Gene Summary

Gene:ACSL3; acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 3
Aliases: ACS3, FACL3, LACS3, LACS 3, PRO2194
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. This isozyme is highly expressed in brain, and preferentially utilizes myristate, arachidonate, and eicosapentaenoate as substrates. The amino acid sequence of this isozyme is 92% identical to that of rat homolog. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (26)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (3)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Octamer Transcription Factor-1
  • Base Sequence
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • Fatty Acids
  • AKR1C3 protein, human
  • Messenger RNA
  • Glycerophospholipids
  • Genomics
  • Chromosome 2
  • Translocation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Androgen Receptors
  • long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase
  • Breast Cancer
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Coenzyme A Ligases
  • 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • trans-Golgi Network
  • Knockout Mice
  • MCF-7 Cells
  • Testosterone
  • Transfection
  • ACSL5 protein, human
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Lipogenesis
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Vacuoles
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transcription
  • Neoplasm Proteins
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ACSL3 (cancer-related)

Migita T, Takayama KI, Urano T, et al.
ACSL3 promotes intratumoral steroidogenesis in prostate cancer cells.
Cancer Sci. 2017; 108(10):2011-2021 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase 3 (ACSL3) is an androgen-responsive gene involved in the generation of fatty acyl-CoA esters. ACSL3 is expressed in both androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, its role in prostate cancer remains elusive. We overexpressed ACSL3 in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells and examined the downstream effectors of ACSL3. Furthermore, we examined the role of ACSL3 in the androgen metabolism of prostate cancer. ACSL3 overexpression led to upregulation of several genes such as aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) involved in steroidogenesis, which utilizes adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) as substrate, and downregulated androgen-inactivating enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2 (UGT2B). Exposure to DHEAS significantly increased testosterone levels and cell proliferative response in ACSL3-overexpressing cells when compared to that in control cells. A public database showed that ACSL3 level was higher in CRPC than in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. CRPC cells showed an increased expression of ACSL3 and an expression pattern of AKR1C3 and UGT2B similar to ACSL3-overexpressing cells. DHEAS stimulation significantly promoted the proliferation of CRPC cells when compared to that of LNCaP cells. These findings suggest that ACSL3 contributes to the growth of CRPC through intratumoral steroidogenesis (i.e. promoting androgen synthesis from DHEAS and preventing the catabolism of active androgens).

Cassidy RJ, Zhang X, Patel PR, et al.
Next-generation sequencing and clinical outcomes of patients with lung adenocarcinoma treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy.
Cancer. 2017; 123(19):3681-3690 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genetic aberrations are well characterized in lung adenocarcinomas (LACs) and clinical outcomes have been influenced by targeted therapies in the advanced setting. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is the standard-of-care therapy for patients with nonoperable, early-stage LAC, but to the authors' knowledge, no information is available regarding the impact of genomic changes in these patients. The current study sought to determine the frequency and clinical impact of genetic aberrations in this population.
METHODS: Under an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol, the records of 242 consecutive patients with early-stage lung cancers were reviewed; inclusion criteria included LAC histology with an adequate tumor sample for the successful use of next-generation sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization testing. Univariate analysis was performed to identify factors associated with clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: LAC samples from 98 of the 242 patients were reviewed (40.5%), of whom 45 patients (46.0%) had genetic testing. The following mutations were noted: KRAS in 20.0% of samples, BRAF in 2.2% of samples, SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4) in 4.4% of samples, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in 15.6% of samples, STK1 in 2.2% of samples, tumor protein 53 (TP53) in 15.6% of samples, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in 2.2% of samples. The following gene rearrangements were observed: anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in 8.9% of samples, RET in 2.2% of samples, and MET amplification in 17.8% of samples. The median total delivered SBRT dose was 50 grays (range, 48-60 grays) over a median of 5 fractions (range, 3-8 fractions). The KRAS mutation was associated with worse local control (odds ratio [OR], 3.64; P<.05). MET amplification was associated with worse regional (OR, 4.64; P<.05) and distant (OR, 3.73; P<.05) disease control.
CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, the current series is the first to quantify genetic mutations and their association with clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage LAC treated with SBRT. KRAS mutations were associated with worse local control and MET amplification was associated with worse regional and distant disease control, findings that need to be validated in a prospective setting. Cancer 2017;123:3681-3690. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

