|Gene:||CXCL3; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 3|
|Aliases: || GRO3, GROg, MIP2B, SCYB3, MIP-2b, CINC-2b |
|Summary:||This antimicrobial gene encodes a member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines. The encoded protein is a secreted growth factor that signals through the G-protein coupled receptor, CXC receptor 2. This protein plays a role in inflammation and as a chemoattractant for neutrophils. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]|
|Databases:||VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene|
|Protein:||C-X-C motif chemokine 3|
|Source:||NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017|
What does this gene/protein do?
|Pathways:||What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?|
Research IndicatorsGraph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: CXCL3 (cancer-related)
Gui SL, Teng LC, Wang SQ, et al.Overexpression of CXCL3 can enhance the oncogenic potential of prostate cancer.
Int Urol Nephrol. 2016; 48(5):701-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: CXCL3 and its receptor CXCR2 were considered to play particularly important roles in the progression of malignancies. However, the investigations about CXCL3/CXCR2 axis in prostate cancer have been poorly involved. Herein we firstly reported our studies on the expression and biological roles of CXCL3 and CXCR2 in prostate cancer.
METHODS: Expression levels of CXCL3 and CXCR2 in prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, DU145 and LNCaP), immortalized prostate stromal cell line (WPMY-1) and immortalized prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) were investigated by RT-PCR, ELISA and western blot, whereas expression levels of CXCL3 in a prostate tissue microarray were detected by immunohistochemistry. Cell counting kit-8 and transwell assays were, respectively, utilized to determine the effects of exogenous CXCL3 on the cell proliferation and migration. We further examined whether CXCL3 could regulate the expression of genes correlated with prostate tumorigenesis by RT- PCR.
RESULTS: Elevated expression of CXCR2 was detected in DU145, LNCaP and RWPE-1. Moreover, high-level CXCL3 can be secreted by PC-3 and RWPE-1, and CXCL3 protein expression level in tissue microarray is concordant with prostate cancer metastasis. Exogenous CXCL3 does not contribute to proliferation, but has a significant effect on migration of prostate cancer cells and RWPE-1. Finally, our data showed that exogenous CXCL3 can regulate the expression of genes including ERK, TP73, NUMB, BAX and NDRG3.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that CXCL3 and its receptor CXCR2 are overexpressed in prostate cancer cells, prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer tissues, which may play multiple roles in prostate cancer progression and metastasis.
The omental fat band (OFB) is the predominant site for metastatic seeding of ovarian cancer. Previously, we highlighted the influx and accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in the OFB following syngeneic ovarian cancer cell seeding as an important factor in the development of a protumorigenic cascade. Here we investigated localized immunomodulation as a means of promoting a successful protective response. As an important TH1-type immunomodulator, interleukin (IL)-12 has previously been investigated clinically as an anticancer therapeutic. However, systemic IL-12 administration was associated with serious side effects, galvanizing the development of immune or accessory cells engineered to express secreted or membrane-bound IL-12 (mbIL-12). Using an mbIL-12-expressing cell variant, we demonstrate that localized IL-12 in the tumor microenvironment significantly delays disease development. The mbIL-12-mediated decrease in tumor burden was associated with a significant reduction in neutrophil and macrophage infiltration in the OFB, and correlated with a reduced expression of neutrophil and macrophage chemoattractants (CXCL1, -2, -3 and CCL2, -7). Vaccination with mitotically impaired tumor cells did not confer protection against subsequent tumor challenge, indicating that IL-12 did not impact the immunogenicity of the cancer cells. Our findings are in agreement with previous reports suggesting that IL-12 may hold promise when delivered in a targeted and sustained manner to the omental microenvironment. Furthermore, resident cells within the omental microenvironment may provide a reservoir that can be activated and mobilized to prevent metastatic seeding within the peritoneum and, therefore, may be targets for chemotherapeutics.
AIM: To study the inflammatory microenvironment and expression of chemokines in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in nude mice.
METHODS: CBRH-7919 HCC cells were injected into the subcutaneous region of nude mice. Beginning two weeks after the challenge, tumor growth was measured every week for six weeks. The stromal microenvironment and inflammatory cell infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired tumor and adjacent peritumoral samples, and macrophage phenotype was assessed using double-stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme. A chemokine PCR array, comprised of 98 genes, was used to screen differential gene expressions, which were validated by Western blotting. Additionally, expression of identified chemokines was knocked-down by RNA interference, and the effect on tumor growth was assessed.
RESULTS: Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of adjacent peritumoral tissues with increased macrophage, neutrophil, and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration. Macrophages within adjacent peritumoral tissues express inducible nitric oxide synthase, suggestive of a proinflammatory phenotype. Fifty-one genes were identified in tumor tissues during the progression period, including 50 that were overexpressed (including CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL3) and three that were underexpressed (CXCR1, Ifg and Actb). RNA interference of CXCL1 in the CBRH-7919 cells decreased the growth of tumors in nude mice and inhibited expression of CXCL2, CXCL3 and interleukin-1β protein.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CXCL1 plays a critical role in tumor growth and may serve as a potential molecular target for use in HCC therapy.
