Gene Summary

Gene:PPARD; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family. PPARs are nuclear hormone receptors that bind peroxisome proliferators and control the size and number of peroxisomes produced by cells. PPARs mediate a variety of biological processes, and may be involved in the development of several chronic diseases, including diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and cancer. This protein is a potent inhibitor of ligand-induced transcription activity of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma. It may function as an integrator of transcription repression and nuclear receptor signaling. The expression of this gene is found to be elevated in colorectal cancer cells. The elevated expression can be repressed by adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC), a tumor suppressor protein related to APC/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of this protein in myelination of the corpus callosum, lipid metabolism, and epidermal cell proliferation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Genotype
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Ligands
  • Signal Transduction
  • Thiazoles
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Transduction
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Survival
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Expression
  • Chromosome 6
  • siRNA
  • Promoter Regions
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Lipid Metabolism
  • Lung Cancer
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transcription
  • Protein Binding
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • COX2 (PTGS2)
  • Biological Models
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Adenocarcinoma
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PPARD (cancer-related)

Beyaz S, Mana MD, Roper J, et al.
High-fat diet enhances stemness and tumorigenicity of intestinal progenitors.
Nature. 2016; 531(7592):53-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Little is known about how pro-obesity diets regulate tissue stem and progenitor cell function. Here we show that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity augments the numbers and function of Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells of the mammalian intestine. Mechanistically, a HFD induces a robust peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR-δ) signature in intestinal stem cells and progenitor cells (non-intestinal stem cells), and pharmacological activation of PPAR-δ recapitulates the effects of a HFD on these cells. Like a HFD, ex vivo treatment of intestinal organoid cultures with fatty acid constituents of the HFD enhances the self-renewal potential of these organoid bodies in a PPAR-δ-dependent manner. Notably, HFD- and agonist-activated PPAR-δ signalling endow organoid-initiating capacity to progenitors, and enforced PPAR-δ signalling permits these progenitors to form in vivo tumours after loss of the tumour suppressor Apc. These findings highlight how diet-modulated PPAR-δ activation alters not only the function of intestinal stem and progenitor cells, but also their capacity to initiate tumours.

Nath A, Chan C
Genetic alterations in fatty acid transport and metabolism genes are associated with metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:18669 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Reprogramming of cellular metabolism is a hallmark feature of cancer cells. While a distinct set of processes drive metastasis when compared to tumorigenesis, it is yet unclear if genetic alterations in metabolic pathways are associated with metastatic progression of human cancers. Here, we analyzed the mutation, copy number variation and gene expression patterns of a literature-derived model of metabolic genes associated with glycolysis (Warburg effect), fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, oxidation, lipolysis, esterification) and fatty acid uptake in >9000 primary or metastatic tumor samples from the multi-cancer TCGA datasets. Our association analysis revealed a uniform pattern of Warburg effect mutations influencing prognosis across all tumor types, while copy number alterations in the electron transport chain gene SCO2, fatty acid uptake (CAV1, CD36) and lipogenesis (PPARA, PPARD, MLXIPL) genes were enriched in metastatic tumors. Using gene expression profiles, we established a gene-signature (CAV1, CD36, MLXIPL, CPT1C, CYP2E1) that strongly associated with epithelial-mesenchymal program across multiple cancers. Moreover, stratification of samples based on the copy number or expression profiles of the genes identified in our analysis revealed a significant effect on patient survival rates, thus confirming prominent roles of fatty acid uptake and metabolism in metastatic progression and poor prognosis of human cancers.

Levi L, Wang Z, Doud MK, et al.
Saturated fatty acids regulate retinoic acid signalling and suppress tumorigenesis by targeting fatty acid-binding protein 5.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:8794 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long chain fatty acids (LCFA) serve as energy sources, components of cell membranes and precursors for signalling molecules. Here we show that these biological compounds also regulate gene expression and that they do so by controlling the transcriptional activities of the retinoic acid (RA)-activated nuclear receptors RAR and PPARβ/δ. The data indicate that these activities of LCFA are mediated by FABP5, which delivers ligands from the cytosol to nuclear PPARβ/δ. Both saturated and unsaturated LCFA (SLCFA, ULCFA) bind to FABP5, thereby displacing RA and diverting it to RAR. However, while SLCFA inhibit, ULCFA activate the FABP5/PPARβ/δ pathway. We show further that, by concomitantly promoting the activation of RAR and inhibiting the activation of PPARβ/δ, SLCFA suppress the oncogenic properties of FABP5-expressing carcinoma cells in cultured cells and in vivo. The observations suggest that compounds that inhibit FABP5 may constitute a new class of drugs for therapy of certain types of cancer.

Li P, Hu Y, Yi J, et al.
Identification of potential biomarkers to differentially diagnose solid pseudopapillary tumors and pancreatic malignancies via a gene regulatory network.
J Transl Med. 2015; 13:361 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPN) are pancreatic tumors with low malignant potential and good prognosis. However, differential diagnosis between SPN and pancreatic malignancies including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) and ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is difficult. This study tried to identify candidate biomarkers for the distinction between SPN and the two malignant pancreatic tumors by examining the gene regulatory network of SPN.
METHODS: The gene regulatory network for SPN was constructed by a co-expression model. Genes that have been reported to be correlated with SPN were used as the clues to hunt more SPN-related genes in the network according to a shortest path approach. By means of the K-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN) classifier evaluated by the jackknife test, sets of genes to distinguish SPN and malignant pancreatic tumors were determined.
RESULTS: We took a new strategy to identify candidate biomarkers for differentiating SPN from the two malignant pancreatic tumors PanNET and PDAC by analyzing shortest paths among SPN-related genes in the gene regulatory network. 43 new SPN-relevant genes were discovered, among which, we found hsa-miR-194 and hsa-miR-7 along with 7 transcription factors (TFs) such as SOX11, SMAD3 and SOX4 etc. could correctly differentiate SPN from PanNET, while hsa-miR-204 and 4 TFs such as SOX9, TCF7 and PPARD etc. were demonstrated as the potential markers for SPN versus PDAC. 14 genes were demonstrated to serve as the candidate biomarkers for distinguishing SPN from PanNET and PDAC when considering them as malignant pancreatic tumors together.
CONCLUSION: This study provides new candidate genes related to SPN and the potential biomarkers to differentiate SPN from PanNET and PDAC, which may help to diagnose patients with SPN in clinical setting. Furthermore, candidate biomarkers such as SOX11 and hsa-miR-204 which could cause cell proliferation but inhibit invasion or metastasis may be of importance in understanding the molecular mechanism of pancreatic oncogenesis and could be possible therapeutic targets for malignant pancreatic tumors.

