Gene Summary

Gene:CXCL2; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2
Aliases: GRO2, GROb, MIP2, MIP2A, SCYB2, MGSA-b, MIP-2a, CINC-2a
Summary:This antimicrobial gene is part of a chemokine superfamily that encodes secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is divided into four subfamilies based on the arrangement of the N-terminal cysteine residues of the mature peptide. This chemokine, a member of the CXC subfamily, is expressed at sites of inflammation and may suppress hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-X-C motif chemokine 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CXCL2 (cancer-related)

Echizen K, Hirose O, Maeda Y, Oshima M
Inflammation in gastric cancer: Interplay of the COX-2/prostaglandin E2 and Toll-like receptor/MyD88 pathways.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(4):391-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its downstream product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) play a key role in generation of the inflammatory microenvironment in tumor tissues. Gastric cancer is closely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, which stimulates innate immune responses through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), inducing COX-2/PGE2 pathway through nuclear factor-κB activation. A pathway analysis of human gastric cancer shows that both the COX-2 pathway and Wnt/β-catenin signaling are significantly activated in tubular-type gastric cancer, and basal levels of these pathways are also increased in other types of gastric cancer. Expression of interleukin-11, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), CXCL2, and CXCL5, which play tumor-promoting roles through a variety of mechanisms, is induced in a COX-2/PGE2 pathway-dependent manner in both human and mouse gastric tumors. Moreover, the COX-2/PGE2 pathway plays an important role in the maintenance of stemness with expression of stem cell markers, including CD44, Prom1, and Sox9, which are induced in both gastritis and gastric tumors through a COX-2/PGE2 -dependent mechanism. In contrast, disruption of Myd88 results in suppression of the inflammatory microenvironment in gastric tumors even when the COX-2/PGE2 pathway is activated, indicating that the interplay of the COX-2/PGE2 and TLR/MyD88 pathways is needed for inflammatory response in tumor tissues. Furthermore, TLR2/MyD88 signaling plays a role in maintenance of stemness in normal stem cells as well as gastric tumor cells. Accordingly, these results suggest that targeting the COX-2/PGE2 pathway together with TLR/MyD88 signaling, which would suppress the inflammatory microenvironment and maintenance of stemness, could be an effective preventive or therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer.

Börnigen D, Tyekucheva S, Wang X, et al.
Computational Reconstruction of NFκB Pathway Interaction Mechanisms during Prostate Cancer.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2016; 12(4):e1004820 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular research in cancer is one of the largest areas of bioinformatic investigation, but it remains a challenge to understand biomolecular mechanisms in cancer-related pathways from high-throughput genomic data. This includes the Nuclear-factor-kappa-B (NFκB) pathway, which is central to the inflammatory response and cell proliferation in prostate cancer development and progression. Despite close scrutiny and a deep understanding of many of its members' biomolecular activities, the current list of pathway members and a systems-level understanding of their interactions remains incomplete. Here, we provide the first steps toward computational reconstruction of interaction mechanisms of the NFκB pathway in prostate cancer. We identified novel roles for ATF3, CXCL2, DUSP5, JUNB, NEDD9, SELE, TRIB1, and ZFP36 in this pathway, in addition to new mechanistic interactions between these genes and 10 known NFκB pathway members. A newly predicted interaction between NEDD9 and ZFP36 in particular was validated by co-immunoprecipitation, as was NEDD9's potential biological role in prostate cancer cell growth regulation. We combined 651 gene expression datasets with 1.4M gene product interactions to predict the inclusion of 40 additional genes in the pathway. Molecular mechanisms of interaction among pathway members were inferred using recent advances in Bayesian data integration to simultaneously provide information specific to biological contexts and individual biomolecular activities, resulting in a total of 112 interactions in the fully reconstructed NFκB pathway: 13 (11%) previously known, 29 (26%) supported by existing literature, and 70 (63%) novel. This method is generalizable to other tissue types, cancers, and organisms, and this new information about the NFκB pathway will allow us to further understand prostate cancer and to develop more effective prevention and treatment strategies.

Gebauer F, Wicklein D, Tachezy M, et al.
Establishment and Characterization of a Pair of Patient-derived Human Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines from a Primary Tumor and Corresponding Lymph Node Metastasis.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(4):1507-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non-small lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. For a deeper understanding of tumor biology, we established a pair of cell lines derived from a primary tumor and a corresponding lymph node metastasis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The cell line BC4323 from the primary tumor (PT) and a mediastinal lymph node metastasis (LN) were derived from an adenocarcinoma (pT2, pN2, G3, UICC stage IIIa) in a 47-year-old female patient. Comparative characterization was performed by in vitro analysis. A murine xenograft was established for analysis of in vivo behavior.
RESULTS: Chromosomal aberrations were detected in multiple chromosomal sections throughout the entire genome, with only a few differences between PT and LN cells. High-level Kirsten ras oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutation and amplification were seen based on a chromosomal translocation and novel assembled chromosome. In contrast to the genomic level, at the mRNA and protein levels, multiple differences were detectable, in particular in markers for cell adhesion [e.g. epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), CD44, P-selectin binding, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrin alphaV] and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Due to accelerated tumor growth in vivo by the PT cells, a shortened overall survival was seen (60 vs. 101 days, p=0.005).
CONCLUSION: We provide detailed analysis of a cell line derived from a primary tumor and a corresponding LN metastasis. This unique feature allows further investigative analysis of the differences and regulatory processes underlying the metastatic process during tumor progression in non-small cell lung cancer.