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer of mesothelial cells of pleural and peritoneal cavities. In 85% of cases both pleural and peritoneal MM is caused by asbestos exposure. Although both are asbestos-induced cancers, the incidence of pleural MM is significantly higher (85%) than peritoneal MM (15%). It has been proposed that carcinogenesis is a result of asbestos-induced inflammation but it is not clear what contributes to the differences observed between incidences of these two cancers. We hypothesize that the observed differences in incidences of pleural and peritoneal MM are the result of differences in the direct response of these cell types to asbestos rather than to differences mediated by the in vivo microenvironment. To test this hypothesis we characterized cellular responses to asbestos in a controlled environment. We found significantly greater changes in genome-wide expression in response to asbestos exposure in pleural mesothelial cells as compared to peritoneal mesothelial cells. In particular, a greater response in many common genes (IL-8, ATF3, CXCL2, CXCL3, IL-6, GOS2) was seen in pleural mesothelial cells as compared to peritoneal mesothelial cells. Unique genes expressed in pleural mesothelial cells were mainly pro-inflammatory (G-CSF, IL-1β, IL-1α, GREM1) and have previously been shown to be involved in development of MM. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in incidences of pleural and peritoneal MM upon exposure to asbestos are the result of differences in mesothelial cell physiology that lead to differences in the inflammatory response, which leads to cancer.
Current therapies for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) still fail to significantly increase its survival rate. Here we asked whether Interleukin(IL)-27, which has revealed powerful antitumor activity and is toxicity-free in humans, is a promising therapeutic choice for NSCLC patients. IL-27's effects were tested on Adenocarcinoma (AC) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) cell lines and xenograft models. IL-27Receptor(R) expression was assessed in lung tissues from 78 NSCLC patients. In vitro, IL-27 was ineffective on cancer cell proliferation or apoptosis, but fostered CXCL3/GROγ/MIP2β expression. In vitro and in vivo, IL-27 down-regulated stemness-related genes, namely SONIC HEDGEHOG in AC cells, and OCT4A, SOX2, NOTCH1, KLF4 along with Nestin, SNAI1/SNAIL, SNAI2/SLUG and ZEB1, in SCC cells. In vivo, IL-27 hampered both AC and SCC tumor growth in association with a prominent granulocyte- and macrophage-driven colliquative necrosis, CXCL3 production, and a reduced pluripotency- and EMT-related gene expression. Myeloablation of tumor-bearing hosts mostly abolished IL-27's antitumor effects. In clinical samples, IL-27R expression was found in AC, SCC, pre-cancerous lesions and tumor infiltrating myeloid cells, and correlated with advanced stages of disease. Our data suggest that even immunocompromised or advancer NSCLC patients may benefit from IL-27's antitumor properties based on its ability to drive myeloid cells towards antitumor activities, and down-regulate stemness- and EMT-related genes in cancer cells.
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is one of the fastest growing malignancies in the US and needs newer therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. Chronic inflammation plays a role in the pathogenesis of EAC and contributes to the dysplastic conversion of normal esophageal epithelium to Barrett's esophagus and frank adenocarcinoma. Chemokines play important roles in mediating inflammation and recent evidence implicates these ligands and their receptors in the development and spread of various tumors. We demonstrated that the chemokines IL8, CXCL1 and CXCL3 are significantly overexpressed during esophageal carcinogenesis and accompanied by amplification and demethylation of the chr4q21 gene locus. We also demonstrated that IL8 levels can be detected in serum of patients with EAC and can serve as potential biomarkers. We now demonstrate that inhibition of IL8 receptor, CXCR2, leads to decreased invasiveness of esophageal adenocarcinoma derived cells without affecting cellular proliferation. Taken together, these studies reveal the important roles that chemokines play in development of esophageal cancer and demonstrate that these pathways can serve as potential therapeutic targets.
Subimerb C, Wongkham C, Khuntikeo N, et al.Transcriptional profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes identify patients with cholangiocarcinoma and predict outcome.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(10):4217-24 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a slow growing but highly metastatic tumor, is highly prevalent in Northeast Thailand. Specific tests that predict prognosis of CCA remain elusive. The present study was designed to investigate whether peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) transcriptional profiles might be of use as a prognostic test in CCA patients. Gene expression profiles of PBLs from 9 CCA and 8 healthy subjects were conducted using the Affymetrix HG_U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChip. We indentified informative PBLs gene expression profiles that could reliably distinguish CCA patients from healthy subjects. Of these CCA specific genes, 117 genes were up regulated and 60 were down regulated. The molecular and cellular functions predicted for these CCA specific genes according to the Gene Ontology database indicated differential PBL expression of host immune response and tumor progression genes (EREG, TGF β1, CXCL2, CXCL3, IL-8, and VEGFA). The expression levels of 9 differentially expressed genes were verified in 36 CCA vs 20 healthy subjects. A set of three tumor invasion related genes (PLAU, CTSL and SERPINB2) computed as "prognostic index" was found to be an independent and statistically significant predictor for CCA patient survival. The present study shows that CCA PBLs may serve as disease predictive clinically accessible surrogates for indentifying expressed genes reflective of CCA disease severity.
Samet I, Han J, Jlaiel L, et al.Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract induces apoptosis and monocyte/macrophage differentiation in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells: insight into the underlying mechanism.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014; 2014:927619 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Differentiation therapy is an attractive approach aiming at reversing malignancy and reactivating endogenous differentiation programs in cancer cells. Olive leaf extract, known for its antioxidant activity, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, its differentiation inducing properties and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Chemlali Olive Leaf Extract (COLE) for its potential differentiation inducing effect on multipotent leukemia K562 cells. Results showed that COLE inhibits K562 cells proliferation and arrests the cell cycle at G0/G1, and then at G2/M phase over treatment time. Further analysis revealed that COLE induces apoptosis and differentiation of K562 cells toward the monocyte lineage. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism of COLE differentiation inducing effect. The differentially expressed genes such as IFI16, EGR1, NFYA, FOXP1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL8 confirmed the commitment of K562 cells to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Thus our results provide evidence that, in addition to apoptosis, induction of differentiation is one of the possible therapeutic effects of olive leaf in cancer cells.
