Gene Summary

Gene:DDX5; DEAD-box helicase 5
Aliases: p68, HLR1, G17P1, HUMP68
Summary:DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure, such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, which is a RNA-dependent ATPase, and also a proliferation-associated nuclear antigen, specifically reacting with the simian virus 40 tumor antigen. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (32)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Messenger RNA
  • MicroRNAs
  • Breast Cancer
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Transcription
  • Ddx5
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Steroids
  • RNA Interference
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DEAD-box RNA Helicases
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Signal Transduction
  • p300-CBP Transcription Factors
  • S Phase
  • Western Blotting
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cell Proliferation
  • p53 Protein
  • Ribonuclease III
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Up-Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Protein Binding
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Risk Factors
  • Chromosome 17
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • beta Catenin
  • siRNA
  • Serine-Arginine Splicing Factors
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Base Sequence
  • Post-Transcriptional RNA Processing
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Transcription Factors
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: DDX5 (cancer-related)

Gurtner A, Falcone E, Garibaldi F, Piaggio G
Dysregulation of microRNA biogenesis in cancer: the impact of mutant p53 on Drosha complex activity.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A widespread decrease of mature microRNAs is often observed in human malignancies giving them potential to act as tumor suppressors. Thus, microRNAs may be potential targets for cancer therapy. The global miRNA deregulation is often the result of defects in the miRNA biogenesis pathway, such as genomic mutation or aberrant expression/localization of enzymes and cofactors responsible of miRNA maturation. Alterations in the miRNA biogenesis machinery impact on the establishment and development of cancer programs. Accumulation of pri-microRNAs and corresponding depletion of mature microRNAs occurs in human cancers compared to normal tissues, strongly indicating an impairment of crucial steps in microRNA biogenesis. In agreement, inhibition of microRNA biogenesis, by depletion of Dicer1 and Drosha, tends to enhance tumorigenesis in vivo. The p53 tumor suppressor gene, TP53, is mutated in half of human tumors resulting in an oncogene with Gain-Of-Function activities. In this review we discuss recent studies that have underlined a role of mutant p53 (mutp53) on the global regulation of miRNA biogenesis in cancer. In particular we describe how a new transcriptionally independent function of mutant p53 in miRNA maturation, through a mechanism by which this oncogene is able to interfere with the Drosha processing machinery, generally inhibits miRNA processing in cancer and consequently impacts on carcinogenesis.

Zhang X, Gee H, Rose B, et al.
Regulation of the tumour suppressor PDCD4 by miR-499 and miR-21 in oropharyngeal cancers.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:86 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The rates of oropharyngeal cancers such as tonsil cancers are increasing. The tumour suppressor protein Programmed Cell Death Protein 4 (PDCD4) has been implicated in the development of various human cancers and small RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate its expression. However the exact regulation of PDCD4 by multiple miRNAs in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is not well understood.
RESULTS: Using two independent oropharyngeal SCC cohorts with a focus on the tonsillar region, we identified a miRNA profile differentiating SCC tissue from normal. Both miR-21 and miR-499 were highly expressed in tonsil SCC tissues displaying a loss of PDCD4. Interestingly, expression of the miRNA machinery, Dicer1, Drosha, DDX5 (Dead Box Helicase 5) and DGCR8 (DiGeorge Syndrome Critical Region Gene 8) were all elevated by greater than 2 fold in the tonsil SCC tissue. The 3'UTR of PDCD4 contains three binding-sites for miR-499 and one for miR-21. Using a wild-type and truncated 3'UTR of PDCD4, we demonstrated that the initial suppression of PDCD4 was mediated by miR-21 whilst sustained suppression was mediated by miR-499. Moreover the single miR-21 site was able to elicit the same magnitude of suppression as the three miR-499 sites.
CONCLUSION: This study describes the regulation of PDCD4 specifically in tonsil SCC by miR-499 and miR-21 and has documented the loss of PDCD4 in tonsil SCCs. These findings highlight the complex interplay between miRNAs and tumour suppressor gene regulation and suggest that PDCD4 loss may be an important step in tonsillar carcinogenesis.

