Research IndicatorsGraph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CXCL1 (cancer-related)
Growth-regulated oncogene-alpha (GRO-α) has been reported to be over-expressed in a series of human cancers including colorectal cancer, melanoma, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ovarian cancer and was known to regulate multiple biologic activities associated with tumor progression. But the role in human pancreatic cancer remains unclear. To examine the expression of GRO-α and its clinical significance in pancreatic cancer (PC), a total of 12 fresh PC specimens and 12 surrounding normal tissues to detect GRO-α mRNA expression were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Immunohistochemical analysis of GRO-α protein was performed in 160 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded PC tissue samples and 68 control specimens, including 37 matched normal surgical margins and 31 benign pancreatic lesions. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognosis of PC patients.Expression of GRO-α mRNA in PC tissues was significantly compared with that in adjacent normal tissues (1.399 ± 0.165 vs. 0.870 ± 0.103 t = 1.75, P = 0.012), GRO-α protein expression in cytoplasm of cancer cells and stroma was detected in 41.88% and 40.63% PC specimens, respectively, and was significantly higher than that in corresponding normal tissues (P = 0.008, P = 0.002, respectively). High GRO-α expression in the cytoplasm of cancer cells was related to tumor location (P = 0.047), tumor status (T classification; P = 0.001), distant metastasis (P < 0.001), and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage (P < 0.001). High GRO-α expression in the stroma correlated with perineural invasion (P = 0.010), T classification (P = 0.006) and TNM stage (P = 0.004), and was marginally associated with metastasis (P = 0.056). Elevated expression of GRO-α in cytoplasm of cancer cells (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.730, P = 0.007) and stroma (HR = 3.120, P = 0.022) were independent prognostic factors of pancreatic cancer. T classification (HR = 2.130, P = 0.023), lymphatic metastasis (HR = 4.211, P = 0.009) and TNM classification (HR = 0.481, P = 0.031) were also prognostic predictors in PC patients.GRO-α expression was elevated in pancreatic cancer tissues and might be a potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker in patients with pancreatic cancer.
Neutrophils have a traditional role in inflammatory process and act as the first line of defense against infections. Although their contribution to tumorigenesis and progression is still controversial, accumulating evidence recently has demonstrated that tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) play a key role in multiple aspects of cancer biology. Here, we detected that chemokine CXCL1 was dramatically elevated in serum from 3LL tumor-bearing mice. In vitro, 3LL cells constitutively expressed and secreted higher level of CXCL1. Furthermore, knocking down CXCL1 expression in 3LL cells significantly hindered tumor growth by inhibiting recruitment of neutrophils from peripheral blood into tumor tissues. Additionally, tumor-infiltrated neutrophils expressed higher levels of MPO and Fas/FasL, which may be involved in TAN-mediated inhibition of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These results demonstrate that tumor-derived CXCL1 contributes to TANs infiltration in lung cancer which promotes tumor growth.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its downstream product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) play a key role in generation of the inflammatory microenvironment in tumor tissues. Gastric cancer is closely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, which stimulates innate immune responses through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), inducing COX-2/PGE2 pathway through nuclear factor-κB activation. A pathway analysis of human gastric cancer shows that both the COX-2 pathway and Wnt/β-catenin signaling are significantly activated in tubular-type gastric cancer, and basal levels of these pathways are also increased in other types of gastric cancer. Expression of interleukin-11, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), CXCL2, and CXCL5, which play tumor-promoting roles through a variety of mechanisms, is induced in a COX-2/PGE2 pathway-dependent manner in both human and mouse gastric tumors. Moreover, the COX-2/PGE2 pathway plays an important role in the maintenance of stemness with expression of stem cell markers, including CD44, Prom1, and Sox9, which are induced in both gastritis and gastric tumors through a COX-2/PGE2 -dependent mechanism. In contrast, disruption of Myd88 results in suppression of the inflammatory microenvironment in gastric tumors even when the COX-2/PGE2 pathway is activated, indicating that the interplay of the COX-2/PGE2 and TLR/MyD88 pathways is needed for inflammatory response in tumor tissues. Furthermore, TLR2/MyD88 signaling plays a role in maintenance of stemness in normal stem cells as well as gastric tumor cells. Accordingly, these results suggest that targeting the COX-2/PGE2 pathway together with TLR/MyD88 signaling, which would suppress the inflammatory microenvironment and maintenance of stemness, could be an effective preventive or therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.
Neoplastic pancreatic epithelial cells are believed to die through caspase 8-dependent apoptotic cell death, and chemotherapy is thought to promote tumour apoptosis. Conversely, cancer cells often disrupt apoptosis to survive. Another type of programmed cell death is necroptosis (programmed necrosis), but its role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is unclear. There are many potential inducers of necroptosis in PDA, including ligation of tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), CD95, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors, Toll-like receptors, reactive oxygen species, and chemotherapeutic drugs. Here we report that the principal components of the necrosome, receptor-interacting protein (RIP)1 and RIP3, are highly expressed in PDA and are further upregulated by the chemotherapy drug gemcitabine. Blockade of the necrosome in vitro promoted cancer cell proliferation and induced an aggressive oncogenic phenotype. By contrast, in vivo deletion of RIP3 or inhibition of RIP1 protected against oncogenic progression in mice and was associated with the development of a highly immunogenic myeloid and T cell infiltrate. The immune-suppressive tumour microenvironment associated with intact RIP1/RIP3 signalling depended in part on necroptosis-induced expression of the chemokine attractant CXCL1, and CXCL1 blockade protected against PDA. Moreover, cytoplasmic SAP130 (a subunit of the histone deacetylase complex) was expressed in PDA in a RIP1/RIP3-dependent manner, and Mincle--its cognate receptor--was upregulated in tumour-infiltrating myeloid cells. Ligation of Mincle by SAP130 promoted oncogenesis, whereas deletion of Mincle protected against oncogenesis and phenocopied the immunogenic reprogramming of the tumour microenvironment that was induced by RIP3 deletion. Cellular depletion suggested that whereas inhibitory macrophages promote tumorigenesis in PDA, they lose their immune-suppressive effects when RIP3 or Mincle is deleted. Accordingly, T cells, which are not protective against PDA progression in mice with intact RIP3 or Mincle signalling, are reprogrammed into indispensable mediators of anti-tumour immunity in the absence of RIP3 or Mincle. Our work describes parallel networks of necroptosis-induced CXCL1 and Mincle signalling that promote macrophage-induced adaptive immune suppression and thereby enable PDA progression.
