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Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans

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Skin Cancer

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Information for Health Professionals / Researchers (7 links)

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Socoliuc C, Zurac S, Andrei R, Stăniceanu F
Multiple Histological Subtypes of Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans Occurring in the Same Tumor.
Rom J Intern Med. 2015 Jan-Mar; 53(1):79-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) represents a low-grade cutaneous sarcoma which may have different histological aspects, presenting as a fibrosarcomatous, pigmented, juvenile, myxoid, atrophic, sclerosing or myoid lesion. Some of these subtypes may occur isolated or in association with one of the others creating hybrid lesions. We present the case of a 66 years old woman having a 4 cm diameter tumor located on the abdominal wall. Histopathological examination of the resection specimen revealed areas of typical DFSP associated with fibrosarcomatous transformation, myoid and myxoid areas. Also, focally, pleomorphic tumor cells and foreign-body type multinucleated giant cells were observed. Immunostains revealed CD34 positivity in typical DFSP and myxoid areas with negative staining of some of the tumor cells in fibrosarcomatous areas and negative staining of myoid areas. Smooth muscle actin was positive in myoid areas. The nature of myoid fascicles in DFSP is a matter of debate, being uncertain whether these represent a type of tumor differentiation or a reactive myoid proliferation. In this particular case, finding the association of myoid cells with blood vessel walls sustains their reactive nature. We present the morphological aspects of the different areas of the tumor with emphasis on differential diagnostic problems and clinical implications.

Wang C, Luo Z, Chen J, et al.
Target therapy of unresectable or metastatic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with imatinib mesylate: an analysis on 22 Chinese patients.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(17):e773 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, plaque-like tumor of the cutaneous tissue occurring more on the trunk than the extremities and neck. More than 95% of DFSP present anomalies on the 17q22 and 22q13 chromosomal regions leading to the fusion of COL1A1 and PDGFB genes. Surgery is the optimal treatment for DFSP, but less effective in locally advanced or metastatic patients, as is the case with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess retrospectively the therapeutic activity and safety of imatinib on 22 Chinese patients with locally inoperative or metastatic DFSP at a single institution.In the collected data of 367 Chinese patients with DFSP, we analyzed retrospectively 22 patients with locally advanced or metastatic DFSP, all of whom received imatinib therapy at 1 center from January 2009 to October 2014. Patients were administered with imatinib at an initial dose of 400 mg and escalated to 800 mg daily after they developed imatinib resistance. The median follow-up time was 36 months, and the median treatment time was 15 months.The results showed that 10 locally advanced DFSP patients and 12 metastatic DFSP patients received imatinib therapy. Apart from 1 patient who developed primary imatinib resistance, 15 patients achieved partial remission (PR), and 6 patients achieved stable disease (SD). Both fibrosarcomatous DFSP and classic DFSP patients demonstrated similar response to imatinib. Median PFS was estimated to be 19 months. Median overall survival (OS) has not been reached, and estimated 1- and 3-year OS rates were 95.5% (21/22) and 77.3% (17/22), respectively. Four out of 10 patients with primarily unresectable DFSP received complete surgical resection after neoadjuvant treatment of imatinib.Imatinib therapy is well tolerated with a safety profile and is the therapy of choice in locally inoperative or metastatic DFSP. Neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced or metastatic DFSP with imatinib improves surgical outcomes and may facilitate resection of difficult tumors.

Gilani S, Al-Khafaji B
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the vulva: a mesenchymal tumour with a broad differential diagnosis and review of literature.
Pathologica. 2014; 106(4):338-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a malignant cutaneous soft tissue tumour, which rarely presents in the vulva. We report an unusual case of this tumour involving the vulva. A 61-year-old female presented with a mass in the left mons pubis. Subsequent excisional biopsy of the mass was performed. Histologic evaluation of the specimen showed a spindle cell lesion consisting of fibroblast-like cells arranged in a storiform pattern. On average, there were 2 to 3 mitotic figures per 10 high power field (hpf). The neoplastic cells showed extension into the surrounding fibroadipose tissue. A panel of immunohistochemical stains including CD34, S-100, melan-A, HMB-45, vimentin and smooth muscle actin (SMA) were tested. The neoplastic cells showed diffuse staining with CD34 and vimentin, while the rest were negative. Based on the morphologic and immunohistochemical staining pattern, a diagnosis of DFSP was rendered. The patient underwent two subsequent resections before she had clear resection margins. The postoperative course was unremarkable. The patient is disease free without recurrence after a follow-up of 12 months. DFSP infrequently involves the vulva and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other spindle cell lesions presenting in this unusual site. The role of immunohistochemical staining with CD34 is imperative in establishing the diagnosis. The rate of local reoccurrence is high, but it rarely shows metastasis. Treatment of choice is wide local surgical excision with close follow-up to detect reoccur- rence.