Kzhyshkowska J, Yin S, Liu T, et al.
Role of chitinase-like proteins in cancer.
Biol Chem. 2016; 397(3):231-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chitinase-like proteins (CLPs) are lectins combining properties of cytokines and growth factors. Human CLPs include YKL-40, YKL-39 and SI-CLP that are secreted by cancer cells, macrophages, neutrophils, synoviocytes, chondrocytes and other cells. The best investigated CLP in cancer is YKL-40. Serum and plasma levels of YKL-40 correlate with poor prognosis in breast, lung, prostate, liver, bladder, colon and other types of cancers. In combination with other circulating factors YKL-40 can be used as a predictive biomarker of cancer outcome. In experimental models YKL-40 supports tumor initiation through binding to RAGE, and is able to induce cancer cell proliferation via ERK1/2-MAPK pathway. YKL-40 supports tumor angiogenesis by interaction with syndecan-1 on endothelial cells and metastatic spread by stimulating production of pro-inflammatory and pro-invasive factors MMP9, CCL2 and CXCL2. CLPs induce production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and are potential modulators of inflammatory tumor microenvironment. Targeting YKL-40 using neutralizing antibodies exerts anti-cancer effect in preclinical animal models. Multifunctional role of CLPs in regulation of inflammation and intratumoral processes makes them attractive candidates for tumor therapy and immunomodulation. In this review we comprehensively analyze recent data about expression pattern, and involvement of human CLPs in cancer.

Friedrich C, von Bueren AO, Kolevatova L, et al.
Epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression is common and not correlated to gene copy number in ependymoma.
Childs Nerv Syst. 2016; 32(2):281-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) status in ependymoma specimens, as there is a need for new prognostic and druggable targets in this disease.
METHODS: Ependymomas (WHO grade II, n = 40; WHO grade III, n = 15) located spinal (n = 35), infratentorial (n = 14), and supratentorial (n = 6) of 53 patients with a median age of 40 (range, 2-79) years were analyzed for Ki-67, p53, and EGFR expression by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray and for EGFR gene copy number alterations/mutations. Results were correlated to clinical data.
RESULTS: EGFR overexpression was found in 30/60% of ependymomas depending on the antibody used and was more pronounced in WHO grade III. High EGFR gene copy number gains were found in 6 (11%) ependymomas with half of them being amplifications. EGFR amplified ependymomas displayed an EGFR overexpression with both antibodies in two of three cases. A missense mutation in exon 20 of EGFR (S768I) was detected in one amplified case.
CONCLUSIONS: EGFR is frequently overexpressed in ependymomas. Other mechanisms than amplification of the EGFR gene appear to contribute to EGFR overexpression in most cases. EGFR mutations may be present in a small subset of ependymomas.

Cohen CA, Shea AA, Heffron CL, et al.
Interleukin-12 Immunomodulation Delays the Onset of Lethal Peritoneal Disease of Ovarian Cancer.
J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2016; 36(1):62-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The omental fat band (OFB) is the predominant site for metastatic seeding of ovarian cancer. Previously, we highlighted the influx and accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in the OFB following syngeneic ovarian cancer cell seeding as an important factor in the development of a protumorigenic cascade. Here we investigated localized immunomodulation as a means of promoting a successful protective response. As an important TH1-type immunomodulator, interleukin (IL)-12 has previously been investigated clinically as an anticancer therapeutic. However, systemic IL-12 administration was associated with serious side effects, galvanizing the development of immune or accessory cells engineered to express secreted or membrane-bound IL-12 (mbIL-12). Using an mbIL-12-expressing cell variant, we demonstrate that localized IL-12 in the tumor microenvironment significantly delays disease development. The mbIL-12-mediated decrease in tumor burden was associated with a significant reduction in neutrophil and macrophage infiltration in the OFB, and correlated with a reduced expression of neutrophil and macrophage chemoattractants (CXCL1, -2, -3 and CCL2, -7). Vaccination with mitotically impaired tumor cells did not confer protection against subsequent tumor challenge, indicating that IL-12 did not impact the immunogenicity of the cancer cells. Our findings are in agreement with previous reports suggesting that IL-12 may hold promise when delivered in a targeted and sustained manner to the omental microenvironment. Furthermore, resident cells within the omental microenvironment may provide a reservoir that can be activated and mobilized to prevent metastatic seeding within the peritoneum and, therefore, may be targets for chemotherapeutics.

Struve N, Riedel M, Schulte A, et al.
EGFRvIII does not affect radiosensitivity with or without gefitinib treatment in glioblastoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(32):33867-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas (GBM) are often characterized by an elevated expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII). We used GBM cell lines with native EGFRvIII expression to determine whether this EGFR variant affects radiosensitivity with or without EGFR targeting.
METHODS: Experiments were performed with GBM cell lines lacking (LN229, U87MG, U251, CAS-1) or endogenously expressing EGFRvIII (BS153, DKMG). The two latter cell lines were also used to establish sublines with a low (-) or a high proportion (+) of cells expressing EGFRvIII. EGFR signaling and the cell cycle were analyzed using Western blot and flow cytometry; cell survival was assessed by colony forming assay and double-strand break repair capacity by immunofluorescence.
RESULTS: DKMG and BS153 parental cells with heterogeneous EGFRvIII expression were clearly more radiosensitive compared to other GBM cell lines without EGFRvIII expression. However, no significant difference was observed in cell proliferation, clonogenicity or radiosensitivity between the EGFRvIII- and + sublines derived from DKMG and BS153 parental cells. Expression of EGFRvIII was associated with decreased DSB repair capacity for BS153 but not for DKMG cells. The effects of EGFR targeting by gefitinib alone or in combination with irradiation were also found not to depend on EGFRvIII expression. Gefitinib was only observed to influence the proliferation of EGFRvIII- BS153 cells.
CONCLUSION: The data indicate that EGFRvIII does not alter radiosensitivity with or without anti-EGFR treatment.

