Gene Summary

Gene:ACSL3; acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3
Aliases: ACS3, FACL3, PRO2194
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. This isozyme is highly expressed in brain, and preferentially utilizes myristate, arachidonate, and eicosapentaenoate as substrates. The amino acid sequence of this isozyme is 92% identical to that of rat homolog. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (26)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (3)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Flutamide
  • Translocation
  • Base Sequence
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Mitochondria
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Breast
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • FISH
  • Cohort Studies
  • long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase
  • Vacuoles
  • Metribolone
  • ERBB2
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • hydroxyflutamide
  • Chromosome 2
  • Cell Aging
  • Glycerophospholipids
  • Receptor, erbB-2
  • DNA Primers
  • Coenzyme A Ligases
  • Transcription Factors
  • ERBB2
  • Signal Transduction
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • ETV1
  • Genetic Heterogeneity
  • Breast Cancer
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Gene Fusion
  • Microarray Analysis
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Androgen Antagonists
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Drug Resistance
  • Paraffin Embedding
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ACSL3 (cancer-related)

Sumantran VN, Mishra P, Sudhakar N
Microarray analysis of differentially expressed genes regulating lipid metabolism during melanoma progression.
Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2015; 52(2):125-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
A new hallmark of cancer involves acquisition of a lipogenic phenotype which promotes tumorigenesis. Little is known about lipid metabolism in melanomas. Therefore, we used BRB (Biometrics Research Branch) class comparison tool with multivariate analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in human cutaneous melanomas, compared with benign nevi and normal skin derived from the microarray dataset (GDS1375). The methods were validated by identifying known melanoma biomarkers (CITED1, FGFR2, PTPRF, LICAM, SPP1 and PHACTR1) in our results. Eighteen genes regulating metabolism of fatty acids, lipid second messengers and gangliosides were 2-9 fold upregulated in melanomas of GDS-1375. Out of the 18 genes, 13 were confirmed by KEGG pathway analysis and 10 were also significantly upregulated in human melanoma cell lines of NCI-60 Cell Miner database. Results showed that melanomas upregulated PPARGC1A transcription factor and its target genes regulating synthesis of fatty acids (SCD) and complex lipids (FABP3 and ACSL3). Melanoma also upregulated genes which prevented lipotoxicity (CPT2 and ACOT7) and regulated lipid second messengers, such as phosphatidic acid (AGPAT-4, PLD3) and inositol triphosphate (ITPKB, ITPR3). Genes for synthesis of pro-tumorigenic GM3 and GD3 gangliosides (UGCG, HEXA, ST3GAL5 and ST8SIA1) were also upregulated in melanoma. Overall, the microarray analysis of GDS-1375 dataset indicated that melanomas can become lipogenic by upregulating genes, leading to increase in fatty acid metabolism, metabolism of specific lipid second messengers, and ganglioside synthesis.

Wang J, Scholtens D, Holko M, et al.
Lipid metabolism genes in contralateral unaffected breast and estrogen receptor status of breast cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013; 6(4):321-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Risk biomarkers that are specific to estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes of breast cancer would aid the development and implementation of distinct prevention strategies. The contralateral unaffected breast of women with unilateral breast cancer (cases) is a good model for defining subtype-specific risk because women with ER-negative (ER-) index primaries are at high risk for subsequent ER-negative primary cancers. We conducted random fine needle aspiration of the unaffected breasts of cases. Samples from 30 subjects [15 ER-positive (ER+) and 15 ER- cases matched for age, race and menopausal status] were used for Illumina expression array analysis. Findings were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in the same samples. A validation set consisting of 36 subjects (12 ER+, 12 ER- and 12 standard-risk healthy controls) was used to compare gene expression across groups. ER- case samples displayed significantly higher expression of 18 genes/transcripts, 8 of which were associated with lipid metabolism on gene ontology analysis (GO: 0006629). This pattern was confirmed by qRT-PCR in the same samples, and in the 24 cases of the validation set. When compared to the healthy controls in the validation set, significant overexpression of 4 genes (DHRS2, HMGCS2, HPGD and ACSL3) was observed in ER- cases, with significantly lower expression of UGT2B11 and APOD in ER+ cases, and decreased expression of UGT2B7 in both subtypes. These data suggest that differential expression of lipid metabolism genes may be involved in the risk for subtypes of breast cancer, and are potential biomarkers of ER-specific breast cancer risk.