Generally, cancer stem cells have epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition characteristics and other aggressive properties that cause metastasis. However, there have been no confident markers for the identification of cancer stem cells and comparative methods examining adherent and sphere cells are widely used to investigate mechanism underlying cancer stem cells, because sphere cells have been known to maintain cancer stem cell characteristics. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis that combined gene expression profiles from several studies that utilized tumorsphere technology to investigate tumor stem-like breast cancer cells. We used our own gene expression profiles along with the three different gene expression profiles from the Gene Expression Omnibus, which we combined using the ComBat method, and obtained significant gene sets using the gene set analysis of our datasets and the combined dataset. This experiment focused on four gene sets such as cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction that demonstrated significance in both datasets. Our observations demonstrated that among the genes of four significant gene sets, six genes were consistently up-regulated and satisfied the p-value of < 0.05, and our network analysis showed high connectivity in five genes. From these results, we established CXCR4, CXCL1 and HMGCS1, the intersecting genes of the datasets with high connectivity and p-value of < 0.05, as significant genes in the identification of cancer stem cells. Additional experiment using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed significant up-regulation in MCF-7 derived sphere cells and confirmed the importance of these three genes. Taken together, using meta-analysis that combines gene set and network analysis, we suggested CXCR4, CXCL1 and HMGCS1 as candidates involved in tumor stem-like breast cancer cells. Distinct from other meta-analysis, by using gene set analysis, we selected possible markers which can explain the biological mechanisms and suggested network analysis as an additional criterion for selecting candidates.
Lee da Y, Lee da H, Jung JY, et al.A synthetic chalcone derivative, 2-hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimethoxychalcone (DK-139), suppresses the TNFα-induced invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated GROα expression.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016; 26(1):203-8 [PubMed
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2-Hydroxy-3',5,5'-trimenthoxyochalcone (DK-139) is a synthetic chalcone-derived compound. This study evaluated the biological activity of DK-139 on the inhibition of tumor metastasis. Growth-regulated oncogene-alpha (GROα) plays an important role in the progression of tumor development by stimulating angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, DK-139 inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced GROα gene promoter activity by inhibiting of IκB kinase (IKK) in MDA-MB231 cells. In addition, DK-139 prevented the TNFα-induced cell migration, F-actin formation, and invasive capability of MDA-MB-231 cells. These findings suggest that DK-139 is a potential drug candidate for the inhibition of tumor cell locomotion and invasion via the suppression of NF-κB-mediated GROα expression.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammation is a hallmark of cancer, yet the mechanisms that regulate immune cell infiltration into tumors remain poorly characterized. This study attempted to characterize the composition, distribution, and prognostic value of CXCR2(+) cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to examine the CXCR2 ligands that are responsible for local immune infiltration in different areas of HCC tumors.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescene were used to identify CXCR2(+) cells in HCC tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were applied to estimate recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) for 259 HCC patients. The expression levels of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL-1, -2, -5, and -8) were measured by real-time PCR and compared with local immune cell density. The combined prognostic value of the CXCR2-CXCL1 axis was further evaluated.
RESULTS: In HCC tissues, CXCR2(+) cells were mainly neutrophils that were enriched in the peri-tumoral stroma (PS) region. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that increased CXCR2(+) PS cells were associated with reduced RFS and OS (P = 0.015 for RFS; P = 0.002 for OS). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified CXCR2(+) PS cell density as an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.737, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.167-2.585, P = 0.006). Furthermore, we detected a positive correlation between the density of CD15(+) neutrophils and CXCL1 levels in both the peri-tumoral stroma and intra-tumoral regions. The combination of CXCR2 and CXCL1 expression levels represented a powerful predictor of a poor prognosis for patients with HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that the CXCR2(+) cell density was an independent prognostic factor for predicting OS for HCC patients. The CXCR2-CXCL1 axis can regulate neutrophil infiltration into HCC tumor tissues and might represent a useful target for anti-HCC therapies.
Han KQ, He XQ, Ma MY, et al.Targeted silencing of CXCL1 by siRNA inhibits tumor growth and apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(6):2131-40 [PubMed
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy and a major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Our previous study shows that chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) was upregulated and CXCR1 was downregulated in tumor tissues as compared to peritumor tissues by chemotaxis assay. As the status of CXCL subgroups and their receptors affect progression of HCC, we evaluated potential mechanisms of CXCL1 associated with anticancer effects in HCC based on our previous study. The effects of targeting CXCL1 by RNA interference (RNAi) on the proliferation and apoptosis of CBRH-7919 cells were observed in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, whether CXCL1 knockdown significantly reduce the activity of STAT3, NF-κB and HIF-1 or not were also estimated. RNAi of CXCL1 in the CBRH-7919 cells decreased the growth of tumors in nude mice by inhibited cells proliferation and induced apoptosis. In conclusion, these findings suggest that CXCL1 plays critical roles in the growth and apoptosis of HCC. RNAi of CXCL1 inhibits the growth and apoptosis of tumor cells, which indicates that CXCL1 may be a potential molecular target for use in HCC therapy.
Hyperactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways and chronic inflammation are common characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Previously, we reported that OSCC cells secrete interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), which promotes the proliferation of the oral premalignant cell line, DOK, and stimulates DOK and OSCC cells to produce the chemokine CXCL1. CXCL1 functions through CXCR2, a G protein-coupled receptor that transactivates EGFR in ovarian and lung cancers. We hypothesized that IL-1β transactivates EGFR through the CXCL1-CXCR2 axis in OSCC. In this study, we demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR is crucial for the IL-1β-mediated proliferation and subsequent bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation of DOK cells because the EGFR inhibitors AG1478 and erlotinib inhibit these abilities in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of IL-1β instantly enhanced CXCL1 expression and secretion (within 15 min) in the DOK and OSCC cell lines. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR was significantly enhanced in DOK (1 h) and OSCC (20 min) cell lines after IL-1β treatment, and both cell lines were inhibited on the addition of an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). CXCL1 treatment resulted in EGFR phosphorylation, whereas the knockdown of CXCL1 expression by lentivirus-mediated shRNA or the addition of the CXCR2 antagonist SB225002 dramatically reduced IL-1β-mediated EGFR phosphorylation and proliferation of DOK cells. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-1β or CXCL1 markedly inhibited the constitutive or IL-1β-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR in OSCC cells. IL-1β transactivates EGFR through the CXCL1-CXCR2 axis, revealing a novel molecular network in OSCC that is associated with autocrine IL-1β and EGFR signaling.
The omental fat band (OFB) is the predominant site for metastatic seeding of ovarian cancer. Previously, we highlighted the influx and accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in the OFB following syngeneic ovarian cancer cell seeding as an important factor in the development of a protumorigenic cascade. Here we investigated localized immunomodulation as a means of promoting a successful protective response. As an important TH1-type immunomodulator, interleukin (IL)-12 has previously been investigated clinically as an anticancer therapeutic. However, systemic IL-12 administration was associated with serious side effects, galvanizing the development of immune or accessory cells engineered to express secreted or membrane-bound IL-12 (mbIL-12). Using an mbIL-12-expressing cell variant, we demonstrate that localized IL-12 in the tumor microenvironment significantly delays disease development. The mbIL-12-mediated decrease in tumor burden was associated with a significant reduction in neutrophil and macrophage infiltration in the OFB, and correlated with a reduced expression of neutrophil and macrophage chemoattractants (CXCL1, -2, -3 and CCL2, -7). Vaccination with mitotically impaired tumor cells did not confer protection against subsequent tumor challenge, indicating that IL-12 did not impact the immunogenicity of the cancer cells. Our findings are in agreement with previous reports suggesting that IL-12 may hold promise when delivered in a targeted and sustained manner to the omental microenvironment. Furthermore, resident cells within the omental microenvironment may provide a reservoir that can be activated and mobilized to prevent metastatic seeding within the peritoneum and, therefore, may be targets for chemotherapeutics.
Brennenstuhl H, Armento A, Braczysnki AK, et al.IκBζ, an atypical member of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B family, is induced by γ-irradiation in glioma cells, regulating cytokine secretion and associated with poor prognosis.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(5):1971-80 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B zeta (IκBζ) is an atypical member of the IκB protein family. Its function in regulating the activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) as well as its involvement in cancer-associated processes is poorly understood. In glioma patients, enhanced expression of IκBζ in tumor specimen is associated with poor prognosis. Here we report that IκBζ is upregulated in a glioma cell line resistant towards NFκB-dependent non-apoptotic cell death. Upon γ-irradiation of glioma cells, IκBζ expression is enhanced, and subsequently serves as a transcriptional activator of the tumor promoting cytokines interleukin (IL-6), IL-8 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) that are known to be involved in glioma associated inflammatory processes. In contrast, shRNA-mediated knockdown of IκBζ reduces the expression of the aforementioned cytokines. We propose a previously unappreciated role of IκBζ in the inflammatory micromilieu as well as progression in glioma.
Fang WB, Mafuvadze B, Yao M, et al.TGF-β Negatively Regulates CXCL1 Chemokine Expression in Mammary Fibroblasts through Enhancement of Smad2/3 and Suppression of HGF/c-Met Signaling Mechanisms.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0135063 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroblasts are major cellular components of the breast cancer stroma, and influence the growth, survival and invasion of epithelial cells. Compared to normal tissue fibroblasts, carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) show increased expression of numerous soluble factors including growth factors and cytokines. However, the mechanisms regulating expression of these factors remain poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that breast CAFs overexpress the chemokine CXCL1, a key regulator of tumor invasion and chemo-resistance. Increased expression of CXCL1 in CAFs correlated with poor patient prognosis, and was associated with decreased expression of TGF-β signaling components. The goal of these studies was to understand the role of TGF-β in regulating CXCL1 expression in CAFs, using cell culture and biochemical approaches. We found that TGF-β treatment decreased CXCL1 expression in CAFs, through Smad2/3 dependent mechanisms. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and site-directed mutagenesis assays revealed two new binding sites in the CXCL1 promoter important for Smad2/3 modulation of CXCL1 expression. Smad2/3 proteins also negatively regulated expression of Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), which was found to positively regulate CXCL1 expression in CAFs through c-Met receptor dependent mechanisms. HGF/c-Met signaling in CAFs was required for activity of NF-κB, a transcriptional activator of CXCL1 expression. These studies indicate that TGF-β negatively regulates CXCL1 expression in CAFs through Smad2/3 binding to the promoter, and through suppression of HGF/c-Met autocrine signaling. These studies reveal novel insight into how TGF-β and HGF, key tumor promoting factors modulate CXCL1 chemokine expression in CAFs.
