Research IndicatorsGraph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (9)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: DMBT1 (cancer-related)
Gorukmez O, Yakut T, Gorukmez O, et al.Distribution of KRAS and BRAF Mutations in Metastatic Colorectal Cancers in Turkish Patients.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(3):1175-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The results of this study demonstrate the potential prognostic and predictive values of KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). It has been proven that KRAS and BRAF mutations are predictive biomarkers for resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody treatment in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). We demonstrated the distribution of KRAS (codons 12, 13 and 61) and BRAF (codon 600) gene mutations in 50 mCRCs using direct sequencing and compared the results with clinicopathological data. KRAS and BRAF mutations were identified in 15 (30%) and 1 (2%) patients, respectively. We identified KRAS mutations in codon 12, 13 and 61 in 73.3% (11/15), 20% (3/15) and 6.67% (1/15) of the positive patients, respectively. The KRAS mutation frequency was significantly higher in tumors located in the ascending colon (p=0.043). Thus, we found that approximately 1/3 of the patients with mCRC had KRAS mutations and the only clinicopathological factor related to this mutation was tumor location. Future studies with larger patient groups should yield more accurate data regarding the molecular mechanism of CRC and the association between KRAS and BRAF mutations and clinicopathological features.
Zauber P, Marotta S, Sabbath-Solitare MCopy number of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli gene is not always neutral in sporadic colorectal cancers with loss of heterozygosity for the gene.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:213 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Changes in the number of alleles of a chromosome may have an impact upon gene expression. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) indicates that one allele of a gene has been lost, and knowing the exact copy number of the gene would indicate whether duplication of the remaining allele has occurred. We were interested to determine the copy number of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene in sporadic colorectal cancers with LOH.
METHODS: We selected 38 carcinomas with LOH for the APC gene region of chromosome 5, as determined by amplification of the CA repeat region within the D5S346 loci. The copy number status of APC was ascertained using the SALSA® MLPA® P043-B1 APC Kit. LOH for the DCC gene, KRAS gene mutation, and microsatellite instability were also evaluated for each tumor, utilizing standard polymerase chain reaction methods.
RESULTS: No tumor demonstrated microsatellite instability. LOH of the DCC gene was also present in 33 of 36 (91.7%) informative tumors. A KRAS gene mutation was present in 16 of the 38 (42.1%) tumors. Twenty-four (63.2%) of the tumors were copy number neutral, 10 (26.3%) tumors demonstrated major loss, while two (5.3%) showed partial loss. Two tumors (5.3%) had copy number gain.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of APC and DCC LOH, KRAS and microsatellite instability indicate our colorectal cancer cases were typical of sporadic cancers following the 'chromosomal instability' pathway. The majority of our colorectal carcinomas with LOH for APC gene are copy number neutral. However, one-third of our cases showed copy number loss, suggesting that duplication of the remaining allele is not required for the development of a colorectal carcinoma.
Mosaic truncating mutations in the protein phosphatase, Mg(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent, 1D (PPM1D) gene have recently been reported with a statistically significantly greater frequency in lymphocyte DNA from ovarian cancer case patients compared with unaffected control patients. Using massively parallel sequencing (MPS) we identified truncating PPM1D mutations in 12 of 3236 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) case patients (0.37%) but in only one of 3431 unaffected control patients (0.03%) (P = .001). All statistical tests were two-sided. A combination of Sanger sequencing, pyrosequencing, and MPS data suggested that 12 of the 13 mutations were mosaic. All mutations were identified in post-chemotherapy treatment blood samples from case patients (n = 1827) (average 1234 days post-treatment in carriers) rather than from cases collected pretreatment (less than 14 days after diagnosis, n = 1384) (P = .002). These data suggest that PPM1D variants in EOC cases are primarily somatic mosaic mutations caused by treatment and are not associated with germline predisposition to EOC.
Zauber P, Marotta S, Sabbath-Solitare MColorectal Cancers with the Uncommon Findings of KRAS Mutation and Microsatellite Instability.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2015; 146(4):261-7 [PubMed
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Sporadic colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI) frequently contain a mutation of the BRAF gene. Additionally, it has been shown that BRAF mutations in colorectal cancers are mutually exclusive of KRAS mutation. We evaluated 14 cases of colorectal cancer with MSI that were BRAF wild type but demonstrated a KRAS mutation. The codon 12/13 region in exon 2 of the KRAS oncogene and the codon 600 region in exon 15 of the BRAF gene were analyzed with standard PCR methods. MSI was evaluated by using the Bethesda panel of markers. The methylation status of the mismatch repair system was ascertained using the SALSA(®) MS-MLPA(®) methylation-specific DNA detection. The mismatch repair proteins MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. A total of 530 colorectal cancers were studied for MSI and KRAS gene mutation. Fourteen (2.6%) cancers with both MSI and a KRAS mutation were identified, and all cancers were BRAF wild type. Methylation was present in 7 (50%), 5 demonstrated methylation of MLH1, 1 showed methylation of MGMT, and 1 showed methylation of MSH2. Four patients had simultaneous cancers, some of which showed different genetic changes. Immunohistochemical staining suggested a germ line mutation for 4 of 10 cases with complete staining information. KRAS mutation may occur with MSI in colorectal cancers with wild-type BRAF. If a mutation in KRAS co-exists with MSI, then strong methylation of the MLH1 gene is unlikely. These tumors demonstrate that a small number of colorectal cancers will develop with atypical patterns of molecular genetic changes, suggesting that a specific pattern of genetic changes may not be as crucial as the overall accumulation of changes, consistent with the 'unique tumor principle'.
