PubMed Central search for free-access publications about Skin, Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans MeSH term: Dermatofibrosarcoma US National Library of Medicine PubMed has over 22 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Constantly updated.
DermIS Includes photos of Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans. DermIS.net is a dermatology information service (multilingual support; English, German, Spanish, French and other languages). It is a collaboration between two German Universities (Heidelberg and Erlangen).
National Cancer Intelligence Network A brief report on population-based data for rare skin cancers, including Merkel Cell Carcinoma and Dermatofibrosarcoma. It includes number of cases by histology incidence rates and trends in incidence over the 10 year period 1999 to 2008. Published 2011. Merkel Cell Carcinoma
This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).
Ali NS, Kazi M, Umar B, Khan MJ Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: an unusual case of neck swelling. J Pak Med Assoc. 2012; 62(10):1089-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a relatively intermediate to low grade malignant tumour with high proclivity for local recurrence if excised inadequately. It is a locally aggressive tumour and despite sharing some histological features with fibrohistiocytic tumours, it tends to grow in a more infiltrative manner. We are reporting this rare tumour in a 30-year-old woman where the diagnosis of DFSP was confirmed histologically and by positive immunomarkers at immunohistochemistry.
Castle KO, Guadagnolo BA, Tsai CJ, et al. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: long-term outcomes of 53 patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2013; 86(3):585-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes of conservative surgery and radiation therapy (RT) treatment in patients with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 53 consecutive dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans patients treated with surgery and preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy between 1972 and 2010. Median tumor size was 4 cm (range, 1-25 cm). Seven patients (13%) were treated with preoperative RT (50-50.4 Gy) and 46 patients (87%) with postoperative RT (60-66 Gy). Of the 46 patients receiving postoperative radiation, 3 (7%) had gross disease, 14 (30%) positive margins, 26 (57%) negative margins, and 3 (7%) uncertain margin status. Radiation dose ranged from 50 to 66 Gy (median dose, 60 Gy). RESULTS: At a median follow-up time of 6.5 years (range, 0.5 months-23.5 years), 2 patients (4%) had disease recurrence, and 3 patients (6%) had died. Actuarial overall survival was 98% at both 5 and 10 years. Local control was 98% and 93% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Disease-free survival was 98% and 93% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. The presence of fibrosarcomatous change was not associated with increased risk of local or distant relapse (P=.43). One of the patients with a local recurrence had gross residual disease at the time of RT and despite RT to 65 Gy developed both an in-field recurrence and a nodal and distant recurrence 3 months after RT. The other patient with local recurrence was found to have in-field recurrence 10 years after initial treatment. Thirteen percent of patients had an RT complication at 5 and 10 years, and 9% had a moderate or severe complication at 5 and 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a radioresponsive disease with excellent local control after conservative surgery and radiation therapy. Adjuvant RT should be considered for patients with large or recurrent tumors or when attempts at wide surgical margins would result in significant morbidity.
Uysal B, Sager O, Gamsiz H, et al. Evaluation of the role of radiotherapy in the management of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. J BUON. 2013 Jan-Mar; 18(1):268-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of radiotherapy (RT) in the management of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients treated with RT for DFSP between 1974 and 2012 at Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA) Radiation Oncology Department were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-five out of 28 patients (89%) received postoperative RT and 3 received definitive RT alone. In the 25 patients receiving postoperative RT, the type of surgical excision was limited excision in 5 patients and wide excision in the remaining 20. Median RT dose was 63.21±3.7 Gy (range 50-70). RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 5 years, 5-year overall survival (OS) for the whole patient group was 93%. No relationship was determined between the total delivered RT dose and OS. The 5-year OS of the 10 female patients was 90% whereas it was 94% for the 18 male patients (p>0.05). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) for the patients undergoing wide excision with RT vs. those undergoing limited excision with RT was significantly superior (p <0.05) in patients treated with wide excision and RT. CONCLUSION: RT is an effective treatment option for DFSP patients with positive postoperative margins, recurrent disease and selected inoperable cases.
