Gene Summary

Gene:BAD; BCL2 associated agonist of cell death
Aliases: BBC2, BCL2L8
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 family members are known to be regulators of programmed cell death. This protein positively regulates cell apoptosis by forming heterodimers with BCL-xL and BCL-2, and reversing their death repressor activity. Proapoptotic activity of this protein is regulated through its phosphorylation. Protein kinases AKT and MAP kinase, as well as protein phosphatase calcineurin were found to be involved in the regulation of this protein. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants which encode the same isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:bcl2-associated agonist of cell death
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (45)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (18)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 09 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • siRNA
  • Chromosome 11
  • Breast Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Thymelaeaceae
  • Cell Survival
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • BAD
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Osteosarcoma
  • MicroRNAs
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Phosphorylation
  • Staging
  • Cell Movement
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Melanoma
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Liver Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • RNA Interference
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Tumor Burden
  • Xenograft Models
  • Disease Progression
  • Down-Regulation
  • Gene Expression
  • Western Blotting
  • AKT1
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Lung Cancer
  • Mutation
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Apoptosis
  • Drug Resistance
  • Cell Cycle
  • RT-PCR
  • Software
Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BAD (cancer-related)

Wang Y, Chen Y, Zhang X, et al.
Tricholoma matsutake Aqueous Extract Induces Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis via Caspase-Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:9014364 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tricholoma matsutake, one of widely accepted functional mushrooms, possesses various pharmacological activities, and its antitumor effect has become an important research point. Our study aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity activities of T. matsutake aqueous extract (TM) in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. In in vitro experiments, TM strikingly reduced cell viability, promoted cell apoptosis, inhibited cell migration ability, induced excessive generation of ROS, and caused caspases cascade and mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In in vivo experiments, 14-day TM treatment strongly suppressed tumor growth in HepG2 and SMMC-7721-xenografted nude mice without influence on their body weights and liver function. Furthermore, TM increased the levels of cleaved poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bad, and Bax and reduced the expressions of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in treated cells and tumor tissues. All aforementioned results suggest that caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathways are involved in TM-mediated antihepatocellular carcinoma.

Tu L, Zhao E, Zhao W, et al.
hsa-miR-376c-3p Regulates Gastric Tumor Growth Both In Vitro and In Vivo.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:9604257 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background. In recent studies, aberrant expression of various microRNAs (miRNAs) is reported to be associated with gastric cancer metastasis. Method. Overexpression construct and inhibitor of hsa-miR-376c-3p were expressed in human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SGC-7901. The expression level of tumor related genes was detected by qPCR, western blot, and immunostaining. Cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Xenograft of SGC-7901 cells was used to elucidate the function of hsa-miR-376c-3p in gastric tumor growth in vivo. Result. Expression of hsa-miR-376c-3p was detected in SGC-7901 cells. Downregulation of hsa-miR-376c-3p increased the expression level of BCL-2 and decreased the expression of smad4 and BAD. On the contrary, overexpression of hsa-miR-376c-3p increased the expression of BAD and smad4, while it led to the decreasing expression level of BCL-2. Overexpression of hsa-miR-376c-3p also promoted cell apoptosis in vitro and inhibited gastric tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, the expression of BCL-2 was higher and expression of smad4 and BAD was lower in tumor tissue than the tissue adjacent to tumor from gastric cancer patients. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that hsa-miR-376c-3p plays an important role in the inhibition of gastric tumor growth and tumor related gene expression both in vitro and in vivo.

Lee SY, Jung DK, Choi JE, et al.
Functional polymorphisms in PD-L1 gene are associated with the prognosis of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer.
Gene. 2017; 599:28-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to investigate whether polymorphisms of genes involved in immune checkpoints can predict the prognosis of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after surgical resection.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 genes were selected and genotyped. A total of 354 patients with early stage NSCLC who underwent curative surgical resection were enrolled. The association of the SNPs with overall survival (OS) was analyzed.
RESULTS: Among the 12 SNPs investigated, PD-L1 rs4143815C>G, rs822336G>C, and rs822337T>A were significantly associated with worse survival outcomes in multivariate analyses. When the three SNPs were combined, OS decreased in a dose-dependent manner as the number of bad genotypes increased (Ptrend=0.0003). In the luciferase assay, rs4143815 G allele exhibited a decreased transcription activity compared with C allele (P=0.001), and the rs822336C-rs822337A haplotype had a decreased promoter activity compared with the rs822336G-rs822337T haplotype (P=0.004). Patients with higher expression of PD-L1 mRNA had a better survival compared with lower expression (P=0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: PD-L1 polymorphisms may be useful for the prediction of prognosis in patients with surgically resected NSCLC. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to understand the role of PD-L1 in the antitumor immunity and prognosis in NSCLC.

