs onto biological networks revealed matrix metalloproteinase-1, thrombospondin 1, and epidermal growth factor acting as topological bottlenecks. In the comparison between senescent hMSCs/n and senescent hMSCs/inv, other functional annotations such as segregation of chromosomes, mitotic spindle formation, and mitosis and proliferation of tumor lines were most represented. We found that many genes categorized into functional annotations related to tumors in both comparisons, with relation to tumors being highest in senescent hMSCs/inv. The data presented here improves our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of cellular senescence as well as tumorigenesis.

Zheng B, Peng J, Mollayup A, et al.
Construction of a prognostic prediction system for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma to investigate the key prognostic genes.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(1):216-224 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is associated with high mortality rates and poor prognoses. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most common type of PC, and almost all cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of the current study was to reveal the genes involved in the prognosis of PDAC. Five datasets, including GSE71729 (145 PDAC samples and 46 normal samples), GSE15471 (39 PDAC samples and 39 normal samples), GSE1542 (24 PDAC samples and 25 normal samples), GSE28735 (45 PDAC samples and 45 normal samples) and GSE62452 (69 PDAC samples and 69 normal samples) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Using the MetaDE.ES method in the MetaDE package, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from the five datasets. Furthermore, prognosis‑associated genes were screened using the Cox regression analysis in the survival package, and co‑expression network and module analyses were performed separately using Cytoscape software and GraphWeb tool, respectively. After a prognostic prediction system was constructed and validated, enrichment analysis of the signature genes was performed using the clusterProfiler package. A total of 480 DEGs were identified from the five datasets and 259 prognosis‑associated genes were screened from GSE28735 and GSE62452. In addition, the prognostic prediction system composed of 67 signature genes [including basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3), serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11), thrombospondin 1 (THBS1), ribosomal protein L38 (RPL38) and secretin receptor (SCTR)] was constructed and validated. The signature genes involved in the co‑expression network were enriched in five pathways. In particular, STK11 was involved in three signaling pathways, and THBS1 was enriched in the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase‑Akt signaling pathway. Thus, BTF3, STK11, THBS1, RPL38 and SCTR may influence the prognosis of PDAC.

Soekmadji C, Rockstroh A, Ramm GA, et al.
Extracellular Vesicles in the Adaptive Process of Prostate Cancer during Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Signaling by Enzalutamide.
Proteomics. 2017; 17(23-24) [PubMed] Related Publications
Current treatments for advanced prostate cancer focus on inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR) by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). However, complex interactions mediated by tumor suppressors, oncogenes, aberrations of AR expression, or de novo androgen production have been shown to induce the adaptive response of prostate cancer, leading to the development of castration resistant prostate cancer. In this study, we report the effects of AR antagonist, enzalutamide on the protein contents of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs mediate cell-to-cell communication and increasing evidence shows the role of EVs in promoting cancer survival and metastasis. We found that treatment with enzalutamide alters the secretion of EVs, one of which is a plasma membrane calcium pump, ATP2B1/PMCA ATPase, as an AR-regulated EV protein. We highlight the networks of interactions between AR, Ca