Ong HS, Ji T, Wang LZ, et al. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans on the right neck with superior vena cava syndrome: case report and literature review. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2013; 42(6):707-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon dermal soft tissue tumour of intermediate malignancy. A 44-year-old man presented to the hospital with a large lesion on the right upper chest and neck. Despite eight previous surgical excisions, the tumour had continued to recur. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed recurrence of the tumour, associated with superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome. He declined radical surgical resection of the recurrent tumour, which may have required right upper limb amputation. Targeted therapy with sunitinib malate was therefore introduced. This case demonstrates the recurrent nature of DFSP and the association of this lesion on the upper chest/neck with SVC syndrome. Primary wide radical resection is essential for better local control and to avoid the development of SVC syndrome.
Manganoni AM, Pavoni L, Gualdi G, et al. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in an adolescent: a case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013; 35(5):383-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Classically, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a disease of adults. The world literature revision shows that several pediatric cases have been reported so far; this might suggest that the number of infants with the condition might be larger than that estimated previously. Here, we report the 183rd case of histologically confirmed DFSP in young age. A 14-year-old white male patient came under our care for a slowly growing, pale brownish lesion on the neck skin. A biopsy specimen showed a DFSP. Subsequently, a wide surgery excision with 3 cm of resection margins including the underlying fascia was performed. To date, the patient has been in follow-up for 6 years without evidence of recurrent disease. The clinical features and treatment of DFSP diagnosed in childhood and adolescence reported in the published literature are reviewed to provide new insights about this rare entity. The aim is to emphasize the importance of biopsy for histologic evaluation in the cases that show a persistent or a large cutaneous plaque or nodule without pathognomonic clinical features that permit a clinical diagnosis. An accurate knowledge of the disease is the prerequisite for a wider recognition and appropriate treatment.
Schittkowski MP, Wrede A Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with primary orbital manifestation. Orbit. 2013; 32(2):117-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 45-year-old, otherwise healthy woman presented with mild epiphora and a palpable mass in the lacrimal sac area. After transcutaneus orbitotomy and complete excision histopathology revealed a primary Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans invading the orbit. During the 24-months follow-up, no recurrence occurred. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a primary DFSP with the orbit involved.
Curative surgical treatment of recurrent, locally advanced dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is often limited owing to a close relation of the tumor with important anatomical structures. Targeted therapy with imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, may cause significant reduction of tumor volume, thereby enabling radical surgery. This treatment strategy, therefore, offers a chance of cure for selected patients with advanced dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. In addition, preoperative treatment with imatinib may decrease possible disfigurement related to radical surgery for large tumors.
Rahman T, Bhattacharjee K, Sarma JD, et al. Primary dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of orbit--a rare entity. Orbit. 2013; 32(2):127-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberance (DFSP) is a rare neoplasm of dermal origin. Though it is a locally aggressive tumor with high recurrence rate, however distant metastasis can also occur. Orbital DFSP is an uncommon phenomenon. It has been reported due to distant metastasis or invasion from adjacent structures but Primary Orbital DFSP is a unique entity in itself. Herein we report a rare case of primary DFSP of the orbit in a 70-year- old lady who underwent orbital exenteration. Histopathology examination (HPE) revealed spindle cells arranged in storiform pattern and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed CD34 positive and S100 negative.
Hersant B, May P, Battistella M, et al. Reducing surgical margins in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans using the pathological analysis technique 'vertical modified technique': a 5-year experience. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2013; 66(5):617-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: For the treatment of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP), wide surgical excision has been recommended, with 3-5-cm margins, including the first underlying clear fascia. Since 2006, a technical improvement in pathological analysis called the vertical modified technique (VMT) has allowed us to reduce the surgical margin without increased oncological risk. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2011, 66 cases of DFSP were analysed in our hospital, using VMT. We reviewed patient records, considering the initial margin, total margin, number of surgeries and outcomes. Functional and aesthetic consequences were assessed by the surgeon and by the patients. RESULTS: Mean initial margin for the first resection was 18 mm (10-30 mm). First resection allowed complete resection of the tumour in 52 cases (78.8%). Mean total surgical margin was 21.3 mm (10-60 mm). There were no cases of local tumour recurrence at a median follow-up of 30 months. Reconstruction was performed using direct sutures in 53 cases (80.3%), split-thickness skin grafts in six cases (9.1%), full-thickness skin grafts in five cases (7.6%) and flaps in two patients (3%). For 90.9% of the patients, the aesthetic result was acceptable, whereas 84.8% patients were satisfied with the functional result. CONCLUSION: VMT reduces surgical margins and allows for extensive analysis of margins. This technique represents a safe and reliable strategy in DFSP, without increasing the risk of recurrence. The outcomes of our study have confirmed the data from the literature regarding oncological safety.
