Gene Summary

Gene:HMGN2P46; high mobility group nucleosomal binding domain 2 pseudogene 46
Aliases: D-PCa-2, C15orf21
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Prostate
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Base Sequence
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • HMGN2 Protein
  • Transcription
  • Chromosome 15
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Tumor Antigens
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Case-Control Studies
  • HMGN2P46
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HMGN2P46 (cancer-related)

Zhang XM, Ma ZW, Wang Q, et al.
A new RNA-seq method to detect the transcription and non-coding RNA in prostate cancer.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2014; 20(1):43-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is a big killer in many regions especially American men, and this year, the diagnosed rate rises rapidly. We aimed to find the biomarker or any changing in prostate cancer patients. With the development of next generation sequencing, much genomic alteration has been found. Here, basing on the RNA-seq result of human prostate cancer tissue, we tried to find the transcription or non-coding RNA expressed differentially between normal tissue and prostate cancer tissue. 10 T sample data is the RNA-seq data for prostate cancer tissue in this study, we found the differential gene is TFF3-Trefoil factor 3, which was more than seven fold change from prostate cancer tissue to normal tissue, and the most outstanding transcript is C15orf21. Additionally, 9 lncRNAs were found according our method. Finally, we found the many important non-coding RNA related to prostate cancer, some of them were long non-coding RNA (lncRNA).

Barros-Silva JD, Paulo P, Bakken AC, et al.
Novel 5' fusion partners of ETV1 and ETV4 in prostate cancer.
Neoplasia. 2013; 15(7):720-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gene fusions involving the erythroblast transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors ERG, ETV1, ETV4, ETV5, and FLI1 are a common feature of prostate carcinomas (PCas). The most common upstream fusion partner described is the androgen-regulated prostate-specific gene TMPRSS2, most frequently with ERG, but additional 5' fusion partners have been described. We performed 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends in 18 PCas with ETV1, ETV4, or ETV5 outlier expression to identify the 5' fusion partners. We also evaluated the exon-level expression profile of these ETS genes in 14 cases. We identified and confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction the two novel chimeric genes OR51E2-ETV1 and UBTF-ETV4 in two PCas. OR51E2 encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor that is overexpressed in PCas, whereas UBTF is a ubiquitously expressed gene encoding an HMG-box DNA-binding protein involved in ribosome biogenesis. We additionally describe two novel gene fusion combinations of previously described genes, namely, SLC45A3-ETV4 and HERVK17-ETV4. Finally, we found one PCa with TMPRSS2-ETV1, one with C15orf21-ETV1, one with EST14-ETV1, and two with 14q133-q21.1-ETV1. In nine PCas (eight ETV1 and one ETV5), exhibiting ETS outlier expression and genomic rearrangement detected by FISH, no 5' fusion partner was found. Our findings contribute significantly to characterize the heterogeneous group of ETS gene fusions and indicate that all genes described as 5' fusion partners with one ETS gene can most likely be rearranged with any of the other ETS genes involved in prostate carcinogenesis.

Wu C, Wyatt AW, Lapuk AV, et al.
Integrated genome and transcriptome sequencing identifies a novel form of hybrid and aggressive prostate cancer.
J Pathol. 2012; 227(1):53-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Next-generation sequencing is making sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology viable. We selected an individual initially diagnosed with conventional but aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma and sequenced the genome and transcriptome from primary and metastatic tissues collected prior to hormone therapy. The histology-pathology and copy number profiles were remarkably homogeneous, yet it was possible to propose the quadrant of the prostate tumour that likely seeded the metastatic diaspora. Despite a homogeneous cell type, our transcriptome analysis revealed signatures of both luminal and neuroendocrine cell types. Remarkably, the repertoire of expressed but apparently private gene fusions, including C15orf21:MYC, recapitulated this biology. We hypothesize that the amplification and over-expression of the stem cell gene MSI2 may have contributed to the stable hybrid cellular identity. This hybrid luminal-neuroendocrine tumour appears to represent a novel and highly aggressive case of prostate cancer with unique biological features and, conceivably, a propensity for rapid progression to castrate-resistance. Overall, this work highlights the importance of integrated analyses of genome, exome and transcriptome sequences for basic tumour biology, sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology.