Socoliuc C, Zurac S, Andrei R, Stăniceanu F
A review of morphological aspects in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with clinicopathological correlations.
Rom J Intern Med. 2014 Oct-Dec; 52(4):239-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans represents a rare malignant neoplasm involving the skin affecting all ages, frequently young adults. It is characterized by high rates of local recurrences after surgery and rare distant metastasis. Clinically it may present as a non-protuberant or a protuberant lesion, having a relative non-specific aspect mimicking a scar, morphea, a benign cyst or other skin tumor. Several clinicopathologic subtypes of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans have been described: fibrosarcomatous, pigmented, juvenile, myxoid, atrophic, sclerosing and myoid. Among these, the fibrosarcomatous variant stands out as the most aggressive subtype with higher risk of local recurrences and metastasis. All clinicopathologic variants have in common a characteristic microscopic pattern of infiltration into subcutaneous fat. However, this may be present on small areas or unavailable for examination on biopsy fragments. For this reason, the awareness of this variable morphology is essential for establishing a correct diagnosis and performing an optimal treatment.

Zheng Z, Piao J, Lee JH, et al.
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: a study of clinical, pathologic, genetic, and therapeutic features in Korean patients.
Yonsei Med J. 2015; 56(2):440-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) carries a translocation resulting in the collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1)-platelet-derived growth factor beta (PDGFB) fusion gene, which is responsible for PDGFB activation. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinicopathological, genetic, and therapeutic features of DFSP in Korean patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinicopathological features of 37 patients with DFSP were reviewed. Multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out in 16 patients using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues and specific primers for COL1A1 and PDGFB.
RESULTS: The mean age of 37 patients was 37.4 years old. The most common tumor location was the trunk. All patients were treated primarily with surgery: 34 (91.7%) cases with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) and 3 (8.3%) cases with wide local excision. The median follow-up time was 33.7 months. Two patients, one in each treatment group, demonstrated local recurrence during the follow-up period. The COL1A1-PDGFB fusion gene was expressed in 14 (87.5%) cases, demonstrated by reverse transcriptase PCR analysis. No association was found among the different COL1A1-PDGFB fusion transcripts, the various histological subtypes and clinical features.
CONCLUSION: Our results support the effectiveness of MMS in treating DFSP. The COL1A1-PDGFB fusion transcript was observed in 87.5% of patients. Therefore, COL1A1-PDGFB is a useful and accurate tool in diagnosing DFSP in Koreans.

Hoesly PM, Lowe GC, Lohse CM, et al.
Prognostic impact of fibrosarcomatous transformation in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: a cohort study.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015; 72(3):419-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, low-grade cutaneous malignancy that sometimes transforms into a high-grade fibrosarcomatous variant (DFSP-FS). Limited data compare clinical features and biological behavior of these 2 entities.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare clinical features and biological behavior of DFSP and DFSP-FS.
METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of ambulatory patients with DFSP or DFSP-FS treated between January 1955 and March 2012 in the dermatology department of a tertiary care academic medical center.
RESULTS: Of 188 patients, 171 (91%) had DFSP and 17 (9%) had DFSP-FS. Recurrence-free survival differed significantly between the groups over time (P = .002). The 1-year and 5-year recurrence-free survival was 94% and 86%, respectively, for DFSP, vs 86% and 42%, respectively, for DFSP-FS. Metastatic disease occurred in no patients with DFSP and in 18% (3 of 17) with DFSP-FS (P < .001). There were no statistically significant differences in age at diagnosis, sex, race, symptomatology, maximum tumor size, muscle/bone invasion, or duration of tumor before diagnosis.
LIMITATIONS: The retrospective nature of study was a limitation.
CONCLUSIONS: DFSP-FS exhibits more aggressive behavior than DFSP, with lower recurrence-free survival and greater metastatic potential. Their similar clinical presentation mandates histopathological differentiation for prognosis.