Daugaard I, Knudsen A, Kjeldsen TE, et al.
The association between miR-34 dysregulation and distant metastases formation in lung adenocarcinoma.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2017; 102(3):484-491 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate amongst human cancers and the majority of deaths can be attributed to metastatic spread. The miR-34 family includes three tumor suppressive miRs: miR-34a, miR-34b and miR-34c. miR-34 downregulation is a frequent observation in human malignancies and is often attributed to hypermethylation of the miR-34a and miR-34b/c promoters. Here, the potential association between aberrant miR-34 expression and promoter methylation and distant metastases formation in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) is investigated. The expression levels of miR-34a, miR-34b and miR-34c, as well as the methylation status of the miR-34a and miR-34b/c promoters were determined in a LAC patient cohort comprising 26 non-metastasizing and 26 metastasizing primary LACs, as well as 24 paired distant metastases and 25 tumor-adjacent normal lung samples using RT-qPCR and Methylation-Sensitive High Resolution Melting (MS-HRM) analysis. No difference in expression was observed for miR-34a when comparing metastasizing and non-metastasizing LACs (p=0.793). For both miR-34b and miR-34c, a significantly lower expression level was determined in metastasizing LACs compared to non-metastasizing LACs (p=0.0005 and p=0.002) with similarly decreased expression levels observed in the paired distant metastases. Hypermethylation was detected in 35/51 LACs compared to 0/25 tumor-adjacent normal lungs for the miR-34a promoter (p<0.0001). Similarly, 18/51 LACs compared to 1/25 tumor-adjacent normal lungs showed hypermethylation of the miR-34b/c promoter (p=0.003). No difference in methylation was observed between metastasizing and non-metastasizing LACs for neither the miR-34a (p=0.832) nor the miR-34b/c (p=0.900) promoter. In conclusion, miR-34a and miR-34b/c promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in LAC occurring in 68.7% and 35.3% of tested cases (n=51), respectively. Low miR-34b and miR-34c expression was associated with distant metastases formation in LAC. These changes can be targeted as novel biomarkers in LAC.

Yen MC, Kan JY, Hsieh CJ, et al.
Association of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase 5 expression in human breast cancer by estrogen receptor status and its clinical significance.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(6):3253-3260 [PubMed] Related Publications
The lipid metabolic enzymes are considered candidate therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (ACSL) is one of lipid metabolic enzymes and converts free-fatty acid to fatty acid-CoA. Five ACSL isoforms including ACSL1, ACSL3, ACSL4, ACSL5 and ACSL6 are identified in human. High ACSL4 expression has been observed in aggressive breast cancer phenotype. However, the role of other isoforms is still little-known. We therefore, analyzed the expression of ACSL isoforms in each subtype of breast cancer within METABRIC dataset and cancer cell line encyclopedia dataset. The expression levels of ACSL1, ACSL4 and ACSL5 in estrogen receptor (ER)-negative group were higher than that in ER-positive group. Similar expression pattern was detected among breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (ER-positive) and MDA-MB-231 (ER-negative). Treatment of ACSL inhibitor triacsin C which inhibited enzyme activity of ACSL 1, 3, 4 and 5 suppressed cell growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our results further showed that high ACSL5 expression was associated with good prognosis in patients with both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer through KM plotter analysis. These results suggest that ACSL1, ACSL4 and ACSL5 expression is regulated by ER signaling pathways and ACSL5 is a potential novel biomarker for predicting prognosis of breast cancer patients.