Choi HE, Shin JS, Leem DG, et al.
6-(3,4-Dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-yl)-N-(6-methoxypyridine-2-yl) nicotinamide-26 (DIMN-26) decreases cell proliferation by induction of apoptosis and downregulation of androgen receptor signaling in human prostate cancer cells.
Chem Biol Interact. 2016; 260:196-207 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previously, we reported that 6-(3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl) nicotinamide (DIMN) analogues inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells as an anti-androgenic compound. In the present study, we evaluated cytotoxic effects of these DIMN derivatives and found that DIMN-26 most potently inhibited the proliferation of the LNCap-LN3 androgen-dependent and DU145 androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis. The G2/M phase arrest was found due to increases in the activation of cdc2 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, CDK1)/cyclin B1 complex. DIMN-26 also induced apoptosis in LNCap-LN3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells through activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In addition, DIMN-26 caused the dephosphorylation and mitochondrial accumulation of Bad protein and induced the loss of mitochondria membrane potential, consequently releasing cytochrome c into the cytosol of the cell. Furthermore, overexpression of AKT protein significantly reduced DIMN-26-induced PARP-1 cleavage and p-Bad decrease and cdc2 activation. In addition, DIMN-26 inhibited the 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced cell growth and proliferation and nuclear translocation and transcriptional activities of androgen receptor (AR) in LNCap-LN3 prostate cancer cells. Consistent with these findings, DIMN-26 significantly inhibited the DHT-induced expression of AR-response genes (ARGs), such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA), AR, β2-microglobulin (B2M), selenoprotein P (SEPP1), and ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) in LNCap-LN3 prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that DIMN-26 plays a therapeutic role not only in induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis but also in suppression of androgen receptor signaling in androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

Abaza MS, Afzal M, Al-Attiyah RJ, Guleri R
Methylferulate from Tamarix aucheriana inhibits growth and enhances chemosensitivity of human colorectal cancer cells: possible mechanism of action.
BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016; 16(1):384 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Natural products are valuable sources for anticancer agents. In the present study, methylferulate (MF) was identified for the first time from Tamarix aucheriana. Spectral data were used for identification of MF. The potential of MF to control cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cancer cell invasion, nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) DNA-binding activity and proteasomal activities, as well as the enhancement of chemosensitivity in human colorectal cancer cells, were evaluated. The possible molecular mechanism of MF's therapeutic efficacy was also assessed.
METHODS: Column chromatography and spectral data were used for isolation and identification of MF. MTT, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, in vitro invasion, fluoremetry, EIA and Real time qPCR were used to measure antiproliferative, chemo-sensitizing effects and other biochemical parameters.
RESULTS: MF showed a dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect on colorectal cancer cells (IC50 = 1.73 - 1.9 mM) with a nonsignificant cytotoxicity toward normal human fibroblast. Colony formation inhibition (P ≤ 0.001, 0.0001) confirmed the growth inhibition by MF. MF arrested cell cycle progression in the S and G2/M phases; induced apoptosis and ROS generation; and inhibited NF-kB DNA-binding activity, proteasomal activities and cell invasion in colorectal cancer cells. MF up-regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p19 (INK4D), p21(WAF1/CIP1), p27(KIP1)), pro-apoptotic gene expression (Bax, Bad, Apaf1, Bid, Bim, Smac) and caspases (caspase 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9). Moreover, MF down-regulated cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk1, Cdk2) and anti-apoptotic gene expression (c-IAP-1, c-IAP-2, Bcl2,FLIP). In addition, MF differentially potentiated the sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to standard chemotherapeutic drugs.
CONCLUSION: MF showed a multifaceted anti-proliferative and chemosensitizing effects. These results suggest the chemotherapeutic and co-adjuvant potential of MF.

Ma X, Zhang Y, Kang Y, et al.
A recombinant protein TmSm(T34A) can inhibit proliferation and proapoptosis to breast cancer stem cells(BCSCs) by down-regulating the expression of Cyclin D1.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:373-381 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small fraction of cancer cells lines proved with stem cell characteristics, were regarded as "bad seeds" related to recurrence, metastasis and chemotherapy resistance of breast carcinoma in recent years. So inhibiting the growth or inducing the differentiation and apoptosis of CSCs were considered as one of the effective pathways to fight against breast cancer. Based on the recombinant protein TmSm(T34A) that was designed and prepared in our previous experiments for targeting survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein(IAP), in this study, we explored the effects of TmSm(T34A) on BCSCs obtained by enriching in serum-free suspension, sorting and characterizing of MCF-7/ADM. The results showed that TmSm(T34A) could not only inhibit the proliferation and growth of BCSCs by decreasing CD44(+)CD24(-) proportion and down-regulating the expression of Cyclin D1 significantly, but also induce BCSCs apoptosis evidently. Furthermore, in BCSCs xenograft nude mice administrated TmSm(T34A), the tumor growth was slower than that of the control obviously. Thus it can be seen TmSm(T34A) would be a promising potential protein for treatment of breast cancer by effecting on BCSCs.

Chang W, Liu M, Xu J, et al.
MiR-377 inhibits the proliferation of pancreatic cancer by targeting Pim-3.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14813-14824 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of various tumor biological processes including proliferation and apoptosis. MiR-377 has been implicated in many types of cancer, whereas its expressional feature and potential biological function in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear. In this study, we scanned the global miRNA expression profiles in PDAC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and found miR-377 was down-regulated significantly in PDAC. Then, its expression was measured in both pancreatic cancer tissues and cells; the data showed that miR-377 was de-regulated and inversely correlated with pathologic parameters of tumor growth or metastasis. We generated PDAC cell lines with stable overexpression or inhibition of miR-377, and our results indicated that miR-377 up-regulation significantly promoted cell viability, proliferation, and migration in PDAC cells, and also induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest simultaneously. Binding-site predictions by bioinformatics showed that Pim-3 might be a potential target of miR-377. Luciferase reporter assay ulteriorly identified that miR-377 suppressed Pim-3 expression by binding the 3'-UTR. In tumor tissues, we also showed that the Pim-3 expression was inversely correlated with that of miR-377. Furthermore, stable ectopic miR-377 expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines suppressed Pim-3 expression, leading to the attenuation of Bad phosphorylation level at its Ser(112) and promoting cell apoptosis. Overall, these results reveal that miR-377 may have tumor growth suppression function by down-regulating Pim-3 kinase expression to inhibit both pancreatic tumor growth and migration, and induce cell apoptosis. Hence, miR-377 may be a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.