Kowalczuk O, Burzykowski T, Niklinska WE, et al.CXCL5 as a potential novel prognostic factor in early stage non-small cell lung cancer: results of a study of expression levels of 23 genes.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4619-28 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As the current staging system is imprecise for estimating prognosis of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is important to identify other methods for selecting high-risk patients after failed surgical treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of 23 genes as putative prognostic markers in early stage NSCLC. The study was performed on 109 pairs of tumor and matched unaffected lung tissue surgical specimens taken from stage I and II NSCLC patients. We evaluated the mRNA level of 23 genes using the real-time PCR method. The difference in the expression between the tumor and normal tissue for each gene was analyzed using a general linear model. The influence of gene expression on survival was analyzed by using the proportional hazards model. Eighteen out of the 23 genes showed statistically significant differences in expression between the tumor and non-tumor tissue. For 12 genes (ITGB1, ITGB3, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCR3, CXCR4, TNF, CHKA, AGFG1, and CTC1), the expression was lower, and for six genes (ITGA5, IL8, IL6, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL12), it was higher in the tumor tissue as compared to the matched normal tissue. Expression changes were more pronounced in squamous cell carcinomas than in adenocarcinomas or large cell carcinomas. Of all the analyzed genes, only CXCL5 was found to statistically significantly (p = 0.04) influence both overall and disease-free survival. Among the 23 genes previously suggested to be relevant for early staged NSCLC patients' postoperative outcome, only CXCL5 showed a statistically significant prognostic effect.
BACKGROUND: The NF-κB signaling pathway orchestrates many of the intricate aspects of neuroinflammation. Astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors have emerged as potential regulators in central nervous system inflammation and are potential targets for pharmacological modulation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the crosstalk between astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors and the TNF-α induced inflammatory gene program.
METHODS: Proinflammatory conditions were generated by the administration of TNF-α. Genes that are susceptible to astrocytic crosstalk between β₂-adrenergic receptors (stimulated by clenbuterol) and TNF-α were identified by qPCR-macroarray-based gene expression analysis in a human 1321 N1 astrocytoma cell line. Transcriptional patterns of the identified genes in vitro were validated by RT-PCR on the 1321 N1 cell line as well as on primary rat astrocytes. In vivo expression patterns were examined by intracerebroventricular administration of clenbuterol and/or TNF-α in rats. To examine the impact on the inflammatory cell content of the brain we performed extensive FACS analysis of rat brain immune cells after intracerebroventricular clenbuterol and/or TNF-α administration.
RESULTS: Parallel transcriptional patterns in vivo and in vitro confirmed the relevance of astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors as modulators of brain inflammatory responses. Importantly, we observed pronounced effects of β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and TNF-α on IL-6, CXCL2, CXCL3, VCAM1, and ICAM1 expression, suggesting a role in inflammatory brain cell homeostasis. Extensive FACS-analysis of inflammatory cell content in the brain demonstrated that clenbuterol/TNF-α co-administration skewed the T cell population towards a double negative phenotype and induced a shift in the myeloid brain cell population towards a neutrophilic predominance.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors are potent regulators of astrocytic TNF-α-activated genes in vitro and in vivo, and ultimately modulate the molecular network involved in the homeostasis of inflammatory cells in the central nervous system. Astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors and their downstream signaling pathway may serve as potential targets to modulate neuroinflammatory responses.
Maliniemi P, Hahtola S, Ovaska K, et al.Molecular characterization of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma reveals upregulation of immunosuppression- and autoimmunity-associated genes.
Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2014; 9:160 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphomas represent a rare and difficult to diagnose entity of cutaneous T cell lymphomas. SPTL affects predominantly young adults and presents with multifocal subcutaneous nodules and frequently associated autoimmune features. The pathogenesis of SPTL is not completely understood.
METHODS: The aim of this study was to unravel molecular pathways critical to the SPTL pathogenesis. Therefore, we analyzed 23 skin samples from 20 newly diagnosed SPTL patients and relevant control samples of adipose and non-malignant panniculitis tissue by using gene expression microarray, quantitative PCR, and two-colour immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Interestingly, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1), an immunotolerance-inducing enzyme, was among the most highly overexpressed genes in all comparisons. The expression of Th1-specific cytokines, known to be associated with autoimmune inflammation (i.e. IFNG, CXCR3, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CCL5), were also significantly increased. Confirmed using immunohistochemistry, the morphologically malignant lymphocytes expressed CXCR3 and CXCL9. IDO-1 expression was found both in some morphologically malignant lymphocytes rimming the adipocytes and in surrounding CD11c(-) CD68(-) cells but not in CD11c(+) dendritic cells in the microenvironment. The proportion of FoxP3+ cells in SPTL exceeded that in the benign panniculitis samples.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the up regulation of the tolerogenic IDO-1 together with the up regulation of IFNG, CXCR3 ligands, and CCL5 are features of SPTL lesions. We anticipate that the IFNG-inducible IDO-1 expression contributes to the formation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment, favorable for the malignant T cells. This study provides a relevant molecular basis for further studies exploring novel therapeutic means for subcutaneous T cell lymphoma.
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with defective sensing of pathogens in genetically susceptible individuals. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) mutations in coding regions are strongly linked to CD pathogenesis. Our laboratory has reported that microRNAs (miRNAs) are differentially expressed in CD. However, miRNA regulation of NOD2 remains unknown. This study was designed to determine whether miRNAs regulate NOD2 expression as well as downstream nuclear factor kappaB activation and inflammatory responses in colonic epithelial HCT116 cells.
METHODS: NOD2 and miRNA expression in stimulated HCT116 cells were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Regulation of NOD2 expression by miRNAs was determined by luciferase reporter construct assays and transfection of specific miRNA mimics. Regulation of NOD2 signaling and immune response by miRNAs was assessed by transfection of mimics followed by muramyl dipeptide stimulation.