de Morais OO, de Araújo LC, Gomes CM, et al. Congenital dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Cutis. 2012; 90(6):285-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Congenital dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare dermal and subcutaneous neoplasm of low-grade malignant behavior that is characterized by a low frequency of metastases with locally invasive growth. Its occurrence at birth and during childhood is rare. We present a case of a patient who was born with a light brown macule on his right buttock that was misdiagnosed as localized scleroderma. The lesion progressed into reddish atrophic plaques and nodules extending to the iliac region and the gluteal fold. At 5 years of age, a diagnosis of congenital DFSP was made based on clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics (CD34 positivity and spindle cell proliferation). Although there was a delay in diagnosis, a 3-step excision was proposed with a final step of Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS).
Ha SY, Lee SE, Kwon MJ, et al. PDGFB rearrangement in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical implications. Hum Pathol. 2013; 44(7):1300-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is characterized genetically by the translocation t(17;22)(q22;q13), which creates a COL1A1/PDGFB fusion gene. The implications of this gene for the clinicopathologic features of the disease are not fully understood. Fifty-one cases of DFSP from 46 patients were reclassified as DFSP (n=29) and DFSP-fibrosarcomatous variant (DFSP-FS; n=22). Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed using a dual-color break-apart probe to detect rearrangements involving PDGFB, and CD34 immunohistochemistry staining was done. The DFSP-FS was found in older patients, and the tumors were larger, with a smaller mean area of staining for CD34. PDGFB rearrangement was found in 45 cases (95.7%). The mean gene copy number was 3.82 (range 2.2-6.45) and was higher in DFSP-FS than in classic DFSP (4.54 vs. 3.47; P < .001). The PDGFB copy number showed a moderate positive correlation with the number of mitotic figures and tumor size. Patients undergoing wide excision or having no involvement of the resection margin had no relapses. These results suggest a role for COL1A1/PDGFB in sarcomatous change in DFSP over time. Detection of COL1A1/PDGFB rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization is useful for confirmation of the diagnosis. Patients who present with metastatic DFSP-FS show less typical histologic findings and loss of CD34 staining, leaving PDGFB rearrangement as the preferred adjunctive method for diagnosis from small biopsies and for prediction of the value of imatinib therapy.
Llombart B, Serra-Guillén C, Monteagudo C, et al. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: a comprehensive review and update on diagnosis and management. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2013; 30(1):13-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare superficial tumor characterized by high rates of local recurrence and low risk of metastasis. DFSP occurs most commonly on the trunk and proximal extremities, affects all races, and often develops between the second and fifth decade of life. The tumor grows slowly, typically over years. Histologically, several variants of DFSP have been described and should be well characterized to avoid misdiagnosis with other tumors. These include pigmented (Bednar tumor), myxoid, myoid, granular cell, sclerotic, atrophic DFSP, giant cell fibroblastoma, and DFSP with fibrosarcomatous areas. Of all these variants, only the DFSP with fibrosarcomatous areas is high grade, with a higher rate of local recurrence and distant metastasis. DFSP is genetically characterized by the t(17;22)(q22;q13), resulting in the fusion of alpha chain type 1 of collagen gene and platelet-derived growth factor beta gene. This translocation is present in 90% of DFSP and represents a very useful tool in the differential diagnosis of DFSP with other tumors with similar histology. The standard treatment is wide local excision with at least a 2-cm margin. However, local recurrence after apparently adequate surgical excision is well recognized. Mohs micrographic surgery would be the treatment of choice with a better cure rate and maximal conservation of tissue. When surgery is insufficient, clinical evidence has suggested that imatinib mesylate is a safe and effective treatment in DFSP, especially in cases of local advanced or metastatic disease. This article presents an overview of the state of the art in the clinicopathological management of this disease.