Kalmár A, Wichmann B, Galamb O, et al.
Gene-expression analysis of a colorectal cancer-specific discriminatory transcript set on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples.
Diagn Pathol. 2015; 10:126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A recently published transcript set is suitable for gene expression-based discrimination of normal colonic and colorectal cancer (CRC) biopsy samples. Our aim was to test the discriminatory power of the CRC-specific transcript set on independent biopsies and on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples.
METHODS: Total RNA isolations were performed with the automated MagNA Pure 96 Cellular RNA Large Volume Kit (Roche) from fresh frozen biopsies stored in RNALater (CRC (n = 15) and healthy colonic (n = 15)), furthermore from FFPE specimens including CRC (n = 15) and normal adjacent tissue (NAT) (n = 15) specimens next to the tumor. After quality and quantity measurements, gene expression analysis of a colorectal cancer-specific marker set with 11 genes (CA7, COL12A1, CXCL1, CXCL2, CHI3L1, GREM1, IL1B, IL1RN, IL8, MMP3, SLC5A7) was performed with array real-time PCR using Transcriptor First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Roche) and RealTime ready assays on LightCycler480 System (Roche). In situ hybridization for two selected transcripts (CA7, CXCL1) was performed on NAT (n = 3), adenoma (n = 3) and CRC (n = 3) FFPE samples.
RESULTS: Although analytical parameters of automatically isolated RNA samples showed differences between fresh frozen biopsy and FFPE samples, both quantity and the quality enabled their application in gene expression analyses. CRC and normal fresh frozen biopsy samples could be distinguished with 93.3% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity and FFPE samples with 96.7 and 70.0%, respectively. In situ hybridization could confirm the upregulation of CXCL1 and downregulation of CA7 in colorectal adenomas and tumors compared to healthy controls.
CONCLUSION: According to our results, gene expression analysis of the analyzed colorectal cancer-specific marker set can also be performed from FFPE tissue material. With the addition of an automated workflow, this marker set may enhance the objective classification of colorectal neoplasias in the routine procedure in the future.

Saiag P, Grob JJ, Lebbe C, et al.
Diagnosis and treatment of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. European consensus-based interdisciplinary guideline.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(17):2604-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a skin fibroblastic tumour that is locally aggressive, with a tendency for local recurrence, but rarely metastasizes. A unique collaboration of multi-disciplinary experts from the European Dermatology Forum (EDF), the European Association of Dermato-Oncology (EADO) and the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) was formed to make recommendations on DFSP diagnosis and treatment, based on systematic literature reviews and the experts' experience. Diagnosis is suspected clinically and confirmed by pathology. Analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) or multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect specific chromosomal translocations and fusion gene transcripts is useful to confirm a difficult DFSP diagnosis. Treatment is mainly surgical, with the aim to achieve complete resection of the tumour. In order to reduce the recurrence rate, the treatment of choice of DFSP seems to be Mohs' micrographic surgery (MMS) and related variants. In hospitals where only standard histopathological procedures are available, standard excision with lateral safety margin of 3cm is advisable. Imatinib (Glivec®) is approved in Europe for the treatment of inoperable primary tumours, locally inoperable recurrent disease, and metastatic DFSP. Imatinib has also been given to patients with extensive, difficult-to-operate tumours for preoperative reduction of tumour size, but the usefulness of this attitude should be confirmed by clinical trials. Therapeutic decisions for patients with fibrosarcomatous DFSP should be primarily made by an interdisciplinary oncology team ('tumour board').

Braig F, März M, Schieferdecker A, et al.
Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation mediates cross-resistance to panitumumab and cetuximab in gastrointestinal cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(14):12035-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted antibodies represents a clinical challenge in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumors such as metastatic colorectal cancer, but its molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. We scanned KRAS exon 2/3/4, NRAS exon 2/3/4 and the overlapping epitopes of the EGFR antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab for mutations in pre- and post-treatment tumor tissue of 21 patients with gastrointestinal cancer treated with chemotherapy +/- EGFR antibodies by next-generation sequencing ("tumor tissue" cohort). We describe a novel EGFR exon 12 mutation acquired in tumors of 1 out of 3 patients treated with panitumumab. The EGFR G465R mutation introduces a positive charge within the overlap of the panitumumab and cetuximab epitopes. It abrogates antibody binding and mediates cross-resistance to both antibodies in EGFR G465R-transfected Ba/F3 cells. In circulating tumor DNA from an independent "liquid biopsy" cohort of 27 patients, we found this novel mutation in 1 out of 6 panitumumab-treated cases while about one third of patients show acquired RAS mutations. We show that acquired resistance by epitope-changing mutations also emerges during panitumumab treatment, which can be easily detected by a liquid biopsy approach even before clinical resistance occurs and this may help in tailoring EGFR-targeted therapies.

Johnson RH, Hu P, Fan C, Anders CK
Gene expression in "young adult type" breast cancer: a retrospective analysis.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(15):13688-702 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Young women with breast cancer experience inferior outcome and commonly manifest aggressive biological subtypes. Data is controversial regarding biological differences between breast tumors in young (diagnosed at <40 years of age) versus older women. We hypothesize there may be age-related expression differences in key genes for proliferation, invasion and metastasis within and across breast cancer subtypes, and that these differences correlate with outcome.
METHODS: Using clinically-annotated gene expression data from 778 breast tumors from three public databases, we compared clinico-pathologic characteristics, mRNA expression of 17 selected genes, and outcome, as a function of age (< 40 years vs. ≥ 40 years).
RESULTS: 14 of 17 genes were differentially expressed in tumors of young vs. older women, 4 of which persisted after correction for subtype and grade (p ≤0.05). BUB1, KRT5, and MYCN were overexpressed and CXCL2 underexpressed in young women. In multivariate analysis, overexpression of cytokeratin genes predicted inferior DFS only for young women. Overexpression of ANGPTL4 strongly predicted inferior DFS in basal but not HER2-enriched tumors in young women. Overexpression of cytokeratin genes and MYBL2 and low SNAI1 expression correlated with inferior DFS in HER2-enriched tumors in younger women. Kaplan-Meier analysis within the basal and HER2-enriched subgroups showed that overexpression of cytokeratin genes was associated with inferior DFS for young, but not older women.
CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study reveals age- and subtype-related differences in expression of key breast cancer genes for proliferation, invasion and metastasis, which correlate with prognostic differences in young women and suggest targeted therapies.