Jacob J, Favicchio R, Karimian N, et al.
LMTK3 escapes tumour suppressor miRNAs via sequestration of DDX5.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 372(1):137-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lemur tyrosine kinase-3 (LMTK3) plays an important role in cancer progression and is associated with breast, lung, gastric and colorectal cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding RNAs that typically repress target genes at post-transcriptional level and have an important role in tumorigenesis. By performing a miRNA expression profile, we identified a subset of miRNAs modulated by LMTK3. We show that LMTK3 induces miR-34a, miR-196-a2 and miR-182 levels by interacting with DEAD-box RNA helicase p68 (DDX5). LMTK3 binds via DDX5 to the pri-miRNA of these three mature miRNAs, thereby sequestrating them from further processing. Ectopic expression of miR-34a and miR-182 in LMTK3-overexpressing cell lines (MCF7-LMTK3 and MDA-MB-231-LMTK3) inhibits breast cancer proliferation, invasion and migration. Interestingly, miR-34a and miR-182 directly bind to the 3'UTR of LMTK3 mRNA and consequently inhibit both its stability and translation, acting as tumour suppressor-like miRNAs. In aggregate, we show that LMTK3 is involved in miRNA biogenesis through modulation of the Microprocessor complex, inducing miRNAs that target LMTK3 itself.

Ajiro M, Jia R, Yang Y, et al.
A genome landscape of SRSF3-regulated splicing events and gene expression in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2016; 44(4):1854-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Alternative RNA splicing is an essential process to yield proteomic diversity in eukaryotic cells, and aberrant splicing is often associated with numerous human diseases and cancers. We recently described serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3 or SRp20) being a proto-oncogene. However, the SRSF3-regulated splicing events responsible for its oncogenic activities remain largely unknown. By global profiling of the SRSF3-regulated splicing events in human osteosarcoma U2OS cells, we found that SRSF3 regulates the expression of 60 genes including ERRFI1, ANXA1 and TGFB2, and 182 splicing events in 164 genes, including EP300, PUS3, CLINT1, PKP4, KIF23, CHK1, SMC2, CKLF, MAP4, MBNL1, MELK, DDX5, PABPC1, MAP4K4, Sp1 and SRSF1, which are primarily associated with cell proliferation or cell cycle. Two SRSF3-binding motifs, CCAGC(G)C and A(G)CAGCA, are enriched to the alternative exons. An SRSF3-binding site in the EP300 exon 14 is essential for exon 14 inclusion. We found that the expression of SRSF1 and SRSF3 are mutually dependent and coexpressed in normal and tumor tissues/cells. SRSF3 also significantly regulates the expression of at least 20 miRNAs, including a subset of oncogenic or tumor suppressive miRNAs. These data indicate that SRSF3 affects a global change of gene expression to maintain cell homeostasis.

Jiang FZ, He YY, Wang HH, et al.
Mutant p53 induces EZH2 expression and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition by disrupting p68-Drosha complex assembly and attenuating miR-26a processing.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(42):44660-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumor suppressor p53 and the transcriptional repressor Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) have both been implicated in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis via their impacts on microRNA expression. Here, we report that mutant p53 (mutp53) promotes EMT in endometrial carcinoma (EC) by disrupting p68-Drosha complex assembly. Overexpression of mutp53 has the opposite effect of wild-type p53 (WTp53), repressing miR-26a expression by reducing pri-miR-26a-1 processing in p53-null EC cells. Re-expression of miR-26a in mutp53 EC cells decreases cell invasion and promotes mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). Rescuing miR-26a expression also inhibits EZH2, N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Snail expression and induces E-cadherin expression both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, patients with higher serum miR-26a levels have a better survival rate. These results suggest that p53 gain-of-function mutations accelerate EC tumor progression and metastasis by interfering with Drosha and p68 binding and pri-miR-26a-1 processing, resulting in reduced miR-26a expression and EZH2 overexpression.