Hirano SA, Torosky CM Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans arising at a Rho(D) immune globulin injection site. Cutis. 2012; 90(5):233-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare soft tissue tumor arising in the dermis. It is notorious for high rates of local recurrence despite its low metastatic potential. Although the etiology is unknown, DFSP often is considered to arise within scars and at sites of prior vaccination or trauma. Clinically, DFSP can be highly variable and mimic other soft tissue proliferations. We present a case of recurrent DFSP arising at the site of a Rho(D) immune globulin (Rhlg) injection that was administered 7 years prior. We also discuss the diagnostic challenges of DFSP as well as the indolent and locally recurrent nature of the tumor. This case serves to remind dermatologists of the highly variable clinical appearance of DFSP as well as to warn against presumptive diagnoses of lesions that mimic keloids and hypertrophic scars.
Kurlander DE, Martires KJ, Chen Y, et al. Risk of subsequent primary malignancies after dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans diagnosis: a national study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013; 68(5):790-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients frequently live many years after diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the risk of subsequent primary malignancy (SPM) after DFSP diagnosis. METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-2008) for 3734 patients with DFSP, we compared the risk of developing 14 SPMs (12 most prevalent cancers in the United States plus other nonepithelial and soft tissue) relative to risk in the general population of same sex, race, and age and year of diagnosis. RESULTS: Patients given the diagnosis of DFSP had an overall increased risk of SPM (observed:expected [O:E], 1.20; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.04-1.39), with much of the overall increased risk attributable to increased risk of nonepithelial skin cancer (O:E, 9.94; 95% CI, 3.38-22.30). Specifically, female patients with DFSP were at increased risk of other nonepithelial skin cancer (O:E, 14.50; 95% CI, 3.46-38.98), melanoma (O:E, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.02-5.35), and breast cancer (O:E, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.00-2.00). Male patients were not at increased overall risk (O:E, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.96-1.44) of SPM or at increased risk of any specific malignancy (P > .05) adjusted for multiplicity of t tests. LIMITATIONS: Surveillance bias may have led to increased rates and earlier detection of primary malignances in patients with DFSP compared with the general population. Individual data that may reveal shared environmental causes of DFSP and SPM were unavailable. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DFSP are at increased risk of a number of SPMs.
Walluks K, Chen Y, Woelfel C, et al. Molecular and clinicopathological analysis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Pathol Res Pract. 2013; 209(1):30-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a dermal and subcutaneous tumor of intermediate malignancy. The most remarkable cytogenetic feature of DFSP is the chromosomal translocation t(17;22)(q22;q13), causing a fusion of the platelet-derived growth factor beta chain (PDGFB) gene at 22q13, and the collagen type 1 alpha 1 (COL1A1) at 17q22. The aim of the study was to analyze the molecular characteristic of DFSP in conjunction with histopathological and clinical features. We performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect chromosomal translocations and fusion gene transcripts in 16 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded DFSP samples. In addition, the amplification of PDGFB was also evaluated in the 16 DFSP samples by real-time PCR. FISH analysis revealed that all the 16 samples exhibited COL1A1-PDGFB gene fusion. Eleven out of 11 informative cases (100%) showed fusion transcripts by multiplex RT-PCR analysis. Various exons of the COL1A1 gene were fused with the PDGFB gene. Among them, exon 25 was found to be more frequently involved. Real-time PCR showed that the PDGFB copy number increase in the DFSP samples was higher than in normal skin tissues (p=0.007). Values of FISH fusion signals and PDGFB DNA analysis were variable between samples, but suggested that increased values might be associated with parameters of tumor progression. Our results confirm that analysis of the COL1A1-PDGFB status by FISH and RT-PCR is a useful tool in the confirmation of a DFSP diagnosis. In addition, the analysis of PDGFB copy number status may become a useful diagnostic marker since the gene is a potential target for treatment of DFSP patients.