RESULTS: Muramyl dipeptide-induced increases in NOD2, interleukin-8, and CXCL3 expression were inversely associated with miRNA expression. Overexpression of miR-192, miR-495, miR-512, and miR-671 suppressed NOD2 expression, muramyl dipeptide-mediated NF-κB activation, and messenger RNA expressions of interleukin-8 and CXCL3 in HCT116 cells. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs3135500) located in the NOD2 3'-untranslated region significantly reduced miR-192 effects on NOD2 gene expression.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that miRNAs regulate NOD2 and its signaling pathway. Four miRNAs downregulate NOD2 expression, suppress NF-κB activity, and inhibit interleukin-8 and CXCL3 messenger RNA expression. Treatment of CD with miRNAs may represent a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy in CD patients with and without NOD2 gene mutations.
Huang X, Hao C, Shen X, et al.RUNX2, GPX3 and PTX3 gene expression profiling in cumulus cells are reflective oocyte/embryo competence and potentially reliable predictors of embryo developmental competence in PCOS patients.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013; 11:109 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women. The developmental competence of oocytes and embryos in PCOS patients is reduced to a certain extent (comparing to non-PCOS patients, the high quality embryo rate was decreased by 16% from the data of our centre) during the in vitro fertilization (IVF) process. Cross-talk between the oocyte and cumulus cells is critical for oocyte maturation and embryo competence. In this study, we have evaluated the transcription of specific genes in cumulus cells harvested from pre-ovulatory follicles of PCOS patients before IVF, according to individual oocyte nuclear maturity and developmental competence. Seven genes (RUNX2, PSAT1, ADAMTS9, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and ITGB5) were targeted from our previous cDNA microarray data which isolated genes related to oocyte nuclear maturation in PCOS patients. Two additional genes which had been found to be associated with oocyte maturation or embryo quality in non-PCOS patients (GPX3 and PTX3) were also studied.
METHODS: The mRNA expression levels of cumulus cells were detected by qRT- PCR.
RESULTS: Consistent with our previous cDNA microarray data, with the exception of GPX3 and PTX3, the selected 7 genes were related to oocyte nuclear maturation in PCOS patients. Noticeably, the expression level of RUNX2 was lower in cumulus cells derived from oocytes that could develop into blastocysts than the level of expression from oocytes that could not. The PTX3 expression level was significantly lower in cumulus cells from oocytes with two normal pronuclei than that from oocytes that formed >2 pronuclei (MPN) after fertilization. GPX3 mRNA levels were decreased in cumulus cells isolated from oocytes that developed into blastocysts with high potential development competence.
CONCLUSIONS: Several cumulus cell genes were associated with oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo quality in PCOS patients. RUNX2 and GPX3 are candidate genetic markers in the monitoring of embryo quality for PCOS patients, whereas PTX3 mainly played a role in fertilization process. Together with morphological evaluation, cumulus cells genes may serve as biomarkers of oocyte and embryo selection during the IVF process for PCOS patients and may advance our understanding of PCOS.
Karagiannis GS, Saraon P, Jarvi KA, Diamandis EPProteomic signatures of angiogenesis in androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Prostate. 2014; 74(3):260-72 [PubMed
] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The observation that angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation, in healthy prostate and early prostate cancer is androgen-dependent gave rise to significant questions on how hypervascularization and increased angiogenesis is also achieved at the molecular level in advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer. The exact paracrine molecular network that is hardwired into the proteome of the endothelial and cancer subpopulations participating in this process remains partially understood.
METHODS: Here, we interrogated the signaling pathways and the molecular functional signatures across the proteome of endothelial cells after interacting with various secretomes produced by androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells.
RESULTS: We found the significant overexpression (P < 0.05) of prominent markers of angiogenesis, such as vonWillebrand factor (vWF) (∼ 2.5-fold) and CD31 (∼ 2-fold) in HUVECs stimulated with conditioned media from the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC3. By mining the proteome of PC3 conditioned media, we discovered a signature of chemokine CXC motif ligands (i.e., CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL6 and CXCL8) that could potentially coordinate increased angiogenesis in androgen-independent prostate cancer and verified their increased expression (P < 0.05) in both in vitro and xenograft models of androgen-independence.
DISCUSSION: Our findings form the basis for understanding the regulation of crucial metastatic phenomena during the transition of androgen-dependent prostate cancer into the highly aggressive, androgen-independent state and provide further insight on potential therapeutic targets of cancer-related angiogenesis.
Shah G, Zhang G, Chen F, et al.iNOS expression and NO production contribute to the direct effects of BCG on urothelial carcinoma cell biology.
Urol Oncol. 2014; 32(1):45.e1-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that oxidative stress occurring as a consequence of inducible nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (iNOS/NO) contributes to the biologic effects of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Objective of this study is to examine iNOS expression, NO production, and the biologic effect of NO on established intermediate end points for the human urothelial carcinoma cell response to BCG.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and real-time measurement of NO was used to assess iNOS and NO production, respectively, in 2 human urothelial carcinoma (UC) cell lines, in response to BCG. The effect of blocking NO production using the specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W was determined for multiple intermediate end points characterizing BCG's direct effects on tumor cell biology. Activation of nuclear factor kappa B and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 signaling pathways, transactivation of genes, including p21, CD54, IL6, IL8, CXCL1, CXCL3, CCL20, and cytotoxicity, as measured by vital dye exclusion, lactate dehydrogenase release, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay were measured in response to BCG with and without iNOS inhibition.