Cheng P, Wang YF, Li G, et al.Interplay between menin and Dnmt1 reversibly regulates pancreatic cancer cell growth downstream of the Hedgehog signaling pathway.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 370(1):136-44 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Menin, the product of the Men1 gene, which is frequently mutated in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, acts as a chromatin-remodeling factor to modulate the transcription of cell cycle regulators by interacting with histone modification factors. However, the function of menin and its underlying mechanisms in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remain unknown. Here, we found that menin inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo and that its expression was gradually lost during pancreatic carcinogenesis. Menin overexpression significantly activated the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p18 and p27, accompanied with a decrease in DNA methylation levels of p18 and p27 promoters. Mechanistically, we found that interaction of menin with DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) competitively pulled down Dnmt1 from p18 and p27 promoters, leading to the downregulation of DNA methylation levels. Moreover, menin expression was suppressed by Dnmt1 downstream of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, and menin overexpression strongly antagonized the promotion effect of hedgehog signaling on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. Taken together, the interaction between menin and Dnmt1 reversibly regulates pancreatic cancer cell growth downstream of Hedgehog pathways with complex mutual modulation networks, suggesting that the Hedgehog/Dnmt1/menin axis is a potential molecular target for pancreatic cancer therapy.
UNLABELLED: Cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147/BSG) is a transmembrane glycoprotein mediating oncogenic processes partly through its role as binding partner for monocarboxylate transporter MCT4/SLC16A3. As demonstrated for MCT4, CD147 is proposed to be associated with progression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). In this study, we evaluated the prognostic relevance of CD147 in comparison to MCT4/SLC16A3 expression and DNA methylation.
METHODS: CD147 protein expression was assessed in two independent ccRCC-cohorts (n = 186, n = 59) by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays and subsequent manual as well as automated software-supported scoring (Tissue Studio, Definien sAG). Epigenetic regulation of CD147 was investigated using RNAseq and DNA methylation data of The Cancer Genome Atlas. These results were validated in our cohort. Relevance of prognostic models for cancer-specific survival, comprising CD147 and MCT4 expression or SLC16A3 DNA methylation, was compared using chi-square statistics.
RESULTS: CD147 protein expression generated with Tissue Studio correlated significantly with those from manual scoring (P < 0.0001, rS = 0.85), indicating feasibility of software-based evaluation exemplarily for the membrane protein CD147 in ccRCC. Association of CD147 expression with patient outcome differed between cohorts. DNA methylation in the CD147/BSG promoter was not associated with expression. Comparison of prognostic relevance of CD147/BSG and MCT4/SLC16A3, showed higher significance for MCT4 expression and superior prognostic power for DNA methylation at specific CpG-sites in the SLC16A3 promoter (e.g. CD147 protein: P = 0.7780,Harrell's c-index = 53.7% vs. DNA methylation: P = 0.0076, Harrell's c-index = 80.0%).
CONCLUSIONS: Prognostic significance of CD147 protein expression could not surpass that of MCT4, especially of SLC16A3 DNA methylation, corroborating the role of MCT4 as prognostic biomarker for ccRCC.
Sutherlandia frutescens is a medicinal plant, traditionally used to treat various types of human diseases, including cancer. Previous studies of several botanicals link suppression of prostate cancer growth with inhibition of the Gli/hedgehog (Gli/Hh) signaling pathway. Here we hypothesized the anti-cancer effect of S. frutescens was linked to its inhibition of the Gli/Hh signaling in prostate cancer. We found a dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition in human prostate cancer cells, PC3 and LNCaP, and mouse prostate cancer cell, TRAMP-C2, treated with S. frutescens methanol extract (SLE). We also observed a dose-dependent inhibition of the Gli-reporter activity in Shh Light II and TRAMP-C2QGli cells treated with SLE. In addition, SLE can inhibit Gli/Hh signaling by blocking Gli1 and Ptched1 gene expression in the presence of a Gli/Hh signaling agonist (SAG). A diet supplemented with S. frutescens suppressed the formation of poorly differentiated carcinoma in prostates of TRAMP mice. Finally, we found Sutherlandioside D was the most potent compound in the crude extract that could suppress Gli-reporter in Shh Light II cells. Together, this suggests that the S. frutescens extract may exert anti-cancer effect by targeting Gli/Hh signaling, and Sutherlandioside D is one of the active compounds.
BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal gynecological malignancy, responsible for 13 000 deaths per year in the United States. Risk prediction based on identifying germline mutations in ovarian cancer susceptibility genes could have a clinically significant impact on reducing disease mortality.
METHODS: Next generation sequencing was used to identify germline mutations in the coding regions of four candidate susceptibility genes-BRIP1, BARD1, PALB2 and NBN-in 3236 invasive EOC case patients and 3431 control patients of European origin, and in 2000 unaffected high-risk women from a clinical screening trial of ovarian cancer (UKFOCSS). For each gene, we estimated the prevalence and EOC risks and evaluated associations between germline variant status and clinical and epidemiological risk factor information. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: We found an increased frequency of deleterious mutations in BRIP1 in case patients (0.9%) and in the UKFOCSS participants (0.6%) compared with control patients (0.09%) (P = 1 x 10(-4) and 8 x 10(-4), respectively), but no differences for BARD1 (P = .39), NBN1 ( P = .61), or PALB2 (P = .08). There was also a difference in the frequency of rare missense variants in BRIP1 between case patients and control patients (P = 5.5 x 10(-4)). The relative risks associated with BRIP1 mutations were 11.22 for invasive EOC (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.22 to 34.10, P = 1 x 10(-4)) and 14.09 for high-grade serous disease (95% CI = 4.04 to 45.02, P = 2 x 10(-5)). Segregation analysis in families estimated the average relative risks in BRIP1 mutation carriers compared with the general population to be 3.41 (95% CI = 2.12 to 5.54, P = 7×10(-7)).