Gracia-Cazaña T, Pastushenko I, Concellón MA, Grasa MP
Deep dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in a ninety-year old-woman.
Dermatol Online J. 2014; 20(11) [PubMed] Related Publications
A 92-year-old woman was referred for the assesment of an asymptomatic subcutaneous tumor that developed after an accidental fall. The mass clinically and radiologically simulated a subcutaneous hematoma. Finally, the histological study was consistent with subcutaneous dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

Davis JL, Mathes E, Berry AB
FNA diagnosis of giant cell fibroblastoma: a case report of an unusual pediatric soft tissue tumor.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2015; 43(4):325-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Giant cell fibroblastoma (GCF) is a rare pediatric soft tissue tumor, which exists on a spectrum with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). Histologic features are well established for these entities; however, cytologic findings have not been well characterized. We report for the first time a case of GCF, confirmed by cytogenetics, with mixed DFSP features. In this case of an 8-month-old boy, a fine needle aspiration specimen showed a low-grade spindle cell tumor, with oval to spindled cells dispersed singly and in patternless groups, and with occasional giant cells. Subsequent histologic features were consistent with GCF, which is an uncommon, CD34 positive, soft tissue neoplasm with a distinct molecular aberration. This case emphasizes the differential diagnosis in pediatric soft tissue tumors and stresses the unique features of GCF.

Santos-Briz A, Riveiro-Falkenbach E, Román-Curto C, et al.
Braided pattern in a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: a potential mimicker of neural neoplasms.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2014; 36(11):920-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a dermal and subcutaneous slow-growing tumor of intermediate malignancy. Different histological variants of DFSP have been described, depending on cellular and stromal peculiarities. Here, we report the histological features of a DFSP in which cells were frequently arrayed in cords and fascicles that were interweaved, conforming a peculiar braided pattern. This finding might pose difficulties in the differential diagnosis with neural neoplasms and expands the morphological spectrum of DFSP.

Loghdey MS, Varma S, Rajpara SM, et al.
Mohs micrographic surgery for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP): a single-centre series of 76 patients treated by frozen-section Mohs micrographic surgery with a review of the literature.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2014; 67(10):1315-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare low-grade sarcoma that typically presents with local invasion but rarely metastasises. Surgical excision remains the first-line treatment for DFSP. There are no randomised controlled or prospective studies comparing wide local excision (WLE) with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS), but available evidence from the retrospective studies and case series available has consistently shown higher recurrence rates for standard surgery and WLE than for MMS. Combined recurrence rates of data within the last 20 years for WLE have been reported at 7.3% compared with 1.1% for MMS. Our aim was to review the clinical details and recurrence rates of DFSP cases treated with frozen-section MMS in our centre between 1996 and February 2013. The relevant data were collected from the case notes. It involved 76 patients with nine of these patients lost to follow-up. In the remaining 67 (67/76) cases, the recurrence rate was 1.5% during the mean follow-up period of 50 months (2-132). This is comparable to recurrence rates for the MMS in the literature [20,21]. Our series is the largest series for frozen-section MMS reported to date. Based on these findings and the current literature evidence, we advocate MMS as the treatment of choice for DFSP in all locations.

Tsai YJ, Lin PY, Chew KY, Chiang YC
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in children and adolescents: Clinical presentation, histology, treatment, and review of the literature.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2014; 67(9):1222-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare, low-grade malignant tumor. It is characterized by aggressive local infiltration, leading to a propensity for recurrence. In children, DFSP is even less common and likely misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. This study is a review of DFSP in the pediatric population and aims to identify factors for successful treatment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: From July of 1986 to 2011, a total of 159 patients were diagnosed with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan. Subject to the age classification of our institution, patients under the age of 18 are defined in the pediatric category, of which159 cases were identified as our research subjects. Detailed data, including demographic data, imaging studies, pathology, treatment methods, and outcomes, of these identified patients were collected, reviewed, and analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 13 patients, consisting of six male and seven female patients, were identified based on our criteria. Two had the lesions noticed at birth. Most patients experienced a variable period of quiescence, followed by a rapid growth phase. All 13 patients underwent wide excisions. Post-excision reconstruction included direct closure in three cases, skin grafting in three cases, and local or free flap reconstruction in seven cases. Of 13 patients, four received postoperative radiotherapy. All patients survived without recurrence up to July 2011, with follow-up periods ranging from 20 months to 19 years.
CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware that DFSP is known to occur among children. Owing to its relatively low incidence, its presence may be confused with commoner lesions such as hemangioma, fibroma, or atrophic plaques without nodule. The confusing situation, as a result, frequently leads to delayed diagnosis. Vigilance in its diagnosis allows for treatment at manageable sizes as well as ensures complete excision. Reconstructive options, such as skin grafting, and modalities, such as adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy, are suggested to best complement each other. The former minimizes disfigurement while the latter minimizes recurrences.