RESULTS: Exposure of UC cells to BCG significantly increased both iNOS expression and NO production. Inhibition of iNOS activity with 1400W significantly inhibited BCG's direct biologic effect on UC cells for all of the end points evaluated.
CONCLUSIONS: iNOS expression, NO production, and the associated oxidative stress play a central role in the response of UC cells to BCG exposure. Manipulation of oxidative stress may afford an opportunity to enhance the antitumor effects of BCG.
BACKGROUND: Experimental and epidemiologic evidence have suggested that chronic inflammation may play a critical role in endometrial carcinogenesis.
METHODS: To investigate this hypothesis, a two-stage study was carried out to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in inflammatory pathway genes in association with endometrial cancer risk. In stage I, 64 candidate pathway genes were identified and 4,542 directly genotyped or imputed SNPs were analyzed among 832 endometrial cancer cases and 2,049 controls, using data from the Shanghai Endometrial Cancer Genetics Study. Linkage disequilibrium of stage I SNPs significantly associated with endometrial cancer (P < 0.05) indicated that the majority of associations could be linked to one of 24 distinct loci. One SNP from each of the 24 loci was then selected for follow-up genotyping. Of these, 21 SNPs were successfully designed and genotyped in stage II, which consisted of 10 additional studies including 6,604 endometrial cancer cases and 8,511 controls.
RESULTS: Five of the 21 SNPs had significant allelic odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as follows: FABP1, 0.92 (0.85-0.99); CXCL3, 1.16 (1.05-1.29); IL6, 1.08 (1.00-1.17); MSR1, 0.90 (0.82-0.98); and MMP9, 0.91 (0.87-0.97). Two of these polymorphisms were independently significant in the replication sample (rs352038 in CXCL3 and rs3918249 in MMP9). The association for the MMP9 polymorphism remained significant after Bonferroni correction and showed a significant association with endometrial cancer in both Asian- and European-ancestry samples.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings lend support to the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory pathway may contribute to genetic susceptibility to endometrial cancer. Impact statement: This study adds to the growing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in endometrial carcinogenesis.
Farquharson AJ, Steele RJ, Carey FA, Drew JENovel multiplex method to assess insulin, leptin and adiponectin regulation of inflammatory cytokines associated with colon cancer.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(5):5727-36 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The role of altered levels of insulin, leptin and adiponectin in contributing to the observed increased risk of colon cancer associated with obesity remains to be determined. Elevated insulin and leptin associated with obesity are linked to inflammatory responses. Conversely, adiponectin levels are reduced in obese individuals and this hormone is generally associated with anti-inflammatory responses. Inflammatory cytokines are key components of processes linked with carcinogenesis. Insulin, leptin and adiponectin receptor expression profiles were assessed in human normal, adenomatous polyp and tumour tissue. Insulin, leptin and adiponectin regulation of inflammatory cytokines previously identified as being associated with early events in colon carcinogenesis were further investigated here using a surrogate colon epithelial cell line and a custom designed GeXP assay of the inflammatory cytokines (CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL11, IL1RN, CXCL4, IL8, CCL19, CCL21, CCL23, CCL5, IL10RB and TNFRSF1A). Mean insulin, leptin and adiponectin receptor expression levels were lower in adenomatous polyp samples in comparison with normal and tumour tissue. In contrast to leptin, insulin significantly reduced CCL20 and CXCL11 and increased CXCL3 expression. Full length adiponectin, but not globular adiponectin, induced CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL3 and CCL20 gene expression. GeXP assay permitted measurement of changes in gene expression of cytokines in response to insulin and adiponectin, indicating the potential for insulin and adiponectin regulation of mediators of inflammation associated with early events in colon carcinogenesis.
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses the combination of photosensitizing drugs and harmless light to cause selective damage to tumor cells. PDT is therefore an option for focal therapy of localized disease or for otherwise unresectable tumors. In addition, there is increasing evidence that PDT can induce systemic anti-tumor immunity, supporting control of tumor cells, which were not eliminated by the primary treatment. However, the effect of non-lethal PDT on the behavior and malignant potential of tumor cells surviving PDT is molecularly not well defined.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have evaluated changes in the transcriptome of human glioblastoma (U87, U373) and human (PC-3, DU145) and murine prostate cancer cells (TRAMP-C1, TRAMP-C2) after non-lethal PDT in vitro and in vivo using oligonucleotide microarray analyses. We found that the overall response was similar between the different cell lines and photosensitizers both in vitro and in vivo. The most prominently upregulated genes encoded proteins that belong to pathways activated by cellular stress or are involved in cell cycle arrest. This response was similar to the rescue response of tumor cells following high-dose PDT. In contrast, tumor cells dealing with non-lethal PDT were found to significantly upregulate a number of immune genes, which included the chemokine genes CXCL2, CXCL3 and IL8/CXCL8 as well as the genes for IL6 and its receptor IL6R, which can stimulate proinflammatory reactions, while IL6 and IL6R can also enhance tumor growth.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that PDT can support anti-tumor immune responses and is, therefore, a rational therapy even if tumor cells cannot be completely eliminated by primary phototoxic mechanisms alone. However, non-lethal PDT can also stimulate tumor growth-promoting autocrine loops, as seen by the upregulation of IL6 and its receptor. Thus the efficacy of PDT to treat tumors may be improved by controlling unwanted and potentially deleterious growth-stimulatory pathways.