CONCLUSIONS: Deleterious germline mutations in BRIP1 are associated with a moderate increase in EOC risk. These data have clinical implications for risk prediction and prevention approaches for ovarian cancer and emphasize the critical need for risk estimates based on very large sample sizes before genes of moderate penetrance have clinical utility in cancer prevention.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by specific patterns of copy number alterations (CNAs), which helped with the identification of driver oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). More recently, the usage of single nucleotide polymorphism arrays provided information of copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity, thus suggesting the occurrence of somatic uniparental disomy (UPD) and uniparental polysomy (UPP) events. The aim of this study is to establish an integrative profiling of recurrent UPDs/UPPs and CNAs in sporadic CRC. Our results indicate that regions showing high frequencies of UPD/UPP mostly coincide with regions typically involved in genomic losses. Among them, chromosome arms 3p, 5q, 9q, 10q, 14q, 17p, 17q, 20p, 21q and 22q preferentially showed UPDs/UPPs over genomic losses suggesting that tumor cells must maintain the disomic state of certain genes to favor cellular fitness. A meta-analysis using over 300 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas confirmed our findings. Several regions affected by recurrent UPDs/UPPs contain well-known TSGs, as well as novel candidates such as ARID1A, DLC1, TCF7L2 and DMBT1. In addition, VCAN, FLT4, SFRP1 and GAS7 were also frequently involved in regions of UPD/UPP and displayed high levels of methylation. Finally, sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of the gene APC underlined that a somatic UPD event might represent the second hit to achieve biallelic inactivation of this TSG in colorectal tumors. In summary, our data define a profile of somatic UPDs/UPPs in sporadic CRC and highlights the importance of these events as a mechanism to achieve the inactivation of TSGs.
Gorukmez O, Sag ŞO, Gorukmez Ö, et al.Association of the ACE I/D gene polymorphisms with JAK2V617F-positive polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2015; 19(6):303-8 [PubMed
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The renin-angiotensin system contributes to cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation in the bone marrow. We investigated the role of the ACE I/D gene polymorphism in 108 polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocytosis (ET) patients who were positive for the JAK2V617F mutation, with a thrombosis group (TG) of 95 patients who had a history of vascular events, but did not have a history of myeloproliferative neoplasms and compared these to a healthy control group (CG) of 72 subjects. In the patients, II genotype and I allele frequency (p=0.009, odds ratio [OR]=9.716, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.242-76.00, p=0.004, OR=2.019, 95% CI=1.243-3.280, respectively) were found to be higher than those in the controls. The DD genotype (p=0.021, OR=0.491, 95% CI=0.268-0.899) and D allele (p=0.004, OR=0.495, 95% CI=0.305-0.805) were found to be correlated with a decreased risk of a myeloproliferative neoplasm. These findings support the hypothesis that the ACE II genotype and I allele may be related to increased risk of ET and PV. Conversely, the DD genotype and D allele may be related to decreased risk of ET and PV. The results also indicated that the ACE I/D gene polymorphism was independent of thrombosis formation.
Zauber P, Denehy TR, Taylor RR, et al.Strong correlation between molecular changes in endometrial carcinomas and concomitant hyperplasia.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2015; 25(5):863-8 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Endometrial cancer (EC) results from the accumulation of numerous genetic abnormalities contributing to the progression from hyperplasia to EC. Information on these various genetic changes has been primarily derived from studying groups of either hyperplasias or cancers.We evaluated both hyperplastic and EC tissue obtained from the same surgical specimens for KRAS mutations, microsatellite instability (MSI), and mismatch repair gene methylation, and results were correlated between the paired hyperplastic tissue and EC. The aim was to determine if molecular alterations appearing in ECs might also be present in the premalignant (hyperplastic) region of the tumor.
METHODS: One hundred ninety-seven cases of EC with associated hyperplasia were evaluated. DNA samples were studied using primer sets for KRAS gene codons 12/13 and for MSI utilizing the Bethesda panel. Methylation testing was performed on specimens that were microsatellite unstable using the MRC Holland SALSA MS-MLPA methylation-specific DNA detection kit.
RESULTS: Forty-one (20.8%) of 197 cancers demonstrated a KRAS mutation, with 35 (85.4%) of 41 accompanying hyperplasias also containing a KRAS mutation. Forty-five cancers (22.8%) were microsatellite unstable, with 38 (84.4%) of 45 accompanying hyperplasias also demonstrating instability. Of the 45 microsatellite unstable cancers, 28 (62.2%) demonstrated methylation in both the cancer and the accompanying hyperplasia, whereas 9 pairs (20%) showed no methylation for either the cancer or hyperplasia.
CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 95% of endometrial specimens demonstrated identical molecular findings regarding KRAS mutation and microsatellite stability in the paired cancer and hyperplastic tissue. The same methylation pattern was found in 82.2% of the studied paired samples. Our findings strongly suggest that the molecular changes of KRAS mutation, MSI, and methylation occur early in the neoplastic process. We propose that endometrial biopsies revealing only hyperplasia should be studied for these molecular alterations as an indicator of possible early carcinogenesis.
Sag SO, Gorukmez O, Ture M, et al.MMP2 gene-735 C/T and MMP9 gene -1562 C/T polymorphisms in JAK2V617F positive myeloproliferative disorders.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(2):443-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) are clonal hematologic malignancies originating at the level of the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that contribute to all stages of malignancy progression. Genetic variants in the MMP genes may influence the biological function of these enzymes and change their role in carcinogenesis and progression. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of associations between the -735 C/T and -1562 C/T polymorphisms in the MMP2 and MMP9 genes, respectively, and the risk of essential thrombocytosis (ET), and polycythemia vera (PV).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control study included JAK2V617F mutation positive 102 ET and PV patients and 111 controls. Polymorphisms were determined by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and electrophoresis.
RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were detected between patient (ET+PV) and control groups regarding genotype distribution for MMP2 gene-735 C/T and MMP9 gene -1562 C/T polymorphisms and C/T allele frequency (p>0.050). Statistically borderline significance was observed between PV and control groups regarding genotype distribution for the MMP9 gene -1562 C/T polymorphism (p=0.050, OR=2.26, 95%Cl=0.99-5.16).
CONCLUSIONS: Consequently this study supported that CC genotype of MMP9 gene -1562 C/T polymorphism may be related with PV even if with borderline significance.
High concentrations of adenosine in tumor microenvironments inhibit antitumor cytotoxic lymphocyte responses. Although T cells express inhibitory adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) that suppress their activation and inhibit immune killing of tumors, a role for myeloid cell A2ARs in suppressing the immune response to tumors has yet to be investigated. In this study, we show that the growth of transplanted syngeneic B16F10 melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma cells is slowed in Adora2a(f/f)-LysMCre(+/-) mice, which selectively lack myeloid A2ARs. Reduced melanoma growth is associated with significant increases in MHCII and IL12 expression in tumor-associated macrophages and with >90% reductions in IL10 expression in tumor-associated macrophages, dendritic cells (DC), and Ly6C(+) or Ly6G(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Myeloid deletion of A2ARs significantly increases CD44 expression on tumor-associated T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Depletion of CD8(+) T cells or NK cells in tumor-bearing mice indicates that both cell types initially contribute to slowing melanoma growth in mice lacking myeloid A2A receptors, but tumor suppression mediated by CD8(+) T cells is more persistent. Myeloid-selective A2AR deletion significantly reduces lung metastasis of melanomas that express luciferase (for in vivo tracking) and ovalbumin (as a model antigen). Reduced metastasis is associated with increased numbers and activation of NK cells and antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in lung infiltrates. Overall, the findings indicate that myeloid cell A2ARs have direct myelosuppressive effects that indirectly contribute to the suppression of T cells and NK cells in primary and metastatic tumor microenvironments. The results indicate that tumor-associated myeloid cells, including macrophages, DCs, and MDSCs all express immunosuppressive A2ARs that are potential targets of adenosine receptor blockers to enhance immune killing of tumors.
Coppola D, Balducci L, Chen DT, et al.Senescence-associated-gene signature identifies genes linked to age, prognosis, and progression of human gliomas.
J Geriatr Oncol. 2014; 5(4):389-99 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Senescence-associated genes (SAGs) are responsible for the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, linked in turn to cellular aging, the aging brain, and the pathogenesis of cancer.
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that senescence-associated genes are overexpressed in older patients, in higher grades of glioma, and portend a poor prognosis.
METHODS: Forty-seven gliomas were arrayed on a custom version of the Affymetrix HG-U133+2.0 GeneChip, for expression of fourteen senescence-associated genes: CCL2, CCL7, CDKN1A, COPG, CSF2RB, CXCL1, ICAM-1, IGFBP-3, IL-6, IL-8, SAA4, TNFRSF-11B, TNFSF-11 and TP53. A combined "senescence score" was generated using principal component analysis to measure the combined effect of the senescence-associated gene signature.
RESULTS: An elevated senescence score correlated with older age (r=0.37; P=.01) as well as a higher degree of malignancy, as determined by WHO, histological grade (r=0.49; P<.001). There was a mild association with poor prognosis (P=.06). Gliosarcomas showed the highest scores. Six genes independently correlated with either age (IL-6, TNFRSF-11B, IGFBP-3, SAA4, and COPG), prognosis (IL-6, SAA4), or the grade of the glioma (IL-6, IL-8, ICAM-1, IGFBP-3, and COPG).
CONCLUSION: We report: 1) a novel molecular signature in human gliomas, based on cellular senescence, translating the concept of SAG to human cancer; 2) the senescence signature is composed of genes central to the pathogenesis of gliomas, defining a novel, aggressive subtype of glioma; and 3) these genes provide prognostic biomarkers, as well as targets, for drug discovery and immunotherapy.
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent stem cells from early embryos, and their self-renewal capacity depends on the sustained expression of hESC-specific molecules and the suppressed expression of differentiation-associated genes. To discover novel molecules expressed on hESCs, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies against undifferentiated hESCs and evaluated their ability to mark cancer cells, as well as hESCs. MAb7 recognized undifferentiated hESCs and showed a diffuse band with molecular mass of >239 kDa in the lysates of hESCs. Although some amniotic epithelial cells expressed MAb7 antigen, its expression was barely detected in normal human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, or endothelial cells. The expression of MAb7 antigen was observed only in pancreatic and gastric cancer cells, and its levels were elevated in metastatic and poorly differentiated cancer cell lines. Analyses of MAb7 antigen suggested that the clustered NeuAcα2-3Galβ O-linked oligosaccharides on DMBT1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1) were critical for MAb7 binding in cancer cells. Although features of MAb7 epitope were similar with those of TRA-1-60, distribution of MAb7 antigen in cancer cells was different from that of TRA-1-60 antigen. Exposure of a histone deacetylase inhibitor to differentiated gastric cancer MKN74 cells evoked the expression of MAb7 antigen, whereas DMBT1 expression remained unchanged. Cell sorting followed by DNA microarray analyses identified the down-regulated genes responsible for the biosynthesis of MAb7 antigen in MKN74 cells. In addition, treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer cells with MAb7 significantly abrogated the adhesion to endothelial cells. These results raised the possibility that MAb7 epitope is a novel marker for undifferentiated cells such as hESCs and cancer stem-like cells and plays a possible role in the undifferentiated cells.
The aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been implicated in a variety of malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mammalian 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a crucial role in cellular energy homeostasis. However, the interaction between the Hh and AMPK signaling pathways has not been investigated to date. In the present study, to the best of our knowlege, we report for the first time the negative regulation of glioma-associated oncogene 1 (Gli1), an important downstream effector of Hh, by the AMPK signal transduction pathway. Immunoprecipitation and GST-pull down assay showed a direct interaction between AMPK and Gli1. The overexpression of AMPK induced the downregulation of Gli1 expression, while the knockdown of AMPK upregulated Gli1 expression in a relatively short period of time (24 h or less). Our data suggest that AMPK may function as an upstream molecule that regulates Gli1 expression. Therefore, AMPK may play a role in the Hh signaling pathway, through which it regulates tumorigenesis.
Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are a family of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes that rely on either RING-box 1 (RBX1) or sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG), also known as RBX2, for activity. RBX1 and SAG are both overexpressed in human lung cancer; however, their contribution to patient survival and lung tumorigenesis is unknown. Here, we report that overexpression of SAG, but not RBX1, correlates with poor patient prognosis and more advanced disease. We found that SAG is overexpressed in murine KrasG12D-driven lung tumors and that Sag deletion suppressed lung tumorigenesis and extended murine life span. Using cultured lung cancer cells, we showed that SAG knockdown suppressed growth and survival, inactivated both NF-κB and mTOR pathways, and resulted in accumulation of tumor suppressor substrates, including p21, p27, NOXA, and BIM. Importantly, growth suppression by SAG knockdown was partially rescued by simultaneous knockdown of p21 or the mTOR inhibitor DEPTOR. Treatment with MLN4924, a small molecule inhibitor of CRL E3s, also inhibited the formation of KrasG12D-induced lung tumors through a similar mechanism involving inactivation of NF-κB and mTOR and accumulation of tumor suppressor substrates. Together, our results demonstrate that Sag is a Kras-cooperating oncogene that promotes lung tumorigenesis and suggest that targeting SAG-CRL E3 ligases may be an effective therapeutic approach for Kras-driven lung cancers.
Hedlund G, Eriksson H, Sundstedt A, et al.The tumor targeted superantigen ABR-217620 selectively engages TRBV7-9 and exploits TCR-pMHC affinity mimicry in mediating T cell cytotoxicity.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e79082 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The T lymphocytes are the most important effector cells in immunotherapy of cancer. The conceptual objective for developing the tumor targeted superantigen (TTS) ABR-217620 (naptumomab estafenatox, 5T4Fab-SEA/E-120), now in phase 3 studies for advanced renal cell cancer, was to selectively coat tumor cells with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) target structures functionally similar to natural CTL pMHC target molecules. Here we present data showing that the molecular basis for the anti-tumor activity by ABR-217620 resides in the distinct interaction between the T cell receptor β variable (TRBV) 7-9 and the engineered superantigen (Sag) SEA/E-120 in the fusion protein bound to the 5T4 antigen on tumor cells. Multimeric but not monomeric ABR-217620 selectively stains TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes from human peripheral blood similar to antigen specific staining of T cells with pMHC tetramers. SEA/E-120 selectively activates TRBV7-9 expressing T lymphocytes resulting in expansion of the subset. ABR-217620 selectively triggers TRBV7-9 expressing cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill 5T4 positive tumor cells. Furthermore, ABR-217620 activates TRBV7-9 expressing T cell line cells in the presence of cell- and bead-bound 5T4 tumor antigen. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that ABR-217620 binds to 5T4 with high affinity, to TRBV7-9 with low affinity and to MHC class II with very low affinity. The T lymphocyte engagement by ABR-217620 is constituted by displaying high affinity binding to the tumor cells (KD approximately 1 nM) and with the mimicry of natural productive immune TCR-pMHC contact using affinities of around 1 µM. This difference in kinetics between the two components of the ABR-217620 fusion protein will bias the binding towards the 5T4 target antigen, efficiently activating T-cells via SEA/E-120 only when presented by the tumor cells.
Liu P, Sun Y, Wang Q, et al.Intracellular trafficking and cellular uptake mechanism of mPEG-PLGA-PLL and mPEG-PLGA-PLL-Gal nanoparticles for targeted delivery to hepatomas.
Biomaterials. 2014; 35(2):760-70 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The lysosomal escape of nanoparticles is crucial to enhancing their delivery and therapeutic efficiency. Here, we report the cellular uptake mechanism, lysosomal escape, and organelle morphology effect of monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly (L-lysine) (mPEG-PLGA-PLL, PEAL) and 4-O-beta-D-Galactopyranosyl-D-gluconic acid (Gal)-modified PEAL (PEAL-Gal) for intracellular delivery to HepG2, Huh7, and PLC hepatoma cells. These results indicate that PEAL is taken up by clathrin-mediated endocytosis of HepG2, Huh7 and PLC cells. For PEAL-Gal, sialic acid receptor-mediated endocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis are the primary uptake pathways in HepG2 cells, respectively, whereas PEAL-Gal is internalized by sag vesicle- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis in Huh7 cells. In the case of PLC cells, clathrin-mediated endocytosis and sialic acid receptor play a primary role in the uptake of PEAL-Gal. TEM results verify that PEAL and PEAL-Gal lead to a different influence on organelle morphology of HepG2, Huh7 and PLC cells. In addition, the results of intracellular distribution reveal that PEAL and PEAL-Gal are less entrapped in the lysosomes of HepG2 and Huh7 cells, demonstrating that they effectively escape from lysosomes and contribute to enhance the efficiency of intracellular delivery and tumor therapy. In vivo tumor targeting image results demonstrate that PEAL-Gal specifically delivers Rhodamine B (Rb) to the tumor tissue of mice with HepG2, Huh7, and PLC hepatomas and remains at a high concentration in tumor tissue until 48 h, properties that will greatly contribute to enhanced antitumor efficiency.