Cadenas C, Vosbeck S, Hein EM, et al.
Glycerophospholipid profile in oncogene-induced senescence.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012; 1821(9):1256-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alterations in lipid metabolism and in the lipid composition of cellular membranes are linked to the pathology of numerous diseases including cancer. However, the influence of oncogene expression on cellular lipid profile is currently unknown. In this work we analyzed changes in lipid profiles that are induced in the course of ERBB2-expression mediated premature senescence. As a model system we used MCF-7 breast cancer cells with doxycycline-inducible expression of NeuT, an oncogenic ERBB2 variant. Affymetrix gene array data showed NeuT-induced alterations in the transcription of many enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, several of which (ACSL3, CHPT1, PLD1, LIPG, MGLL, LDL and NPC1) could be confirmed by quantitative realtime PCR. A study of the glycerophospholipid and lyso-glycerophospholipid profiles, obtained by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry revealed senescence-associated changes in numerous lipid species, including mitochondrial lipids. The most prominent changes were found in PG(34:1), PG(36:1) (increased) and LPE(18:1), PG(40:7) and PI(36:1) (decreased). Statistical analysis revealed a general trend towards shortened phospholipid acyl chains in senescence and a significant trend to more saturated acyl chains in the class of phosphatidylglycerol. Additionally, the cellular cholesterol content was elevated and accumulated in vacuoles in senescent cells. These changes were accompanied by increased membrane fluidity. In mitochondria, loss of membrane potential along with altered intracellular distribution was observed. In conclusion, we present a comprehensive overview of altered cholesterol and glycerophospholipid patterns in senescence, showing that predominantly mitochondrial lipids are affected and lipid species less susceptible to peroxidation are increased.

Marques RB, Dits NF, Erkens-Schulze S, et al.
Modulation of androgen receptor signaling in hormonal therapy-resistant prostate cancer cell lines.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23144 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate epithelial cells depend on androgens for survival and function. In (early) prostate cancer (PCa) androgens also regulate tumor growth, which is exploited by hormonal therapies in metastatic disease. The aim of the present study was to characterize the androgen receptor (AR) response in hormonal therapy-resistant PC346 cells and identify potential disease markers.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human 19K oligoarrays were used to establish the androgen-regulated expression profile of androgen-responsive PC346C cells and its derivative therapy-resistant sublines: PC346DCC (vestigial AR levels), PC346Flu1 (AR overexpression) and PC346Flu2 (T877A AR mutation). In total, 107 transcripts were differentially-expressed in PC346C and derivatives after R1881 or hydroxyflutamide stimulations. The AR-regulated expression profiles reflected the AR modifications of respective therapy-resistant sublines: AR overexpression resulted in stronger and broader transcriptional response to R1881 stimulation, AR down-regulation correlated with deficient response of AR-target genes and the T877A mutation resulted in transcriptional response to both R1881 and hydroxyflutamide. This AR-target signature was linked to multiple publicly available cell line and tumor derived PCa databases, revealing that distinct functional clusters were differentially modulated during PCa progression. Differentiation and secretory functions were up-regulated in primary PCa but repressed in metastasis, whereas proliferation, cytoskeletal remodeling and adhesion were overexpressed in metastasis. Finally, the androgen-regulated genes ENDOD1, MCCC2 and ACSL3 were selected as potential disease markers for RT-PCR quantification in a distinct set of human prostate specimens. ENDOD1 and ACSL3 showed down-regulation in high-grade and metastatic PCa, while MCCC2 was overexpressed in low-grade PCa.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: AR modifications altered the transcriptional response to (anti)androgens in therapy-resistant cells. Furthermore, selective down-regulation of genes involved in differentiation and up-regulation of genes promoting proliferation and invasion suggest a disturbed balance between the growth and differentiation functions of the AR pathway during PCa progression. These findings may have implications in the current treatment and development of novel therapeutical approaches for metastatic PCa.

Qiao S, Tuohimaa P
Expression and vitamin D3 regulation of long-chain fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 in human prostate cancer cells.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2011 Jan-Feb; 84(1-2):19-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
We found previously that long-chain fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 (FACL3), a critical enzyme for activation of long-chain fatty acids, was upregulated by 1α, 25(OH)(2)D(3) at an mRNA and enzyme activity levels in prostate cancer cells. Our further study indicated that the FACL3 mediated 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS), which is associated with many cancers, including prostate cancer. In the current study, we investigated an FACL3 protein expression and its regulation by 1α, 25(OH)(2)D(3) and its synthetic analogs EB1089 and CB1093 in prostate cancer cells. The results showed that the expression of an FACL3 protein was upregulated by 1α, 25(OH)(2)D(3), EB1089 and CB1093 in LNCaP cells, consistent with their upregulation of an FACL3 mRNA expression. In addition, the FACL3 expression was found to be markedly low at both mRNA and protein levels in more transformed prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells compared with less transformed LNCaP cells. The data suggest that decreased FACL3 expression might be associated with a more malignant phenotype of prostate cancer.