Intratumor heterogeneity is a major clinical problem because tumor cell subtypes display variable sensitivity to therapeutics and may play different roles in progression. We previously characterized 2 cell populations in human breast tumors with distinct properties: CD44+CD24- cells that have stem cell-like characteristics, and CD44-CD24+ cells that resemble more differentiated breast cancer cells. Here we identified 15 genes required for cell growth or proliferation in CD44+CD24- human breast cancer cells in a large-scale loss-of-function screen and found that inhibition of several of these (IL6, PTGIS, HAS1, CXCL3, and PFKFB3) reduced Stat3 activation. We found that the IL-6/JAK2/Stat3 pathway was preferentially active in CD44+CD24- breast cancer cells compared with other tumor cell types, and inhibition of JAK2 decreased their number and blocked growth of xenografts. Our results highlight the differences between distinct breast cancer cell types and identify targets such as JAK2 and Stat3 that may lead to more specific and effective breast cancer therapies.
Bruyère C, Lonez C, Duray A, et al.Considering temozolomide as a novel potential treatment for esophageal cancer.
Cancer. 2011; 117(9):2004-16 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: C-X-C ligand (CXCL) chemokines exert major roles in the biologic aggressiveness of esophageal cancer. In the current study, the authors investigated temozolomide (TMZ)-induced effects on activity of the CXCL chemokine network in human esophageal cancer cells. To the authors' knowledge, TMZ has not been investigated previously in experimental or clinical esophageal cancers.
METHODS: A complete mapping of CXCL chemokines and their receptor messenger RNA was performed in 2 established human esophageal cancer cell lines (OE21 and OE33) and in 4 surgical samples from patients with esophageal carcinoma. The analyses pointed out the potential importance of CXCL2, and monitoring CXCL2 with quantitative videomicroscopy indicated that its biologic activity was silenced in OE21 esophageal cancer cells. TMZ-mediated antitumor activity was determined in vivo in an OE21 metastatic nude mice xenograft model.
RESULTS: The messenger RNA levels of CXC chemokines and their receptors were similar in both cell lines and in the 4 surgical specimens. CXCL2 depletion by small interfering RNA (siRNA) displayed marked effects on the proliferation of transfected OE21 cells. Chronic in vitro TMZ treatment of OE21 and OE33 cells markedly decreased CXCL2 and CXCL3 secretion. In vivo, TMZ induced significant delays in OE21 xenograft tumor development and improved the survival of OE21 xenograft-bearing mice, whereas cisplatin did not. Analyses performed on tissue samples from in vivo experiments revealed that TMZ also impaired tumor angiogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study emphasized the role of proangiogenic chemokines in esophageal cancer biology and indicated the possibility of using TMZ as a clinically compatible drug to impair the actions of the CXCL chemokine network in esophageal cancers.
Although a combination of genomic and epigenetic alterations are implicated in the multistep transformation of normal squamous esophageal epithelium to Barrett esophagus, dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma, the combinatorial effect of these changes is unknown. By integrating genome-wide DNA methylation, copy number, and transcriptomic datasets obtained from endoscopic biopsies of neoplastic progression within the same individual, we are uniquely able to define the molecular events associated progression of Barrett esophagus. We find that the previously reported global hypomethylation phenomenon in cancer has its origins at the earliest stages of epithelial carcinogenesis. Promoter hypomethylation synergizes with gene amplification and leads to significant upregulation of a chr4q21 chemokine cluster and other transcripts during Barrett neoplasia. In contrast, gene-specific hypermethylation is observed at a restricted number of loci and, in combination with hemi-allelic deletions, leads to downregulatation of selected transcripts during multistep progression. We also observe that epigenetic regulation during epithelial carcinogenesis is not restricted to traditionally defined "CpG islands," but may also occur through a mechanism of differential methylation outside of these regions. Finally, validation of novel upregulated targets (CXCL1 and 3, GATA6, and DMBT1) in a larger independent panel of samples confirms the utility of integrative analysis in cancer biomarker discovery.
Moldenhauer A, Futschik M, Lu H, et al.Interleukin 32 promotes hematopoietic progenitor expansion and attenuates bone marrow cytotoxicity.
Eur J Immunol. 2011; 41(6):1774-86 [PubMed
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The identification of soluble factors involved in stem cell renewal is a major goal in the assessment of the BM niche. We have previously shown that human endothelial cell (EC) supernatants can induce the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), especially after stimulation with IL-1β. To identify new potential growth factors, we compared the expression profile of IL-1β-stimulated ECs over 4, 8 and 16 h with non-stimulated ECs using oligonucleotide microarrays covering more than 46,000 transcripts. Most significant changes were detected after 4 h. Utilization of Gene Ontology annotation for the stimulated EC transcriptome indicated multiple upregulated genes encoding extracellular proteins with a cell-cell signaling function. Using flow cytometry, delta, colony and cobblestone assays, we assessed the proliferative capacities of 11 gene products, i.e. IL-8, IL-32, FGF-18, osteoprotegerin, Gro 1-3, ENA78, GCP-2, CCL2 and CCL20, which are not known to induce HPC expansion. Notably, IL-32 and to a lesser degree osteoprotegerin and Gro 3 significantly induced the proliferation of HPCs. Furthermore, IL-32 attenuated chemotherapy-related BM cytotoxicities by increasing the number of HPCs in mice. Our findings confirm that the combination of microarrays and gene annotation helps to identify new hematopoietic growth factors.
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis may play a role in the pathogenesis of Non-Small Cell Lung cancer (NSCLC). The CXC (ELR(+)) chemokine family are powerful promoters of the angiogenic response.
METHODS: The expression of the CXC (ELR(+)) family members (CXCL1-3/GROα-γ, CXCL8/IL-8, CXCR1/2) was examined in a series of resected fresh frozen NSCLC tumours. Additionally, the expression and epigenetic regulation of these chemokines was examined in normal bronchial epithelial and NSCLC cell lines.