Werminghaus P, Haase M, Hornsby PJ, et al.Hedgehog-signaling is upregulated in non-producing human adrenal adenomas and antagonism of hedgehog-signaling inhibits proliferation of NCI-H295R cells and an immortalized primary human adrenal cell line.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014; 139:7-15 [PubMed
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Hedgehog (Hh)-signaling pathway is important in embryonic development. Activation of Hh-signaling is associated with tumorigenesis. Recent studies demonstrate that Hh-signaling is involved in the development of the adrenal gland in mice and is important in regulating adrenal proliferation. We studied the expression of Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Smoothened (SMO), Patched1 (PTCH1) and GLI family zinc finger 1 (GLI1) in human adrenal and in adrenocortical tumors using immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Modulation of GLI1 and SMO messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression was investigated with forskolin. The role of Hh-signaling was studied in NCI-H295R cells and in an immortalized primary cell line using the Hh-agonist smoothened agonist (SAG) and the Hh-antagonist cyclopamine. The Hh-pathway components SHH, GLI1, PTCH1 and SMO were detectable in all adrenal glands. While in cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA), Hh-signaling expression levels were comparable to that in normal adrenal cortex, a much higher mRNA expression of GLI1, SMO and SHH was observed in non-producing adenomas (NPA). Interestingly, stimulation of cultured adrenal cells with forskolin led to a decrease in expression of GLI1 and SMO mRNAs. Antagonism of Hh-signaling resulted in a lower proliferation rate of adrenocortical cells, while Hh-agonism had no significant effect on adrenal cell proliferation. Our data show Hh-signaling activity in adult adrenal glands. Activation of the PKA pathway results in lower expression of Hh-signaling proteins. This might explain the lower expression of the Hh components GLI1 and SMO in CPA in comparison to the higher expression in NPA. Hh-signaling might be involved in the tumorigenesis of NPA.
Kulkarni BB, Hiremath SV, Kulkarni SS, et al.Genomic DNA of MCF-7 breast cancer cells not an ideal choice as positive control for PCR amplification based detection of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus-Like Sequences.
J Virol Methods. 2013; 193(2):304-7 [PubMed
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The identification of the etiology of breast cancer is a crucial research issue for the development of an effective preventive and treatment strategies. Researchers are exploring the possible involvement of Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV) in causing human breast cancer. Hence, it becomes very important to use a consistent positive control agent in PCR amplification based detection of MMTV-Like Sequence (MMTV-LS) in human breast cancer for accurate and reproducible results. This study was done to investigate the feasibility of using genomic DNA of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to detect MMTV-LS using PCR amplification based detection. MMTV env and SAG gene located at the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences were targeted for the PCR based detection. No amplification was observed in case of the genomic DNA of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. However, the 2.7 kb DNA fragment comprising MMTV env and SAG LTR sequences yielded the products of desired size. From these results it can be concluded that Genomic DNA of MCF-7 cell is not a suitable choice as positive control for PCR or RT-PCR based detection of MMTV-LS. It is also suggested that plasmids containing the cloned genes or sequences of MMTV be used as positive control for detection of MMTV-LS.
Götschel F, Berg D, Gruber W, et al.Synergism between Hedgehog-GLI and EGFR signaling in Hedgehog-responsive human medulloblastoma cells induces downregulation of canonical Hedgehog-target genes and stabilized expression of GLI1.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e65403 [PubMed
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Aberrant activation of Hedgehog (HH) signaling has been identified as a key etiologic factor in many human malignancies. Signal strength, target gene specificity, and oncogenic activity of HH signaling depend profoundly on interactions with other pathways, such as epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated signaling, which has been shown to cooperate with HH/GLI in basal cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer. Our experimental data demonstrated that the Daoy human medulloblastoma cell line possesses a fully inducible endogenous HH pathway. Treatment of Daoy cells with Sonic HH or Smoothened agonist induced expression of GLI1 protein and simultaneously prevented the processing of GLI3 to its repressor form. To study interactions between HH- and EGF-induced signaling in greater detail, time-resolved measurements were carried out and analyzed at the transcriptomic and proteomic levels. The Daoy cells responded to the HH/EGF co-treatment by downregulating GLI1, PTCH, and HHIP at the transcript level; this was also observed when Amphiregulin (AREG) was used instead of EGF. We identified a novel crosstalk mechanism whereby EGFR signaling silences proteins acting as negative regulators of HH signaling, as AKT- and ERK-signaling independent process. EGFR/HH signaling maintained high GLI1 protein levels which contrasted the GLI1 downregulation on the transcript level. Conversely, a high-level synergism was also observed, due to a strong and significant upregulation of numerous canonical EGF-targets with putative tumor-promoting properties such as MMP7, VEGFA, and IL-8. In conclusion, synergistic effects between EGFR and HH signaling can selectively induce a switch from a canonical HH/GLI profile to a modulated specific target gene profile. This suggests that there are more wide-spread, yet context-dependent interactions, between HH/GLI and growth factor receptor signaling in human malignancies.
Yang ES, Huh YJ, Park JWRNA interference targeting sensitive-to-apoptosis gene potentiates doxorubicin- and staurosporine-induced apoptosis of PC3 cells.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(3):847-55 [PubMed
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Several anticancer agents exert their cancer cell killing effects by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, a combination of ROS-producing agents and the inhibition of ROS elimination promotes the death of cancer cells. The sensitive to apoptosis gene (SAG) protein, a redox-inducible protein and potential ROS scavenger, protects mammalian cells from redox agent-induced apoptosis. In the present study, we found that silencing of SAG expression in human prostate cancer PC3 cells by transfection with SAG small-interfering RNA (siRNA) markedly enhanced susceptibility to doxorubicin- and to staurosporine-induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, pre-treatment with the thiol antioxidant N-acetylcysteine suppressed increases in ROS and apoptosis. This study suggests that knockdown of SAG augments the apoptosis of PC3 cells exposed to doxorubicin or staurosporine presumably by increasing intracellular ROS levels.