Williams RM, Naz RK
Novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2010; 2:677-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the Western male population and the second leading cause of cancer death in men, affecting over 10 million individuals. Present approaches to control the cancer mortality have focused on the detection of the cancer at early stages when it is still locally confined and may be curable. Identification of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has facilitated the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, PSA has limited specificity and sensitivity in appropriately detecting early stages of abnormal prostate growth. PSA levels fail to differentiate between indolent and aggressive cancers, do not correlate with tumor size, and cross-react with other serine proteases namely, glandular kallikreins 1 and 2. Besides cancer, its levels also increase in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis, and other non-malignancies. Additional prostate-specific genes and metabolites need to be identified to provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of prostate physiology and pathophysiology. Novel markers for the diagnosis and development of new treatment modalities are urgently needed.

Han B, Mehra R, Dhanasekaran SM, et al.
A fluorescence in situ hybridization screen for E26 transformation-specific aberrations: identification of DDX5-ETV4 fusion protein in prostate cancer.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(18):7629-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recurrent gene fusions involving E26 transformation-specific (ETS) transcription factors ERG, ETV1, ETV4, or ETV5 have been identified in 40% to 70% of prostate cancers. Here, we used a comprehensive fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) split probe strategy interrogating all 27 ETS family members and their five known 5' fusion partners in a cohort of 110 clinically localized prostate cancer patients. Gene rearrangements were only identified in ETS genes that were previously implicated in prostate cancer gene fusions including ERG, ETV1, and ETV4 (43%, 5%, and 5%, respectively), suggesting that a substantial fraction of prostate cancers (estimated at 30-60%) cannot be attributed to an ETS gene fusion. Among the known 5' gene fusion partners, TMPRSS2 was rearranged in 47% of cases followed by SLC45A3, HNRPA2B1, and C15ORF21 in 2%, 1%, and 1% of cases, respectively. Based on this comprehensive FISH screen, we have made four noteworthy observations. First, by screening the entire ETS transcription factor family for rearrangements, we found that a large fraction of prostate cancers (44%) cannot be ascribed to an ETS gene fusion, an observation which will stimulate research into identifying recurrent non-ETS aberrations in prostate cancers. Second, we identified SLC45A3 as a novel 5' fusion partner of ERG; previously, TMPRSS2 was the only described 5' partner of ERG. Third, we identified two prostate-specific, androgen-induced genes, FLJ35294 and CANT1, as 5' partners to ETV1 and ETV4. Fourth, we identified a ubiquitously expressed, androgen-insensitive gene, DDX5, fused in frame with ETV4, leading to the expression of a DDX5-ETV4 fusion protein.

Attard G, Clark J, Ambroisine L, et al.
Heterogeneity and clinical significance of ETV1 translocations in human prostate cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2008; 99(2):314-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) assay has been used to screen for ETV1 gene rearrangements in a cohort of 429 prostate cancers from patients who had been diagnosed by trans-urethral resection of the prostate. The presence of ETV1 gene alterations (found in 23 cases, 5.4%) was correlated with higher Gleason Score (P=0.001), PSA level at diagnosis (P=<0.0001) and clinical stage (P=0.017) but was not linked to poorer survival. We found that the six previously characterised translocation partners of ETV1 only accounted for 34% of ETV1 re-arrangements (eight out of 23) in this series, with fusion to the androgen-repressed gene C15orf21 representing the commonest event (four out of 23). In 5'-RACE experiments on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissue we identified the androgen-upregulated gene ACSL3 as a new 5'-translocation partner of ETV1. These studies report a novel fusion partner for ETV1 and highlight the considerable heterogeneity of ETV1 gene rearrangements in human prostate cancer.

Helgeson BE, Tomlins SA, Shah N, et al.
Characterization of TMPRSS2:ETV5 and SLC45A3:ETV5 gene fusions in prostate cancer.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(1):73-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recurrent gene fusions involving oncogenic ETS transcription factors (including ERG, ETV1, and ETV4) have been identified in a large fraction of prostate cancers. The most common fusions contain the 5' untranslated region of TMPRSS2 fused to ERG. Recently, we identified additional 5' partners in ETV1 fusions, including TMPRSS2, SLC45A3, HERV-K_22q11.23, C15ORF21, and HNRPA2B1. Here, we identify ETV5 as the fourth ETS family member involved in recurrent gene rearrangements in prostate cancer. Characterization of two cases with ETV5 outlier expression by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends identified one case with a TMPRSS2:ETV5 fusion and one case with a SLC45A3:ETV5 fusion. We confirmed the presence of these fusions by quantitative PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization. In vitro recapitulation of ETV5 overexpression induced invasion in RWPE cells, a benign immortalized prostatic epithelial cell line. Expression profiling and an integrative molecular concepts analysis of RWPE-ETV5 cells also revealed the induction of an invasive transcriptional program, consistent with ERG and ETV1 overexpression in RWPE cells, emphasizing the functional redundancy of ETS rearrangements. Together, our results suggest that the family of 5' partners previously identified in ETV1 gene fusions can fuse with other ETS family members, suggesting numerous rare gene fusion permutations in prostate cancer.