Han KQ, He XQ, Ma MY, et al.
Inflammatory microenvironment and expression of chemokines in hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21(16):4864-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To study the inflammatory microenvironment and expression of chemokines in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in nude mice.
METHODS: CBRH-7919 HCC cells were injected into the subcutaneous region of nude mice. Beginning two weeks after the challenge, tumor growth was measured every week for six weeks. The stromal microenvironment and inflammatory cell infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired tumor and adjacent peritumoral samples, and macrophage phenotype was assessed using double-stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme. A chemokine PCR array, comprised of 98 genes, was used to screen differential gene expressions, which were validated by Western blotting. Additionally, expression of identified chemokines was knocked-down by RNA interference, and the effect on tumor growth was assessed.
RESULTS: Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of adjacent peritumoral tissues with increased macrophage, neutrophil, and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration. Macrophages within adjacent peritumoral tissues express inducible nitric oxide synthase, suggestive of a proinflammatory phenotype. Fifty-one genes were identified in tumor tissues during the progression period, including 50 that were overexpressed (including CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL3) and three that were underexpressed (CXCR1, Ifg and Actb). RNA interference of CXCL1 in the CBRH-7919 cells decreased the growth of tumors in nude mice and inhibited expression of CXCL2, CXCL3 and interleukin-1β protein.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CXCL1 plays a critical role in tumor growth and may serve as a potential molecular target for use in HCC therapy.

Pandian V, Ramraj S, Khan FH, et al.
Metastatic neuroblastoma cancer stem cells exhibit flexible plasticity and adaptive stemness signaling.
Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015; 6:2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: High-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB) presenting with hematogenous metastasis is one of the most difficult cancers to cure. Patient survival is poor. Aggressive tumors contain populations of rapidly proliferating clonogens that exhibit stem cell properties, cancer stem cells (CSCs). Conceptually, CSCs that evade intensive multimodal therapy dictate tumor progression, relapse/recurrence, and poor clinical outcomes. Herein, we investigated the plasticity and stem-cell related molecular response of aggressive metastatic neuroblastoma cells that fit the CSC model.
METHODS: Well-characterized clones of metastatic site-derived aggressive cells (MSDACs) from a manifold of metastatic tumors of clinically translatable HR-NB were characterized for their CSC fit by examining epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) (E-cadherin, N-Cadherin), survival (NFκB P65, p50, IκB and pIκB) and drug resistance (ABCG2) by immunoblotting; pluripotency maintenance (Nanog, SOX2) by immunofluorescence; and EMT and stemness related transcription of 93 genes by QPCR profiling. Plasticity of MSDACs under sequential alternation of culture conditions with serum and serum-free stem-cell conditions was assessed by clonal expansion (BrdU incorporation), tumorosphere formation (anchorage independent growth), EMT and stemness related transcriptome (QPCR profiling) and validated with MYC, SOX2, EGFR, NOTCH1 and CXCL2 immunoblotting.
RESULTS: HR-NB MSDACs maintained in alternated culture conditions, serum-free stem cell medium to growth medium with serum and vice versa identified its flexible revocable plasticity characteristics. We observed signatures of stem cell-related molecular responses consistent with phenotypic conversions. Successive reintroduction to the favorable niche not only regained identical EMT, self-renewal capacity, pluripotency maintenance, and other stem cell-related signaling events, but also instigated additional events depicting aggressive adaptive plasticity.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, these results demonstrated the flexible plasticity of HR-NB MSDACs that typically fit the CSC model, and further identified the intrinsic adaptiveness of the successive phenotype switching that clarifies the heterogeneity of HR-NB. Moreover, the continuous ongoing acquisition of stem cell-related molecular rearrangements may hold the key to the switch from favorable disease to HR-NB.

Li Y, Wang Y, Zhang P
Clinical significance of serum expression of GROβ in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(8):6445-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to determine whether serum levels of growth-related gene product β (GROβ) were associated with clinical parameters in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the serum GROβ levels of 80 HCC patients, 65 patients with benign diseases of the liver, and 60 healthy volunteers were examined. The association between serum levels of GROβ and clinical parameters of HCC was analyzed statistically. The serum GROβ levels were much lower in benign diseases and healthy volunteers than HCC, and associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) stages, tumor size, vascular thrombosis, capsule, and Edmondson grading of HCC (p < 0.05), but not with gender, age, liver cirrhosis, or the level of AFP (p > 0.05). We have demonstrated that GROβ, as an oncogene product, contributed to tumorigenesis and metastasis of HCC.