BACKGROUND: Locally or widely metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is difficult to treat, and therapeutic options are limited. Recently, kinase inhibitors have shown partial efficacy in this cancer, but there is a continued need for the development of novel therapeutics. Within this context, the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has been implicated in several types of human tumors, and early clinical trials with Hh antagonists have validated Hh as a novel therapeutic target. For the first time, we evaluated Hh pathway activity in MTC, and examined the effect of Hh pathway perturbation in highly characterized MTC cell lines.
METHODS: We examined immunohistochemical expression of the Hh signaling mediators Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Glioblastoma (Gli)2 in paraffin-embedded normal versus histologically characterized human MTC tissue. We examined pharmacologic disruption of Hh signaling in vitro using two established MTC cell lines (TT and MZ-CRC-1). Hh signaling was either pharmacologically activated (SAG) or inhibited (GDC-0449) in MTC cell lines; Hh activity was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and quantification of cellular growth and apoptotic activity.
RESULTS: Our data showed increased expression of Hh signaling factors in human MTC compared to normal tissue. In vitro, activation of the Hh pathway resulted in increased expression of key Hh signaling components Smoothened (Smo) and Gli2. Conversely, inhibition of the Hh pathway decreased expression of these genes, leading to significantly reduced cellular growth and increased apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Hedgehog signaling components are markedly upregulated in MTC. Hh pathway inhibitors have potential as novel therapeutic options in patients with metastatic and/or surgically unresectable MTC.
Gu L, Yue J, Zheng Y, et al.Evaluation of a recombinant double mutant of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB-H32Q/K173E) with enhanced antitumor activity effects and decreased pyrexia.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55892 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has been used to improve patient immune function, inhibit tumor growth and has become a highly promising method of cancer treatment. Highly agglutinative staphylococcin (HAS), a mixture of Staphylococcus aureus culture filtrates, which include staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) C as the active ingredient, has been used clinically as an immunomodifier in the treatment of a number of tumors for many years. However, the use of HAS has been associated with some unavoidable side-effects such as fever. Previous studies have shown that SEB stimulates a more potent activation of T lymphocytes than SEC3, and mutations of the histidine residues eliminated the toxicity of SEB. SE mutants with decreased side-effects and/or more potent antitumor activities are required.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We built a structural model of the MHC II-SEB-TCR complex and found that a mutation of SEB at Lys173 might decrease the repulsion force between the SEB-TCR, which would facilitate their interaction. From the above results, we designed SEB-H32Q/K173E (mSEB). Analysis of in vitro stimulation of the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), IFN-γ secretion and inhibition of the growth of various tumor cell lines demonstrated that mSEB exhibited higher antitumor activity compared with wild-type SEB (wtSEB). Notably, mSEB inhibited the growth of various tumors at an extremely low concentration with little cytotoxicity against normal cells. Three animal tumor models (C57BL/6 mouse, New Zealand rabbit and a humanized NOD/SCID mouse) were used to evaluate the in vivo immunotherapeutic effects. Compared with wtSEB, mSEB significantly enhanced antitumor effect in more than one animal model with reduced pyrexia toxicity and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that SEB-H32Q/K173E retains superantigen (SAg) characteristics and enhances the host immune response to neoplastic diseases while reducing associated pyrogenic toxicity.
Furlan D, Sahnane N, Mazzoni M, et al.Diagnostic utility of MS-MLPA in DNA methylation profiling of adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine carcinomas of the colon-rectum.
Virchows Arch. 2013; 462(1):47-56 [PubMed
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Methylation-specific multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) is a fast, new, inexpensive method that has rarely been exploited in DNA methylation profiling of colorectal cancers (CRCs). The aim of this study was to test the diagnostic utility of MS-MLPA to evaluate the methylation status of 34 genes in normal colonic mucosa samples and in a well-characterized series of 83 adenocarcinomas and 21 neuroendocrine carcinomas of colon-rectum. Two commercial MS-MLPA kits (SALSA MS-MLPA ME001-C1 Tumor suppressor-1 Kit and SALSA MS-MLPA ME002-B1 Tumor suppressor-2 Kit) were used to perform promoter methylation analysis on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. MS-MLPA analysis was validated by bisulfite pyrosequencing, bisulfite cycle sequencing, and methylation-specific PCR. MS-MLPA analysis identified a subset of 27 CRCs (26 % of cases) showing high levels of gene methylation involving a mean percentage of 34 % of the promoters examined. These tumors exhibited all the main clinicopathological and genetic features described for CRCs with CpG island Methylator Phenotype-High. High levels of methylation were observed with similar frequency in adenocarcinomas and in neuroendocrine carcinomas (25 % versus 29 %, respectively), but different methylation profiles were observed in the two tumor types. In both groups, tumors with microsatellite instability and widespread methylation represented a homogeneous clinicopathological entity. MS-MLPA assay is an easy and reliable system for epigenetic characterization of tumor tissues and leads to a rapid identification of CRCs with the highest levels of gene methylation. Aberrant gene methylation is a common abnormality in CRC initiation and may be observed in tumors with very different genetic and clinicopathological profiles.