Wilson S, Fan L, Sahgal N, et al.
The histone demethylase KDM3A regulates the transcriptional program of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(18):30328-30343 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The lysine demethylase 3A (KDM3A, JMJD1A or JHDM2A) controls transcriptional networks in a variety of biological processes such as spermatogenesis, metabolism, stem cell activity, and tumor progression. We matched transcriptomic and ChIP-Seq profiles to decipher a genome-wide regulatory network of epigenetic control by KDM3A in prostate cancer cells. ChIP-Seq experiments monitoring histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation marks show global histone demethylation effects of KDM3A. Combined assessment of histone demethylation events and gene expression changes presented major transcriptional activation suggesting that distinct oncogenic regulators may synergize with the epigenetic patterns by KDM3A. Pathway enrichment analysis of cells with KDM3A knockdown prioritized androgen signaling indicating that KDM3A plays a key role in regulating androgen receptor activity. Matched ChIP-Seq and knockdown experiments of KDM3A in combination with ChIP-Seq of the androgen receptor resulted in a gain of H3K9 methylation marks around androgen receptor binding sites of selected transcriptional targets in androgen signaling including positive regulation of KRT19, NKX3-1, KLK3, NDRG1, MAF, CREB3L4, MYC, INPP4B, PTK2B, MAPK1, MAP2K1, IGF1, E2F1, HSP90AA1, HIF1A, and ACSL3. The cancer systems biology analysis of KDM3A-dependent genes identifies an epigenetic and transcriptional network in androgen response, hypoxia, glycolysis, and lipid metabolism. Genome-wide ChIP-Seq data highlights specific gene targets and the ability of epigenetic master regulators to control oncogenic pathways and cancer progression.

Massafra V, Milona A, Vos HR, et al.
Quantitative liver proteomics identifies FGF19 targets that couple metabolism and proliferation.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(2):e0171185 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a gut-derived peptide hormone that is produced following activation of Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR). FGF19 is secreted and signals to the liver, where it contributes to the homeostasis of bile acid (BA), lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. FGF19 is a promising therapeutic target for the metabolic syndrome and cholestatic diseases, but enthusiasm for its use has been tempered by FGF19-mediated induction of proliferation and hepatocellular carcinoma. To inform future rational design of FGF19-variants, we have conducted temporal quantitative proteomic and gene expression analyses to identify FGF19-targets related to metabolism and proliferation. Mice were fasted for 16 hours, and injected with human FGF19 (1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle. Liver protein extracts (containing "light" lysine) were mixed 1:1 with a spike-in protein extract from 13C6-lysine metabolically labelled mouse liver (containing "heavy" lysine) and analysed by LC-MS/MS. Our analyses provide a resource of FGF19 target proteins in the liver. 189 proteins were upregulated (≥ 1.5 folds) and 73 proteins were downregulated (≤ -1.5 folds) by FGF19. FGF19 treatment decreased the expression of proteins involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis, i.e., Fabp5, Scd1, and Acsl3 and increased the expression of Acox1, involved in FA oxidation. As expected, FGF19 increased the expression of proteins known to drive proliferation (i.e., Tgfbi, Vcam1, Anxa2 and Hdlbp). Importantly, many of the FGF19 targets (i.e., Pdk4, Apoa4, Fas and Stat3) have a dual function in both metabolism and cell proliferation. Therefore, our findings challenge the development of FGF19-variants that fully uncouple metabolic benefit from mitogenic potential.