Dragon J, Thompson J, MacPherson M, Shukla A
Differential Susceptibility of Human Pleural and Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells to Asbestos Exposure.
J Cell Biochem. 2015; 116(8):1540-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer of mesothelial cells of pleural and peritoneal cavities. In 85% of cases both pleural and peritoneal MM is caused by asbestos exposure. Although both are asbestos-induced cancers, the incidence of pleural MM is significantly higher (85%) than peritoneal MM (15%). It has been proposed that carcinogenesis is a result of asbestos-induced inflammation but it is not clear what contributes to the differences observed between incidences of these two cancers. We hypothesize that the observed differences in incidences of pleural and peritoneal MM are the result of differences in the direct response of these cell types to asbestos rather than to differences mediated by the in vivo microenvironment. To test this hypothesis we characterized cellular responses to asbestos in a controlled environment. We found significantly greater changes in genome-wide expression in response to asbestos exposure in pleural mesothelial cells as compared to peritoneal mesothelial cells. In particular, a greater response in many common genes (IL-8, ATF3, CXCL2, CXCL3, IL-6, GOS2) was seen in pleural mesothelial cells as compared to peritoneal mesothelial cells. Unique genes expressed in pleural mesothelial cells were mainly pro-inflammatory (G-CSF, IL-1β, IL-1α, GREM1) and have previously been shown to be involved in development of MM. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in incidences of pleural and peritoneal MM upon exposure to asbestos are the result of differences in mesothelial cell physiology that lead to differences in the inflammatory response, which leads to cancer.

Luo MX, Wong SH, Chan MT, et al.
Autophagy Mediates HBx-Induced Nuclear Factor-κB Activation and Release of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL2 in Hepatocytes.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(10):2382-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and one of its encoded proteins, HBV X protein (HBx), have been shown to induce autophagy in hepatoma cells. Substantial evidence indicates that autophagy is a potent suppressor of inflammation. However, sporadic reports suggest that autophagy could promote pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and inflammation in some biological contexts. Here, we show that overexpression of HBx induces LC3B-positive autophagosome formation, increases autophagic flux and enhances the expression of ATG5, ATG7, and LC3B-II in normal hepatocytes. Abrogation of autophagy by small interfering RNA against ATG5 and ATG7 prevents HBx-induced formation of autophagosomes. Autophagy inhibition also abrogates HBx-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and CXCL2. These findings suggest that autophagy is required for HBx-induced NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production and could shed new light on the complex role of autophagy in the modulation of inflammation.

Rowther FB, Wei W, Dawson TP, et al.
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase-1C (PDE1C) drives cell proliferation, migration and invasion in glioblastoma multiforme cells in vitro.
Mol Carcinog. 2016; 55(3):268-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclic nucleotides (cAMP & cGMP) are critical intracellular second messengers involved in the transduction of a diverse array of stimuli and their catabolism is mediated by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). We previously detected focal genomic amplification of PDE1C in >90 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells suggesting a potential as a novel therapeutic target in these cells. In this report, we show that genomic gain of PDE1C was associated with increased expression in low passage GBM-derived cell cultures. We demonstrate that PDE1C is essential in driving cell proliferation, migration and invasion in GBM cultures since silencing of this gene significantly mitigates these functions. We also define the mechanistic basis of this functional effect through whole genome expression analysis by identifying down-stream gene effectors of PDE1C which are involved in cell cycle and cell adhesion regulation. In addition, we also demonstrate that Vinpocetine, a general PDE1 inhibitor, can also attenuate proliferation with no effect on invasion/migration. Up-regulation of at least one of this gene set (IL8, CXCL2, FOSB, NFE2L3, SUB1, SORBS2, WNT5A, and MMP1) in TCGA GBM cohorts is associated with worse outcome and PDE1C silencing down-regulated their expression, thus also indicating potential to influence patient survival. Therefore we conclude that proliferation, migration, and invasion of GBM cells could also be regulated downstream of PDE1C.

Quaas A, Oldopp T, Tharun L, et al.
Frequency of TERT promoter mutations in primary tumors of the liver.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 465(6):673-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcriptional regulation of the TERT gene is a major cause of the cancer-specific increase in telomerase activity. Recently, frequent somatic mutations in the TERT promoter have been described in several tumor entities such as melanoma, glioblastoma, bladder cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. By generating a putative consensus binding site for ETS transcription factors within the TERT promoter, these mutations are predicted to increase promoter activity and TERT transcription. In order to improve the understanding of the role of TERT promoter mutation in liver tumorigenesis, the mutational status of the TERT promoter was analyzed in 78 hepatocellular carcinomas, 15 hepatocellular adenomas, and 52 intrahepatic cholangiocarciomas. The promoter region of TERT was screened for the two hotspot mutations using PCR and restriction fragment length analysis, utilizing the introduction of novel restriction sites by the somatic mutations. TERT promoter mutation was found in 37 of 78 hepatocellular carcinomas (47 %) and was restricted to the -124C>T mutation. Frequency of mutations was associated with grade of differentiation ranging from 39 % in well-differentiated tumors to 73 % in high-grade hepatocellular carcinomas. TERT promoter mutations were not found in 15 hepatocellular adenomas and 52 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. These data show that TERT promoter mutation is the most frequent genetic alteration in hepatocellular carcinoma known at this time. The striking predominance of the -124C>T mutation compared with other tumor entities suggest a biological difference of the two hotspot mutations. Analysis of TERT promoter mutation might become a diagnostic tool distinguishing hepatocellular adenoma from well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma.

Drenckhan A, Grob T, Dupree A, et al.
Esophageal carcinoma cell line with high EGFR polysomy is responsive to gefitinib.
Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2014; 399(7):879-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: It has previously been shown that gefitinib-treated patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification or high polysomy had a statistically significant improvement in response, time to progression, and survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Only few studies utilizing anti-EGFR treatment in advanced esophageal adenocarcinomas have been performed and the results have been heterogeneous. The aim of this study was to evaluate EGFR-targeted therapy with gefitinib in esophageal adenocarcinoma with a high EGFR polysomy.
METHODS: Novel esophageal cell lines PT6216 and LN6216c were established from primary tumor and lymph node metastasis of a patient with highly aggressive and metastatic adenocarcinoma. Pathological examination including tumor differentiation and prognostic marker analysis, immunohistochemical EGFR expression analysis, EGFR fluorescence in situ hybridization, and mutation analysis were performed. Response of novel cell lines to gefitinib treatment was evaluated by cell proliferation and vitality assays. Fifty-four esophageal adenocarcinoma specimens were evaluated for EGFR gene copy gain.
RESULTS: The primary tumor cell line PT6216 and the lymph node cell line LN6216c show a homogenously high polysomy for EGFR determined by FISH analysis. Cell proliferation and vitality are highly sensitive to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib compared to esophageal control cells without a high polysomy for EGFR. High polysomy for EGFR was found in 35 % of patients.
CONCLUSION: We show for the first time a significant treatment response to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib in esophageal tumor cells with a high polysomy for EGFR, suggesting a future role of anti-EGFR therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma patients with a high EGFR polysomy.