Ye X
Confluence analysis of multiple omics on platinum resistance of ovarian cancer.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(5):514-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to provide novel insight into the mechanism of platinum resistance of ovarian cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA-seq data ERP000710 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including specimens from six platinum sensitive samples and six platinum tolerance samples. The author analyzed the data of the 12 samples as a whole because of the low flux sequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified between platinum-sensitive and platinum-tolerant samples using VARSCAN, followed by functional prediction of the SNPs. After processed by Btrim software, the data were subjected to Cuffdiff for the identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), followed by function and pathway enrichment analysis. In addition, VARSCAN software was used to detect the specific mutations in platinum tolerance samples, combined with functional prediction of mutations.
RESULTS: The author obtained 38 new SNPs after excluding 22 SNP from dbSNP database and 1000 Genomes Project and found ESRP1, LDHA, DDX5, and HEXA were associated with platinum resistance of ovarian cancer. Totally, 290 upregulated and 157 down-regulated genes were selected. Biological processes such as immune response, inflammatory response, and response to wounding and pathways such as cell adhesion molecules, calcium signaling, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways were enriched with upregulated genes. Cell-cell signaling, cell morphogenesis, and basal cell carcinoma pathway were related to downregulated genes.
CONCLUSION: Based on high-throughput RNA-seq data and confluence analysis of multiple omics, the author explored the biological mechanisms on platinum tolerance of ovarian cancer, which may provide new ideas and methods for further research.

González-Duarte RJ, Cázares-Ordoñez V, Díaz L, et al.
The expression of RNA helicase DDX5 is transcriptionally upregulated by calcitriol through a vitamin D response element in the proximal promoter in SiHa cervical cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2015; 410(1-2):65-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The DEAD box RNA helicase DDX5 is a multifunctional protein involved in the regulatory events of gene expression. Herein, we presented evidence indicating that DDX5 is transcriptionally upregulated by calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D3. In silico analysis revealed the presence of two putative vitamin D response elements (VDREs) in the DDX5 promoter region. Using luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that the DDX5 promoter containing these putative VDREs significantly increased the luciferase activity in vitamin D receptor (VDR)-positive SiHa cells upon calcitriol treatment. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed the ability of VDR and retinoid X receptor to interact only with the most proximal VDRE, while chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the occupancy of this VDRE by the VDR. Finally, we demonstrated that calcitriol significantly increased both DDX5 mRNA and protein in SiHa cells. In summary, this study shows that DDX5 gene is transcriptionally upregulated by calcitriol through a VDRE located in its proximal promoter. Given the importance of DDX5 as a master regulator of differentiation programs, our study suggests that the pro-differentiating properties of calcitriol may be related with the induction of DDX5.

Heerma van Voss MR, Vesuna F, Trumpi K, et al.
Identification of the DEAD box RNA helicase DDX3 as a therapeutic target in colorectal cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(29):28312-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Identifying druggable targets in the Wnt-signaling pathway can optimize colorectal cancer treatment. Recent studies have identified a member of the RNA helicase family DDX3 (DDX3X) as a multilevel activator of Wnt signaling in cells without activating mutations in the Wnt-signaling pathway. In this study, we evaluated whether DDX3 plays a role in the constitutively active Wnt pathway that drives colorectal cancer. We determined DDX3 expression levels in 303 colorectal cancers by immunohistochemistry. 39% of tumors overexpressed DDX3. High cytoplasmic DDX3 expression correlated with nuclear β-catenin expression, a marker of activated Wnt signaling. Functionally, we validated this finding in vitro and found that inhibition of DDX3 with siRNA resulted in reduced TCF4-reporter activity and lowered the mRNA expression levels of downstream TCF4-regulated genes. In addition, DDX3 knockdown in colorectal cancer cell lines reduced proliferation and caused a G1 arrest, supporting a potential oncogenic role of DDX3 in colorectal cancer. RK-33 is a small molecule inhibitor designed to bind to the ATP-binding site of DDX3. Treatment of colorectal cancer cell lines and patient-derived 3D cultures with RK-33 inhibited growth and promoted cell death with IC50 values ranging from 2.5 to 8 μM. The highest RK-33 sensitivity was observed in tumors with wild-type APC-status and a mutation in CTNNB1. Based on these results, we conclude that DDX3 has an oncogenic role in colorectal cancer. Inhibition of DDX3 with the small molecule inhibitor RK-33 causes inhibition of Wnt signaling and may therefore be a promising future treatment strategy for a subset of colorectal cancers.