RESULTS: Overall, expression of the chemokine ligands (CXCL1, 2, 8) and their receptors (CXCR1/2) were down regulated in tumour samples compared with normal, with the exception of CXCL3. CXCL8 and CXCR1/2 were found to be epigenetically regulated by histone post-translational modifications. Recombinant CXCL8 did not stimulate cell growth in either a normal bronchial epithelial or a squamous carcinoma cell line (SKMES-1). However, an increase was observed at 72 hours post treatment in an adenocarcinoma cell line.
CONCLUSIONS: CXC (ELR(+)) chemokines are dysregulated in NSCLC. The balance of these chemokines may be critical in the tumour microenvironment and requires further elucidation. It remains to be seen if epigenetic targeting of these pathways is a viable therapeutic option in lung cancer treatment.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory activity within the stroma of invasive colorectal tumours is known to be a key predictor of disease activity with type, density and location of immune cells impacting on patient prognosis. To date, there has been no report of inflammatory phenotype within pre-malignant human colonic adenomas. Assessing the stromal microenvironment and particularly, inflammatory activity within colorectal neoplastic lesions is central to understanding early colorectal carcinogenesis. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired colonic adenoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa samples, and adenomas exhibiting increasing degrees of epithelial cell dysplasia. Macrophage phenotype was assessed using double stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme of function. A targeted array of inflammatory cytokine and receptor genes, validated by RT-PCR, was used to assess inflammatory gene expression. Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of sporadic adenomatous colonic polyps with increased macrophage, neutrophil and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration in adenomatous colonic polyps, that increases in association with characteristics of high malignant potential, namely, increasing degree of cell dysplasia and adenoma size. Macrophages within adenomas express iNOS, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several inflammatory cytokine genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CCL20, IL8, CCL23, CCL19, CCL21, CCL5) are dysregulated in adenomas. This study has provided evidence of increased inflammation within pre-malignant colonic adenomas. This may allow potential mechanistic pathways in the initiation and promotion of early colorectal carcinogenesis to be identified.
Basal-like breast cancers have several well-characterized distinguishing molecular features, but most of these are features of the cancer cells themselves. The unique stromal-epithelial interactions, and more generally, microenvironmental features of basal-like breast cancers have not been well characterized. To identify characteristic microenvironment features of basal-like breast cancer, we performed cocultures of several basal-like breast cancer cell lines with fibroblasts and compared these with cocultures of luminal breast cancer cell lines with fibroblasts. Interactions between basal-like cancer cells and fibroblasts induced expression of numerous interleukins and chemokines, including IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL3, and TGFβ. Under the influence of fibroblasts, basal-like breast cancer cell lines also showed increased migration in vitro. Migration was less pronounced for luminal lines; but, these lines were more likely to have altered proliferation. These differences were relevant to tumor biology in vivo, as the gene set that distinguished luminal and basal-like stromal interactions in coculture also distinguishes basal-like from luminal tumors with 98% accuracy in 10-fold cross-validation and 100% accuracy in an independent test set. However, comparisons between cocultures where cells were in direct contact and cocultures where interaction was solely through soluble factors suggest that there is an important impact of direct cell-to-cell contact. The phenotypes and gene expression changes invoked by cancer cell interactions with fibroblasts support the microenvironment and cell-cell interactions as intrinsic features of breast cancer subtypes.
The purpose of this work was to analyze chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in untreated and in irradiated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) tumor cell lines, aiming at the establishment of assays to test for the relevance of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in the response of SCCHN to radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy. Five low passage and 10 established SCCHN lines, as well as two normal cell lines, were irradiated at 2 Gy or sham-irradiated, and harvested between 1 and 48 h after treatment. For chemokines with CC and CXC structural motifs and their receptors, transcript levels of target and reference genes were quantified relatively by real-time PCR. In addition, CXCL1 and CXCL12 protein expression was analyzed by ELISA. A substantial variation in chemokine and chemokine receptor expression between SCCHN was detected. Practically, all cell lines expressed CCL5 and CCL20, while CCL2 was expressed in normal cells and in some of the tumor cell lines. CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL10, and CXCL11 were expressed in the vast majority of the cell lines, while the expression of CXCL9 and CXCL12 was restricted to fibroblasts and few tumor cell lines. None of the analyzed cell lines expressed the chemokines CCL3, CCL4, or CCL19. Of the receptors, transcript expression of CCR1, CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, CCR7, CCXR2, and CCXR3 was not detected, and CCR6, CXCR1, and CXCR4 expression was restricted to few tumor cells. Radiation caused up- and down-regulation with respect to chemokine expressions, while for chemokine receptor expressions down-regulations were prevailing. CXCL1 and CXCL12 protein expression corresponded well with the mRNA expression. We conclude that the substantial variation in chemokine and chemokine receptor expression between SCCHN offer opportunities for the establishment of assays to test for the relevance of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in the response of SCCHN to radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy.
Chronic inflammation as a risk factor for cancer development is driven in part by monocyte/macrophages, which in many cancers exhibit pro-tumorigenic activity. In this study we identified elevation in CD14(+) CD16(+) , a minor blood monocyte subpopulation in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) patients, compared to normal and biliary disease patient specimens. Tumour association was suggested by the observation that this elevated level decreased to normal after tumour resection. Moreover, the elevated level of CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes in CCA patient blood correlated with degree of MAC387-positive (recent blood-derived macrophage migrant-specific marker) tumour-associated macrophage infiltration as determined by immunohistochemistry. These CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes were suggested to enhance tumour progression as this subpopulation possesses (i) high expression of adhesion molecules (CD11c, CD49d, and CD54) and scavenger receptor (CD163), which enable them to adhere strongly to endothelial cells, and (ii) that peripheral blood monocytes from CCA patients express high levels of growth and angiogenic factor-related genes (epiregulin, VEGF-A and CXCL3). Elevation of peripheral CD14(+) CD16(+) monocyte levels was associated with features associated with poor prognosis CCA parameters (non-papillary type and high number of tissue macrophages). These data indicate that the CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes from CCA patients with pro-tumorigenic characteristics may associate with rapid tumour progression and poor patient outcome. If confirmed in subsequent studies, the level of CD14(+) CD16(+) monocytes may serve as a marker for disease activity in CCA patients and serve as a target for pathogenic macrophage specific drug development.