Kalmár A, Wichmann B, Galamb O, et al.Gene-expression analysis of a colorectal cancer-specific discriminatory transcript set on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples.
Diagn Pathol. 2015; 10:126 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A recently published transcript set is suitable for gene expression-based discrimination of normal colonic and colorectal cancer (CRC) biopsy samples. Our aim was to test the discriminatory power of the CRC-specific transcript set on independent biopsies and on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples.
METHODS: Total RNA isolations were performed with the automated MagNA Pure 96 Cellular RNA Large Volume Kit (Roche) from fresh frozen biopsies stored in RNALater (CRC (n = 15) and healthy colonic (n = 15)), furthermore from FFPE specimens including CRC (n = 15) and normal adjacent tissue (NAT) (n = 15) specimens next to the tumor. After quality and quantity measurements, gene expression analysis of a colorectal cancer-specific marker set with 11 genes (CA7, COL12A1, CXCL1, CXCL2, CHI3L1, GREM1, IL1B, IL1RN, IL8, MMP3, SLC5A7) was performed with array real-time PCR using Transcriptor First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Roche) and RealTime ready assays on LightCycler480 System (Roche). In situ hybridization for two selected transcripts (CA7, CXCL1) was performed on NAT (n = 3), adenoma (n = 3) and CRC (n = 3) FFPE samples.
RESULTS: Although analytical parameters of automatically isolated RNA samples showed differences between fresh frozen biopsy and FFPE samples, both quantity and the quality enabled their application in gene expression analyses. CRC and normal fresh frozen biopsy samples could be distinguished with 93.3% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity and FFPE samples with 96.7 and 70.0%, respectively. In situ hybridization could confirm the upregulation of CXCL1 and downregulation of CA7 in colorectal adenomas and tumors compared to healthy controls.
CONCLUSION: According to our results, gene expression analysis of the analyzed colorectal cancer-specific marker set can also be performed from FFPE tissue material. With the addition of an automated workflow, this marker set may enhance the objective classification of colorectal neoplasias in the routine procedure in the future.
Benevides L, da Fonseca DM, Donate PB, et al.IL17 Promotes Mammary Tumor Progression by Changing the Behavior of Tumor Cells and Eliciting Tumorigenic Neutrophils Recruitment.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(18):3788-99 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The aggressiveness of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast is associated with increased IL17 levels. Studying the role of IL17 in invasive breast tumor pathogenesis, we found that metastatic primary tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes produced elevated levels of IL17, whereas IL17 neutralization inhibited tumor growth and prevented the migration of neutrophils and tumor cells to secondary disease sites. Tumorigenic neutrophils promote disease progression, producing CXCL1, MMP9, VEGF, and TNFα, and their depletion suppressed tumor growth. IL17A also induced IL6 and CCL20 production in metastatic tumor cells, favoring the recruitment and differentiation of Th17. In addition, IL17A changed the gene-expression profile and the behavior of nonmetastatic tumor cells, causing tumor growth in vivo, confirming the protumor role of IL17. Furthermore, high IL17 expression was associated with lower disease-free survival and worse prognosis in IDC patients. Thus, IL17 blockade represents an attractive approach for the control of invasive breast tumors.
BACKGROUND: Clinical therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) remains limited, especially when the tumor harbors a KRAS mutation. This study aimed to identify prognostic biomarkers in CRC that are accessible for therapeutic inhibition.
METHODS: Conditioned media from human CRC epithelial cells and myofibroblasts were screened by cytokine arrays for tumorigenic factors. The protein and mRNA expressions of these factors were determined by immunohistochemistry and gene microarrays in human CRC tissues. Prognostic biomarkers were determined by correlation of mRNA expression to overall survival in stage IV CRC patients. Inhibition of CXCL1 was performed with specific neutralizing antibody and lentiviral shRNAs. Malignant growth was assessed by soft agar growth assays and xenograft tumor growth in immunocompromised mice.
RESULTS: CXCL1 was highly secreted by KRAS mutant human CRC cells and myofibroblasts in a complementary adaptive response to serum deprivation. Elevated CXCL1 level promoted anchorage-independent growth of murine fibroblasts and human CRC cells. Inhibition of CXCL1 by neutralizing antibody and specific shRNAs decreased CRC tumor growth. Highly elevated CXCL1 expression significantly correlated with decreased overall survival in stage IV CRC patients (hazard ratio 0.28; 95% CI 0.11-0.72).
CONCLUSIONS: High CXCL1 expression is a poor prognostic biomarker in metastatic CRC. CXCL1 inhibition suppressed tumorigenic growth of KRAS mutant CRC cells.
Engelmann JC, Amann T, Ott-Rötzer B, et al.Causal Modeling of Cancer-Stromal Communication Identifies PAPPA as a Novel Stroma-Secreted Factor Activating NFκB Signaling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2015; 11(5):e1004293 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inter-cellular communication with stromal cells is vital for cancer cells. Molecules involved in the communication are potential drug targets. To identify them systematically, we applied a systems level analysis that combined reverse network engineering with causal effect estimation. Using only observational transcriptome profiles we searched for paracrine factors sending messages from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. We condensed these messages to predict ten proteins that, acting in concert, cause the majority of the gene expression changes observed in HCC cells. Among the 10 paracrine factors were both known and unknown cancer promoting stromal factors, the former including Placental Growth Factor (PGF) and Periostin (POSTN), while Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein A (PAPPA) was among the latter. Further support for the predicted effect of PAPPA on HCC cells came from both in vitro studies that showed PAPPA to contribute to the activation of NFκB signaling, and clinical data, which linked higher expression levels of PAPPA to advanced stage HCC. In summary, this study demonstrates the potential of causal modeling in combination with a condensation step borrowed from gene set analysis [Model-based Gene Set Analysis (MGSA)] in the identification of stromal signaling molecules influencing the cancer phenotype.