Bruzzoni-Giovanelli H, González JR, Sigaux F, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms associated with increased risk of developing chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(34):36269-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Little is known about inherited factors associated with the risk of developing chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We used a dedicated DNA chip containing 16 561 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering 1 916 candidate genes to analyze 437 CML patients and 1 144 healthy control individuals. Single SNP association analysis identified 139 SNPs that passed multiple comparisons (1% false discovery rate). The HDAC9, AVEN, SEMA3C, IKBKB, GSTA3, RIPK1 and FGF2 genes were each represented by three SNPs, the PSM family by four SNPs and the SLC15A1 gene by six. Haplotype analysis showed that certain combinations of rare alleles of these genes increased the risk of developing CML by more than two or three-fold. A classification tree model identified five SNPs belonging to the genes PSMB10, TNFRSF10D, PSMB2, PPARD and CYP26B1, which were associated with CML predisposition. A CML-risk-allele score was created using these five SNPs. This score was accurate for discriminating CML status (AUC: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.58-0.64). Interestingly, the score was associated with age at diagnosis and the average number of risk alleles was significantly higher in younger patients. The risk-allele score showed the same distribution in the general population (HapMap CEU samples) as in our control individuals and was associated with differential gene expression patterns of two genes (VAPA and TDRKH). In conclusion, we describe haplotypes and a genetic score that are significantly associated with a predisposition to develop CML. The SNPs identified will also serve to drive fundamental research on the putative role of these genes in CML development.

Schumann T, Adhikary T, Wortmann A, et al.
Deregulation of PPARβ/δ target genes in tumor-associated macrophages by fatty acid ligands in the ovarian cancer microenvironment.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(15):13416-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) is a lipid ligand-inducible transcription factor associated with macrophage polarization. However, its function in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) has not been investigated to date. Here, we report the PPARβ/δ-regulated transcriptome and cistrome for TAMs from ovarian carcinoma patients. Comparison with monocyte-derived macrophages shows that the vast majority of direct PPARβ/δ target genes are upregulated in TAMs and largely refractory to synthetic agonists, but repressible by inverse agonists. Besides genes with metabolic functions, these include cell type-selective genes associated with immune regulation and tumor progression, e.g., LRP5, CD300A, MAP3K8 and ANGPTL4. This deregulation is not due to increased expression of PPARβ/δ or its enhanced recruitment to target genes. Instead, lipidomic analysis of malignancy-associated ascites revealed high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular linoleic acid, acting as potent PPARβ/δ agonists in macrophages. These fatty acid ligands accumulate in lipid droplets in TAMs, thereby providing a reservoir of PPARβ/δ ligands. These observations suggest that the deregulation of PPARβ/δ target genes by ligands of the tumor microenvironment contributes to the pro-tumorigenic polarization of ovarian carcinoma TAMs. This conclusion is supported by the association of high ANGPTL4 expression with a shorter relapse-free survival in serous ovarian carcinoma.

Huang Y, Nie S, Zhou S, et al.
PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism and circulating lipid levels connect with brain diseases in Han Chinese and suggest sex-dependent effects.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 70:7-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The PPARD polymorphisms were shown to be associated with circulating lipoprotein metabolism in various diseases. We aimed to check the contribution of PPARD rs2016520 and lipid concentration to the risk of intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) and brain tumors (BT) in Han Chinese. A total of 864 participants were included in the case-control study. The melting temperature shift (Tm-shift) method was used for rs2016520 genotyping. Under the recessive model, PPARD rs2016520 was shown to be associated with the risk of ICH (P=0.029, odds ratio (OR)=2.72), specifically in males (P=0.045, OR=3.98). Additionally, we also found that the levels of TC and LDL-C were significantly higher in participants with brain diseases than in the controls (TC: P<0.0001; LDL-C: P<0.0001). Significantly higher HDL-C and lower ApoA-I levels were observed in the male patients with brain diseases (HDL-C: P<0.0001; ApoA-I: P=0.008), in contrast of a higher TG level in female ICH (P=0.023). Subsequent interaction analysis between PPARD rs2016520 and lipoprotein metabolism showed that the LDL-C level was positively correlated with ICH in the rs2016520-AA carriers (P<0.0001), but not in the other genotype carriers (AG or GG, P=0.300). Our results showed that PPARD rs2016520 displayed a strong relationship with ICH risk in the male Han Chinese. The TC and LDL-C levels were positively higher in the patients with brain diseases than in the controls. The levels of TG, HDL-C and ApoA-I were shown to affect brain disease in a gender-dependent model. The genotype rs2016520-AA showed significant interaction with the circulating LDL-C levels in ICH.