SAG (Sensitive to Apoptosis Gene), also known as RBX2 (RING box protein 2), ROC2 (Regulator of Cullins 2), or RNF7 (RING Finger Protein 7), was originally cloned in our laboratory as a redox inducible antioxidant protein and later characterized as the second member of the RBX/ROC RING component of the SCF (SKP1-CUL-F-box Proteins) E3 ubiquitin ligase. When acting alone, SAG scavenges oxygen radicals by forming inter- and intra-molecular disulfide bonds, whereas by forming a complex with other components of the SCF E3 ligase, SAG promotes ubiquitination and degradation of a number of protein substrates, including c-JUN, DEPTOR, HIF-1α, IκBα, NF1, NOXA, p27, and procaspase-3, thus regulating various signaling pathways and biological processes. Specifically, SAG protects cells from apoptosis, confers radioresistance, and plays an essential and non-redundant role in mouse embryogenesis and vasculogenesis. Furthermore, stress-inducible SAG is overexpressed in a number of human cancers and SAG overexpression correlates with poor patient prognosis. Finally, SAG transgenic expression in epidermis causes an early stage inhibition, but later stage promotion, of skin tumorigenesis triggered by DMBA/TPA. Given its major role in promoting targeted degradation of tumor suppressive proteins, leading to apoptosis suppression and accelerated tumorigenesis, SAG E3 ligase appears to be an attractive anticancer target.
BACKGROUND: The tissue-specific Unigene Sets derived from more than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the NCBI, GenBank database offers a platform for identifying significantly and differentially expressed tissue-specific genes by in-silico methods. Digital differential display (DDD) rapidly creates transcription profiles based on EST comparisons and numerically calculates, as a fraction of the pool of ESTs, the relative sequence abundance of known and novel genes. However, the process of identifying the most likely tissue for a specific disease in which to search for candidate genes from the pool of differentially expressed genes remains difficult. Therefore, we have used 'Gene Ontology semantic similarity score' to measure the GO similarity between gene products of lung tissue-specific candidate genes from control (normal) and disease (cancer) sets. This semantic similarity score matrix based on hierarchical clustering represents in the form of a dendrogram. The dendrogram cluster stability was assessed by multiple bootstrapping. Multiple bootstrapping also computes a p-value for each cluster and corrects the bias of the bootstrap probability.
RESULTS: Subsequent hierarchical clustering by the multiple bootstrapping method (α = 0.95) identified seven clusters. The comparative, as well as subtractive, approach revealed a set of 38 biomarkers comprising four distinct lung cancer signature biomarker clusters (panel 1-4). Further gene enrichment analysis of the four panels revealed that each panel represents a set of lung cancer linked metastasis diagnostic biomarkers (panel 1), chemotherapy/drug resistance biomarkers (panel 2), hypoxia regulated biomarkers (panel 3) and lung extra cellular matrix biomarkers (panel 4).
CONCLUSIONS: Expression analysis reveals that hypoxia induced lung cancer related biomarkers (panel 3), HIF and its modulating proteins (TGM2, CSNK1A1, CTNNA1, NAMPT/Visfatin, TNFRSF1A, ETS1, SRC-1, FN1, APLP2, DMBT1/SAG, AIB1 and AZIN1) are significantly down regulated. All down regulated genes in this panel were highly up regulated in most other types of cancers. These panels of proteins may represent signature biomarkers for lung cancer and will aid in lung cancer diagnosis and disease monitoring as well as in the prediction of responses to therapeutics.
BACKGROUND: The significant mortality associated with breast cancer (BCa) suggests a need to improve current research strategies to identify new genes that predispose women to breast cancer. Differential allele-specific expression (DASE) has been shown to contribute to phenotypic variables in humans and recently to the pathogenesis of cancer. We previously reported that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) could lead to DASE of BRCA1/2, which is associated with elevated susceptibility to breast cancer. In addition to truncation mutations, multiple genetic and epigenetic factors can contribute to DASE, and we propose that DASE is a functional index for cis-acting regulatory variants and pathogenic mutations, and that global analysis of DASE in breast cancer precursor tissues can be used to identify novel causative alleles for breast cancer susceptibility.
RESULTS: To test our hypothesis, we employed the Illumina(®) Omni1-Quad BeadChip in paired genomic DNA (gDNA) and double-stranded cDNA (ds-cDNA) samples prepared from eight BCa patient-derived normal mammary epithelial lines (HMEC). We filtered original array data according to heterozygous genotype calls and calculated DASE values using the Log ratio of cDNA allele intensity, which was normalized to the corresponding gDNA. We developed two statistical methods, SNP- and gene-based approaches, which allowed us to identify a list of 60 candidate DASE loci (DASE ≥ 2.00, P ≤ 0.01, FDR ≤ 0.05) by both methods. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis of DASE loci revealed one major breast cancer-relevant interaction network, which includes two known cancer causative genes, ZNF331 (DASE = 2.31, P = 0.0018, FDR = 0.040) and USP6 (DASE = 4.80, P = 0.0013, FDR = 0.013), and a breast cancer causative gene, DMBT1 (DASE=2.03, P = 0.0017, FDR = 0.014). Sequence analysis of a 5' RACE product of DMBT1 demonstrated that rs2981745, a putative breast cancer risk locus, appears to be one of the causal variants leading to DASE in DMBT1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated for the first time that global DASE analysis is a powerful new approach to identify breast cancer risk allele(s).
HPV16 E7 oncoprotein expression in K14E7 transgenic mice induces cervical cancer after 6 months of treatment with the co-carcinogen 17β-estradiol. In untreated mice, E7 also induces skin tumors late in life albeit at low penetrance. These findings indicate that E7 alters cellular functions in cervix and skin so as to predispose these organs to tumorigenesis. Using microarrays, we determined the global genes expression profile in cervical and skin tissue of young adult K14E7 transgenic mice without estrogen treatment. In these tissues, the E7 oncoprotein altered the transcriptional pattern of genes involved in several biological processes including signal transduction, transport, metabolic process, cell adhesion, apoptosis, cell differentiation, immune response and inflammatory response. Among the E7-dysregulated genes were ones not previously known to be involved in cervical neoplasia including DMBT1, GLI1 and 17βHSD2 in cervix, as well as MMP2, 12, 14, 19 and 27 in skin.