Obinata D, Takayama K, Fujiwara K, et al.
Targeting Oct1 genomic function inhibits androgen receptor signaling and castration-resistant prostate cancer growth.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(49):6350-6358 [PubMed] Related Publications
Androgen receptor (AR) functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor to regulate its downstream signaling for prostate cancer progression. AR complex formation by multiple transcription factors is important for enhancer activity and transcriptional regulation. However, the significance of such collaborative transcription factors has not been fully understood. In this study, we show that Oct1, an AR collaborative factor, coordinates genome-wide AR signaling for prostate cancer growth. Using global analysis by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), we found that Oct1 is recruited to AR-binding enhancer/promoter regions and facilitates androgen signaling. Moreover, a major target of AR/Oct1 complex, acyl-CoA synthetase 3 (ACSL3), contributes to tumor growth in nude mice, and its high expression is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer patients. Next, we examined the therapeutic effects of pyrrole-imidazole polyamides that target the Oct1-binding sequence identified in the center of the ACSL3 AR-binding site. We observed that treatment with Oct1 polyamide severely blocked the Oct1 binding at the ACSL3 enhancer responsible for its transcriptional activity and ACSL3 induction. In addition, Oct1 polyamides suppressed castration-resistant tumor growth and specifically repressed global Oct1 chromatin association and androgen signaling in prostate cancer cells, with few nonspecific effects on basal promoter activity. Thus, targeting Oct1 binding could be a novel therapeutic strategy for AR-activated castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Chen WC, Wang CY, Hung YH, et al.
Systematic Analysis of Gene Expression Alterations and Clinical Outcomes for Long-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Synthetase Family in Cancer.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155660 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulated lipid metabolism contributes to cancer progression. Our previous study indicates that long-chain fatty acyl-Co A synthetase (ACSL) 3 is essential for lipid upregulation induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. In this report, we aimed to identify the role of ACSL family in cancer with systematic analysis and in vitro experiment. We explored the ACSL expression using Oncomine database to determine the gene alteration during carcinogenesis and identified the association between ACSL expression and the survival of cancer patient using PrognoScan database. ACSL1 may play a potential oncogenic role in colorectal and breast cancer and play a potential tumor suppressor role in lung cancer. Co-expression analysis revealed that ACSL1 was coexpressed with MYBPH, PTPRE, PFKFB3, SOCS3 in colon cancer and with LRRFIP1, TSC22D1 in lung cancer. In accordance with PrognoScan analysis, downregulation of ACSL1 in colon and breast cancer cell line inhibited proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth. In contrast, increase of oncogenic property was observed in lung cancer cell line by attenuating ACSL1. High ACSL3 expression predicted a better prognosis in ovarian cancer; in contrast, high ACSL3 predicted a worse prognosis in melanoma. ACSL3 was coexpressed with SNUPN, TRIP13, and SEMA5A in melanoma. High expression of ACSL4 predicted a worse prognosis in colorectal cancer, but predicted better prognosis in breast, brain and lung cancer. ACSL4 was coexpressed with SERPIN2, HNRNPCL1, ITIH2, PROCR, LRRFIP1. High expression of ACSL5 predicted good prognosis in breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. ACSL5 was coexpressed with TMEM140, TAPBPL, BIRC3, PTPRE, and SERPINB1. Low ACSL6 predicted a worse prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. ACSL6 was coexpressed with SOX6 and DARC. Altogether, different members of ACSLs are implicated in diverse types of cancer development. ACSL-coexpressed molecules may be used to further investigate the role of ACSL family in individual type of cancers.

Mäki-Nevala S, Sarhadi VK, Knuuttila A, et al.
Driver Gene and Novel Mutations in Asbestos-Exposed Lung Adenocarcinoma and Malignant Mesothelioma Detected by Exome Sequencing.
Lung. 2016; 194(1):125-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Asbestos is a carcinogen linked to malignant mesothelioma (MM) and lung cancer. Some gene aberrations related to asbestos exposure are recognized, but many associated mutations remain obscure. We performed exome sequencing to determine the association of previously known mutations (driver gene mutations) with asbestos and to identify novel mutations related to asbestos exposure in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) and MM.
METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed on DNA from 47 tumor tissues of MM (21) and LAC (26) patients, 27 of whom had been asbestos-exposed (18 MM, 9 LAC). In addition, 9 normal lung/blood samples of LAC were sequenced. Novel mutations identified from exome data were validated by amplicon-based deep sequencing. Driver gene mutations in BRAF, EGFR, ERBB2, HRAS, KRAS, MET, NRAS, PIK3CA, STK11, and ephrin receptor genes (EPHA1-8, 10 and EPHB1-4, 6) were studied for both LAC and MM, and in BAP1, CUL1, CDKN2A, and NF2 for MM.
RESULTS: In asbestos-exposed MM patients, previously non-described NF2 frameshift mutation (one) and BAP1 mutations (four) were detected. Exome data mining revealed some genes potentially associated with asbestos exposure, such as MRPL1 and SDK1. BAP1 and COPG1 mutations were seen exclusively in MM. Pathogenic KRAS mutations were common in LAC patients (42 %), both in non-exposed (n = 5) and exposed patients (n = 6). Pathogenic BRAF mutations were found in two LACs.
CONCLUSION: BAP1 mutations occurred in asbestos-exposed MM. MRPL1, SDK1, SEMA5B, and INPP4A could possibly serve as candidate genes for alterations associated with asbestos exposure. KRAS mutations in LAC were not associated with asbestos exposure.