Doll D, Keller L, Maak M, et al.Differential expression of the chemokines GRO-2, GRO-3, and interleukin-8 in colon cancer and their impact on metastatic disease and survival.
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2010; 25(5):573-81 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chemotactic cytokines play a role in angiogenesis and attraction of immune cells. However, their contribution to tumor formation remains incompletely understood. In a previous transcriptome study, we identified a family of structurally related chemokines of the CXC-family to be specifically up-regulated in colorectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of their expression in colon cancer cells and to test the hypothesis that altered CXC-chemokine expression is related to critical clinical parameters, such as survival or metastasis formation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression levels of interleukin-8 (CXCL-8) and growth-related oncogenes 2 and 3 (GRO-2/CXCL-2 and GRO-3/CXCL-3) were quantified using qRT-PCR in 97 patients with completely resected colon carcinoma and correlated with clinical parameters. Moreover, 16 samples of normal mucosa, nine samples of benign adenoma, and 11 samples of liver metastasis were analyzed. Next, the regulation of chemokine expression in response to various stimuli was tested in colon cancer cell lines (HT29, HCT116, CaCO2).
RESULTS: Expression of GRO-2, GRO-3, and IL-8 was significantly increased in colon cancer as compared to normal colon tissue. Expression of GRO-2 and GRO-3 was already enhanced in premalignant adenomas, and GRO-3 was significantly down-regulated in liver metastasis as compared to the primary tumor. Importantly, expression of GRO-3 was significantly higher in patients with local versus systemic disease. Moreover, IL-8 expression was significantly associated to overall post-operative survival. Finally, all chemokines were strongly induced by IL-1alpha in the colon cancer cell lines tested, indicating a potential link to inflammatory processes.
CONCLUSION: In accordance with earlier findings, we report here a significantly increased expression of GRO-2, GRO-3, and IL-8 in colon carcinoma as compared to normal tissue. Furthermore, GRO-3 was related to metastasis formation, and IL-8 was associated with survival, suggesting a potential predictive power of these markers.
Kang S, Xie J, Ma S, et al.Targeted knock down of CCL22 and CCL17 by siRNA during DC differentiation and maturation affects the recruitment of T subsets.
Immunobiology. 2010; 215(2):153-62 [PubMed
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Chemokines secreted by DC are instrumental for DC to regulate their own migratory capacities and to recruit T lymphocytes during local tumour immune response. Using the recently developed chemokine protein arrays, we analyzed 38 chemokines associated with monocyte-derived DC (MoDC), including the CC family (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CCL23, CCL24, CCL27) and the CXC family (CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL7, CXCL8, CXCL16) chemokines. Our results indicate that MoDC largely inherit the chemokines constitutively expressed by monocytes, with a significant induction of CCL17, CCL22 and CCL23. Spent culture supernatant collected from MoDC exhibited chemotatic abilities to activate CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Selective knock down of CCL22 and CCL17 expression by siRNA decreased the ratios of CD4(+) to CD8(+), as well as the frequency of Tregs recruited by MoDC. Intratumoural injection of MoDC transfected with siCCL22 and siCCL17, significantly reduced the number of Tregs while increasing the number of infiltrating CD8(+) T cells in human tumour xenografts in athymic nude mice. This study demonstrates that chemokine expression of MoDC is complex and may change dynamically. Using siRNA to selectively knock down chemokines which are highly chemoattractive to Tregs may consequentially alter the lymphocyte populations recruited into the tumour microenvironment, therefore has the potency to provide insight into cellular interactions in cancer immunology. This may lead to a new strategy for DC vaccine development to improve cancer immunobiotherapy.
Milano F, Jorritsma T, Rygiel AM, et al.Expression pattern of immune suppressive cytokines and growth factors in oesophageal adenocarcinoma reveal a tumour immune escape-promoting microenvironment.
Scand J Immunol. 2008; 68(6):616-23 [PubMed
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Immunotherapy for solid cancers, such as oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), is generally hampered by an unfavourable immunological tumour microenvironment. This prompted us to investigate the nature of the OAC environment. Biopsies of tumour and normal control tissues were collected from 17 OAC patients, and investigated using fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-beta, indoleamine 2-3 dioxygenase, CXCL3 and CXCR1, and for measuring a panel of cytokines by cytometric bead array (CBA), and for Granzyme B (GrB), Perforin and PI9 detection by semi-quantitative PCR (QPCR). IHC showed that expression of all the above-mentioned factors is upregulated in 80-93% of the tumours. By QPCR, the cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 was significantly upregulated in tumour samples (P < 0.05). IL-6, IL-10, GrB and Perforin did not show any significant difference between normal and tumour samples, whereas PI9 levels were significantly higher in normal when compared with the tumour samples. CBA confirmed upregulation of IL-8 and show upregulation of IL-1beta in the tumours (P < 0.05). Regarding IL-6 and interferon (IFN)-gamma, no significant differences were observed between normal and tumour tissues. The OAC microenvironment is characterized by a lack of cytokines and factors that normally would enhance anti-cancer responses, such as IFN-gamma and GrB, and by a high expression of several immuno-suppressive factors, such as COX-2, VEGF and IL-8. For future improvement of treatment efficacy of OAC patients, it will be of importance to combine immunotherapy with immune-modulating agents.