UNLABELLED: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a locally aggressive mesenchymal neoplasm. It usually presents as an indurated plaque that protrudes above the surface of the skin. Some patients have clinically persistent plaques that might be atrophic. The atrophic variant of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans may be confused with some common skin diseases with atrophic appearance. We reported a 40-year-old woman who had a 10-year history of an atrophic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Molecular analysis showed a fusion between COL1A1 exon 31 to exon 2 of PDGFB. The lesion was totally excised, with negative margins of the resection demonstrated by CD34 immunostaining. To our knowledge, this is the second case of atrophic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans confirmed by detection of COL1A1-PDGFB fusion gene. This appears to be the first report of a fusion between COL1A1 exon 31 to exon 2 of PDGFB in atrophic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1249657688795311.
Zizi-Sermpetzoglou A, Savvaidou V, Fournogerakis S, et al. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the mons pubis. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2012; 33(5):537-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare fibrous tumor with intermediate malignant potential and in rare cases the vulva is involved. The most common clinical presentation is a firm plaque with surrounding red to blue discoloration, or less often with multiple small subcutaneous nodules. The authors present a case of a 66-year-old woman who came to the hospital complaining of longstanding painless nodules in the area of the mons pubis. On physical examination, a diffuse area of erythematous induration involving the mons pubis was recognized and within this area there were smaller nodules. The histological diagnosis was dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Microscopically DFSP has a storiform pattern of uniform cytologically bland spindle cells, with a characteristic honeycomb pattern of infiltration into the subcutaneous fat. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrates strong positivity for vimentin and CD34. The treatment has been through a wide local excision (WLE), although microscopic tumor projections beyond the central tumor nodule explain the tumors propensity for local recurrence.
King L, López-Terrada D, Jakacky J, et al. Primary intrathoracic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012; 36(12):1897-902 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is defined as a low-grade sarcoma derived from an uncertain cell of origin in the reticular dermis. We report a fibrosarcomatous variant of DFSP (FS-DFSP) that arose primarily in the deep thoracic soft tissue. The patient was a 9-year-old girl who presented with dyspnea and low-grade fevers without a clinically detectable mass or a history of skin lesion. Imaging studies revealed a 10-cm mass entirely confined within the thoracic cavity. Three years after a marginal excision with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the tumor recurred in the paraspinal region. Histologically, the primary and recurrent tumors comprised a high-grade spindle cell sarcoma, with a small component of storiform, low-grade, CD34-positive spindle cells, classic for an ordinary DFSP. The diagnosis of FS-DFSP was confirmed molecularly by the demonstration of a COL1A1-PDGFB fusion by fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of a genetically confirmed deep-seated DFSP without an associated superficial soft tissue or dermal component. The implication of this case on expanding the clinical spectrum of DFSP will have to be elucidated in future studies by applying molecular pathologic tools in deep-seated sarcomas in the proper morphologic context.
Messalli EM, D'Aponte ML, Luise R, et al. An apparently benign vulvar mass: possibly a rare malignancy. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2012; 33(4):441-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Vulvar dermatofibrosarcoma is a rare fibrous tumor of intermediate grade malignancy, with a tendency for local recurrence, and rarely metastasizes. Management should be multidisciplinary. This is a report of an apparently benign vulvar mass with delayed diagnosis of vulvar dermatofibrosarcoma. CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of a vulvar tumor lasting 16 years, although several gynecological procedures and a total laparoscopic hysterectomy had been performed two years before. During this long period the lesion did not change morphological features and remained asymptomatic. Only a benign vulvar mass was diagnosed. Then, the swelling became evident showing erythematous skin with an aspect of "peau d'orange", leading the patient to consult a specialist. A firm vulvar swelling was observed in the anterior third of right labia majora continuing with about 3 cm of cord on top, quite movable above the underlying tissue but not on the overlying tissue. A wide excision was performed. The pathological examination showed positive margins. One month later an extensive deeper excision was performed. Histology confirmed a diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry was strongly positive for CD34. CONCLUSION: Vulvar lesions always require complete pathologic examination even in case of features of benign tumor to exclude a dermatofibrosarcoma. The role of the pathologist is essential to ensure negative microscopic margins and to avoid local recurrence.