Ma X, Aoki T, Tsuruyama T, Narumiya SDefinition of Prostaglandin E2-EP2 Signals in the Colon Tumor Microenvironment That Amplify Inflammation and Tumor Growth.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(14):2822-32 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Inflammation in the colon contributes significantly to colorectal cancer development. While aspirin reduces the colorectal cancer risk, its action mechanism, especially in inflammation in tumor microenvironment, still remains obscure. Here, we examined this issue by subjecting mice deficient in each prostaglandin (PG) receptor to colitis-associated cancer model. Deficiency of PGE receptor subtype EP2 selectively reduced, and deficiency of EP1 and EP3 enhanced, the tumor formation. EP2 is expressed in infiltrating neutrophils and tumor-associated fibroblasts in stroma, where it regulates expression of inflammation- and growth-related genes in a self-amplification manner. Notably, expression of cytokines such as TNFα and IL6, a chemokine, CXCL1, a PG-producing enzyme, COX-2, and Wnt5A was significantly elevated in tumor lesions of wild-type mice but this elevation was significantly suppressed in EP2-deficient mice. Intriguingly, EP2 stimulation in cultured neutrophils amplified expression of TNFα, IL6, CXCL1, COX-2, and other proinflammatory genes synergistically with TNFα, and EP2 stimulation in cultured fibroblasts induced expression of EP2 itself, COX-2, IL6, and Wnt genes. EP2 expression in infiltrating neutrophils and tumor-associated fibroblasts was also found in clinical specimen of ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Bone marrow transfer experiments suggest that EP2 in both cell populations is critical for tumorigenesis. Finally, administration of a selective EP2 antagonist potently suppressed tumorigenesis in this model. Our study has thus revealed that EP2 in neutrophils and tumor-associated fibroblasts promotes colon tumorigenesis by amplifying inflammation and shaping tumor microenvironment, and suggests that EP2 antagonists are promising candidates of aspirin-alternative for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.
Liu G, Chen Y, Qi F, et al.Specific chemotherapeutic agents induce metastatic behaviour through stromal- and tumour-derived cytokine and angiogenic factor signalling.
J Pathol. 2015; 237(2):190-202 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Recent studies reveal that chemotherapy can enhance metastasis due to host responses, such as augmented expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells and increased populations of myeloid cells. However, it is still unclear how tumour cells contribute to this process. Here, we observed that paclitaxel and carboplatin accelerated lung metastasis in tumour-bearing mice, while doxorubicin and fluorouracil did not. Mechanistically, paclitaxel and carboplatin induced similar changes in cytokine and angiogenic factors. Increased levels of CXCR2, CXCR4, S1P/S1PR1, PlGF and PDGF-BB were identified in the serum or primary tumour tissues of tumour-bearing mice treated by paclitaxel. The serum levels of CXCL1 and PDGF-BB and the tissue level of CXCR4 were also elevated by carboplatin. On the other hand, doxorubicin and fluorouracil did not induce such changes. The chemotherapy-induced cytokine and angiogenic factor changes were also confirmed in gene expression datasets from human patients following chemotherapy treatment. These chemotherapy-enhanced cytokines and angiogenic factors further induced angiogenesis, destabilized vascular integrity, recruited BMDCs to metastatic organs and mediated the proliferation, migration and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tumour cells. Interestingly, inhibitors of these factors counteracted chemotherapy-enhanced metastasis in both tumour-bearing mice and normal mice injected intravenously with B16F10-GFP cells. In particular, blockade of the SDF-1α-CXCR4 or S1P-S1PR1 axes not only compromised chemotherapy-induced metastasis but also prolonged the median survival time by 33.9% and 40.3%, respectively. The current study delineates the mechanism of chemotherapy-induced metastasis and provides novel therapeutic strategies to counterbalance pro-metastatic effects of chemo-drugs via combination treatment with anti-cytokine/anti-angiogenic therapy.
AIM: To study the inflammatory microenvironment and expression of chemokines in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in nude mice.
METHODS: CBRH-7919 HCC cells were injected into the subcutaneous region of nude mice. Beginning two weeks after the challenge, tumor growth was measured every week for six weeks. The stromal microenvironment and inflammatory cell infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired tumor and adjacent peritumoral samples, and macrophage phenotype was assessed using double-stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme. A chemokine PCR array, comprised of 98 genes, was used to screen differential gene expressions, which were validated by Western blotting. Additionally, expression of identified chemokines was knocked-down by RNA interference, and the effect on tumor growth was assessed.
RESULTS: Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of adjacent peritumoral tissues with increased macrophage, neutrophil, and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration. Macrophages within adjacent peritumoral tissues express inducible nitric oxide synthase, suggestive of a proinflammatory phenotype. Fifty-one genes were identified in tumor tissues during the progression period, including 50 that were overexpressed (including CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL3) and three that were underexpressed (CXCR1, Ifg and Actb). RNA interference of CXCL1 in the CBRH-7919 cells decreased the growth of tumors in nude mice and inhibited expression of CXCL2, CXCL3 and interleukin-1β protein.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CXCL1 plays a critical role in tumor growth and may serve as a potential molecular target for use in HCC therapy.
Taube JM, Young GD, McMiller TL, et al.Differential Expression of Immune-Regulatory Genes Associated with PD-L1 Display in Melanoma: Implications for PD-1 Pathway Blockade.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(17):3969-76 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Blocking the immunosuppressive PD-1/PD-L1 pathway has antitumor activity in multiple cancer types, and PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and infiltrating myeloid cells correlates with the likelihood of response. We previously found that IFNG (interferon-gamma) was overexpressed by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in PD-L1(+) versus PD-L1(-) melanomas, creating adaptive immune resistance by promoting PD-L1 display. This study was undertaken to identify additional factors in the PD-L1(+) melanoma microenvironment coordinately contributing to immunosuppression.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Archived, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanoma specimens were assessed for PD-L1 protein expression at the tumor cell surface with IHC. Whole-genome expression analysis, quantitative (q)RT-PCR, IHC, and functional in vitro validation studies were used to assess factors differentially expressed in PD-L1(+) versus PD-L1(-) melanomas.