Canevari RA, Marchi FA, Domingues MA, et al.
Identification of novel biomarkers associated with poor patient outcomes in invasive breast carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13855-13870 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast carcinoma (BC) corresponds to 23 % of all cancers in women, with 1.38 million new cases and 460,000 deaths worldwide annually. Despite the significant advances in the identification of molecular markers and different modalities of treatment for primary BC, the ability to predict its metastatic behavior is still limited. The purpose of this study was to identify novel molecular markers associated with distinct clinical outcomes in a Brazilian cohort of BC patients. We generated global gene expression profiles using tumor samples from 24 patients with invasive ductal BC who were followed for at least 5 years, including a group of 15 patients with favorable outcomes and another with nine patients who developed metastasis. We identified a set of 58 differentially expressed genes (p ≤ 0.01) between the two groups. The prognostic value of this metastasis signature was corroborated by its ability to stratify independent BC patient datasets according to disease-free survival and overall survival. The upregulation of B3GNT7, PPM1D, TNKS2, PHB, and GTSE1 in patients with poor outcomes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in an independent sample of patients with BC (47 with good outcomes and eight that presented metastasis). The expression of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) protein was determined in 1276 BC tissue samples by immunohistochemistry and was consistent with the reduced BAD mRNA expression levels in metastatic cases, as observed in the oligoarray data. These findings point to novel prognostic markers that can distinguish breast carcinomas with metastatic potential from those with favorable outcomes.

Chai R, Yu X, Tu S, Zheng B
Depletion of UBA protein 2-like protein inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of human colorectal carcinoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13225-13235 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and motility, which are processes with particular importance for carcinogenesis. UBA protein 2-like protein (UBAP2L) was found to be associated with proteasome; however, its biological function is largely unknown. In this study, the mRNA levels of UBAP2L in human normal and colorectal carcinoma tissues were analyzed using the datasets from the publicly available Oncomine database ( ) and found UBAP2L was overexpressed in colorectal carcinoma tissues. Furthermore, we elucidated the role of UBAP2L in human colorectal cancer via an RNA interference lentivirus system in three colorectal carcinoma cell lines HCT116, SW1116, and RKO. Knockdown of UBAP2L led to suppressed cell proliferation and impaired colony formation. UBAP2L depletion in HCT116 and RKO cells also induced cell cycle arrest as well as apoptosis. Moreover, the phosphorylation of PRAS40, Bad, and the cleavage of PARP were remarkably increased after UBAP2L knockdown by Intracellular signaling array and also the activation of P38 was obviously decreased and the cleavage of Caspase 3 and Bax were increased after UBAP2L silencing by western blot assay, indicated that UBAP2L might be involved in the cell growth by the regulation of apoptosis-related proteins. Our findings indicated that UBAP2L may be essential for colorectal carcinoma growth and survival. Lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA against UBAP2L might serve as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

Rakshit N, Yang S, Zhou W, et al.
Adenovirus-mediated co-expression of ING4 and PTEN cooperatively enhances their antitumor activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2016; 48(8):704-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) are well known as tumor suppressors that are closely related to tumor occurrence and progression. It was reported that ING4 and PTEN showed synergistic antitumor activities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. The two tumor suppressors demonstrated synergistic effect on growth inhibition and apoptosis activation. In this study, we investigated their therapeutic potential in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Recombinant adenoviruses co-expressing ING4 and PTEN (Ad-ING4-PTEN) were constructed, and the antitumor effect on SMMC-7721 and HepG2 HCC cells was evaluated. Ad-ING4-PTEN cooperatively inhibited cell growth, stimulated apoptosis, and suppressed invasion in both HCC cells, and regulated cell cycle in SMMC-7721. Further studies showed that the combination of ING4 and PTEN by Ad-ING4-PTEN cooperatively enhanced the alteration of the expression of cell cycle-related proteins (p53, p21, and cyclin D1) and apoptotic factors (Bad, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bax), which are involved in the regulation of cell cycle and the activation of apoptotic pathways, leading to the synergistic antitumor effect. These results indicate that the combination of ING4 and PTEN may provide an effective therapeutic strategy for HCC.

Sun L, Wang D, Li X, et al.
Extracellular matrix protein ITGBL1 promotes ovarian cancer cell migration and adhesion through Wnt/PCP signaling and FAK/SRC pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 81:145-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the advances in cancer treatment and the progresses in tumor biological, ovarian cancer remains a bad situation. In current study, we found a novel extracellular matrix protein, ITGBL1, which is highly expressed in ovarian cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry examination. The expression pattern of ITGBL1 in malignant tissues inspired us to investigate its role in ovarian cancer progression. Both loss- and gain-function assays revealed that ITGBL1 could promote ovarian cancer cell migration and adhesion. As it's a secreted protein, we further used recombinant ITGBL1 protein treated cancer cells and found that ITGBL1 promotes cell migration and adhesion in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that ITGBL1 not only influences the activity of Wnt/PCP signaling but also affects FAK/src pathway in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that highly expressed ITGBL1 could promotes cancer cell migration and adhesion in ovarian cancer and as a secreted protein, ITGBL1 might be a novel biomarker for ovarian cancer diagnosis.