Taskesen E, Staal FJ, Reinders MJ
An integrated approach of gene expression and DNA-methylation profiles of WNT signaling genes uncovers novel prognostic markers in acute myeloid leukemia.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2015; 16 Suppl 4:S4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The wingless-Int (WNT) pathway has an essential role in cell regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). For Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), the malignant counterpart of HSC, currently only a selective number of genes of the WNT pathway are analyzed by using either gene expression or DNA-methylation profiles for the identification of prognostic markers and potential candidate targets for drug therapy. It is known that mRNA expression is controlled by DNA-methylation and that specific patterns can infer the ability to differentiate biological differences, thus a combined analysis using all WNT annotated genes could provide more insight in the WNT signaling.
APPROACH: We created a computational approach that integrates gene expression and DNA promoter methylation profiles. The approach represents the continuous gene expression and promoter methylation profiles with nine discrete mutually exclusive scenarios. The scenario representation allows for a refinement of patient groups by a more powerful statistical analysis, and the construction of a co-expression network. We focused on 268 WNT annotated signaling genes that are derived from the molecular signature database.
RESULTS: Using the scenarios we identified seven prognostic markers for overall survival and event-free survival. Three genes are novel prognostic markers; two with favorable outcome (PSMD2, PPARD) and one with unfavorable outcome (XPNPEP). The remaining four genes (LEF1, SFRP2, RUNX1, and AXIN2) were previously identified but we could refine the patient groups. Three AML risk groups were further analyzed and the co-expression network showed that only the good risk group harbors frequent promoter hypermethylation and significantly correlated interactions with proteasome family members.
CONCLUSION: Our results provide novel insights in WNT signaling in AML, we discovered new and previously identified prognostic markers and a refinement of the patient groups.

Mao F, Xu M, Zuo X, et al.
15-Lipoxygenase-1 suppression of colitis-associated colon cancer through inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.
FASEB J. 2015; 29(6):2359-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The IL-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway is a critical signaling pathway for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ, a lipid nuclear receptor, up-regulates IL-6. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1), which is crucial to production of lipid signaling mediators to terminate inflammation, down-regulates PPAR-δ. 15-LOX-1 effects on IL-6/STAT3 signaling and CAC tumorigenesis have not been determined. We report that intestinally targeted transgenic 15-LOX-1 expression in mice inhibited azoxymethane- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced CAC, IL-6 expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, and IL-6/STAT3 downstream target (Notch3 and MUC1) expression. 15-LOX-1 down-regulation was associated with IL-6 up-regulation in human colon cancer mucosa. Reexpression of 15-LOX-1 in human colon cancer cells suppressed IL-6 mRNA expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, IL-6 promoter activity, and PPAR-δ mRNA and protein expression. PPAR-δ overexpression in colonic epithelial cells promoted CAC tumorigenesis in mice and increased IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas concomitant 15-LOX-1 expression in colonic epithelial cells (15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice) suppressed these effects: the number of tumors per mouse (mean ± sem) was 4.22 ± 0.68 in wild-type littermates, 6.67 ± 0.83 in PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.026), and 2.25 ± 0.25 in 15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.0006). Identification of 15-LOX-1 suppression of PPAR-δ to inhibit IL-6/STAT3 signaling-driven CAC tumorigenesis provides mechanistic insights that can be used to molecularly target CAC.

Thulasiraman P, McAndrews DJ, Mohiudddin IQ
Curcumin restores sensitivity to retinoic acid in triple negative breast cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:724 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A major obstacle in the use of retinoid therapy in cancer is the resistance to this agent in tumors. Retinoic acid facilitates the growth of mammary carcinoma cells which express high levels of fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5). This protein delivers retinoic acid to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) that targets genes involved in cell proliferation and survival. One approach to overcome resistance of mammary carcinoma cells to retinoic acid is to target and suppress the FABP5/ PPARβ/δ pathway. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of curcumin, a polyphenol extract from the plant Curcuma longa, on the FABP5/ PPARβ/δ pathway in retinoic acid resistant triple negative breast cancer cells.
METHODS: Cell viability and proliferation of triple negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MD-MB-468) treated with curcumin and/or retinoic was analyzed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Expression level of FABP5 and PPARβ/δ in these cells treated with curcumin was examined by Western Blotting analysis and Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR). Effect of curcumin and retinoic acid on PPARβ/δ target genes, PDK1and VEGF-A were also examined using qRT-PCR. Western Blotting was utilized to examine the protein expression level of the p65 subunit of NF-κB.
RESULTS: Treatment of retinoic acid resistant triple negative breast cancer cells with curcumin sensitized these cells to retinoic acid mediated growth suppression, as well as suppressed incorporation of BrdU. Further studies demonstrated that curcumin showed a marked reduction in the expression level of FABP5 and PPARβ/δ. We provide evidence that curcumin suppresses p65, a transcription factor known to regulate FABP5. The combination of curcumin with retinoic acid suppressed PPARβ/δ target genes, VEGF-A and PDK1.
CONCLUSIONS: Curcumin suppresses the expression level of FABP5 and PPARβ/δ in triple negative mammary carcinoma cells. By targeting the FABP5/PPARβ/δ pathway, curcumin prevents the delivery of retinoic acid to PPARβ/δ and suppresses retinoic acid-induced PPARβ/δ target gene, VEGF-A. Our data demonstrates that suppression of the FABP5/ PPARβ/δ pathway by curcumin sensitizes retinoic acid resistant triple negative breast cancer cells to retinoic acid mediated growth suppression.