Subimerb C, Wongkham C, Khuntikeo N, et al.
Transcriptional profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes identify patients with cholangiocarcinoma and predict outcome.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(10):4217-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a slow growing but highly metastatic tumor, is highly prevalent in Northeast Thailand. Specific tests that predict prognosis of CCA remain elusive. The present study was designed to investigate whether peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) transcriptional profiles might be of use as a prognostic test in CCA patients. Gene expression profiles of PBLs from 9 CCA and 8 healthy subjects were conducted using the Affymetrix HG_U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChip. We indentified informative PBLs gene expression profiles that could reliably distinguish CCA patients from healthy subjects. Of these CCA specific genes, 117 genes were up regulated and 60 were down regulated. The molecular and cellular functions predicted for these CCA specific genes according to the Gene Ontology database indicated differential PBL expression of host immune response and tumor progression genes (EREG, TGF β1, CXCL2, CXCL3, IL-8, and VEGFA). The expression levels of 9 differentially expressed genes were verified in 36 CCA vs 20 healthy subjects. A set of three tumor invasion related genes (PLAU, CTSL and SERPINB2) computed as "prognostic index" was found to be an independent and statistically significant predictor for CCA patient survival. The present study shows that CCA PBLs may serve as disease predictive clinically accessible surrogates for indentifying expressed genes reflective of CCA disease severity.

Nichols JA, Grob P, de Lusignan S, et al.
Genetic test to stop smoking (GeTSS) trial protocol: randomised controlled trial of a genetic test (Respiragene) and Auckland formula to assess lung cancer risk.
BMC Pulm Med. 2014; 14:77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A gene-based estimate of lung cancer risk in smokers has been shown to act as a smoking cessation motivator in hospital recruited subjects. The objective of this trial is to determine if this motivator is as effective in subjects recruited from an NHS primary care unit.
METHOD/DESIGN: Subjects will be recruited by mailings using smoking entries on the GP electronic data-base (total practice population = 32,048) to identify smokers who may want to quit. Smoking cessation clinics based on medical centre premises will run for eight weeks. Clinics will be randomised to have the gene-based test for estimation of lung cancer risk or to act as controls groups. The primary endpoint will be smoking cessation at eight weeks and six months. Secondary outcomes will include ranking of the gene-based test with other smoking cessation motivators.
DISCUSSION: The results will inform as to whether the gene-based test is both effective as motivator and acceptable to subjects recruited from primary care.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered with Clinical,

Samet I, Han J, Jlaiel L, et al.
Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract induces apoptosis and monocyte/macrophage differentiation in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells: insight into the underlying mechanism.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014; 2014:927619 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Differentiation therapy is an attractive approach aiming at reversing malignancy and reactivating endogenous differentiation programs in cancer cells. Olive leaf extract, known for its antioxidant activity, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, its differentiation inducing properties and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Chemlali Olive Leaf Extract (COLE) for its potential differentiation inducing effect on multipotent leukemia K562 cells. Results showed that COLE inhibits K562 cells proliferation and arrests the cell cycle at G0/G1, and then at G2/M phase over treatment time. Further analysis revealed that COLE induces apoptosis and differentiation of K562 cells toward the monocyte lineage. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism of COLE differentiation inducing effect. The differentially expressed genes such as IFI16, EGR1, NFYA, FOXP1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL8 confirmed the commitment of K562 cells to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Thus our results provide evidence that, in addition to apoptosis, induction of differentiation is one of the possible therapeutic effects of olive leaf in cancer cells.

Valente AL, Kane JL, Ellsworth DL, et al.
Molecular response of the axillary lymph node microenvironment to metastatic colonization.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2014; 31(5):565-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast stroma plays an active role in tumorigenesis, undergoing both phenotypic and molecular changes that facilitate and promote tumor development and growth. The metastatic microenvironment also plays a role in successful colonization; however, genetic changes in these secondary microenvironments are not well described. To improve understanding of molecular changes associated with metastatic colonization, gene expression patterns from lymph node tissues from women with at least one positive, as well as one negative node, were compared. Lymph node tissue was microdissected and hybridized to U133A 2.0 gene expression arrays. Differential expression was detected using Partek(®) Genomics Suite™ 6.6 with FDR <0.05 and >2-fold change defining significance. Twenty-two genes were differentially expressed, 14 genes, including AZGP1, FOXA1 and PIP, were expressed at significantly higher levels in colonized lymph nodes and eight genes, such as CXCL2 and HPGDS, were expressed at significantly higher levels in non-metastatic lymph nodes. Thus, lymph node tissues harboring metastases have different gene expression patterns from those without metastases. Many differentially expressed genes are involved in cellular proliferation and survival, immune function and mesenchymal-epithelial transition, suggesting that repression of immune response and restoration of an epithelial phenotype in the host tissue are critical for successful establishment of lymph node metastases.