Brücher BL, Jamall IS
Somatic Mutation Theory - Why it's Wrong for Most Cancers.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 38(5):1663-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hysteron proteron reverses both temporal and logical order and this syllogism occurs in carcinogenesis and the somatic mutation theory (SMT): the first (somatic mutation) occurs only after the second (onset of cancer) and, therefore, observed somatic mutations in most cancers appear well after the early cues of carcinogenesis are in place. It is no accident that mutations are increasingly being questioned as the causal event in the origin of the vast majority of cancers as clinical data show little support for this theory when compared against the metrics of patient outcomes. Ever since the discovery of the double helical structure of DNA, virtually all chronic diseases came to be viewed as causally linked to one degree or another to mutations, even though we now know that genes are not simply blueprints, but rather an assemblage of alphabets that can, under non-genetic influences, be used to assemble a business letter or a work of Shakespearean literature. A minority of all cancers is indeed caused by mutations but the SMT has been applied to all cancers, and even to chemical carcinogenesis, in the absence of hard evidence of causality. Herein, we review the 100 year story of SMT and aspects that show why genes are not just blueprints, how radiation and mutation are associated in a more nuanced view, the proposed risk of cancer and bad luck, and the in vitro and in vivo evidence for a new cancer paradigm. This paradigm is scientifically applicable for the majority of non-heritable cancers and consists of a six-step sequence for the origin of cancer. This new cancer paradigm proclaims that somatic mutations are epiphenomena or later events occurring after carcinogenesis is already underway. This serves not just as a plausible alternative to SMT and explains the origin of the majority of cancers, but also provides opportunities for early interventions and prevention of the onset of cancer as a disease.

Cinkaya A, Akin M, Sengul A
Evaluation of treatment outcomes of triple-negative breast cancer.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2016 Jan-Mar; 12(1):150-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Treatment responses are variable depending on tumor morphological characteristics, clinical characteristics, and hormonal receptor levels. In current medical practice, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PGR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) levels have been identified as important prognostic factors; they can change prognosis and treatment modalities. In this study, the prognostic factors of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) were examined retrospectively.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Some 110 cases with negative prognostic and predictive proteins (ER, PGR, and HER2) were included in this study. Median follow-up was 56 months. Recurrences, overall survival, and prognostic factors were evaluated.
RESULTS: We revealed in our triple-negative series that nodal status, tumor size, whole breast radiation doses, and type of surgery are the most useful prognostic markers.
CONCLUSION: Triple-negative breast cancers, especially basal-like subtypes, have bad prognoses. They have high histopathological grades and high risk of invasion. This group can make early metastases and expected survival is usually short. We need to focus on new treatment strategy modalities on this group, and pretreatment values of different prognostic markers are well-identified, such as androgen receptors, basal cytokeratin expression, and BRCA gene status.

Liu XY, Liu SP, Jiang J, et al.
Inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway increases sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to cisplatin by down-regulating expression of P-glycoprotein.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016; 20(6):1098-108 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to chemotherapy may be mediated by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. We wished to verify the involvement of this pathway in resistance of HCC cells to cisplatin.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used HepG2 cell line and cisplatin-resistant clone (HepG2/DDP). Expressions of drug resistance and apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by qPCR. Protein expressions were assessed by Western blot. The JNK pathway was assessed as total JNK1/2 and JNK1/2 phosphorylation. Cell growth kinetics was quantified by the CCK-8 assay, and cell apoptosis (Annexin V / propidium iodide) by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: HepG2/DDP cells were more resistant and less apoptotic on cisplatin. Expression of drug-resistance genes MDR1, MRP1 and MPR2 was significantly up-regulated in HepG2/DDP cells (p < 0.05), with up-regulation of MDR1 being the highest. This was confirmed by Western blot analysis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), MRP1 and MRP2 proteins, the proteins encoded by the above genes. Expression of anti-apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL was significantly up-regulated, and expression of pro-apoptotic genes Bak and Bad was significantly reduced, in HepG2/DDP cells (p < 0.05). Cisplatin treatment of HepG2 led to increased phosphorylation of JNK1/2; the trend reversed by the inhibitor SP600125. Furthermore, cisplatin increased expression of P-gp, which was also attenuated by SP600125. Cell growth was inhibited more substantially, and cell apoptosis promoted, when HepG2 cells were exposed to both cisplatin and SP600125.
CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway enhances the sensitivity of HCC cells to cisplatin by down-regulating the expression of P-gp.

Cui F, Zan X, Li Y, et al.
Grifola frondosa Glycoprotein GFG-3a Arrests S phase, Alters Proteome, and Induces Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cells.
Nutr Cancer. 2016; 68(2):267-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
GFG-3a is a novel glycoprotein previously purified from the fermented mycelia of Grifola frondosa with novel sugar compositions and protein sequencing. The present study aims to investigate its effects on the cell cycle, differential proteins expression, and apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Our findings revealed that GFG-3a induced the cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle at S phase. GFG-3a treatment resulted in the differential expression of 21 proteins in SGC-7901 cells by upregulating 10 proteins including RBBP4 associated with cell cycle arrest and downregulating 11 proteins including RUVBL1, NPM, HSP90AB1, and GRP78 involved in apoptosis and stress response. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis also suggested that GFG-3a could increase the expressions of Caspase-8/-3, p53, Bax, and Bad while decrease the expressions of Bcl2, Bcl-xl, PI3K, and Akt1. These results indicated that the stress response, p53-dependent mitochondrial-mediated, Caspase-8/-3-dependent, and PI3k/Akt pathways were involved in the GFG-3a-induced apoptosis process in SGC-7901 cells. These findings might provide a basis to prevent or treat human gastric cancer with GFG-3a and understand the tumor-inhibitory molecular mechanisms of mushroom glycoproteins.