Yang Y, Burke RV, Jeon CY, et al.
Polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and survival of lung cancer and upper aero-digestive tract cancers.
Lung Cancer. 2014; 85(3):449-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional factors involved in several biological processes such as inflammation, cancer growth, progression and apoptosis that are important in lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer outcomes. Nonetheless, there are no published studies of the relationship between PPARs gene polymorphisms and survival of patients with lung cancer or UADT cancers.
METHODS: 1212 cancer patients (611 lung, 303 oral, 100 pharyngeal, 90 laryngeal, and 108 esophageal) were followed for a median duration of 11 years. We genotyped three potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Taqman - rs3734254 of the gene PPARD and rs10865710 and rs1801282 of the gene PPARG - and investigated their associations with lung and UADT cancer survival using Cox regression. A semi-Bayesian shrinkage approach was used to reduce the potential for false positive findings when examining multiple associations.
RESULTS: The variant homozygote CC (vs. TT) of PPARD rs3734254 was inversely associated with mortality of both lung cancer (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.42, 0.96) and UADT cancers (aHR=0.51, 95% CI=0.27, 0.99). Use of the semi-Bayesian shrinkage approach yielded a posterior aHR for lung cancer of 0.66 (95% posterior limits=0.44, 0.98) and a posterior aHR for UADT cancers of 0.58 (95% posterior limits=0.33, 1.03).
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that lung-cancer patients with the CC variant of PPARD rs3734254 may have a survival advantage over lung-cancer patients with other gene variants.

Zhu B, Ferry CH, Markell LK, et al.
The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) promotes oncogene-induced cellular senescence through repression of endoplasmic reticulum stress.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(29):20102-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and ER stress-associated unfolded protein response (UPR) can promote cancer cell survival, but it remains unclear whether they can influence oncogene-induced senescence. The present study examined the role of ER stress in senescence using oncogene-dependent models. Increased ER stress attenuated senescence in part by up-regulating phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) and decreasing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK). A positive feed forward loop between p-AKT, ER stress, and UPR was discovered whereby a transient increase of ER stress caused reduced senescence and promotion of tumorigenesis. Decreased ER stress was further correlated with increased senescence in both mouse and human tumors. Interestingly, H-RAS-expressing Pparβ/δ null cells and tumors having increased cell proliferation exhibited enhanced ER stress, decreased cellular senescence, and/or enhanced tumorigenicity. Collectively, these results demonstrate a new role for ER stress and UPR that attenuates H-RAS-induced senescence and suggest that PPARβ/δ can repress this oncogene-induced ER stress to promote senescence in accordance with its role as a tumor modifier that suppresses carcinogenesis.

Keller E, Chazenbalk GD, Aguilera P, et al.
Impaired preadipocyte differentiation into adipocytes in subcutaneous abdominal adipose of PCOS-like female rhesus monkeys.
Endocrinology. 2014; 155(7):2696-703 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome women and polycystic ovary syndrome-like, prenatally androgenized (PA) female monkeys worsen with age, with altered adipogenesis of sc abdominal adipose potentially contributing to age-related adverse effects on metabolism. This study examines whether adipocyte morphology and gene expression in sc abdominal adipose differ between late reproductive-aged PA female rhesus monkeys compared with age-matched controls (C). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose of both groups was obtained for histological imaging and mRNA determination of zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a marker of adipose stem cell commitment to preadipocytes, and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)δ as well as C/EBPα/PPARγ as respective markers of early- and late-stage differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes. In all females combined, serum testosterone (T) levels positively correlated with fasting serum levels of total free fatty acid (r(2) = 0.73, P < .002). PA females had a greater population of small adipocytes vs C (P < .001) in the presence of increased Zfp423 (P < .025 vs C females) and decreased C/EBPα (P < .003, vs C females) mRNA expression. Moreover, Zfp423 mRNA expression positively correlated with circulating total free fatty acid levels during iv glucose tolerance testing (P < .004, r(2) = 0.66), whereas C/EBPα mRNA expression negatively correlated with serum T levels (P < .02, r(2) = 0.43). Gene expression of PPARδ and PPARγ were comparable between groups (P = .723 and P = .18, respectively). Early-to-mid gestational T excess in female rhesus monkeys impairs adult preadipocyte differentiation to adipocytes in sc abdominal adipose and may constrain the ability of this adipose depot to safely store fat with age.

Zuo X, Xu M, Yu J, et al.
Potentiation of colon cancer susceptibility in mice by colonic epithelial PPAR-δ/β overexpression.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(4):dju052 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ/β (PPAR-d) is upregulated in human colorectal cancers, but its role in colonic tumorigenesis remains controversial.
METHODS: We generated a novel mouse model of intestinally targeted PPAR-d overexpression to simulate PPAR-d upregulation in human colon carcinogenesis. Colon-specific PPAR-d overexpression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and activity assays. Mice with and without targeted PPAR-d overexpression were tested for azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic tumorigenesis. Mouse whole-genome transcriptome microarray analyses were performed to identify PPAR-d target genes to promote tumorigenesis. We used linear models to test for PPAR-d overexpression trend effects on tumor multiplicity. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Targeted PPAR-d overexpression markedly increased colonic tumor incidence (from 0 of 10 wild-type [WT] littermate mice to 9 of 10 mice [P < .001] in 2 FVB/N background mouse lines [villin-PPAR-d-1 and villin-PPAR-d-2] at a 5-mg/kg AOM dose) and multiplicity (number of tumors per mouse per mg/kg dose of AOM increased from 0.47 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.22 to 0.72] for the WT littermates to 2.15 [95% CI = 1.90 to 2.40] [P < .001] for the villin-PPAR-d-1 mice and from 0.44 [95% CI = 0.09 to 0.79] for the WT littermates to 1.91 [95% CI = 1.57 to 2.25] [P < .001] for the villin-PPAR-d-2 mice). PPAR-d overexpression reversed resistance to AOM-induced colonic tumorigenesis in C57BL/6 mice. PPAR-d overexpression modulated expression of several novel PPAR-d target genes in normal-appearing colonic epithelial cells of mice with PPAR-d overexpression in a pattern that matched the changes in colonic tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Our finding that PPAR-d upregulation profoundly enhances susceptibility to colonic tumorigenesis should impact the development of strategies of molecularly targeting PPAR-d in cancer and noncancerous diseases.