Bedikian AY, Garbe C, Conry R, et al.
Dacarbazine with or without oblimersen (a Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide) in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced melanoma and low-normal serum lactate dehydrogenase: 'The AGENDA trial'.
Melanoma Res. 2014; 24(3):237-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
In a previous large randomized, open-label study, retrospective subset analysis revealed that the addition of the Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide oblimersen to dacarbazine (Dac) significantly improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and the response rate in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced melanoma and normal baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. To confirm and expand on this observation, we conducted a prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled study to determine whether oblimersen augmented the efficacy of Dac in advanced melanoma patients with low-normal baseline LDH levels. A total of 314 chemotherapy-naive patients were randomly assigned to receive Dac (1000 mg/m(2)) preceded by a 5-day continuous intravenous infusion of either oblimersen sodium (7 mg/kg/day) or placebo every 21 days for less than eight cycles. Co-primary efficacy endpoints were overall survival and progression-free survival. Response and progression of the disease were assessed by independent blinded review of computed tomography scan images. No difference in overall nor progression-free survival was observed between the Dac-oblimersen and Dac-placebo groups. Although the overall (17.2 vs. 12.1%) and durable (10.8 vs. 7.6%) response rates numerically favored Dac-oblimersen over Dac-placebo, they did not differ significantly (P=0.19 and 0.32, respectively). The incidence of hematologic adverse events, particularly thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, was higher in the Dac-oblimersen group than in the Dac-placebo group. Withdrawals from the study because of treatment-related adverse events were low (i.e. <2.5%) in both groups. The addition of oblimersen to Dac did not significantly improve overall survival nor progression-free survival in patients with advanced melanoma and low-normal levels of LDH at baseline.

Buss MC, Remke M, Lee J, et al.
The WIP1 oncogene promotes progression and invasion of aggressive medulloblastoma variants.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(9):1126-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent studies suggest that medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, is comprised of four disease variants. The WIP1 oncogene is overexpressed in Group 3 and 4 tumors, which contain medulloblastomas with the most aggressive clinical behavior. Our data demonstrate increased WIP1 expression in metastatic medulloblastomas, and inferior progression-free and overall survival of patients with WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma. Microarray analysis identified upregulation of genes involved in tumor metastasis, including the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4, in medulloblastoma cells with high WIP1 expression. Stimulation with the CXCR4 ligand SDF1α activated PI-3 kinase signaling, and promoted growth and invasion of WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma cells in a p53-dependent manner. When xenografted into the cerebellum of immunodeficient mice, medulloblastoma cells with stable or endogenous high WIP1 expression exhibited strong expression of CXCR4 and activated AKT in primary and invasive tumor cells. WIP1 or CXCR4 knockdown inhibited medulloblastoma growth and invasion. WIP1 knockdown also improved the survival of mice xenografted with WIP1 high-expressing medulloblastoma cells. WIP1 knockdown inhibited cell surface localization of CXCR4 by suppressing expression of the G protein receptor kinase 5, GRK5. Restoration of wild-type GRK5 promoted Ser339 phosphorylation of CXCR4 and inhibited the growth of WIP1-stable medulloblastoma cells. Conversely, GRK5 knockdown inhibited Ser339 phosphorylation of CXCR4, increased cell surface localization of CXCR4 and promoted the growth of medulloblastoma cells with low WIP1 expression. These results demonstrate crosstalk among WIP1, CXCR4 and GRK5, which may be important for the aggressive phenotype of a subclass of medulloblastomas in children.

Kowalczuk O, Burzykowski T, Niklinska WE, et al.
CXCL5 as a potential novel prognostic factor in early stage non-small cell lung cancer: results of a study of expression levels of 23 genes.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4619-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As the current staging system is imprecise for estimating prognosis of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is important to identify other methods for selecting high-risk patients after failed surgical treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of 23 genes as putative prognostic markers in early stage NSCLC. The study was performed on 109 pairs of tumor and matched unaffected lung tissue surgical specimens taken from stage I and II NSCLC patients. We evaluated the mRNA level of 23 genes using the real-time PCR method. The difference in the expression between the tumor and normal tissue for each gene was analyzed using a general linear model. The influence of gene expression on survival was analyzed by using the proportional hazards model. Eighteen out of the 23 genes showed statistically significant differences in expression between the tumor and non-tumor tissue. For 12 genes (ITGB1, ITGB3, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCR3, CXCR4, TNF, CHKA, AGFG1, and CTC1), the expression was lower, and for six genes (ITGA5, IL8, IL6, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL12), it was higher in the tumor tissue as compared to the matched normal tissue. Expression changes were more pronounced in squamous cell carcinomas than in adenocarcinomas or large cell carcinomas. Of all the analyzed genes, only CXCL5 was found to statistically significantly (p = 0.04) influence both overall and disease-free survival. Among the 23 genes previously suggested to be relevant for early staged NSCLC patients' postoperative outcome, only CXCL5 showed a statistically significant prognostic effect.