Tomlins SA, Laxman B, Dhanasekaran SM, et al.
Distinct classes of chromosomal rearrangements create oncogenic ETS gene fusions in prostate cancer.
Nature. 2007; 448(7153):595-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, we identified recurrent gene fusions involving the 5' untranslated region of the androgen-regulated gene TMPRSS2 and the ETS (E26 transformation-specific) family genes ERG, ETV1 or ETV4 in most prostate cancers. Whereas TMPRSS2-ERG fusions are predominant, fewer TMPRSS2-ETV1 cases have been identified than expected on the basis of the frequency of high (outlier) expression of ETV1 (refs 3-13). Here we explore the mechanism of ETV1 outlier expression in human prostate tumours and prostate cancer cell lines. We identified previously unknown 5' fusion partners in prostate tumours with ETV1 outlier expression, including untranslated regions from a prostate-specific androgen-induced gene (SLC45A3) and an endogenous retroviral element (HERV-K_22q11.23), a prostate-specific androgen-repressed gene (C15orf21), and a strongly expressed housekeeping gene (HNRPA2B1). To study aberrant activation of ETV1, we identified two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and MDA-PCa 2B, that had ETV1 outlier expression. Through distinct mechanisms, the entire ETV1 locus (7p21) is rearranged to a 1.5-megabase prostate-specific region at 14q13.3-14q21.1 in both LNCaP cells (cryptic insertion) and MDA-PCa 2B cells (balanced translocation). Because the common factor of these rearrangements is aberrant ETV1 overexpression, we recapitulated this event in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that ETV1 overexpression in benign prostate cells and in the mouse prostate confers neoplastic phenotypes. Identification of distinct classes of ETS gene rearrangements demonstrates that dormant oncogenes can be activated in prostate cancer by juxtaposition to tissue-specific or ubiquitously active genomic loci. Subversion of active genomic regulatory elements may serve as a more generalized mechanism for carcinoma development. Furthermore, the identification of androgen-repressed and insensitive 5' fusion partners may have implications for the anti-androgen treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

Weigle B, Kiessling A, Ebner R, et al.
D-PCa-2: a novel transcript highly overexpressed in human prostate and prostate cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2004; 109(6):882-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of genes selectively expressed in tumors or individual tissues is a crucial prerequisite for molecular diagnosis and treatment of cancer by addressing molecular targets. By screening an expression database, we identified the novel gene D-PCa-2 (Dresden prostate carcinoma 2), which is highly overexpressed in normal prostate tissue and prostate carcinoma (PCa). The corresponding transcript contained an open reading frame of 453 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 150 amino acids. A large part of exon 8 of the D-PCa-2 gene shows strong similarity to the high-mobility-group nucleosomal binding protein 2 (HMGN2) cDNA. The highly specific transcription of the D-PCa-2 gene in normal and malignant prostate tissues and in a few additional tumors was demonstrated by using multiple tissue dot blot, cancer profiling dot blot and real-time PCR analyses. Examination of 18 pairs of tumorous and nontumorous prostate tissues from PCa patients by quantitative RT-PCR revealed D-PCa-2 transcripts in all specimens. The potential usefulness of D-PCa-2 as a sensitive marker for metastatic prostate carcinoma cells in lymph nodes was demonstrated by the detection of one LNCaP cell in 1 x 10(5) normal lymph node cells using real-time RT-PCR. Examination of 22 lymph nodes from PCa patients either containing metastatic prostate cancer cells or diagnosed as cancer-free was in full concordance with histopathologic diagnoses. These results validate D-PCa-2 as a transcript with high tissue specificity and with a potential application in the diagnosis of PCa.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. C15orf21, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

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