Sumantran VN, Mishra P, Sudhakar N
Microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes regulating lipid metabolism during melanoma progression.
Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2015; 52(2):125-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
A new hallmark of cancer involves acquisition of a lipogenic phenotype which promotes tumorigenesis. Little is known about lipid metabolism in melanomas. Therefore, we used BRB (Biometrics Research Branch) class comparison tool with multivariate analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in human cutaneous melanomas, compared with benign nevi and normal skin derived from the microarray dataset (GDS1375). The methods were validated by identifying known melanoma biomarkers (CITED1, FGFR2, PTPRF, LICAM, SPP1 and PHACTR1) in our results. Eighteen genes regulating metabolism of fatty acids, lipid second messengers and gangliosides were 2-9 fold upregulated in melanomas of GDS-1375. Out of the 18 genes, 13 were confirmed by KEGG pathway analysis and 10 were also significantly upregulated in human melanoma cell lines of NCI-60 Cell Miner database. Results showed that melanomas upregulated PPARGC1A transcription factor and its target genes regulating synthesis of fatty acids (SCD) and complex lipids (FABP3 and ACSL3). Melanoma also upregulated genes which prevented lipotoxicity (CPT2 and ACOT7) and regulated lipid second messengers, such as phosphatidic acid (AGPAT-4, PLD3) and inositol triphosphate (ITPKB, ITPR3). Genes for synthesis of pro-tumorigenic GM3 and GD3 gangliosides (UGCG, HEXA, ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1) were also upregulated in melanoma. Overall, the microarray analysis of GDS-1375 dataset indicated that melanomas can become lipogenic by upregulating genes, leading to increase in fatty acid metabolism, metabolism of specific lipid second messengers, and ganglioside synthesis.

Wang J, Scholtens D, Holko M, et al.
Lipid metabolism genes in contralateral unaffected breast and estrogen receptor status of breast cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013; 6(4):321-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Risk biomarkers that are specific to estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes of breast cancer would aid the development and implementation of distinct prevention strategies. The contralateral unaffected breast of women with unilateral breast cancer (cases) is a good model for defining subtype-specific risk because women with ER-negative (ER-) index primaries are at high risk for subsequent ER-negative primary cancers. We conducted random fine needle aspiration of the unaffected breasts of cases. Samples from 30 subjects [15 ER-positive (ER+) and 15 ER- cases matched for age, race and menopausal status] were used for Illumina expression array analysis. Findings were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in the same samples. A validation set consisting of 36 subjects (12 ER+, 12 ER- and 12 standard-risk healthy controls) was used to compare gene expression across groups. ER- case samples displayed significantly higher expression of 18 genes/transcripts, 8 of which were associated with lipid metabolism on gene ontology analysis (GO: 0006629). This pattern was confirmed by qRT-PCR in the same samples, and in the 24 cases of the validation set. When compared to the healthy controls in the validation set, significant overexpression of 4 genes (DHRS2, HMGCS2, HPGD and ACSL3) was observed in ER- cases, with significantly lower expression of UGT2B11 and APOD in ER+ cases, and decreased expression of UGT2B7 in both subtypes. These data suggest that differential expression of lipid metabolism genes may be involved in the risk for subtypes of breast cancer, and are potential biomarkers of ER-specific breast cancer risk.