Chen YT, Chen WT, Huang WT, et al. Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-11 in dermatofibroma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2012; 28(10):545-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibroma (DF) and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) are the spindle cell mesenchymal neoplasms of the dermis and subcutis. Their histogenesis still remains uncertain and controversial. Traditionally, CD34 and factor XIIIa or other markers have been widely used to distinguish these two diseases. However, the results of these markers reveal overlapping and they lack specificity. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks were collected from the biopsied cases in Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital in Taiwan between 2004 and 2006. This study included 19 cases of DF and 17 cases of DFSP. Immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies CD34, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and MMP-11 was performed. We found that the expression of CD34, MMP-2 and MMP-11 shows significant statistical differences in Immunohistochemistry (IHC) study positive or negative reactivity (positive of CD34 in DFSP and positive of MMP-2 and MMP-11 in DF; p=0.03, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively) between DF and DFSP. The result for expression of MMP-9 reveals no differences. The results indicate that the pathogenesis of DF and DFSP are affected by different expressions of extracellular matrix proteins. Metalloproteinases may play a direct role in these two diseases. Since no single marker can completely distinguish DF from DFSP, a combination of more than two or three stains may elevate the accuracy of diagnosis.
Reinstadler DR, Sinha UK Uncommon cutaneous neoplasms of the head and neck. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2012; 20(4):483-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
This article concentrates on the less-common cutaneous malignancies such as merkel cell, atypical fibroxanthoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, and sebaceous carcinoma. The clinical and histopathologic descriptions of each, most current and emerging etiologies, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and prognosis are discussed.
Prasad V, Morris SF Propeller DICAP flap for a large defect on the back-case report and review of the literature. Microsurgery. 2012; 32(8):617-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reconstruction of large soft tissue defects of the back is a challenging problem. Large defects of the back were reconstructed with multiple random pattern or local pedicled muscle (and skin graft) or musculocutaneous flaps. The clinical use of perforator flaps has demonstrated that harvesting of flaps on a single perforator is possible for reconstruction of large defects. We present a 71-year-old male with a lesion on his left mid back that measured 10 × 10 × 4 cm(3) . Biopsy of the lesion was consistent with dermatofibrosarcoma protruberans. Wide local excision of the lesion with 4 cm margin was performed. The soft tissue defect, ~20 cm in diameter, was reconstructed with a large propeller dorsal intercostal artery perforator (DICAP) flap. The DICAP flap measured 40 × 15 cm(2) based on a single perforator-lateral branch of dorsal rami of the seventh posterior intercostal artery on the right side. The perforator flap was elevated at the subfascial level and transposed 180° into the defect. The donor site on the right side of the back was closed directly. This case illustrates the size of the propeller DICAP flap that could be safely harvested on a single perforator from the dorsal rami of the posterior intercostal artery. To our knowledge this is the largest reported pedicled perforator flap harvested on a single perforator on the posterior trunk.
Okada M, Ikeda M, Uemura T, et al. A propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery for reconstruction of a skin defect in the cervical region: a case report. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2013; 66(5):720-2 [PubMed] Related Publications
A propeller flap is useful for coverage of an adjacent skin defect without dissection back to source vessels and harvesting muscle tissues. The thoracoacromial artery is one of the vascular pedicles of the flaps for reconstruction in the cervical region. Use of a propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery has not previously been reported for reconstruction in the cervical region. We report a case in which a propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery was used for skin coverage after tumour resection in the cervical region together with an anatomical investigation. The propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery was harvested in the supine position, requiring no change in position after tumour resection. The skin defect was successfully reconstructed using the propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery with linear closure of the donor site. The propeller flap based on the thoracoacromial artery offers an alternative for reconstruction in the cervical region.