Cao A, Li H, Zhou Y, et al.
Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase-3 is a molecular target for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta in HepG2 hepatoma cells.
J Biol Chem. 2010; 285(22):16664-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ACSL3 is a member of the long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) family that plays key roles in fatty acid metabolism in various tissues in an isozyme-specific manner. Our previous studies showed that ACSL3 was transcriptionally up-regulated by the cytokine oncostatin M (OSM) in HepG2 cells, accompanied by reduced cellular triglyceride content and enhanced beta-oxidation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the OSM-induced activation of ACSL3 gene transcription in HepG2 cells. We showed that OSM treatment resulted in a coordinated elevation of mRNA levels of ACSL3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta). The effect of OSM on ACSL3 mRNA expression was inhibited by cellular depletion of PPARdelta. By utilizing a PPARdelta agonist, L165041, we demonstrated that activation of PPARdelta led to increases in ACSL3 promoter activity, mRNA level, and protein level in HepG2 cells. Analysis of the ACSL3 promoter sequence identified two imperfect PPAR-responsive elements (PPRE) located in the ACSL3 promoter region -944 to -915, relative to the transcription start site. The up-regulation of ACSL3 promoter activity by PPARdelta was abolished by deletion of this PPRE-containing region or mutation to disrupt the binding sites. Direct interactions of PPARdelta with ACSL3-PPRE sequences were demonstrated by gel mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Finally, we provided in vivo evidence showing that activation of PPARdelta by L165041 in hamsters increased ACSL3 mRNA and protein levels in the liver. These new findings define ACSL3 as a novel molecular target of PPARdelta in HepG2 cells and provide a regulatory mechanism for ACSL3 transcription in liver tissue.

Attard G, Clark J, Ambroisine L, et al.
Heterogeneity and clinical significance of ETV1 translocations in human prostate cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2008; 99(2):314-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) assay has been used to screen for ETV1 gene rearrangements in a cohort of 429 prostate cancers from patients who had been diagnosed by trans-urethral resection of the prostate. The presence of ETV1 gene alterations (found in 23 cases, 5.4%) was correlated with higher Gleason Score (P=0.001), PSA level at diagnosis (P=<0.0001) and clinical stage (P=0.017) but was not linked to poorer survival. We found that the six previously characterised translocation partners of ETV1 only accounted for 34% of ETV1 re-arrangements (eight out of 23) in this series, with fusion to the androgen-repressed gene C15orf21 representing the commonest event (four out of 23). In 5'-RACE experiments on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissue we identified the androgen-upregulated gene ACSL3 as a new 5'-translocation partner of ETV1. These studies report a novel fusion partner for ETV1 and highlight the considerable heterogeneity of ETV1 gene rearrangements in human prostate cancer.

Qiao S, Tuohimaa P
Vitamin D3 inhibits fatty acid synthase expression by stimulating the expression of long-chain fatty-acid-CoA ligase 3 in prostate cancer cells.
FEBS Lett. 2004; 577(3):451-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
FAS and FACL3 are enzymes of fatty acid metabolism. In our previous studies, we found that FAS and FACL3 genes were vitamin D3-regulated and involved in the antiproliferative effect of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in the human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Here, we elucidated the mechanism behind the downregulation of FAS expression by vitamin D3. Triacsin C, an inhibitor of FACL3 activity, completely abolished the downregulation of FAS expression by vitamin D3, whereas an inhibitor of FAS activity, cerulenin, had no significant effect on the upregulation of FACL3 expression by vitamin D3 in LNCaP cells. In human prostate cancer PC3 cells, in which FACL3 expression is not regulated by vitamin D3, no regulation of FAS expression was seen. This suggests that the downregulation of FAS expression by vitamin D3 is mediated by vitamin D3 upregulation of FACL3 expression. Myristic acid, one of the substrates preferential for FACL3, enhanced the repression of FAS expression by vitamin D3. The action of myristic acid was abrogated by inhibition of FACL3 activity, suggesting that the enhancement in the downregulation of FAS expression by vitamin D3 is due to the formation of myristoyl-CoA. The data suggest that vitamin D3-repression of FAS mRNA expression is the consequence of feedback inhibition of FAS expression by long chain fatty acyl-CoAs, which are formed by FACL3 during its upregulation by vitamin D3 in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. ACSL3, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

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