Cadenas C, Vosbeck S, Hein EM, et al.
Glycerophospholipid profile in oncogene-induced senescence.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012; 1821(9):1256-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alterations in lipid metabolism and in the lipid composition of cellular membranes are linked to the pathology of numerous diseases including cancer. However, the influence of oncogene expression on cellular lipid profile is currently unknown. In this work we analyzed changes in lipid profiles that are induced in the course of ERBB2-expression mediated premature senescence. As a model system we used MCF-7 breast cancer cells with doxycycline-inducible expression of NeuT, an oncogenic ERBB2 variant. Affymetrix gene array data showed NeuT-induced alterations in the transcription of many enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, several of which (ACSL3, CHPT1, PLD1, LIPG, MGLL, LDL and NPC1) could be confirmed by quantitative realtime PCR. A study of the glycerophospholipid and lyso-glycerophospholipid profiles, obtained by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry revealed senescence-associated changes in numerous lipid species, including mitochondrial lipids. The most prominent changes were found in PG(34:1), PG(36:1) (increased) and LPE(18:1), PG(40:7) and PI(36:1) (decreased). Statistical analysis revealed a general trend towards shortened phospholipid acyl chains in senescence and a significant trend to more saturated acyl chains in the class of phosphatidylglycerol. Additionally, the cellular cholesterol content was elevated and accumulated in vacuoles in senescent cells. These changes were accompanied by increased membrane fluidity. In mitochondria, loss of membrane potential along with altered intracellular distribution was observed. In conclusion, we present a comprehensive overview of altered cholesterol and glycerophospholipid patterns in senescence, showing that predominantly mitochondrial lipids are affected and lipid species less susceptible to peroxidation are increased.

Marques RB, Dits NF, Erkens-Schulze S, et al.
Modulation of androgen receptor signaling in hormonal therapy-resistant prostate cancer cell lines.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23144 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate epithelial cells depend on androgens for survival and function. In (early) prostate cancer (PCa) androgens also regulate tumor growth, which is exploited by hormonal therapies in metastatic disease. The aim of the present study was to characterize the androgen receptor (AR) response in hormonal therapy-resistant PC346 cells and identify potential disease markers.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human 19K oligoarrays were used to establish the androgen-regulated expression profile of androgen-responsive PC346C cells and its derivative therapy-resistant sublines: PC346DCC (vestigial AR levels), PC346Flu1 (AR overexpression) and PC346Flu2 (T877A AR mutation). In total, 107 transcripts were differentially-expressed in PC346C and derivatives after R1881 or hydroxyflutamide stimulations. The AR-regulated expression profiles reflected the AR modifications of respective therapy-resistant sublines: AR overexpression resulted in stronger and broader transcriptional response to R1881 stimulation, AR down-regulation correlated with deficient response of AR-target genes and the T877A mutation resulted in transcriptional response to both R1881 and hydroxyflutamide. This AR-target signature was linked to multiple publicly available cell line and tumor derived PCa databases, revealing that distinct functional clusters were differentially modulated during PCa progression. Differentiation and secretory functions were up-regulated in primary PCa but repressed in metastasis, whereas proliferation, cytoskeletal remodeling and adhesion were overexpressed in metastasis. Finally, the androgen-regulated genes ENDOD1, MCCC2 and ACSL3 were selected as potential disease markers for RT-PCR quantification in a distinct set of human prostate specimens. ENDOD1 and ACSL3 showed down-regulation in high-grade and metastatic PCa, while MCCC2 was overexpressed in low-grade PCa.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: AR modifications altered the transcriptional response to (anti)androgens in therapy-resistant cells. Furthermore, selective down-regulation of genes involved in differentiation and up-regulation of genes promoting proliferation and invasion suggest a disturbed balance between the growth and differentiation functions of the AR pathway during PCa progression. These findings may have implications in the current treatment and development of novel therapeutical approaches for metastatic PCa.