Foroozan M, Sei JF, Amini M, et al. Efficacy of Mohs micrographic surgery for the treatment of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: systematic review. Arch Dermatol. 2012; 148(9):1055-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE To summarize evidence about the recurrence of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) following Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Pascal, Biosis, CisMef, BDSP, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for the period January 1, 1995, to August 31, 2011. Search terms were Mohs micrographic surgery, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and their synonyms. No language restriction was used. STUDY SELECTION Two of us selected randomized controlled trials or nonrandomized trials comparing the recurrence of DFSP among patients undergoing MMS vs wide local excision. The search retrieved 384 references, of which 31 were reviewed in detail. DATA EXTRACTION Twenty-three nonrandomized trials (4 comparative and 19 noncomparative) were included, from which data were extracted by 2 of us independently. The methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. DATA SYNTHESIS Moderate-quality evidence (level B) was found for recurrence of DFSP after MMS (1.11%; 95% CI, 0.02%-6.03%) vs after wide local excision (6.32%, 95% CI, 3.19%-11.02%). A mean raw recurrence rate of 1.03% (95% CI, 0.37%-2.22%) was found after MMS among 19 nonrandomized noncomparative trials (low-quality evidence [level C]). The mean follow-up periods ranged from 26 to 127 months. The mean time to recurrence was 68 months. CONCLUSIONS A weak recommendation is given in favor of MMS or similar surgical techniques with meticulous histologic evaluation of all margins as the first-line therapy for DFSP, particularly in recurrence-prone regions. Attention should be given to longer than a 5-year follow-up period. High-quality trials with sufficient follow-up periods should be encouraged.
Orchard GE, Shams M Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: dealing with slow Mohs procedures employing formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissue in a busy diagnostic laboratory. Br J Biomed Sci. 2012; 69(2):56-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a relatively uncommon tumour that arises in the dermis and underlying soft tissue. Surgical removal is the preferred treatment, with relatively wide clearance margins of 3 cm or more. Slow Mohs procedures are often employed successfully to treat patients with such tumours. Slow Mohs procedures offer the benefit of improved cure rates and maximal tissue conservation. However, dealing with such tissue successfully presents the laboratory with a host of technical problems. This report advocates a set protocol to follow for slow Mohs, based on the experience acquired from dealing with 37 cases of DFSP over a 12-year period. The report establishes the benefits of slow Mohs paraffin wax-embedded tissue over frozen sections in terms of improved morphology, tissue preservation and immunocytochemical labelling with anti-CD34.
Yokoyama Y, Shimizu A, Okada E, et al. A rapid and efficient newly established method to detect COL1A1-PDGFB gene fusion in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012; 425(2):353-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The detection of fusion transcripts of the collagen type 1α1 (COL1A1) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGFB) genes by genetic analysis has recognized as a reliable and valuable molecular tool for the diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). To detect the COL1A1-PDGFB fusion, almost previous reports performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using multiplex forward primers from COL1A1. However, it has possible technical difficulties with respect to the handling of multiple primers and reagents in the procedure. The objective of this study is to establish a rapid, easy, and efficient one-step method of PCR using only a single primer pair to detect the fusion transcripts of the COL1A1 and PDGFB in DFSP. To validate new method, we compared the results of RT-PCR in five patients of DFSP between the previous method using multiplex primers and our established one-step RT-PCR using a single primer pair. In all cases of DFSP, the COL1A1-PDGFB fusion was detected by both previous method and newly established one-step PCR. Importantly, we detected a novel COL1A1 breakpoint in exon 5. The newly developed method is valuable to rapidly identify COL1A1-PDGFB fusion transcripts in DFSP.
Li X, Zhang W, Xiao L, et al. Computed tomographic and pathological findings of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2012 Jul-Aug; 36(4):462-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the computed tomographic (CT) and pathological findings of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans to improve the awareness and understanding of the tumors from aspect of CT images. METHODS: The CT findings of 16 cases (17 tumors) with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans confirmed by pathological findings were retrospectively selected. Fourteen cases were primary dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, 2 cases were recurrent tumors. Thirteen patients had CT plain and enhanced scans, 1 patient had direct enhanced CT scan, 2 patients had only unenhanced scan. Images of the tumors were analyzed and compared with pathological results. RESULTS: Of the 16 cases (17 tumors total), 9 cases were on the trunk, 7 cases were on the head and the neck; 15 cases appeared as solitary isohypodense, ovoid, or round mass at the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue, 1 case demonstrated 2 isodense masses on unenhanced CT images. The mean diameter of tumors was 4.0 cm, and the depth was 1.7 cm. The margin was well defined (n = 15 [88.2%]) or ill defined (n = 2 [11.8%]). Fifteen tumors revealed moderate or marked homogeneous (n = 12 [80%], smaller lesion, diameter <5 cm) or heterogeneous (n = 3 [20%], larger lesion, diameter ≥5 cm) enhancement on enhanced CT with intratumoral nonenhancement areas, which indicated intratumoral necrotic and cystic degeneration areas. No calcifications and metastasis were found. The histological examinations revealed large amounts of uniform spindle cells, which were arranged in "storiform" pattern. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed samples positive for CD34 and vimentin. CONCLUSION: The common imaging findings of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans include a solitary, superficial, subcutaneous solid mass, various homogenous or heterogeneous enhancements due to degenerative areas. Computed tomographic scan is helpful to detect the size, location, depth and range of this tumor.