Goksel G, Bilir A, Uslu R, et al.
WNT1 gene expression alters in heterogeneous population of prostate cancer cells; decreased expression pattern observed in CD133+/CD44+ prostate cancer stem cell spheroids.
J BUON. 2014 Jan-Mar; 19(1):207-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Established cancer cell lines contain cancer stem cells (CSCs) which can propagate to form three dimensional (3D) tumor spheroids in vitro. Aberrant activation of WNT signaling is strongly implicated in the progression of cancer and controls CSCs properties. In this study we hypothesized that when cells were maintained as spheroids, the structure of CSCs could show differentiation between CSCs and non- CSCs.
METHODS: CD133+/CD44+ cancer-initiating cells were isolated from DU-145 human prostate cancer cell line monolayer cultures, propagated as tumor spheroids and compared with the remaining heterogeneous cancer cells bulk population. The expression levels of WNT1, FZD1, ADAR, APC, AXIN, BTRC, FRAT1 and PPARD genes were measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array assay and the protein expression levels of WNT1, FZD and AXIN by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: The expression levels of WNT pathway-related molecules were found to increase in both CSCs and non- CSCs when CSCs were maintained as spheroids. However, different expression profiles were observed when CSCs and non-CSCs were compared. In spheroids, the expression levels of FZD1, APC, ADAR, WNT1, PPARD genes in CSCs decreased when compared to non-CSCs. Interestingly, when CSCs from spheroids were compared with CSCs from monolayers the most significant decrease was observed in FZD1 and increase in APC genes.
CONCLUSION: It is possible to assume that intracellular signaling of WNT-related molecules in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm might play an important role but it is independent from increased ligand expression and this expression strongly differentiate CSCs and non-CSCs population. This unexpected expression could be important for CSCs behavior and targeting this pathway could have therapeutic implications in cancer.

Borland MG, Krishnan P, Lee C, et al.
Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent signaling by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) in keratinocytes.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(7):1602-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) reduces skin tumorigenesis by altering aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-dependent activities was examined. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) increased expression of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), CYP1B1 and phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in wild-type skin and keratinocytes. Surprisingly, this effect was not found in Pparβ/δ-null skin and keratinocytes. Pparβ/δ-null keratinocytes exhibited decreased AHR occupancy and histone acetylation on the Cyp1a1 promoter in response to a PAH compared with wild-type keratinocytes. Bisulfite sequencing of the Cyp1a1 promoter and studies using a DNA methylation inhibitor suggest that PPARβ/δ promotes demethylation of the Cyp1a1 promoter. Experiments with human HaCaT keratinocytes stably expressing shRNA against PPARβ/δ also support this conclusion. Consistent with the lower AHR-dependent activities in Pparβ/δ-null mice compared with wild-type mice, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin tumorigenesis was inhibited in Pparβ/δ-null mice compared with wild-type. Results from these studies demonstrate that PPARβ/δ is required to mediate complete carcinogenesis by DMBA. The mechanisms underlying this PPARβ/δ-dependent reduction of AHR signaling by PAH are not due to alterations in the expression of AHR auxiliary proteins, ligand binding or AHR nuclear translocation between genotypes, but are likely influenced by PPARβ/δ-dependent demethylation of AHR target gene promoters including Cyp1a1 that reduces AHR accessibility as shown by reduced promoter occupancy. This PPARβ/δ/AHR crosstalk is unique to keratinocytes and conserved between mice and humans.

Jeong E, Koo JE, Yeon SH, et al.
PPARδ deficiency disrupts hypoxia-mediated tumorigenic potential of colon cancer cells.
Mol Carcinog. 2014; 53(11):926-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ is highly expressed in colon epithelial cells and closely linked to colon carcinogenesis. However, the role of PPARδ in colon cancer cells in a hypoxic tumor microenvironment is not fully understood. We found that expression of the tumor-promoting cytokines, IL-8 and VEGF, induced by hypoxia (<1% O2) and deferoxamine (a hypoxia mimetic) was significantly attenuated in PPARδ-deficient HCT116 colon cancer cells. Consequently, PPARδ-knockout colon cancer cells exposed to hypoxia and deferoxamine failed to stimulate endothelial cell vascularization and macrophage migration/proliferation, whereas wild-type cells were able to induce angiogenesis and macrophage activation in response to hypoxic stress. Hypoxic stress induced transcriptional activation of PPARδ, but not its protein expression, in HCT116 cells. Exogenous expression of p300 potentiated deferoxamine-induced PPARδ transactivation, while siRNA knockdown of p300 abolished hypoxia- and deferoxamine-induced PPARδ transactivation. PPARδ associated with p300 upon hypoxic stress as demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation studies. PI3K inhibitors or siRNA knockdown of Akt suppressed the PPARδ transactivation induced by hypoxia and deferoxamine in HCT116 cells, leading to decreased expression of IL-8 and VEGF. Collectively, these results reveal that PPARδ is required for hypoxic stress-mediated cytokine expression in colon cancer cells, resulting in promotion of angiogenesis, macrophage recruitment, and macrophage proliferation in the tumor microenvironment. p300 and the PI3K/Akt pathway play a role in the regulation of PPARδ transactivation induced by hypoxic stress. Our results demonstrate the positive crosstalk between PPARδ in tumor cells and the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and provide potential therapeutic targets for colon cancer.