Zheng L, Chen L, Zhang X, et al.
TMEM49-related apoptosis and metastasis in ovarian cancer and regulated cell death.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 416(1-2):1-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is one of the greatest causes of cancer death in women. The association of TMEM49 and ovarian cancer is poorly defined. Here, we reported that TMEM49 was significantly increased in ovarian tumor tissues compared to ovarian normal tissues. Furthermore, down-regulation of TMEM49 through RNA interference inhibited cell proliferation and arrested G1/S transition in two ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR3 and A2780. More importantly, TMEM49 silencing induced cell apoptosis. Additionally, down-regulation of TMEM49 in ovarian cancer notably repressed cell invasion and adhesion. Further gene set enrichment analysis suggested that apoptosis and metastasis up related signal pathways were associated with the TMEM49 expression. Western blot revealed that the expression of Caspase3, Bad, and Bax were increased, while expression of MMP2, KLF10, and CXCL12 were reduced by TMEM49 knockdown. Since expression of TMEM49 seems to be associated with the apoptosis and metastasis up signaling pathways of ovarian cancer, and suppression of its expression can inhibit cancer cell growth and metastasis, TMEM49 may be a potential therapeutic target in human ovarian cancer.

Ren C, Ren T, Yang K, et al.
Inhibition of SOX2 induces cell apoptosis and G1/S arrest in Ewing's sarcoma through the PI3K/Akt pathway.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor with a high incidence in children and adolescents. Due to its high malignancy and poor prognosis, identification of novel biomarkers for intervention therapies is necessary to improve outcome. The EWS/FLI1 fusion gene is a characteristic of Ewing's sarcoma in most cases. Sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is a primary target of EWS/FLI1. It has been identified as an oncogene and linked to apoptotic resistance in several types of cancer. However, its role and regulatory mechanisms in Ewing's sarcoma are largely unknown.
METHODS: We systematically investigated the role of SOX2 in Ewing's sarcoma cell lines, human tissue samples and xenograft models. The expression of SOX2 was detected in Ewing's sarcoma samples by WB and IHC. siRNAs were used to knockdown EWS/FLI1 and SOX2 in A673 and RD-ES cell lines with the efficiencies tested by qRT-PCR and WB. The effect of SOX2 on cell cycle and apoptosis was determined by Flow cytometric and TUNEL assays. Akt overexpression was performed with plasmid. The protein expression of the corresponding factors was examined by WB analysis. Inhibition of SOX2 in vivo was performed by siRNA against SOX2 in xenograft models, and the protein expression of the regulators testified in vitro was examined in xenograft tumors by IHC and WB.
RESULTS: The results confirmed that SOX2 was highly expressed in Ewing's sarcoma and was the target of EWS/FLI1. SOX2 advanced Ewing's sarcoma cell survival and proliferation by regulating p21, p27 and cyclin-E to facilitate G1/S phase transition and mediating caspase-3, PARP via both extrinsic (Fas and caspase-8) and intrinsic (caspase-9, Bad, Bcl-2 and XIAP) apoptotic pathways to restrain cell apoptosis. Additionally, SOX2 regulated the cell-cycle progression and apoptosis via activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The mechanisms were proved both in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that SOX2 played a central role in promoting Ewing's sarcoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo with the underlying mechanisms expounded. These findings suggest that SOX2 may serve as a potential biomarker for targeted intervention in Ewing's sarcoma.

Tan G, Wu L, Tan J, et al.
MiR-1180 promotes apoptotic resistance to human hepatocellular carcinoma via activation of NF-κB signaling pathway.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:22328 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Apoptosis resistance in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a significant factor in carcinogenesis. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in apoptosis resistance is crucial for developing anticancer therapies. Importantly, small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported as key biomarkers for detecting tumour onset and progression. In the present study, we demonstrate that miR-1180 is upregulated in HCC. Ectopic expression of miR-1180 has an anti-apoptotic effect in HCC, while miR-1180 inhibition increases cell apoptosis, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, our results show that miR-1180 directly targets key inhibitors of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway (i.e., OTUD7B and TNIP2) and the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 associated death promoter (BAD) protein by post-transcriptional downregulation. Therefore, the anti-apoptotic function of miR-1180 in HCC may occur through NF-κB pathway activation via downregulation of its negative regulators. In conclusion, our study reveals the critical role of miR-1180 during apoptosis resistance in HCC.