Lopez-Ramirez MA, Fonseca G, Zeineddine HA, et al.
Thrombospondin1 (TSP1) replacement prevents cerebral cavernous malformations.
J Exp Med. 2017; 214(11):3331-3346 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Couto PP, Bastos-Rodrigues L, Schayek H, et al.
Spectrum of germline mutations in smokers and non-smokers in Brazilian non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.
Carcinogenesis. 2017; 38(11):1112-1118 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer (LC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Although smoking is the major risk factor, ~15% of all cases occur in never-smokers, suggesting that genetic factors play a role in LC predisposition. Indeed, germline mutations in the TP53 gene predispose to multiple cancer types, including LC. To date, few studies compared the somatic and germline mutational profiles of LC cases by smoking status, and none was reported in Brazilians. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on two pools (seven smokers and six non-smokers) of tumor-derived DNA using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Files from pools were analyzed separately using Ingenuity®Variant AnalysisTM and Mendel,MD. Validation of all candidate variants was performed by Sanger sequencing. Subsequently, validated mutations were analyzed in germline DNA from the same patients and in ethnically matched controls. In addition, a single recurring Brazilian TP53 germline mutation (R337H) was genotyped in 45 non-small-cell lung cancer patients.Four novel germline variants in the ATAD2, AURKA, PTPRD and THBS1 genes were identified exclusively in smoker patients, and four germline missense variants in PLCD1, RAD52, CP and CDC6 genes were identified solely in non-smokers. There were 4/45 (8.9%) germline carriers of the R337H TP53 mutation. In conclusion, the recurring Brazilian TP53 mutation should be genotyped in all non-small-cell lung cancer in Brazil, regardless of smoking status. Distinct pathogenic mutations and novel sequence variants are detected in Brazilian non-small-cell lung cancer patients, by smoking status. The contribution of these sequence variants to LC pathogenesis remains to be further explored.

Jeanne A, Untereiner V, Perreau C, et al.
Lumican delays melanoma growth in mice and drives tumor molecular assembly as well as response to matrix-targeted TAX2 therapeutic peptide.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):7700 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lumican is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) being known as a key regulator of collagen fibrillogenesis. However, little attention has been given so far in studying its influence on tumor-associated matrix architecture. Here, we investigate the role of host lumican on tumor matrix organization as well as on disease progression considering an immunocompetent model of melanoma implanted in Lum

Roy R, Dagher A, Butterfield C, Moses MA
ADAM12 Is a Novel Regulator of Tumor Angiogenesis via STAT3 Signaling.
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(11):1608-1622 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ADAM12, (

Poniah P, Mohd Zain S, Abdul Razack AH, et al.
Genome-wide copy number analysis reveals candidate gene loci that confer susceptibility to high-grade prostate cancer.
Urol Oncol. 2017; 35(9):545.e1-545.e11 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Two key issues in prostate cancer (PCa) that demand attention currently are the need for a more precise and minimally invasive screening test owing to the inaccuracy of prostate-specific antigen and differential diagnosis to distinguish advanced vs. indolent cancers. This continues to pose a tremendous challenge in diagnosis and prognosis of PCa and could potentially lead to overdiagnosis and overtreatment complications. Copy number variations (CNVs) in the human genome have been linked to various carcinomas including PCa. Detection of these variants may improve clinical treatment as well as an understanding of the pathobiology underlying this complex disease.
METHODS: To this end, we undertook a pilot genome-wide CNV analysis approach in 36 subjects (18 patients with high-grade PCa and 18 controls that were matched by age and ethnicity) in search of more accurate biomarkers that could potentially explain susceptibility toward high-grade PCa. We conducted this study using the array comparative genomic hybridization technique. Array results were validated in 92 independent samples (46 high-grade PCa, 23 benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 23 healthy controls) using polymerase chain reaction-based copy number counting method.
RESULTS: A total of 314 CNV regions were found to be unique to PCa subjects in this cohort (P<0.05). A log
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we postulated that the CNVs identified in this study could provide an insight into the development of advanced PCa.

Kumar R, Gont A, Perkins TJ, et al.
Induction of senescence in primary glioblastoma cells by serum and TGFβ.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):2156 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the most common type of adult brain tumour and has a median survival after diagnosis of a little more than a year. Glioblastomas have a high frequency of mutations in the TERT promoter and CDKN2A locus that are expected to render them resistant to both replicative and oncogene-induced senescence. However, exposure of PriGO8A primary glioblastoma cells to media with 10% serum induced a senescence-like phenotype characterized by increased senescence-associated β galactosidase activity, PML bodies and p21 and morphological changes typical of senescence. Microarray expression analysis showed that 24 h serum exposure increased the expression of genes associated with the TGFβ pathway. Treatment of PriGO8A cells with TGFβ was sufficient to induce senescence in these cells. The response of PriGO8A cells to serum was dependent on basal expression of the TGFβ activator protein thrombospondin. Primary glioblastoma cells from three additional patients showed a variable ability to undergo senescence in response to serum. However all were able to undergo senescence in response to TGFβ, although for cells from one patient this required concomitant inhibition of Ras pathway signalling. Primary glioblastoma cells therefore retain a functional senescence program that is inducible by acute activation of the TGFβ signalling pathway.