Yao PL, Morales JL, Zhu B, et al.
Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPAR-β/δ) inhibits human breast cancer cell line tumorigenicity.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(4):1008-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The effect of activation and overexpression of the nuclear receptor PPAR-β/δ in human MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor-negative; ER(-)) and MCF7 (estrogen-receptor-positive; ER(+)) breast cancer cell lines was examined. Target gene induction by ligand activation of PPAR-β/δ was increased by overexpression of PPAR-β/δ compared with controls. Overexpression of PPAR-β/δ caused a decrease in cell proliferation in MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells compared with controls, whereas ligand activation of PPAR-β/δ further inhibited proliferation of MCF7 but not MDA-MB-231 cells. Overexpression and/or ligand activation of PPAR-β/δ in MDA-MB-231 or MCF7 cells had no effect on experimental apoptosis. Decreased clonogenicity was observed in both MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 overexpressing PPAR-β/δ in response to ligand activation of PPAR-β/δ as compared with controls. Ectopic xenografts developed from MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells overexpressing PPAR-β/δ were significantly smaller, and ligand activation of PPAR-β/δ caused an even greater reduction in tumor volume as compared with controls. Interestingly, the decrease in MDA-MB-231 tumor size after overexpressing PPAR-β/δ and ligand activation of PPAR-β/δ correlated with increased necrosis. These data show that ligand activation and/or overexpression of PPAR-β/δ in two human breast cancer cell lines inhibits relative breast cancer tumorigenicity and provide further support for the development of ligands for PPAR-β/δ to specifically inhibit breast carcinogenesis. These new cell-based models will be invaluable tools for delineating the role of PPAR-β/δ in breast cancer and evaluating the effects of PPAR-β/δ agonists.

Harris M, Bhuvaneshwar K, Natarajan T, et al.
Pharmacogenomic characterization of gemcitabine response--a framework for data integration to enable personalized medicine.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2014; 24(2):81-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Response to the oncology drug gemcitabine may be variable in part due to genetic differences in the enzymes and transporters responsible for its metabolism and disposition. The aim of our in-silico study was to identify gene variants significantly associated with gemcitabine response that may help to personalize treatment in the clinic.
METHODS: We analyzed two independent data sets: (a) genotype data from NCI-60 cell lines using the Affymetrix DMET 1.0 platform combined with gemcitabine cytotoxicity data in those cell lines, and (b) genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data from 351 pancreatic cancer patients treated on an NCI-sponsored phase III clinical trial. We also performed a subset analysis on the GWAS data set for 135 patients who were given gemcitabine+placebo. Statistical and systems biology analyses were performed on each individual data set to identify biomarkers significantly associated with gemcitabine response.
RESULTS: Genetic variants in the ABC transporters (ABCC1, ABCC4) and the CYP4 family members CYP4F8 and CYP4F12, CHST3, and PPARD were found to be significant in both the NCI-60 and GWAS data sets. We report significant association between drug response and variants within members of the chondroitin sulfotransferase family (CHST) whose role in gemcitabine response is yet to be delineated.
CONCLUSION: Biomarkers identified in this integrative analysis may contribute insights into gemcitabine response variability. As genotype data become more readily available, similar studies can be conducted to gain insights into drug response mechanisms and to facilitate clinical trial design and regulatory reviews.

Ticha I, Gnosa S, Lindblom A, et al.
Variants of the PPARD gene and their clinicopathological significance in colorectal cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83952 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) is nuclear hormone receptor involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) differentiation and progression. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and spectrum of variants in the PPARD gene in CRC, and their contribution to clinicopathological endpoints.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Direct sequencing of the PPARD gene was performed in 303 primary tumors, in blood samples from 50 patients with ≥ 3 affected first-degree relatives, 50 patients with 2 affected first-degree relatives, 50 sporadic patients, 360 healthy controls, and in 6 colon cancer cell lines. Mutation analysis revealed 22 different transversions, 7 of them were novel. Three of all variants were somatic (c.548A>G, p.Y183C, c.425-9C>T, and c.628-16G>A). Two missense mutations (p.Y183C and p.R258Q) were pathogenic using in silico predictive program. Five recurrent variants were detected in/adjacent to the exons 4 (c.1-87T>C, c.1-67G>A, c.130+3G>A, and c.1-101-8C>T) and exon 7 (c.489T>C). Variant c.489C/C detected in tumors was correlated to worse differentiation (P = 0.0397).
CONCLUSIONS: We found 7 novel variants among 22 inherited or acquired PPARD variants. Somatic and/or missense variants detected in CRC patients are rare but indicate the clinical importance of the PPARD gene.

Darabi M, Byagowi S, Fayezi S, et al.
Transcriptional regulation of Δ6-desaturase by peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor δ agonist in human pancreatic cancer cells: role of MEK/ERK1/2 pathway.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2013; 2013:607524 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Δ6-desaturase (Δ6D), also known as fatty acid desaturase 2, is a regulatory enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis, which has been linked to obesity and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor δ (PPAR δ ) agonist and MEK/ERK1/2-dependent pathway on the expression of Δ6D in human pancreatic carcinoma cell line PANC-1. PANC-1 cells cultured in RPMI-1640 were exposed to the commonly used ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor PD98059 and PPAR δ agonist GW0742. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of Δ6D were then determined using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The expression of Δ6D (P < 0.01) increased following treatment with PPAR δ agonist both at mRNA and protein levels, whereas no significant change was observed after treatment with MEK/ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor. It was also found that the increase in the expression of Δ6D in response to GW0742 was significantly inhibited by PD98059 (>40%, P < 0.05) or EGF receptor-selective inhibitor AG1478 (>25%, P < 0.05) pretreatment. PPAR δ and MEK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways affect differentially the expression of Δ6D in pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, there may be an inhibitory crosstalk between these two regulatory pathways on the mRNA expression of Δ6D and subsequently on Δ6D protein expression.