Laureys G, Gerlo S, Spooren A, et al.
β₂-adrenergic agonists modulate TNF-α induced astrocytic inflammatory gene expression and brain inflammatory cell populations.
J Neuroinflammation. 2014; 11:21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The NF-κB signaling pathway orchestrates many of the intricate aspects of neuroinflammation. Astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors have emerged as potential regulators in central nervous system inflammation and are potential targets for pharmacological modulation. The aim of this study was to elucidate the crosstalk between astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors and the TNF-α induced inflammatory gene program.
METHODS: Proinflammatory conditions were generated by the administration of TNF-α. Genes that are susceptible to astrocytic crosstalk between β₂-adrenergic receptors (stimulated by clenbuterol) and TNF-α were identified by qPCR-macroarray-based gene expression analysis in a human 1321 N1 astrocytoma cell line. Transcriptional patterns of the identified genes in vitro were validated by RT-PCR on the 1321 N1 cell line as well as on primary rat astrocytes. In vivo expression patterns were examined by intracerebroventricular administration of clenbuterol and/or TNF-α in rats. To examine the impact on the inflammatory cell content of the brain we performed extensive FACS analysis of rat brain immune cells after intracerebroventricular clenbuterol and/or TNF-α administration.
RESULTS: Parallel transcriptional patterns in vivo and in vitro confirmed the relevance of astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors as modulators of brain inflammatory responses. Importantly, we observed pronounced effects of β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and TNF-α on IL-6, CXCL2, CXCL3, VCAM1, and ICAM1 expression, suggesting a role in inflammatory brain cell homeostasis. Extensive FACS-analysis of inflammatory cell content in the brain demonstrated that clenbuterol/TNF-α co-administration skewed the T cell population towards a double negative phenotype and induced a shift in the myeloid brain cell population towards a neutrophilic predominance.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors are potent regulators of astrocytic TNF-α-activated genes in vitro and in vivo, and ultimately modulate the molecular network involved in the homeostasis of inflammatory cells in the central nervous system. Astrocytic β₂-adrenergic receptors and their downstream signaling pathway may serve as potential targets to modulate neuroinflammatory responses.

Tennstedt P, Strobel G, Bölch C, et al.
Patterns of ALK expression in different human cancer types.
J Clin Pathol. 2014; 67(6):477-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Oncogenic gene fusions involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase have been identified in several haematopoietic and sporadically also in solid tumour types. Preliminary results from clinical trials suggest that patients with ALK fusion positive cancers might optimally benefit from the tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib, but a comprehensive analysis of solid tumour types for ALK fusion and fusion associated expression is lacking.
METHODS: In order to identify human solid cancers carrying ALK alterations, we performed real-time PCR screening of 1000 tumour samples representing 29 different tumour entities. ALK-positive samples were then transferred into a tissue microarray format and subjected to ALK break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis and ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis.
RESULTS: ALK expression was detected by real-time PCR in 260 of 896 (29%) interpretable tumour samples. FISH analysis was successful in 189 of 260 arrayed cancers but did not detect ALK rearrangement. There was also no ALK expression detectable by IHC.
CONCLUSIONS: Different levels of ALK expression can be found in various cancer types using sensitive methods like real-time PCR. However, such low-level expression is independent from oncogenic ALK fusions and cannot be detected with less-sensitive methods like IHC. ALK fusion is a rare event in human solid cancers.

Miyoshi H, Morishita A, Tani J, et al.
Expression profiles of 507 proteins from a biotin label-based antibody array in human colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(3):1277-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular-targeted therapy is one of the most promising therapies for patients with advanced-stage colorectal cancer (CRC). However, a wide range of proteins have unknown expression levels in CRC. The purpose of the present study was to determine the expression levels of various proteins related to colorectal carcinogenesis and cancer development. We examined the expression levels of 507 target proteins using a biotin label-based antibody array in 6 human CRC tissues. We also analyzed the clinicopathological features of CRC patients. In CRC tissues, IL-1α, GRO, Glut5, MIG, ICAM-5, VE-cadherin, uPA and Leptin R were increased when compared to levels in normal colon tissues. MPIF-1/CCL23, FGF R5, MIP2, SAA and IL-18 Rβ were strongly upregulated in rectal cancer when compared to the levels in non-rectal cancer. These data suggest that differential protein expression profiles exist under different conditions, including carcinogenesis and CRC localization. Therefore, an exhaustive analysis of protein expression levels using a biotin label-based antibody protein array is a potentially useful tool for identifying novel individual therapies for CRC patients.

Huang X, Hao C, Shen X, et al.
RUNX2, GPX3 and PTX3 gene expression profiling in cumulus cells are reflective oocyte/embryo competence and potentially reliable predictors of embryo developmental competence in PCOS patients.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013; 11:109 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women. The developmental competence of oocytes and embryos in PCOS patients is reduced to a certain extent (comparing to non-PCOS patients, the high quality embryo rate was decreased by 16% from the data of our centre) during the in vitro fertilization (IVF) process. Cross-talk between the oocyte and cumulus cells is critical for oocyte maturation and embryo competence. In this study, we have evaluated the transcription of specific genes in cumulus cells harvested from pre-ovulatory follicles of PCOS patients before IVF, according to individual oocyte nuclear maturity and developmental competence. Seven genes (RUNX2, PSAT1, ADAMTS9, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and ITGB5) were targeted from our previous cDNA microarray data which isolated genes related to oocyte nuclear maturation in PCOS patients. Two additional genes which had been found to be associated with oocyte maturation or embryo quality in non-PCOS patients (GPX3 and PTX3) were also studied.
METHODS: The mRNA expression levels of cumulus cells were detected by qRT- PCR.
RESULTS: Consistent with our previous cDNA microarray data, with the exception of GPX3 and PTX3, the selected 7 genes were related to oocyte nuclear maturation in PCOS patients. Noticeably, the expression level of RUNX2 was lower in cumulus cells derived from oocytes that could develop into blastocysts than the level of expression from oocytes that could not. The PTX3 expression level was significantly lower in cumulus cells from oocytes with two normal pronuclei than that from oocytes that formed >2 pronuclei (MPN) after fertilization. GPX3 mRNA levels were decreased in cumulus cells isolated from oocytes that developed into blastocysts with high potential development competence.
CONCLUSIONS: Several cumulus cell genes were associated with oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo quality in PCOS patients. RUNX2 and GPX3 are candidate genetic markers in the monitoring of embryo quality for PCOS patients, whereas PTX3 mainly played a role in fertilization process. Together with morphological evaluation, cumulus cells genes may serve as biomarkers of oocyte and embryo selection during the IVF process for PCOS patients and may advance our understanding of PCOS.

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