RESULTS: Functional annotation clustering based on whole-genome expression profiling revealed pathways upregulated in PD-L1(+) melanomas, involving immune cell activation, inflammation, and antigen processing and presentation. Analysis by qRT-PCR demonstrated overexpression of functionally related genes in PD-L1(+) melanomas, involved in CD8(+) T-cell activation (CD8A, IFNG, PRF1, and CCL5), antigen presentation (CD163, TLR3, CXCL1, and LYZ), and immunosuppression [PDCD1 (PD-1), CD274 (PD-L1), and LAG3, IL10]. Functional studies demonstrated that some factors, including IL10 and IL32-gamma, induced PD-L1 expression on monocytes but not tumor cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These studies elucidate the complexity of immune checkpoint regulation in the tumor microenvironment, identifying multiple factors likely contributing to coordinated immunosuppression. These factors may provide tumor escape mechanisms from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, and should be considered for cotargeting in combinatorial immunomodulation treatment strategies.
Rudisch A, Dewhurst MR, Horga LG, et al.High EMT Signature Score of Invasive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Cells Correlates with NFκB Driven Colony-Stimulating Factor 2 (CSF2/GM-CSF) Secretion by Neighboring Stromal Fibroblasts.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0124283 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We established co-cultures of invasive or non-invasive NSCLC cell lines and various types of fibroblasts (FBs) to more precisely characterize the molecular mechanism of tumor-stroma crosstalk in lung cancer. The HGF-MET-ERK1/2-CREB-axis was shown to contribute to the onset of the invasive phenotype of Calu-1 with HGF being secreted by FBs. Differential expression analysis of the respective mono- and co-cultures revealed an upregulation of NFκB-related genes exclusively in co-cultures with Calu-1. Cytokine Array- and ELISA-based characterization of the "cytokine fingerprints" identified CSF2 (GM-CSF), CXCL1, CXCL6, VEGF, IL6, RANTES and IL8 as being specifically upregulated in various co-cultures. Whilst CXCL6 exhibited a strictly FB-type-specific induction profile regardless of the invasiveness of the tumor cell line, CSF2 was only induced in co-cultures of invasive cell lines regardless of the partnered FB type. These cultures revealed a clear link between the induction of CSF2 and the EMT signature of the cancer cell line. The canonical NFκB signaling in FBs, but not in tumor cells, was shown to be responsible for the induced and constitutive CSF2 expression. In addition to CSF2, cytokine IL6, IL8 and IL1B, and chemokine CXCL1 and CXCL6 transcripts were also shown to be increased in co-cultured FBs. In contrast, their induction was not strictly dependent on the invasiveness of the co-cultured tumor cell. In a multi-reporter assay, additional signaling pathways (AP-1, HIF1-α, KLF4, SP-1 and ELK-1) were found to be induced in FBs co-cultured with Calu-1. Most importantly, no difference was observed in the level of inducibility of these six signaling pathways with regard to the type of FBs used. Finally, upon tumor fibroblast interaction the massive induction of chemokines such as CXCL1 and CXCL6 in FBs might be responsible for increased recruitment of a monocytic cell line (THP-1) in a transwell assay.
Martinez LM, Labovsky V, Calcagno ML, et al.CD105 expression on CD34-negative spindle-shaped stromal cells of primary tumor is an unfavorable prognostic marker in early breast cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0121421 [PubMed
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Several studies have confirmed that the breast tumor microenvironment drives cancer progression and metastatic development. The aim of our research was to investigate the prognostic significance of the breast tumor microenvironment in untreated early breast cancer patients. Therefore, we analyzed the association of the expression of α-SMA, FSP, CD105 and CD146 in CD34-negative spindle-shaped stromal cells, not associated with the vasculature, in primary breast tumors with classical prognostic marker levels, metastatic recurrence, local relapse, disease-free survival, metastasis-free survival and the overall survival of patients. In the same way, we evaluated the association of the amount of intra-tumor stroma, fibroblasts, collagen deposition, lymphocytic infiltration and myxoid changes in these samples with the clinical-pathological data previously described. This study is the first to demonstrate the high CD105 expression in this stromal cell type as a possible independent marker of unfavorable prognosis in early breast cancer patients. Our study suggests that this new finding can be useful prognostic marker in the clinical-pathological routine.
Antonova O, Yossifova L, Staneva R, et al.Changes in the gene expression profile of the bladder cancer cell lines after treatment with Helix lucorum and Rapana venosa hemocyanin.
J BUON. 2015 Jan-Feb; 20(1):180-7 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of the Helix lucorum hemocyanin (HlH), b-HlH-h, and RvH2-g hemocyanins as potential agents against bladder cancer.
METHODS: We evaluated the viability of 647-V, T-24, and CAL-29 bladder cancer cell lines after treatment with the tested hemocyanins. The cell viability was measured at 72 hrs with MTT and WST-1 assays. Acridine orange/propidium iodide double staining was used to discriminate between apoptotic and necrotic cells. Gene expression profiling of the 168 genes from human inflammatory cytokines and signal transduction pathways were performed on the tumor cells before and after hemocyanins' treatment.