Yang G, Xu S, Peng L, et al.
The hypoxia-mimetic agent CoCl₂ induces chemotherapy resistance in LOVO colorectal cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(3):2583-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypoxia, which is an important factor that mediates tumor progression and poor treatment response, is particularly associated with tumor chemoresistance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hypoxia-induced colorectal cancer chemoresistance remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the mechanism underlying hypoxia‑induced chemotherapy resistance in LOVO colorectal cancer cells. LOVO cells were cultured in a hypoxic environment simulated by cobalt chloride (CoCl2), which is a chemical inducer of hypoxia‑inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α). HIF‑1α is a transcription factor that has an important role in tumor cell adaptation to hypoxia, and controls the expression of several genes. Various CoCl2 concentrations are often used to simulate degrees of hypoxia. In the present study, following treatment with CoCl2, an MTT assay was conducted to determine the growth and drug sensitivity of LOVO cells. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of HIF‑1α and factors associated with chemotherapy resistance, including multidrug resistance protein (MRP) and multidrug resistant 1 (MDR1), which encodes the major transmembrane efflux transporter P‑glycoprotein (P‑gp). In addition, the expression levels of apoptosis‑related proteins, including B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl‑2‑associated agonist of cell death (Bad) were detected by western blotting. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to visually observe Adriamycin (ADR) accumulation and retention, thus analyzing intracellular drug transportation in cells under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. CoCl2‑simulated hypoxia was able to inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and upregulate the expression levels of HIF‑1α, MDR1/P‑gp and MRP. In addition, proapoptotic members of the Bcl‑2 protein family, Bax and Bad, were downregulated. The anti‑apoptotic member Bcl‑2 exhibited no significant change in expression, whereas the ratio of Bcl‑2/Bax was increased. Results of FCM demonstrated that the intracellular retention of ADR was significantly decreased in the hypoxia group cells. In conclusion, the present study revealed that a CoCl2-simulated hypoxic microenvironment was able to effectively induce chemoresistance and reduce apoptosis in LOVO cells.

Gherman C, Braicu OL, Zanoaga O, et al.
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester activates pro-apoptotic and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes in ovarian cancer cells A2780 and A2780cis.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 413(1-2):189-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is a highly aggressive pathology, displaying a poor prognosis and chemoresistance to classical therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on survival of ovarian cancer cell lines, A2780 (sensitive to cisplatin) and A2780cis (resistant to cisplatin). MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability, while the apoptotic processes were examined by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. A reduction of cell proliferation and activation of the apoptosis was observed in both cell lines. qRT-PCR evaluation demonstrated the activation of the pro-apoptotic genes (BAD, CASP8, FAS, FADD, p53) in both cell lines. The limited therapeutic effect in A2780 cells is explained by the activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes (ZEB1, ZEB2, or TGFBB1) as displayed by Ingenuity Network analysis. Overall data suggest that CAPE can be used as an alternative in sensitizing cells to chemotherapy.

H'Mida Ben Brahim D, Trabelsi S, Chabchoub I, et al.
Assessment of MYCN amplification status in Tunisian neuroblastoma: CISH and MLPA combining approach.
Tunis Med. 2015 Aug-Sep; 93(8-9):527-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB) shows a complex combination of genetic aberrations. Some of them represent poor genetic prognosis factors that require specific and intensive chemotherapy. MYCN amplification consists of the major bad outcome prognostic factor, it is indeed frequently observed in aggressive neuroblastomas. To date different methods are used for MYCN status detection.
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of our study was to provide a critical assessment of MYCN status using 2 molecular techniques CISH and MLPA. We also focused on the correlation between neuroblastoma genetic markers and patient's clinical course among 15 Tunisian patients.
METHODS: we developed a descriptive study that includes 15 pediatric Tunisian patients referred to our laboratory from 2004 to 2011. We reported the analysis of fresh and FFPE NB tumors tissues.
RESULTS: No significant correlation was found between COG grade and patients overall survival. Assessment of NMYC gene copy number by kappa statistic test revealed high concordance between CISH and MLPA tests (kappa coefficient = 0.02).
CONCLUSION: Despite misdiagnosing of MYCN status fewer than 5 copies, MLPA remains an effective molecular technique that enables a large panel of genomic aberrations screening. Thus combining CISH and MLPA is an effective molecular approach adopted in our laboratory. Our results allow pediatric oncologists to set up the first Neuroblastoma therapeutic strategy based on molecular markers in Tunisia.

Zhang B, Wang F, Dai L, et al.
Lentivirus-mediated PLCγ1 gene short-hairpin RNA suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(7):8043-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Targeted molecular therapy has gradually been a potential solution in cancer therapy. Other authors' and our previous studies have demonstrated that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase γ (PLCγ) is involved in regulating tumor growth and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PLCγ-dependent tumor growth and metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma and whether PLCγ may be a potential target for tumor therapy in human gastric adenocarcinoma are not yet well determined. Here, we investigated the role of PLCγ inhibition in tumor growth and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma using BGC-823 cell line and a nude mouse tumor xenograft model. The results manifested that the depletion of PLCγ1 by the transduction with lentivirus-mediated PLCγ1 gene short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) vector led to the decrease of tumor growth and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the Akt/Bad, Akt/S6, and ERK/Bad signal axes were involved in PLCγ1-mediated tumor growth and metastasis of human gastric adenocarcinoma. Therefore, the abrogation of PLCγ1 signaling by shRNA could efficaciously suppress human gastric adenocarcinoma tumor growth and metastasis, with important implication for validating PLCγ1 as a potential target for human gastric adenocarcinoma.