Bichakjian CK, Olencki T, Alam M, et al.
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, version 1.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2014; 12(6):863-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon soft tissue tumor characterized by a relatively high risk of local recurrence and low risk of metastasis. The NCCN Guidelines for DFSP provide multidisciplinary recommendations on the management of patients with this rare disease. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the addition of the Principles of Pathology section, which provides recommendations on the pathologic assessment of DFSP. Because DFSP can mimic other lesions, immunohistochemical studies are often required to establish diagnosis. Cytogenetic testing for the characteristic translocation t(17;22)(q22;q13) can also be valuable in the differential diagnosis of DFSP with other histologically similar tumors.

Franco JP, Barbosa CC, Fonseca BF, et al.
Case for diagnosis. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
An Bras Dermatol. 2014 Mar-Apr; 89(2):357-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a fibrohistiocytic tumor of intermediate malignancy with aggressive localized growth, high recurrence rate, but low metastatic potential. It appears as a hardened plaque, with slow growth, upon which the development of nodules occurs. It predominates in the trunk and is unusual in acral locations. Histopathology reveals spindle cells with storiform pattern and cartwheel-like or whirlwind-like aspect. Immunohistochemistry shows positivity for CD34. The treatment is surgical. We report a case of long evolution, with an unusual location, that relapsed after surgery, to emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and proper treatment, avoiding aggressive resections with increased morbidity.

Liang CA, Jambusaria-Pahlajani A, Karia PS, et al.
A systematic review of outcome data for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with and without fibrosarcomatous change.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014; 71(4):781-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, no systematic review of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) outcomes based on the presence or absence of fibrosarcomatous (FS) change has been performed.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare available outcome data for DFSP versus DFSP-FS.
METHODS: The literature was searched for DFSP and DFSP-FS reports with outcome data (local recurrence, metastasis, or death from disease). Chi-square tests were calculated to determine whether DFSP and DFSP-FS significantly differed in risk of local recurrence, metastasis, and death from disease.
RESULTS: In all, 24 reports containing 1422 patients with DFSP and 225 with DFSP-FS are summarized. Risk of local recurrence, metastasis, and death from disease in DFSP-FS was significantly higher as compared with DFSP (local recurrence 29.8% vs 13.7%, risk ratio 2.2 [95% confidence interval 1.7-2.9]; metastasis 14.4% vs 1.1%, risk ratio 5.5 [95% confidence interval 4.3-7.0]; and death from disease 14.7% vs 0.8%, risk ratio 6.2 [95% confidence interval 5.0-7.8]). There was no significant difference in DFSP-FS outcomes based on proportion of FS change within tumors.
LIMITATIONS: This study is based on previously reported data from different hospitals with no uniform process for reporting FS change. The impact of confounders (age, immune status, tumor location, treatment) could not be evaluated because of limited data.
CONCLUSION: Based on available retrospective data, risk of metastasis and death is elevated in DFSP-FS as compared with DFSP. Even a low degree of FS involvement portends worse outcomes.

Takahashi Y, Kohashi K, Yamada Y, et al.
Activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in myxofibrosarcomas.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(5):984-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays important roles in modulating cellular function in response to extracellular signals such as growth factors and cytokines. The Akt/mTOR signaling pathway is activated in certain kinds of sarcomas. Myxofibrosarcoma is a soft tissue sarcoma, characterized by abundant myxoid stroma and frequent local recurrence. Here, we conducted a large-scale examination of the clinicopathological and activation statuses of the Akt/mTOR pathways in myxofibrosarcoma. The phosphorylation status of Akt, mTOR, S6 ribosomal protein, and the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein, and mitogen-activated protein kinase were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 101 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, including 68 primary tumors in myxofibrosarcoma. Immunohistochemical expressions were confirmed by Western blotting with 20 frozen samples, which were paired with normal tissue samples. PIK3CA and AKT1 gene mutations were also analyzed using 12 primary tumor frozen samples. Immunohistochemically, phosphorylations of Akt, mTOR, S6 ribosomal protein, 4E-binding protein, and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 were observed in 64.7%, 45.6%, 42.6%, 63.2%, and 64.7% of samples. Phosphorylated Akt/mTOR pathway proteins were correlated with one another and were also correlated with the phosphorylation of these proteins in the concordant recurrent tumors. Immunoblotting showed a high degree of phosphorylation in tumor samples, compared with that in normal tissue samples. Activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway was correlated with histologic grade and tumor progression. Mutational analysis failed to reveal any PIK3CA or AKT1 mutations around the hot spots. Activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway was associated with histologic malignancy and tumor progression in primary and recurrent myxofibrosarcoma.