Chiou SH, Wang ML, Chou YT, et al.
Coexpression of Oct4 and Nanog enhances malignancy in lung adenocarcinoma by inducing cancer stem cell-like properties and epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(24):10433-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a critical process of cancer invasion and metastasis, is associated with stemness property of cancer cells. Though Oct4 and Nanog are homebox transcription factors essential to the self-renewal of stem cells and are expressed in several cancers, the role of Oct4/Nanog signaling in tumorigenesis is still elusive. Here microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed a parallel, elevated expression of Oct4 and Nanog in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC). Ectopic expressions of Oct4 and Nanog in LACs increased the percentage of CD133-expressing subpopulation and sphere formation, enhanced drug resistance, and promoted EMT. Ectopic expressions of Oct4 and Nanog activated Slug and enhanced the tumor-initiating capability of LAC. Furthermore, double knockdown of Oct4 and Nanog suppressed the expression of Slug, reversed the EMT process, blocked the tumorigenic and metastatic ability, and greatly improved the mean survival time of transplanted immunocompromised mice. The immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that expressions of Oct4, Nanog, and Slug were present in high-grade LAC, and triple positivity of Oct4/Nanog/Slug indicated a worse prognostic value of LAC patients. Our results support the notion that the Oct4/Nanog signaling controls epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation, regulates tumor-initiating ability, and promotes metastasis of LAC.

Qiao S, Tuohimaa P
Expression and vitamin D3 regulation of long-chain fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 in human prostate cancer cells.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2011 Jan-Feb; 84(1-2):19-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
We found previously that long-chain fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 (FACL3), a critical enzyme for activation of long-chain fatty acids, was upregulated by 1α, 25(OH)(2)D(3) at an mRNA and enzyme activity levels in prostate cancer cells. Our further study indicated that the FACL3 mediated 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS), which is associated with many cancers, including prostate cancer. In the current study, we investigated an FACL3 protein expression and its regulation by 1α, 25(OH)(2)D(3) and its synthetic analogs EB1089 and CB1093 in prostate cancer cells. The results showed that the expression of an FACL3 protein was upregulated by 1α, 25(OH)(2)D(3), EB1089 and CB1093 in LNCaP cells, consistent with their upregulation of an FACL3 mRNA expression. In addition, the FACL3 expression was found to be markedly low at both mRNA and protein levels in more transformed prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells compared with less transformed LNCaP cells. The data suggest that decreased FACL3 expression might be associated with a more malignant phenotype of prostate cancer.

Cao A, Li H, Zhou Y, et al.
Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase-3 is a molecular target for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta in HepG2 hepatoma cells.
J Biol Chem. 2010; 285(22):16664-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ACSL3 is a member of the long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) family that plays key roles in fatty acid metabolism in various tissues in an isozyme-specific manner. Our previous studies showed that ACSL3 was transcriptionally up-regulated by the cytokine oncostatin M (OSM) in HepG2 cells, accompanied by reduced cellular triglyceride content and enhanced beta-oxidation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the OSM-induced activation of ACSL3 gene transcription in HepG2 cells. We showed that OSM treatment resulted in a coordinated elevation of mRNA levels of ACSL3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta). The effect of OSM on ACSL3 mRNA expression was inhibited by cellular depletion of PPARdelta. By utilizing a PPARdelta agonist, L165041, we demonstrated that activation of PPARdelta led to increases in ACSL3 promoter activity, mRNA level, and protein level in HepG2 cells. Analysis of the ACSL3 promoter sequence identified two imperfect PPAR-responsive elements (PPRE) located in the ACSL3 promoter region -944 to -915, relative to the transcription start site. The up-regulation of ACSL3 promoter activity by PPARdelta was abolished by deletion of this PPRE-containing region or mutation to disrupt the binding sites. Direct interactions of PPARdelta with ACSL3-PPRE sequences were demonstrated by gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Finally, we provided in vivo evidence showing that activation of PPARdelta by L165041 in hamsters increased ACSL3 mRNA and protein levels in the liver. These new findings define ACSL3 as a novel molecular target of PPARdelta in HepG2 cells and provide a regulatory mechanism for ACSL3 transcription in liver tissue.