Ju W, Zhang M, Wilson KM, et al.
Augmented efficacy of brentuximab vedotin combined with ruxolitinib and/or Navitoclax in a murine model of human Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(6):1624-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite relative success of therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), novel therapeutic agents are needed for patients with refractory or relapsed disease. Recently, anti-PD1 immunotherapy or treatment with the anti-CD30 toxin conjugate brentuximab vedotin (BV) have been associated with remissions; however, the median responses of complete responses (CRs) with the latter were only 6.7 mo. To obtain curative therapy, other effective agents, based on HL biology, would have to be given in combination with BV. Hodgkin's Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells secrete cytokines including IL-6 and -13, leading to constitutive activation of JAK/STAT signaling. In the present study the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT6 and expression of c-Myc in the HL cell line HDLM-2. These changes were enhanced when, on the basis of a matrix screen of drug combinations, ruxolitinib was combined with the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor Navitoclax. The combination augmented expression of Bik, Puma, and Bax, and attenuated Bcl-xL expression and the phosphorylation of Bad. The use of the two-agent combination of either ruxolitinib or Navitoclax with BV or the three-agent combination strongly activated Bax and increased activities of cytochrome c and caspase-9 and -3 that, in turn, led to cleavage of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase and Mcl-1. Either ruxolitinib combined with Navitoclax or BV alone prolonged survival but did not cure HDLM-2 tumor-bearing mice, whereas BV combined with ruxolitinib and/or with Navitoclax resulted in a sustained, complete elimination of the HDLM-2 HL. These studies provide scientific support for a clinical trial to evaluate BV combined with ruxolitinib in select patients with HL.

Zhang R, Shi H, Ren F, et al.
Knockdown of MACC1 expression increases cisplatin sensitivity in cisplatin-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):2466-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abnormal expression of metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) was found to be closely associated with several types of malignant tumors. The present study aimed to verify the relationship between MACC1 and cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells and the possible mechanisms, which was implemented by inhibition of the expression of MACC1 in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780/DDP and COC1/DDP. MACC1 shRNA eukaryotic plasmids and negative control plasmids were transfected into A2780/DDP and COC1/DDP cells, respectively, while A2780/DDP and COC1/DDP cells were used as blank controls. Western blotting and sqRT-PCR were used to detect the expression of MACC1 in the different cell groups. Different concentrations of cispaltin (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 µmol/l) were used to treat the cell groups, respectively, and then the chemosensitivity of cisplatin and cell apoptosis were examined by MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. The activity of caspase-3 was determined by spectrophotometry. Expression levels of p-ERK1/2, permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-XL, Bax and Bad protein were detected in the different ovarian cancer cells by western blotting. After MACC1 knockdown, the chemosensitivity of cisplatin in the ovarian cancer cells was enhanced, and the cell growth inhibition and apoptosis rates were increased. The expression levels of Bax and Bad were upregulated, the activity of caspase-3 was increased, while the expression levels of p-ERK1/2, P-gp, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were downregulated as a result of MACC1 inhibition. These results indicate that inhibition of MACC1 improves the chemosensitivity of cisplatin in epithelial ovarian cancer cells, through the regulation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway on P-gp and its downstream apoptosis proteins.

Demeyer A, Staal J, Beyaert R
Targeting MALT1 Proteolytic Activity in Immunity, Inflammation and Disease: Good or Bad?
Trends Mol Med. 2016; 22(2):135-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
MALT1 is a signaling protein that plays a key role in immunity, inflammation, and lymphoid malignancies. For a long time MALT1 was believed to function as a scaffold protein, providing an assembly platform for other signaling proteins. This view changed dramatically when MALT1 was also found to have proteolytic activity and a capacity to fine-tune immune responses. Preclinical studies have fostered the belief that MALT1 is a promising therapeutic target in autoimmunity and B cell lymphomas. However, recent studies have shown that mice expressing catalytically-inactive MALT1 develop multi-organ inflammation and autoimmunity, and thus have tempered this initial enthusiasm. We discuss recent findings, highlighting the urgent need for a better mechanistic and functional understanding of MALT1 in host defense and disease.

Xie YQ, Chen JM, Liu Y
Interaction of the CYP1A1 gene polymorphism and smoking in non-small cell lung cancer susceptibility.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 14(4):19411-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many studies have shown that genetic factors, environmental factors, and bad living habits, especially smoking, are risk factors for lung cancer. However, not all smokers develop lung cancer, which may be related to different genetic backgrounds. Currently, most research has investigated the GSTM1, XRCC1, XRCC3, CYP2D6, and C188T genes. Little research has been done on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 gene, and results have varied. In addition, no results have been reported on the interactive effects of smoking and the CYP1A1 gene on lung cancer development. We used polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism to detect the CYP1A1 genotype, and investigate the effects of the CYP1A1 gene deletion and smoking alone, and in combination, on non-small cell lung cancer susceptibility. We enrolled 150 non-small cell lung cancer patients and 150 healthy control subjects. Subjects' smoking habits and CYP1A1 gene polymorphism were analyzed to investigate their role in the occurrence of lung cancer. The CYP1A1 gene deletion was found in 73.3% of non-small cell lung cancer patients and 20.0% of healthy subjects. The OR value was 2.28 (P < 0.05). Among smoking subjects, 77.8% exhibited non-small cell lung cancer, significantly higher than the 27.3% in non-smokers (P < 0.05). The OR value for the interaction of smoking and CYP1A1 gene deletion was 5.60, larger than the product of their individual OR values. The CYP1A1 gene deletion is a lung cancer risk factor, and interacts with smoking in non-small cell lung cancer development.