Afroz N, Shamim N, Jain A, Soni M
Coexistence of giant cell fibroblastoma and encephalocele.
BMJ Case Rep. 2014; 2014 [PubMed] Related Publications
Giant cell fibroblastoma (GCF) is a rare soft tissue tumour that occurs almost exclusively in children younger than 10 years of age and is mostly located in the superficial soft tissues of the back and thighs. We present a rare case of GCF with encephalocele in a 1.5-year-old boy who presented with a swelling in the occipital area of the scalp since birth. CT scan suggested encephalocele without any suspicion of a mass lesion. On histopathology, an ill-defined proliferation of fibroblasts in a heavily collagenised and focally myxoid stroma was seen containing numerous multinucleated cells having a floret-like appearance along with mature glial tissue bordering a cystic space. Immunohistochemically, the stromal cells were positive for both, vimentin (diffuse) and CD34 (focal) thereby confirming the histological diagnosis of GCF. This case highlights the unusual coexistence of GCF with congenital defects and its histogenetic resemblance to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

Rutkowski P, Przybył J, Świtaj T
Genetics of rare mesenchymal tumors: implications for targeted treatment in DFSP, ASPS, CCS, GCTB and PEComa.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 53:466-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Soft tissue and bone sarcomas comprise a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors that include roughly 130 distinct diagnostic entities. Many of them are exceptionally rare, with only few cases diagnosed worldwide each year. Development of novel targeted treatment in this group of tumors is of special importance since many sarcoma subtypes are resistant to conventional chemotherapy and the effective therapeutic options are limited. In this review we aim to discuss the molecular implications for targeted therapy in selected rare soft tissue and bone sarcoma subtypes, including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP), alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS), clear cell sarcoma (CCS), giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) and perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas). This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Rare cancers.

Stamatakos M, Fyllos A, Siafogianni A, et al.
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: a rare entity and review of the literature.
J BUON. 2014 Jan-Mar; 19(1):34-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an uncommon malignant mesenchymal tumor. The incidence of DFSP is 0.1% of all cancers and less than 2% of all soft tissue sarcomas (STS). It can appear at any age, most commonly in individuals aged between 20 and 50 years. The usual location of DFSP is the trunk and it is limited to the dermis. Wide radical excision is the preferred surgical method for therapy of DFSP without distant metastasis. The probability of regional or distant metastases is less than 5%. Patients with positive or close surgical margins have an elevated risk of local recurrence after resection. Adjuvant radiotherapy administered either before or after the surgical treatment reduces the risk of local recurrence.

Kajihara I, Jinnin M, Harada M, et al.
miR-205 down-regulation promotes proliferation of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans tumor cells by regulating LRP-1 and ERK phosphorylation.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2014; 306(4):367-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is an intermediate malignancy of the skin. Although COL1A1/PDGFB fusion gene was identified in the tumor cells recently, not all of the cases were positive for the fusion gene, and further researches are still needed to clarify the pathogenesis of DFSP. In this study, we investigated the role of microRNAs in the tumor. microRNA PCR array showed several microRNAs increased or decreased in DFSP in vivo compared with dermatofibroma (DF) and normal skin. Among them, the expression of miR-205 was down-regulated in DFSP compared with DF and normal skin. In situ hybridization showed that miR-205 expression was evident in dermal fibroblasts of normal skin although hardly detected in tumor cells of DF or DFSP. miR-205 inhibitor increased cell proliferation and the luciferase activity of 3'UTR of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) in cultured normal dermal fibroblasts. Immunohistochemistry showed the expression of LRP-1 was increased in DFSP tissue. Knockdown of LRP-1 suppressed cell growth and down-regulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation without affecting MEK phosphorylation in cultured DFSP cells. Taken together, LRP-1 overexpression caused by the miR-205 down-regulation may play a role in the abnormal proliferation of DFSP cells via directly regulating ERK phosphorylation.