Wang Z, Luo Z, Zhou L, et al.
DDX5 promotes proliferation and tumorigenesis of non-small-cell lung cancer cells by activating β-catenin signaling pathway.
Cancer Sci. 2015; 106(10):1303-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The DEAD-box-protein DDX5 is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase that is frequently overexpressed in various cancers and acts as a transcriptional co-activator of several transcription factors, including β-catenin. DDX5 is reported to be involved in cancer progression by promoting cell proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. However, the clinical significance and biological role of DDX5 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of DDX5 in clinical NSCLC samples, investigated its role in regulating NSCLC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, and explored the possible molecular mechanism. We found that DDX5 was significantly overexpressed in NSCLC tissues as compared with the matched normal adjacent tissues. In addition, overexpression of DDX5 was associated with advanced clinical stage, higher Ki67 index, and shorter overall survival in NSCLC patients. Upregulation of DDX5 promoted proliferation of NSCLC cells in vitro and growth of NSCLC xenografts in vivo, whereas downregulation of DDX5 showed the opposite effects. Furthermore, DDX5 directly interacted with β-catenin, promoted its nuclear translocation, and co-activated the expression of cyclin D1 and c-Myc. β-catenin silencing significantly abrogated DDX5-induced cyclin D1 and c-Myc expression and proliferation in NSCLC cells. Interestingly, DDX5 and cyclin D1 expression followed positive correlation in the same set of NSCLC samples. These findings indicated that DDX5 played an important role in the proliferation and tumorigenesis of NSCLC cells by activating the β-catenin signaling pathway. Therefore, DDX5 may serve as a novel prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target in the treatment of NSCLC.

Sarkar M, Khare V, Guturi KK, et al.
The DEAD box protein p68: a crucial regulator of AKT/FOXO3a signaling axis in oncogenesis.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(47):5843-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increased abundance of proto-oncogene AKT and reduced expression of tumor suppressor Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3a), the downstream target of AKT, is frequent in carcinogenesis. Mechanistic insights of AKT gene regulation are limited. DEAD box RNA helicase p68 is overexpressed in various cancers and acts as a transcriptional co-activator of several transcription factors, including β-catenin. Here, we report a novel mechanism of p68-mediated transcriptional activation of AKT, and its ensuing effect on FOXO3a, in colon carcinogenesis. Interestingly, we found that the expression of p68 and AKT exhibits strong positive correlation in normal and colon carcinoma patient samples. In addition, p68 increased both AKT messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein, enhanced AKT promoter activity in multiple colon cancer cell lines. Conversely, p68 knockdown led to reduced AKT mRNA and protein, diminished AKT promoter activity. Here, we demonstrated that p68 occupies AKT promoter with β-catenin as well as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)and cooperates with these in potentiating AKT transcription. Furthermore, p68 and FOXO3a expression followed inverse correlation in the same set of colon carcinoma samples. We observed that p68 significantly reduced FOXO3a protein level in an AKT-dependent manner. Studies in primary tumors and metastatic lung nodules generated in mice colorectal allograft model, using syngeneic cells stably expressing p68, corroborated our in vitro findings. Hence, a new mechanism of oncogenesis is attributed to p68 by upregulation of AKT and consequent nuclear exclusion and degradation of tumor suppressor FOXO3a.