Pathria G, Garg B, Wagner C, et al.
RanBP3 Regulates Melanoma Cell Proliferation via Selective Control of Nuclear Export.
J Invest Dermatol. 2016; 136(1):264-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosome region maintenance 1-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport has been shown as a potential anticancer target in various malignancies. However, the role of the most characterized chromosome region maintenance 1 cofactor ran binding protein 3 (RanBP3) in cancer cell biology has never been investigated. Utilizing a loss-of-function experimental setting in a vast collection of genetically varied melanoma cell lines, we observed the requirement of RanBP3 in melanoma cell proliferation and survival. Mechanistically, we suggest the reinstatement of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-Smad2/3-p21(Cip1) tumor-suppressor axis as part of the RanBP3 silencing-associated antiproliferative program. Employing extensive nuclear export sequence analyses and immunofluorescence-based protein localization studies, we further present evidence suggesting the requirement of RanBP3 function for the nuclear exit of the weak nuclear export sequence-harboring extracellular signal-regulated kinase protein, although it is dispensable for general CRM1-mediated nuclear export of strong nuclear export sequence-harboring cargoes. Rendering mechanistic support to RanBP3 silencing-mediated apoptosis, consequent to extracellular signal-regulated kinase nuclear entrapment, we observed increased levels of cytoplasmically restricted nonphosphorylated/active proapoptotic Bcl-2-antagonist of cell death (BAD) protein. Last, we present evidence suggesting the frequently activated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in melanoma as a potential founding basis for a deregulated post-translational control of RanBP3 activity. Collectively, the presented data suggest RanBP3 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in human melanoma.

Conery AR, Centore RC, Spillane KL, et al.
Preclinical Anticancer Efficacy of BET Bromodomain Inhibitors Is Determined by the Apoptotic Response.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(6):1313-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small-molecule inhibitors of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family of proteins are being tested in clinical trials for a variety of cancers, but patient selection strategies remain limited. This challenge is partly attributed to the heterogeneous responses elicited by BET inhibition (BETi), including cellular differentiation, senescence, and death. In this study, we performed phenotypic and gene-expression analyses of treatment-naive and engineered tolerant cell lines representing human melanoma and leukemia to elucidate the dominant features defining response to BETi. We found that de novo and acquired tolerance to BETi is driven by the robustness of the apoptotic response, and that genetic or pharmacologic manipulation of the apoptotic signaling network can modify the phenotypic response to BETi. We further reveal that the expression signatures of the apoptotic genes BCL2, BCL2L1, and BAD significantly predict response to BETi. Taken together, our findings highlight the apoptotic program as a determinant of response to BETi, and provide a molecular basis for patient stratification and combination therapy development.

Wang F, Feng Y, Li P, et al.
RASSF10 is an epigenetically inactivated tumor suppressor and independent prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(4):4279-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Methylation of the Ras-association domain family 10 (RASSF10) promoter region correlates with clinicopathological characteristics and poor prognosis in several human cancers. Here, we examined RASSF10 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its role in hepatocarcinogenesis. RASSF10 mRNA and protein levels were downregulated in both HCC cell lines and patient tissue samples. In patient tissues, low RASSF10 levels correlated with hepatocirrhosis, poor tumor differentiation, tumor thrombus and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage, and were indicative of increased tumor recurrence and reduced patient survival. Low RASSF10 expression was associated with promoter hypermethylation, which was in turn associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and aflatoxin B1 exposure, but not DNA methyltransferase expression. Overexpression of RASSF10 in HCC cell lines suppressed cell growth and colony formation, and induced apoptosis by up- or down-regulating specific Bcl-2 family proteins. RASSF10 overexpression increased pro-apoptotic Bax and Bad levels, but decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression. Overexpression also inhibited tumor formation in nude mice and reduced cell migration and invasion by inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. RASSF10 knockdown promoted cell growth. Our results show that RASSF10 is frequently hypermethylated and down-regulated in HCC and can potentially serve as a useful biomarker predictive of HCC patient prognosis.

Dyshlovoy SA, Menchinskaya ES, Venz S, et al.
The marine triterpene glycoside frondoside A exhibits activity in vitro and in vivo in prostate cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(10):2450-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), outcome of patients remains poor due to the development of drug resistance. Thus, new drugs are urgently needed. We investigated efficacy, toxicity and mechanism of action of marine triterpene glycoside frondoside A (FrA) using CRPC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. FrA revealed high efficacy in human prostate cancer cells, while non-malignant cells were less sensitive. Remarkably, proliferation and colony formation of cells resistant to enzalutamide and abiraterone (due to the androgen receptor splice variant AR-V7) were also significantly inhibited by FrA. The marine compound caused cell type specific cell cycle arrest and induction of caspase-dependent or -independent apoptosis. Up-regulation or induction of several pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Bad, PTEN), cleavage of PARP and caspase-3 and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin and Bcl-2) were detected in treated cells. Global proteome analysis revealed regulation of proteins involved in formation of metastases, tumor cell invasion, and apoptosis, like keratin 81, CrkII, IL-1β and cathepsin B. Inhibition of pro-survival autophagy was observed following FrA exposure. In vivo, FrA inhibited tumor growth of PC-3 and DU145 cells with a notable reduction of lung metastasis, as well as circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood. Increased lymphocyte counts of treated animals might indicate an immune modulating effect of FrA. In conclusion, our results suggest that FrA is a promising new drug for the treatment of mCRPC. Induction of apoptosis, inhibition of pro-survival autophagy, and immune modulatory effects are suspected modes of actions.

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