RESULTS: The results showed decreased survival of cancer cells in the presence of HlH and two functional units: b-HlH-h and RvH2-g. Acridine orange/propidium iodide double staining revealed that the decreased viability was due to apoptosis. The gene expression data showed upregulation of genes involved in the apoptosis as well as of the immune system activation, and downregulation of the CCL2, CCL17, CCL21, CXCL1, and ABCF1 genes.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first to report gene expression in human cells under the influence of hemocyanins. The mechanism of antitumor activity of the HlH, b-HlH-h, and RvH2-g hemocyanins includes induction of apoptosis. In addition to the antiproliferative effect, downregulation of the genes with metastatic potential was observed. Together with the already known immunogenic effect, these findings support further studies on hemocyanins as potential therapeutic agents against bladder cancer.
Pancreatic cancer has an extremely high mortality rate due to its aggressive metastatic nature. Resolving the underlying mechanisms will be crucial for treatment. Here, we found that overexpression of IL-17B receptor (IL-17RB) strongly correlated with postoperative metastasis and inversely correlated with progression-free survival in pancreatic cancer patients. Consistently, results from ex vivo experiments further validated that IL-17RB and its ligand, IL-17B, plays an essential role in pancreatic cancer metastasis and malignancy. Signals from IL-17B-IL-17RB activated CCL20/CXCL1/IL-8/TFF1 chemokine expressions via the ERK1/2 pathway to promote cancer cell invasion, macrophage and endothelial cell recruitment at primary sites, and cancer cell survival at distant organs. Treatment with a newly derived monoclonal antibody against IL-17RB blocked tumor metastasis and promoted survival in a mouse xenograft model. These findings not only illustrate a key mechanism underlying the highly aggressive characteristics of pancreatic cancer but also provide a practical approach to tackle this disease.
Shukla K, Sharma AK, Ward A, et al.MicroRNA-30c-2-3p negatively regulates NF-κB signaling and cell cycle progression through downregulation of TRADD and CCNE1 in breast cancer.
Mol Oncol. 2015; 9(6):1106-19 [PubMed
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Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling is frequently deregulated in a variety of cancers and is constitutively active in estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer subtypes. These molecular subtypes of breast cancer are associated with poor overall survival. We focused on mechanisms of NF-κB regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs), which regulate eukaryotic gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In a previous genome-wide miRNA screen, we had identified miR-30c-2-3p as one of the strongest negative regulators of NF-κB signaling. Here we have uncovered the underlying molecular mechanisms and its consequences in breast cancer. In vitro results show that miR-30c-2-3p directly targets both TNFRSF1A-associated via death domain (TRADD), an adaptor protein of the TNFR/NF-κB signaling pathway, and the cell cycle protein Cyclin E1 (CCNE1). Ectopic expression of miR-30c-2-3p downregulated essential cytokines IL8, IL6, CXCL1, and reduced cell proliferation as well as invasion in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. RNA interference (RNAi) induced silencing of TRADD phenocopied the effects on invasion and cytokine expression caused by miR-30c-2-3p, while inhibition of CCNE1 phenocopied the effects on cell proliferation. We further confirmed the tumor suppressive role of this miRNA using a dataset of 781 breast tumors, where higher expression was associated with better survival in breast cancer patients. In summary we have elucidated the mechanism by which miR-30c-2-3p negatively regulates NF-κB signaling and cell cycle progression in breast cancer.
Urakawa N, Utsunomiya S, Nishio M, et al.GDF15 derived from both tumor-associated macrophages and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas contributes to tumor progression via Akt and Erk pathways.
Lab Invest. 2015; 95(5):491-503 [PubMed
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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are known to be involved in the progression, angiogenesis, and motility of various cancers. We previously reported the association between an increased number of infiltrating TAMs with tumor progression and poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). To study the roles of TAMs in ESCC, we first exposed peripheral blood monocyte (PBMo)-derived macrophages from healthy volunteers to conditioned media of TE series human ESCC cell line (TECM) and confirmed the induction of the expression of the M2 macrophage marker CD204 and the protumorigenic factors interleukin (IL)-10, VEGFA, and MMPs. Next, we compared gene expression profiles between PBMo-derived macrophages stimulated with or without TECM by cDNA microarray and focused on growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) among the highly expressed genes including IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL1. Our immunohistochemical study of 70 surgically resected ESCCs revealed that GDF15 was present not only in cancer cells but also in macrophages. The high expression of GDF15 in the ESCCs was significantly correlated with several more malignant phenotypes including vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stages. Patients with high GDF15 expression showed significantly poorer disease-free survival (P=0.011) and overall survival (P=0.041). We also found that recombinant human GDF15 promotes cell proliferation and the phosphorylation of both Akt and Erk1/2 in ESCC cell lines in vitro. These results indicate that GDF15 is secreted by both TAMs and cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment and is associated with aberrant growth and a poor prognosis in human ESCC.
Arantes LM, de Carvalho AC, Melendez ME, et al.Validation of methylation markers for diagnosis of oral cavity cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(5):632-41 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of tumour suppressor genes are the major genetic alterations involved in carcinogenesis. The increase in methylation at the promoter region of a tumour suppressor gene can lead to gene inactivation, selecting cells with proliferative advantage. Thus, promoter hypermethylation is considered a marker in a variety of malignant tumours, including oral cavity.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The methylation pattern of eight genes was evaluated in 40 oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and 40 saliva samples from healthy individuals by Q-MSP. Different combinations of genes were also assessed in order to identify gene panels that could better distinguish between OSCC and saliva samples.
RESULTS: CCNA1, DAPK, DCC and TIMP3 methylation were highly specific for being found in the OSCC samples. Moreover, the combination of these genes improved detection when compared with single markers, reaching values of 92.5% for sensitivity and specificity (when using the panel CCNA1, DCC, TIMP3). Moreover, DAPK, DCC and TIMP3 were hypermethylated in nearly 90% of clinically T1 and T2 cases.