Akita S, Mitsukawa N, Rikihisa N, et al.
Reconstruction of the great toe using a pedicled medial plantar flap with anterograde venous drainage.
Microsurgery. 2014; 34(5):398-403 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Reconstruction of the great toe defect is difficult. The most distal point of the rotation arc of a retrograde-flow medial plantar flap is the plantar side of the proximal phalanx. The purpose of this report was to present a new procedure that extends the rotation arc of this flap. Results of anatomic study and application in two patients were presented.
METHODS: An anatomical study was conducted on 10 freshly frozen cadavers to determine the rotation arc of the medial plantar flap based distally on the lateral plantar vessels. To enable anterograde venous drainage, two accompanying veins of the vascular pedicle were separated and anastomosed to each other. This surgical procedure was implemented in two clinical cases with the great toe defect. The maximum size of the elevated flap was 4 × 7 cm. The status of venous congestion of the flap was determined using the blood glucose measurement index.
RESULTS: We confirmed that the rotation arc of the medial plantar flap based distally on the lateral plantar vessels could reach the tip of the great toe, preserving all lateral plantar nerves and plantar metatarsal arteries. In the two cases, the congestion of the flap improved with anterograde venous drainage and the flaps survived completely.
CONCLUSION: A pedicled medial plantar flap with anterograde venous drainage may be a useful alternative option for the reconstruction of relatively large great toe defects.

Xu J, Li J, Zhou X, et al.
Cryotherapy for local recurrent dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: experience in 19 patients.
Cryobiology. 2014; 68(1):134-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a locally aggressive, cutaneous, malignant tumor characterized by a high propensity for local relapse. Wide and deep local excision with reconstructive surgery is the current standard therapy for DFSP, with a local recurrence rate (LRR) of nearly 40%. In this study, we cured 19 patients with local recurrence of DFSP with 39 sessions of percutaneous cryoablation performed between July 2004 and August 2008. The LRRs after one, two and three cryosurgery sessions per patient were 68%, 54% and 0%, respectively. Moreover, the LRR did not differ with tumor location or size. Furthermore, all patients had a progression-free survival of >5 years. Only minor complications such as fever, local edema, mild nerve injury and local pain occurred, and were resolved within 1 week with symptomatic treatment. In our experience, percutaneous cryoablation is a relatively safe and efficient technique for the treatment of local recurrence of DFSPs.

Park HJ, Nguyen JV, Miller CJ, et al.
Follicular induction overlying a dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2014; 36(2):186-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The term "induction" has been used to describe epidermal changes overlying a dermatofibroma (DF). Follicular induction is most often associated with DF, but can be observed in other lesions, including focal mucinosis, nevus sebaceous, seborrheic keratosis, wart, neurofibroma, and scars. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a malignant fibrohistiocytic tumor that may be difficult to distinguish from DF. In contrast to DF, the epidermis overlying DFSP is usually attenuated or ulcerated. Here, we report a case of DFSP exhibiting follicular induction of the overlying epidermis. This epidermal change has been rarely reported in DFSP and may present a diagnostic pitfall in superficially sampled lesions.

Chu MB, Dhandha M, Guo A
Coexistent dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and anticonvulsant-induced cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia: diagnostic challenge.
BMJ Case Rep. 2013; 2013 [PubMed] Related Publications
A 60-year-old African-American male patient with a history of seizures, developmental delay, long history of behavioural issues with psychotic episodes, heart, liver, thyroid and kidney diseases presented for evaluation of a right neck skin lesion. Physical examination revealed a shiny purplish-red plaque on the right neck and a thin pink plaque on the posterior neck. The lesions were similar in appearance, but different enough to warrant skin biopsy of each. Pathology demonstrated mycosis fungoides (MF) on the right neck and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) on the posterior neck. The identification of two rare conditions made us reconsider our diagnosis. After further review, the right neck skin lesion was thought to be anticonvulsant-induced cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, not MF. This case demonstrates how insufficient skin biopsy can have significant clinical consequences. Biopsy of the right neck only would have overlooked a DFSP and incorrectly given the patient a diagnosis of MF.