Selvanathan SP, Graham GT, Erkizan HV, et al.
Oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1 is a network hub that regulates alternative splicing.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(11):E1307-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The synthesis and processing of mRNA, from transcription to translation initiation, often requires splicing of intragenic material. The final mRNA composition varies based on proteins that modulate splice site selection. EWS-FLI1 is an Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncoprotein with an interactome that we demonstrate to have multiple partners in spliceosomal complexes. We evaluate the effect of EWS-FLI1 on posttranscriptional gene regulation using both exon array and RNA-seq. Genes that potentially regulate oncogenesis, including CLK1, CASP3, PPFIBP1, and TERT, validate as alternatively spliced by EWS-FLI1. In a CLIP-seq experiment, we find that EWS-FLI1 RNA-binding motifs most frequently occur adjacent to intron-exon boundaries. EWS-FLI1 also alters splicing by directly binding to known splicing factors including DDX5, hnRNP K, and PRPF6. Reduction of EWS-FLI1 produces an isoform of γ-TERT that has increased telomerase activity compared with wild-type (WT) TERT. The small molecule YK-4-279 is an inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 oncogenic function that disrupts specific protein interactions, including helicases DDX5 and RNA helicase A (RHA) that alters RNA-splicing ratios. As such, YK-4-279 validates the splicing mechanism of EWS-FLI1, showing alternatively spliced gene patterns that significantly overlap with EWS-FLI1 reduction and WT human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Exon array analysis of 75 ES patient samples shows similar isoform expression patterns to cell line models expressing EWS-FLI1, supporting the clinical relevance of our findings. These experiments establish systemic alternative splicing as an oncogenic process modulated by EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 modulation of mRNA splicing may provide insight into the contribution of splicing toward oncogenesis, and, reciprocally, EWS-FLI1 interactions with splicing proteins may inform the splicing code.

González-Duarte RJ, Cázares-Ordoñez V, Ávila-Chávez E
The microRNA biogenesis machinery: regulation by steroid hormones and alterations in cancer.
Rev Invest Clin. 2014 Sep-Oct; 66(5):460-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The major proteins of the canonical microRNA biogenesis pathway in human are: Drosha, DGCR8, DDX5, DDX17, Exportin 5, Dicer and Argonaute 2. Recent studies suggest that gene expression of some canonical microRNA biogenesis components could be regulated by steroid hormones. Furthermore, various alterations in microRNA biogenesis have been associated with diseases like cancer. Due to the importance of microRNAs in cell physiology, the study of the factors that regulate or affect their biogenesis is critical.

Kost GC, Yang MY, Li L, et al.
A Novel Anti-Cancer Agent, 1-(3,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[(6-Fluoro-2-Methoxyquinoxalin-3-yl)Aminocarbonyl] Piperazine (RX-5902), Interferes With β-Catenin Function Through Y593 Phospho-p68 RNA Helicase.
J Cell Biochem. 2015; 116(8):1595-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
1-(3,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[(6-fluoro-2-methoxyquinoxalin-3-yl)aminocarbonyl] piperazine (RX-5902) exhibits strong growth inhibition in various human cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging between 10 and 20 nM. In this study, we demonstrate that p68 RNA helicase is a cellular target of RX-5902 by the drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) method, and confirmed the direct binding of (3) H-labeled RX-5902 to Y593 phospho-p68 RNA helicase. We further demonstrated RX-5902 inhibited the β-catenin dependent ATPase activity of p68 RNA helicase in an in vitro system. Furthermore, we showed that treatment of cancer cells with RX-5902 resulted in the downregulation of the expression of certain genes, which are known to be regulated by the β-catenin pathway, such as c-Myc, cyclin D1 and p-c-Jun. Therefore, our study indicates that the inhibition of Y593 phospho-p68 helicase - β-catenin interaction by direct binding of RX-5902 to Y593 phospho-p68 RNA helicase may contribute to the anti-cancer activity of this compound.