CONCLUSION: The pursuing of this panel of hypermethylated genes is an important tool for the detection of individuals with OSCC. Moreover, the identification of these markers in early stages of OSCC shows the feasibility of using the panel on saliva as possible biomarkers for early diagnosis. The lack of association between the methylation status of these genes and clinical characteristics shows that they are able to distinguish OSCC cases irrespective of social and clinical factors (gender, age, human papillomavirus (HPV) status, clinical stage, vascular embolisation and perineural invasion).
Chakrabarti S, Multani S, Dabholkar J, Saranath DWhole genome expression profiling in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancers: a pilot study.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(3):60 [PubMed
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The current study was undertaken with a view to identify differential biomarkers in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancer tissues in patients of Indian ethnicity. The gene expression profile was analyzed in oral cancer tissues as compared to clinically normal oral buccal mucosa. We examined 30 oral cancer tissues and 27 normal oral tissues with 16 paired samples from contralateral site of the patient and 14 unpaired samples from different oral cancer patients, for whole genome expression using high-throughput IlluminaSentrix Human Ref-8 v2 Expression BeadChip array. The cDNA microarray analysis identified 425 differentially expressed genes with >1.5-fold expression in the oral cancer tissues as compared to normal tissues in the oral cancer patients. Overexpression of 255 genes and downregulation of 170 genes (p < 0.01) were observed. Further, a minimum twofold overexpression was observed in 32 genes and downregulation in 12 genes, in 30-83% of oral cancer patients. Biological pathway analysis using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome Pathway database revealed that the differentially regulated genes were associated with critical biological functions. The biological functions and representative deregulated genes include cell proliferation (AIM2, FAP, TNFSF13B, TMPRSS11A); signal transduction (FOLR2, MME, HTR3B); invasion and metastasis (SPP1, TNFAIP6, EPHB6); differentiation (CLEC4A, ELF5); angiogenesis (CXCL1); apoptosis (GLIPR1, WISP1, DAPL1); and immune responses (CD300A, IFIT2, TREM2); and metabolism (NNMT; ALDH3A1). Besides, several of the genes have been differentially expressed in human cancers including oral cancer. Our data indicated differentially expressed genes in oral cancer tissues and may identify prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers in oral cancers, postvalidation in larger numbers and varied population samples.
Vincent LA, Attaoua C, Bellis M, et al.Lysosomes and unfolded protein response, determinants of differential resistance of melanoma cells to vinca alkaloids.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2015; 29(2):164-77 [PubMed
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On account of its strong ability to become chemoresistant after a primary response to drugs, malignant melanoma (MM) remains a therapeutic challenge. This study focuses on acquired resistance to vinca alkaloids (VAs) using VA-resistant MM cell lines (CAL1R-VCR, CAL1R-VDS, and CAL1R-VRB), established by long-term continuous exposure of parental CAL1-wt cells to vincristine (VCR), vindesine (VDS), or vinorelbine (VRB), respectively. Transcriptomic profiling using rma and rdam methods led to distinguish two cell groups: CAL1R-VCR and CAL1R-VDS, CAL1R-VRB, and CAL1-wt. mgsa of the specifically altered genes in the first group evidenced the GO terms 'lysosomal lumen' and 'vacuolar lumen' linked to underexpressed genes, and 'endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response' associated with overexpressed genes. A specific reduction of lysosomal enzymes, independent of acidic vacuole organelle (AVO) turnover, was observed (LTG probe) in CAL1R-VCR and CAL1R-VDS cells. It was associated with the specific lowering of cathepsin B and L, known to be involved in the lysosomal pathway of apoptosis. Confirming gene profiling, the same groups (CAL1R-VCR and CAL1R-VDS, CAL1-wt and CAL1R-VRB) could be distinguished regarding the VA-mediated changes on mean size areas and on acidic compartment volumes. These two parameters were reduced in CAL1R-VCR and CAL1R-VDS cells, suggesting a smaller AVO accumulation and thus a reduced sensitivity to lysosomal membrane permeabilization-mediated apoptosis. In addition, 'ER stress response' inhibition by tauroursodeoxycholic acid induced a higher VA sensitization of the first cell group. In conclusion, lysosomes and unfolded protein response could be key determinants of the differential resistance of MM to VAs.
Tanaka T, Kajiwara T, Torigoe T, et al.Cancer-associated oxidoreductase ERO1-α drives the production of tumor-promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cells via oxidative protein folding.
J Immunol. 2015; 194(4):2004-10 [PubMed
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Endoplasmic reticulum disulfide oxidase ERO1-α plays a role in the formation of disulfide bonds in collaboration with protein disulfide isomerase. Disulfide bond formation is required for the proper conformation and function of secreted and cell surface proteins. We found that ERO1-α was overexpressed in a variety of tumor types; therefore, we examined its role in tumor growth. In BALB/c mice, knockdown of ERO1-α within 4T1 mouse mammary gland cancer (KD) cells caused retardation of in vivo tumor growth compared with tumor growth of scrambled control (SCR) cells. In contrast, when ERO1-α-overexpressed 4T1 (OE) cells were compared with mock control cells, OE cells showed augmented tumor growth. However, differences in tumor growth were not observed among four groups of nude mice, suggesting that expression of ERO1-α diminished antitumor immunity. We observed dense peritumoral granulocytic infiltrates in tumors of wild-type 4T1 and SCR cells but not KD cells, and these cells were identified as polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). In addition, production of G-CSF and CXCL1/2, which have intramolecular disulfide bonds, from KD cells was significantly decreased compared with that from SCR cells. In contrast, OE cells produced a larger amount of these molecules than did mock cells. These changes were regulated at the posttranscriptional level. These results suggest that overexpression of ERO1-α in the tumor inhibits the T cell response by recruiting polymorphonuclear MDSCs via regulation of MDSC-prone cytokines and chemokines.