Kazlouskaya V, Malhotra S, Kabigting FD, et al.
CD99 expression in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and dermatofibroma.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2014; 36(5):392-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Differentiating between dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) and hypercellular dermatofibroma (DF) can sometimes be challenging, and a panel of immunostains is often employed. Expression of conventional markers oftentimes overlaps. We evaluated CD99 expression in DFSP and DF and its utility in distinction between these 2 entities.
METHODS: CD99 immunostaining was performed on 34 DFSPs and 24 hypercellular DFs. The intensity of staining was graded as "weak," "moderate," or "strong," and the proportion of positive cells was graded as follows: "scattered" when individual cells comprised <5% of the total cellularity of the lesion; "focal" with >5% but <25% of the cells; or "diffusely distributed" with staining of >25% of lesional spindle cells.
RESULTS: Overall, DFSPs showed positive CD99 staining in 21 (61.76%) cases. Moderate and weak patterns of staining were the most frequent, seen in 13 (38.2%) and 7 (20.6%) cases, respectively. CD99 staining in DFSPs was predominantly scattered or patchy (4 and 11 lesions respectively) with less than 25% of cells expressing CD99. In comparison, all 24 DF cases showed strong CD99 positivity in >25% of the spindle cell component (P = 0.0003). The most striking difference related to the distribution of staining. In DFSP, tumor cells in the superficial dermis, when present, were always CD99 negative. In contrast, DF cells in the superficial dermis always demonstrated strong CD99 positivity.
CONCLUSIONS: DF strongly expresses CD99 in a diffuse pattern that may serve as evidence in distinction from DFSP. As the differences in staining were most pronounced in the superficial portions of the tumor, CD99 staining may be well suited to superficial biopsy specimens, where distinction in hematoxylin and eosin sections may be most problematic.

Longo B, Paolini G, Belli E, et al.
Wide excision and anterolateral thigh perforator flap reconstruction for dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans of the face.
J Craniofac Surg. 2013; 24(6):e597-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a rare cutaneous malignant tumor associated with a high cure rate but with a high incidence of local recurrence. Because of its tentacle-like subcutaneous infiltrating pattern that extends far beyond the clinically visible skin lesion, a wide resection margin is recommended. Hence, its localization to the head-and-neck regions, although rare, represents a real challenge for both the oncologic surgeon and the reconstructive surgeon, who aim to achieve a radical resection of the tumor with the best possible aesthetic outcome.A case of a 21-year-old Mediterranean man who presented with a 7-month history of a slowly growing subcutaneous lesion of the left preauricular region is reported. A diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans CD34+ was confirmed through surgical biopsy, and the patient subsequently underwent a wide en bloc local surgical resection, followed by anterolateral thigh perforator free flap reconstruction. Healing was uneventful. Initially, there was some facial nerve neurapraxia; however, this completely subsided within 3 months after the surgery. At the 13-month follow-up, the patient was completely well and free from the disease.

Ugurel S, Mentzel T, Utikal J, et al.
Neoadjuvant imatinib in advanced primary or locally recurrent dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: a multicenter phase II DeCOG trial with long-term follow-up.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(2):499-510 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare cutaneous tumor. COL1A1-PDGFB gene fusion is frequent in DFSP, rendering tumor cell proliferation and survival dependent on PDGFRβ (platelet-derived growth factor receptor β) signaling. This trial investigated imatinib as neoadjuvant treatment of DFSP, including long-term follow-up.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The primary endpoint of this multicenter phase II trial was response; secondary endpoints were safety, tumor relapse, and response biomarkers. Patients with advanced primary or locally recurrent DFSP and measurable disease by RECIST (response evaluation criteria in solid tumors) were eligible and received imatinib 600 mg/d until definitive surgery with histopathologic proof of tumor-free margins.
RESULTS: Sixteen patients received imatinib, and 14 patients were evaluable for all endpoints. Median treatment duration was 3.1 months; median tumor shrinkage was 31.5%. Best overall response was 7.1% complete response (CR), 50.0% partial response (PR), 35.7% stable disease, and 7.1% progressive disease (PD). Toxicity was moderate with 25.0% grade 3 and 4 events. During a median follow-up of 6.4 years, one patient developed secondary resistance to imatinib but responded to second-line sunitinib. This patient also presented local recurrence, distant metastasis, and death from DFSP. Exploratory analysis showed that response to imatinib was associated with decreased tumor cellularity and formation of strong hyalinic fibrosis. Weak PDGFRB phosphorylation and pigmented-type DFSP were associated with nonresponse. Additional to PDGFRB, the kinases EGFR and insulin receptor were found activated in a high percentage of DFSPs.
CONCLUSION: The neoadjuvant use of imatinib 600 mg/d in DFSP is efficacious and well tolerated. Long-term follow-up results do not definitely support smaller surgical margins after successful imatinib pretreatment, and presume that secondary resistance to imatinib might promote accelerated disease progression.