Haimes JD, Stewart CJR, Kudlow BA, et al.
Uterine Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumors Frequently Harbor ALK Fusions With IGFBP5 and THBS1.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2017; 41(6):773-780 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) can occur in a number of anatomic sites, including the uterus. Like its soft tissue counterpart, uterine IMT frequently expresses ALK and harbors ALK genetic rearrangements. The aim of this study is to fully characterize the genetic fusions that occur in uterine IMT. We studied 11 uterine IMTs with typical histology and 8 uterine myxoid smooth muscle tumors (5 leiomyomas, 1 smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential, and 2 leiomyosarcomas) in which the differential of IMT was considered, using a RNA-sequencing-based fusion assay to detect genetic fusions involving ALK, ROS1, RET, NTRK1/3, and other genes. ALK was expressed in 10 of 11 IMTs and 1 tumor initially categorized as a myxoid leiomyoma (granular cytoplasmic staining with paranuclear accentuation). Fusion transcripts involving ALK were identified in 9 of 10 ALK immunopositive IMTs, with 3 harboring IGFBP5-ALK, 3 harboring THBS1-ALK, 2 harboring FN1-ALK, and 1 harboring TIMP3-ALK. Among the smooth muscle tumors, IGFBP5-ALK fusion transcript was identified in only 1 ALK immunopositive case. Further review revealed that although a diagnosis of IMT was considered for the ALK immunopositive myxoid leiomyoma, this diagnosis was not initially rendered only because fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was interpreted as negative for ALK genetic rearrangement; this case is best reclassified as an IMT. Notably, all the ALK fusions identified in our study included the transmembrane domain-encoding exon 19 of ALK. Our findings confirm the high frequency of ALK fusions in uterine IMT, with an enrichment of novel 5' ALK fusion partners (IGFBP5, THBS1, and TIMP3) and exon 19-containing ALK fusion. Given that IGFBP5 and FN1 are both situated on the same chromosome as ALK, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for ALK rearrangement may not be reliable and a negative result should not exclude a diagnosis of uterine IMT if the histologic features and ALK immunostaining findings are supportive.

Di Mauro C, Rosa R, D'Amato V, et al.
Hedgehog signalling pathway orchestrates angiogenesis in triple-negative breast cancers.
Br J Cancer. 2017; 116(11):1425-1435 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Several evidences suggest a marked angiogenic dependency in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumorigenesis and a potential sensitivity to anti-angiogenic agents. Herein, the putative role of Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in regulating TNBC-dependent angiogenesis was investigated.
METHODS: Expression and regulation of the Hh pathway transcription factor glioma-associated oncogene homolog1 protein (GLI1) were studied on the endothelial compartment and on TNBC-initiated angiogenesis. To evaluate the translational relevance of our findings, the combination of paclitaxel with the Smo inhibitor NVP-LDE225 was tested in TNBC xenografted mice.
RESULTS: Tissue microarray analysis on 200 TNBC patients showed GLI1 overexpression paired with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression. In vitro, Hh pathway promotes TNBC progression in an autocrine manner, regulating the VEGF/VEGFR2 loop on cancer cell surface, and in a paracrine manner, orchestrating tumour vascularisation. These effects were counteracted by Smo pharmacological inhibition. In TNBC xenografted mice, scheduling NVP-LDE225 rather than bevacizumab provided a better sustained inhibition of TNBC cells proliferation and endothelial cells organisation.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies the Hh pathway as one of the main regulators of tumour angiogenesis in TNBC, thus suggesting Hh inhibition as a potential new anti-angiogenic therapeutic option to be clinically investigated in GLI1 overexpressing TNBC patients.