Johnsen GM, Weedon-Fekjaer MS, Tobin KA, et al.
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids stimulate cellular fatty acid uptake in human placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells.
Placenta. 2009; 30(12):1037-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Supplementation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is advocated during pregnancy in some countries although very little information is available on their effects on placental ability to take up these fatty acids for fetal supply to which the fetal growth and development are critically dependent. To identify the roles of LCPUFAs on placental fatty acid transport function, we examined the effects of LCPUFAs on the uptake of fatty acids and expression of fatty acid transport/metabolic genes using placental trophoblast cells (BeWo). Following 24 h incubation of these cells with 100 microM of LCPUFAs (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6, eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3, or docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3), the cellular uptake of [(14)C] fatty acids was increased by 20-50%, and accumulated fatty acids were preferentially incorporated into phospholipid fractions. Oleic acid (OA, 18:1n-9), on the other hand, could not stimulate fatty acid uptake. LCPUFAs and OA increased the gene expression of ADRP whilst decreased the expression of ACSL3, ACSL4, ACSL6, LPIN1, and FABP3 in these cells. However, LCPUFAs but not OA increased expression of ACSL1 and ACSL5. Since acyl-CoA synthetases are involved in cellular uptake of fatty acids via activation for their channelling to lipid metabolism and/or for storage, the increased expression of ACSL1 and ACLS5 by LCPUFAs may be responsible for the increased fatty acid uptake. These findings demonstrate that LCPUFA may function as an important regulator of general fatty acid uptake in trophoblast cells and may thus have impact on fetal growth and development.

Attard G, Clark J, Ambroisine L, et al.
Heterogeneity and clinical significance of ETV1 translocations in human prostate cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2008; 99(2):314-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) assay has been used to screen for ETV1 gene rearrangements in a cohort of 429 prostate cancers from patients who had been diagnosed by trans-urethral resection of the prostate. The presence of ETV1 gene alterations (found in 23 cases, 5.4%) was correlated with higher Gleason Score (P=0.001), PSA level at diagnosis (P=<0.0001) and clinical stage (P=0.017) but was not linked to poorer survival. We found that the six previously characterised translocation partners of ETV1 only accounted for 34% of ETV1 re-arrangements (eight out of 23) in this series, with fusion to the androgen-repressed gene C15orf21 representing the commonest event (four out of 23). In 5'-RACE experiments on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissue we identified the androgen-upregulated gene ACSL3 as a new 5'-translocation partner of ETV1. These studies report a novel fusion partner for ETV1 and highlight the considerable heterogeneity of ETV1 gene rearrangements in human prostate cancer.

Qiao S, Tuohimaa P
Vitamin D3 inhibits fatty acid synthase expression by stimulating the expression of long-chain fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 in prostate cancer cells.
FEBS Lett. 2004; 577(3):451-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
FAS and FACL3 are enzymes of fatty acid metabolism. In our previous studies, we found that FAS and FACL3 genes were vitamin D3-regulated and involved in the antiproliferative effect of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in the human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Here, we elucidated the mechanism behind the downregulation of FAS expression by vitamin D3. Triacsin C, an inhibitor of FACL3 activity, completely abolished the downregulation of FAS expression by vitamin D3, whereas an inhibitor of FAS activity, cerulenin, had no significant effect on the upregulation of FACL3 expression by vitamin D3 in LNCaP cells. In human prostate cancer PC3 cells, in which FACL3 expression is not regulated by vitamin D3, no regulation of FAS expression was seen. This suggests that the downregulation of FAS expression by vitamin D3 is mediated by vitamin D3 upregulation of FACL3 expression. Myristic acid, one of the substrates preferential for FACL3, enhanced the repression of FAS expression by vitamin D3. The action of myristic acid was abrogated by inhibition of FACL3 activity, suggesting that the enhancement in the downregulation of FAS expression by vitamin D3 is due to the formation of myristoyl-CoA. The data suggest that vitamin D3-repression of FAS mRNA expression is the consequence of feedback inhibition of FAS expression by long chain fatty acyl-CoAs, which are formed by FACL3 during its upregulation by vitamin D3 in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells.

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