West KL, Cardona DM, Su Z, Puri PK
Immunohistochemical markers in fibrohistiocytic lesions: factor XIIIa, CD34, S-100 and p75.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2014; 36(5):414-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The distinction between dermatofibroma (DF), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP), and other benign and malignant cutaneous spindle cell lesions frequently requires immunohistochemical staining. CD34 and factor XIIIa are the most commonly used immunostains; however, they may exhibit aberrant expression and introduce the potential for misdiagnosis. There is some data supporting that p75 and S100A6 may be additional helpful immunohistochemical markers.
METHODS: We undertook a large case series examining the use of CD34 and factor XIIIa as well as p75 and S100A6 in DF, cellular DF, DFSP, indeterminate fibrohistiocytic lesion, and scar.
RESULTS: As expected, CD34 stained DFSP, although it was usually negative in DF. Factor XIIIa was generally positive in DF and negative in DFSP. There were exceptions in both cases of DF and DFSP. S100A6 was routinely negative in all entities studied. P75 was negative in all cases except DFSP, approximately half of which showed weak and/or patchy positivity.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that to date, CD34 and factor XIIIa remain the most reliable immunohistochemical markers for DF and DFSP.

Kokkinos C, Sorkin T, Powell B
To Mohs or not to Mohs.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2014; 67(1):23-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The preferred method of treatment of Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberance (DFSP) is surgery. Clear margins are achieved by wide local excision (WLE) or by Mohs micrographic surgery. Mohs surgery and reconstruction always requires two or more procedures. This study aims to assess the ability of WLE to accomplish clear histopathological margins and low recurrence rate with a single procedure. We present our results from ten years experience of wide local excision.
METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data of all cases of DFSP treated with WLE by a single operator in our department between 2002 and 2012.
RESULTS: Twenty patients were identified. The surgical excision and reconstruction were performed on the same day in all cases. The mean histological peripheral margin was 17 mm and the deep 9 mm. There was no incomplete excision and no recurrence recorded. There were no postoperative complications or tumour recurrences reported for an average period of 5.6 years follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Mohs surgery offers clear histological margins but requires multiple patient visits to achieve complete excision and later reconstruction. We show that WLE can achieve these in one procedure, the excision margins making little difference when planning the eventual reconstruction.

Pallure V, Dupin N, Guillot B,
Surgical treatment of Darier-Ferrand dermatofibrosarcoma: a systematic review.
Dermatol Surg. 2013; 39(10):1417-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Wide-excision surgery is required in Darier-Ferrand dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, but there is no consensus regarding the lateral margins.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic review based on a MEDLINE search of articles, published from 1994 to 2009 to determine the optimal procedure to avoid recurrences and treatment morbidity.
RESULTS: The analyzed articles included five meta-analyses of retrospective studies; three prospective, nonrandomized studies; and 35 retrospective studies.
DISCUSSION: Positive deep margins may lead to a recurrence independent of lateral margin status. Despite an absence of formal evidence, wide excision with 3-cm margins appears to result in significantly less risk of a recurrence than surgery using <3-cm margins. Negative histologic margins appear to be the best criterion to decrease recurrence. Despite a lack of strong data, there was a marked tendency of Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) to produce better results than conventional surgery. If MMS is unavailable, surgery using 3-cm lateral margins and a disease-free anatomic zone deep into the lesion is proposed. Slow Mohs could be a safe alternative to MMS when the latter technique is not available. Patients should be followed for a minimum of 10 years and preferably indefinitely.

Lau YN, Affleck AG, Edwards SL, et al.
A bruise-like patch in a 4-year-old girl.
Dermatol Online J. 2013; 19(9):19612 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP), a rare medium grade sarcoma, occasionally occurs in childhood and is even more rarely present at birth. In children, the clinical appearance may be mistaken for a vascular malformation and so delayed diagnosis is not uncommon. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is locally invasive and notorious for its high recurrence rate even after attempted wide local excision owing to extensive subclinical and asymmetrical extensions. In adult DFSP, Mohs Micrographic Surgery (MMS) is the treatment of choice because it offers a higher clearance rate compared to wide local excision. However, MMS may result in extended operating times owing to tissue processing and multiple stages. In children, this means a prolonged period under general anesthetic, which may be undesirable. We describe an interesting case of a 4- year-old girl diagnosed with DFSP. She underwent a modified MMS procedure in which she had two short general anesthetics. The advantage of MMS technique in which the full peripheral and deep margin of the specimen was examined.

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