Montagner A, Delgado MB, Tallichet-Blanc C, et al.
Src is activated by the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ in ultraviolet radiation-induced skin cancer.
EMBO Mol Med. 2014; 6(1):80-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common human cancer and its incidence continues to rise worldwide, the mechanisms underlying its development remain incompletely understood. Here, we unveil a cascade of events involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ and the oncogene Src, which promotes the development of ultraviolet (UV)-induced skin cancer in mice. UV-induced PPARβ/δ activity, which directly stimulated Src expression, increased Src kinase activity and enhanced the EGFR/Erk1/2 signalling pathway, resulting in increased epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker expression. Consistent with these observations, PPARβ/δ-null mice developed fewer and smaller skin tumours, and a PPARβ/δ antagonist prevented UV-dependent Src stimulation. Furthermore, the expression of PPARβ/δ positively correlated with the expression of SRC and EMT markers in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and critically, linear models applied to several human epithelial cancers revealed an interaction between PPARβ/δ and SRC and TGFβ1 transcriptional levels. Taken together, these observations motivate the future evaluation of PPARβ/δ modulators to attenuate the development of several epithelial cancers.

Dey N, Young B, Abramovitz M, et al.
Differential activation of Wnt-β-catenin pathway in triple negative breast cancer increases MMP7 in a PTEN dependent manner.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77425 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations of genes in tumor cells of Triple Negative subset of Breast Cancer (TNBC) deregulate pathways of signal transduction. The loss of tumor suppressor gene PTEN is the most common first event associated with basal-like subtype (Martins, De, Almendro, Gonen, and Park, 2012). Here we report for the first time that the functional upregulation of secreted-MMP7, a transcriptional target of Wnt-β-catenin signature pathway in TNBC is associated to the loss of PTEN. We identified differential expression of mRNAs in several key-components genes, and transcriptional target genes of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway (WP), including beta-catenin, FZD7, DVL1, MMP7, c-MYC, BIRC5, CD44, PPARD, c-MET, and NOTCH1 in FFPE tumors samples from TNBC patients of two independent cohorts. A similar differential upregulation of mRNA/protein for beta-catenin, the functional readout of WP, and for MMP7, a transcriptional target gene of beta-catenin was observed in TNBC cell line models. Genetic or pharmacological attenuation of beta-catenin by SiRNA or WP modulators (XAV939 and sulindac sulfide) and pharmacological mimicking of PTEN following LY294002 treatment downregulated MMP7 levels as well as enzymatic function of the secreted MMP7 in MMP7 positive PTEN-null TNBC cells. Patient data revealed that MMP7 mRNA was high in only a subpopulation of TNBC, and this subpopulation was characterized by a concurrent low expression of PTEN mRNA. In cell lines, a high expression of casein-zymograph-positive MMP7 was distinguished by an absence of functional PTEN. A similar inverse relationship between MMP7 and PTEN mRNA levels was observed in the PAM50 data set (a correlation coefficient of -0.54). The PAM50 subtype and outcome data revealed that the high MMP7 group had low pCR (25%) and High Rd (74%) in clinical stage T3 pathologic response in contrast to the high pCR (40%) and low residual disease (RD) (60%) of the low MMP7 group.

Jeon C, Chang SC, Mu L, et al.
Genetic variants of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ are associated with gastric cancer.
Dig Dis Sci. 2013; 58(10):2881-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are implicated in pathogenesis of insulin resistance and cancers of the digestive system.
AIM: We investigated the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PPAR δ and γ with gastric cancer and explored interactions with risk factors of gastric cancer.
METHODS: We conducted our analysis in a case-control study of 196 gastric cancer patients and 397 controls residing in the Taixing region of Jiangsu, China. Six SNPs in the PPARδ (rs2076167, rs3734254) and PPARγ genes (rs10865710, rs1801282, rs3856806, rs13306747) were genotyped. We employed logistic regression to evaluate the association between each genotype and gastric cancer and tested for gene-environment interaction with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, smoking status, and meat and salt intake.
RESULTS: We found that the G/G variant rs2076167, in tight linkage disequilibrium with rs3734254 (R (2) = 0.97), was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer in a recessive model (OR 2.20, 95 % CI 1.12, 4.32). The association between G/G variant of rs2016167 and gastric cancer was particularly strong among those with higher salt intake (OR 5.11, 95 % CI 1.11, 23.5), but did not vary by H. pylori infection or smoking status.
CONCLUSION: We found that genetic variants of PPARδ were associated with gastric cancer. If the association is confirmed in larger studies, it may implicate a role for PPARδ activators, such as insulin-sensitizing agents, in prevention of gastric cancer.

Bell E, Ponthan F, Whitworth C, et al.
Cell survival signalling through PPARδ and arachidonic acid metabolites in neuroblastoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e68859 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Retinoic acid (RA) has paradoxical effects on cancer cells: promoting cell death, differentiation and cell cycle arrest, or cell survival and proliferation. Arachidonic acid (AA) release occurs in response to RA treatment and, therefore, AA and its downstream metabolites may be involved in cell survival signalling. To test this, we inhibited phospholipase A2-mediated AA release, cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases with small-molecule inhibitors to determine if this would sensitise cells to cell death after RA treatment. The data suggest that, in response to RA, phospholipase A2-mediated release of AA and subsequent metabolism by lipoxygenases is important for cell survival. Evidence from gene expression reporter assays and PPARδ knockdown suggests that lipoxygenase metabolites activate PPARδ. The involvement of PPARδ in cell survival is supported by results of experiments with the PPARδ inhibitor GSK0660 and siRNA-mediated knockdown. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR studies demonstrated that inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase after RA treatment resulted in a strong up-regulation of mRNA for PPARδ2, a putative inhibitory PPARδ isoform. Over-expression of PPARδ2 using a tetracycline-inducible system in neuroblastoma cells reduced proliferation and induced cell death. These data provide evidence linking lipoxygenases and PPARδ in a cell survival-signalling mechanism and suggest new drug-development targets for malignant and hyper-proliferative diseases.