Kornik RI, Muchard LK, Teng JM Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in children: an update on the diagnosis and treatment. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012 Nov-Dec; 29(6):707-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a fibrohistiocytic tumor of low grade malignant potential. Although rare, pediatric cases pose a particular challenge in diagnosis and management. In children, the clinical appearance may be heterogeneous and a high index of suspicion is necessary to avoid delays in diagnosis which can lead to further morbidity. Histologic examination, often with the use of appropriate immunostains, is necessary for diagnosis. Advances in the understanding of the molecular genetics of DFSP have led to further diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. DFSP is thought to result from a translocation between platelet-derived growth factor beta (PDGFB, 22q13.1) and type 1 collagen (COL1A1, 17q21≈22) leading to a fusion protein (PDGFB) which stimulates the PDGF receptor. Detection of this translocation in tissue via PCR or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be helpful in difficult cases. While surgery with wide local excision or Mohs micrographic surgery is the mainstay of treatment, the use of targeted therapy with imatanib mesylate shows promise in large or unresectable tumors. Knowledge of the clinical features, histology, genetics, and treatment options is important for successful management of these tumors.
Kim M, Cho KH, Lee JH, et al. Intratumoral mast cell number is negatively correlated with tumor size and mitosis in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Exp Dermatol. 2012; 21(7):559-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare cutaneous tumor with intermediate malignancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of p53, smooth muscle actin (SMA) and c-kit as immunohistochemical markers and toluidine blue staining for mast cell that can correlate with the clinical outcome and clarify role of mast cells in pathogenesis of tumor. We analysed data for 32 lesions from 31 patients. Fibrosarcomatous type DFSP showed high immunoreactivity for SMA compared with other subtypes (P = 0.026). No differences in p53 immunoreactivity were observed between subtypes. None of tumor cells were immunoreactive with c-kit. The mast cell counts showed a negative correlation with mitosis and tumor size (P < 0.05), implying that mast cells do not have a causative primary role in tumorigenesis but rather play a secondary role.
Kuzel P, Metelitsa AI, Dover DC, Salopek TG Epidemiology of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in Alberta, Canada, from 1988 to 2007. Dermatol Surg. 2012; 38(9):1461-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There have only been a few population-based, epidemiologic studies assessing dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiology of DFSP in Alberta, Canada, over a 20-year period. METHODS: A population-based, retrospective analysis of all cases of DFSP in Alberta was conducted using data from the Alberta Cancer Registry. Sex-, age-, and anatomical location-specific incidence rates and trends were determined. RESULTS: The overall age-standardized incidence rate of DFSP remained stable at 0.93 per 100,000. DFSP prevalence was highest in individuals aged 20 to 39 (46.8%), followed by those aged 40 to 59 (34.0%), 60 and older (14.7%), and lastly younger than 20 (4.5%). The mean age at diagnosis was 41.1 (women) and 43.1 (men). The incidence of DFSP in men and women has shown a dramatic shift such that incidence in women has increased 3.2% per year, whereas in men it has decreased 2.7% per year. In women, DFSP incidence increased on the trunk and decreased on the upper extremities. CONCLUSION: The age-standardized incidence of DFSP observed is nearly twice as high as previously reported and has remained stable. The incidence is increasing in women and decreasing in men. DFSP primarily affects young to middle-aged adults and most commonly presents on the trunk.