Husek P, Pacovsky J, Chmelarova M, et al.
Methylation status as a predictor of intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy response of high grade non-muscle invasive bladder tumor.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2017; 161(2):210-216 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Genetic and epigenetic alterations play an important role in urothelial cancer pathogenesis. Deeper understanding of these processes could help us achieve better diagnosis and management of this life-threatening disease. The aim of this research was to evaluate the methylation status of selected tumor suppressor genes for predicting BCG response in patients with high grade non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor (NMIBC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 82 patients with high grade non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor (stage Ta, T1, CIS) who had undergone BCG instillation therapy. We compared epigenetic methylation status in BCG-responsive and BCG-failure groups. We used the MS-MLPA (Methylation-Specific Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification probe sets ME001 and ME004. The control group was 13 specimens of normal urotel (bladder tissue)).
RESULTS: Newly identified methylations in high grade NMIBC were found in MUS81a, NTRK1 and PCCA. The methylation status of CDKN2B (P=0.00312
CONCLUSION: The results show that the methylation status of selected tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) has the potential for predicting BCG response in patients with NMIBC high grade tumors. Tumor suppressor genes such as CDKN2b, MUS81a, PFM-1, MSH6 and THBS1 are very promising for future research.

Huang T, Wang L, Liu D, et al.
FGF7/FGFR2 signal promotes invasion and migration in human gastric cancer through upregulation of thrombospondin-1.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(5):1501-1512 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) is a mesenchyme-specific heparin-binding growth factor that binds FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2) to regulate numerous cellular and physiological processes. FGF7/FGFR2 signal is associated with gastric cancer progression. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which FGF7/FGFR2 promotes invasion and migration in human gastric cancer. We first demonstrated that increased FGFR2 expression in human gastric cancer tissues was significantly associated with tumor depth and clinical stage in human gastric cancer tissues. Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) is an extracellular glycoprotein that plays multiple roles in cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions. Increased expression of THBS1 significantly correlated with tumor differentiation. FGFR2 and THBS1 expression were both increased in cancer tissues as compared with adjacent normal tissues and their expression was positively correlated. In vitro, FGF7 stimulation of cell invasion and migration was partially suppressed by the FGFR2 knockdown. In addition, FGF7/FGFR2 upregulated THBS1, and cell invasion and migration were decreased by knockdown of THBS1. Furthermore, the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway was predominantly responsible for FGF7/FGFR2-induced THBS1 upregulation. Taken together, our data suggest that FGF7/FGFR2/THBS1 is associated with the regulation of invasion and migration in human gastric cancer.

Cao Y, Qiao J, Lin Z, et al.
Up-regulation of tumor suppressor genes by exogenous dhC16-Cer contributes to its anti-cancer activity in primary effusion lymphoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(9):15220-15229 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and highly aggressive B-cell malignancy with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, while lack of effective therapies. Our recent data indicated that targeting the sphingolipid metabolism by either sphingosine kinase inhibitor or exogenous ceramide species induces PEL cell apoptosis and suppresses tumor progression in vivo. However, the underlying mechanisms for these exogenous ceramides "killing" PEL cells remain largely unknown. Based on the microarray analysis, we found that exogenous dhC16-Cer treatment affected the expression of many cellular genes with important functions within PEL cells such as regulation of cell cycle, cell survival/proliferation, and apoptosis/anti-apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that a subset of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) was up-regulated from dhC16-Cer treated PEL cells. One of these elevated TSGs, Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) was required for dhC16-Cer induced PEL cell cycle arrest. Moreover, dhC16-Cer up-regulation of THBS1 was through the suppression of multiple KSHV microRNAs expression. Our data demonstrate that exogenous ceramides display anti-cancer activities for PEL through regulation of both host and oncogenic virus factors.

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