Jiang X, Yang X, Han Y, Lu S
Transcription factor AP1 binds the functional region of the promoter and regulates gene expression of human PPARdelta in LoVo cell.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(6):3619-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ gene (PPARδ) is correlated with carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer, but the regulation of its gene transcription remains unclear. We herein report that AP1 binds the promoter and regulates PPARδ gene expression. With a luciferase reporter system, we identified a functional promoter region of 30 bp of PPARδ gene by deletion and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Using site-directed mutagenesis and decoy analyses, we demonstrated that AP1 bound the functional transcriptional factor binding site in a region extending from -176 to -73 of the PPARδ promoter, which was confirmed using EMSA and supershift assays. Consequently, inhibition of the AP1 binding site led to decreased PPARδ mRNA. Our study demonstrated that AP1 is the transcriptional factor that contributes to PPARδ expression in LoVo cells.

Yuan H, Lu J, Xiao J, et al.
PPARδ induces estrogen receptor-positive mammary neoplasia through an inflammatory and metabolic phenotype linked to mTOR activation.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(14):4349-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) regulates a multitude of physiological processes associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and proliferation. One or more of these processes are potential risk factors for the ability of PPARδ agonists to promote tumorigenesis in the mammary gland. In this study, we describe a new transgenic mouse model in which activation of PPARδ in the mammary epithelium by endogenous or synthetic ligands resulted in progressive histopathologic changes that culminated in the appearance of estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-positive and ErbB2-negative infiltrating ductal carcinomas. Multiparous mice presented with mammary carcinomas after a latency of 12 months, and administration of the PPARδ ligand GW501516 reduced tumor latency to 5 months. Histopathologic changes occurred concurrently with an increase in an inflammatory, invasive, metabolic, and proliferative gene signature, including expression of the trophoblast gene, Plac1, beginning 1 week after GW501516 treatment, and remained elevated throughout tumorigenesis. The appearance of malignant changes correlated with a pronounced increase in phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidic acid metabolites, which coincided with activation of Akt and mTOR signaling that were attenuated by treatment with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. Our findings are the first to show a direct role of PPARδ in the pathogenesis of mammary tumorigenesis, and suggest a rationale for therapeutic approaches to prevent and treat this disease.

Levi L, Lobo G, Doud MK, et al.
Genetic ablation of the fatty acid-binding protein FABP5 suppresses HER2-induced mammary tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(15):4770-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The fatty acid-binding protein FABP5 shuttles ligands from the cytosol to the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ (encoded for by Pparδ), thereby enhancing the transcriptional activity of the receptor. This FABP5/PPARδ pathway is critical for induction of proliferation of breast carcinoma cells by activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study, we show that FABP5 is highly upregulated in human breast cancers and we provide genetic evidence of the pathophysiologic significance of FABP5 in mammary tumorigenesis. Ectopic expression of FABP5 was found to be oncogenic in 3T3 fibroblasts where it augmented the ability of PPARδ to enhance cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. To determine whether FABP5 is essential for EGFR-induced mammary tumor growth, we interbred FABP5-null mice with MMTV-ErbB2/HER2 oncomice, which spontaneously develop mammary tumors. FABP5 ablation relieved activation of EGFR downstream effector signals, decreased expression of PPARδ target genes that drive cell proliferation, and suppressed mammary tumor development. Our findings establish that FABP5 is critical for mammary tumor development, rationalizing the development of FABP5 inhibitors as novel anticarcinogenic drugs.

Yang L, Zhou J, Ma Q, et al.
Knockdown of PPAR δ gene promotes the growth of colon cancer and reduces the sensitivity to bevacizumab in nude mice model.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e60715 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The role of peroxisome proliferator--activated receptor- δ (PPAR δ) gene in colon carcinogenesis remains highly controversial. Here, we established nude mice xenograft model using a human colon cancer cell line KM12C either with PPAR δ silenced or normal. The xenografts in PPAR δ-silenced group grew significantly larger and heavier with less differentiation, promoted cell proliferation, increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and similar apoptosis index compared with those of PPAR δ-normal group. After treated with the specific VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab, the capacities of growth and proliferation of xenografts were decreased in both groups while still significantly higher in PPAR δ-silenced group than in PPAR δ-normal group. Administration of PPAR δ agonist significantly decreased VEGF expression in PPAR δ-normal KM12C cells but not in PPAR δ-silenced cells. These findings demonstrate that, knockdown of PPAR δ promotes the growth of colon cancer by inducing less differentiation, accelerating the proliferation and VEGF expression of tumor cells in vivo, and reduces tumor sensitivity to bevacizumab. This study indicates that PPAR δ attenuates colon carcinogenesis.

Kittler R, Zhou J, Hua S, et al.
A comprehensive nuclear receptor network for breast cancer cells.
Cell Rep. 2013; 3(2):538-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
In breast cancer, nuclear receptors (NRs) play a prominent role in governing gene expression, have prognostic utility, and are therapeutic targets. We built a regulatory map for 24 NRs, six chromatin state markers, and 14 breast-cancer-associated transcription factors (TFs) that are expressed in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The resulting network reveals a highly interconnected regulatory matrix where extensive crosstalk occurs among NRs and other breast -cancer-associated TFs. We show that large numbers of factors are coordinately bound to highly occupied target regions throughout the genome, and these regions are associated with active chromatin state and hormone-responsive gene expression. This network also provides a framework for stratifying and predicting patient outcomes, and we use it to show that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta binds to a set of genes also regulated by the retinoic acid receptors and whose expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer.

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