Guturi KK, Sarkar M, Bhowmik A, et al.
DEAD-box protein p68 is regulated by β-catenin/transcription factor 4 to maintain a positive feedback loop in control of breast cancer progression.
Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(6):496 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is important for cancer development and it is found to overlap with p68 (DDX5) immunoreactivity in most breast cancers, as indicated by both clinical investigations and studies in cell lines. In this study, we aim to investigate the regulation of p68 gene expression through β-catenin/transcription factor 4 (TCF4) signaling in breast cancer.
METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections derived from normal human breast and breast cancer samples were used for immunohistochemical analysis. Protein and mRNA expressions were determined by immunoblotting and quantitative RT-PCR respectively. Promoter activity of p68 was checked using luciferase assay. Occupancy of several factors on the p68 promoter was evaluated using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Finally, a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer was used to assess physiological significance.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that β-catenin can directly induce transcription of p68 promoter or indirectly through regulation of c-Myc in both human and mouse breast cancer cells. Moreover, by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we have found that both β-catenin and TCF4 occupy the endogenous p68 promoter, which is further enhanced by Wnt signaling. Furthermore, we have also established a positive feedback regulation for the expression of TCF4 by p68. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on β-catenin/TCF4-mediated p68 gene regulation, which plays an important role in epithelial to mesenchymal transition, as shown in vitro in breast cancer cell lines and in vivo in an animal breast tumour model.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an important role in breast cancer progression through p68 upregulation.

Dai TY, Cao L, Yang ZC, et al.
P68 RNA helicase as a molecular target for cancer therapy.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The DEAD-box family of RNA helicase is known to be required in virtually all cellular processes involving RNA, and p68 is a prototypic one of the family. Reports have indicated that in addition to ATPase and RNA helicase ability, p68 can also function as a co-activator for transcription factors such as estrogen receptor alpha, tumor suppressor p53 and beta-catenin. More than that, post-translational modification of p68 including phosphorylation, acetylation, sumoylation, and ubiquitylation can regulate the coactivation effect. Furthermore, aberrant expression of p68 in cancers highlights that p68 plays an important role for tumorgenesis and development. In this review, we briefly introduce the function and modulation of p68 in cancer cells, and put forward envisagement about future study about p68.

Iyer RS, Nicol SM, Quinlan PR, et al.
The RNA helicase/transcriptional co-regulator, p68 (DDX5), stimulates expression of oncogenic protein kinase, Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1), and is associated with elevated PLK1 levels in human breast cancers.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(9):1413-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
p68 (DDX5) acts both as an ATP-dependent RNA helicase and as a transcriptional co-activator of several cancer-associated transcription factors, including the p53 tumor suppressor. p68 is aberrantly expressed in a high proportion of cancers, but the oncogenic drive for, or the consequences of, these expression changes remain unclear. Here we show that elevated p68 expression in a cohort of human breast cancers is associated significantly with elevated levels of the oncogenic protein kinase, Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1). Patients expressing detectable levels of both p68 and PLK1 have a poor prognosis, but only if they also have mutation in the TP53 gene (encoding p53), suggesting that p68 can regulate PLK1 levels in a manner that is suppressed by p53. In support of this hypothesis, we show that p68 stimulates expression from the PLK1 promoter, and that silencing of endogenous p68 expression downregulates endogenous PLK1 gene expression. In the absence of functional p53, p68 stimulates the expression of PLK1 both at basal levels and in response to the clinically relevant drug, etoposide. In keeping with a role as a transcriptional activator/co-activator, chromatin immuno-precipitation analysis shows that p68 is associated with the PLK1 promoter, irrespective of the p53 status. However, its recruitment is stimulated by etoposide in cells lacking p53, suggesting that p53 can oppose association of p68 with the PLK1 promoter. These data provide a model in which p68 and p53 interplay regulates PLK1 expression, and which describes the behavior of these molecules, and the outcome of their interaction, in human breast cancer.

Lee H, Flaherty P, Ji HP
Systematic genomic identification of colorectal cancer genes delineating advanced from early clinical stage and metastasis.
BMC Med Genomics. 2013; 6:54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The initial assessment of colorectal cancer involves clinical staging that takes into account the extent of primary tumor invasion, determining the number of lymph nodes with metastatic cancer and the identification of metastatic sites in other organs. Advanced clinical stage indicates metastatic cancer, either in regional lymph nodes or in distant organs. While the genomic and genetic basis of colorectal cancer has been elucidated to some degree, less is known about the identity of specific cancer genes that are associated with advanced clinical stage and metastasis.
METHODS: We compiled multiple genomic data types (mutations, copy number alterations, gene expression and methylation status) as well as clinical meta-data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We used an elastic-net regularized regression method on the combined genomic data to identify genetic aberrations and their associated cancer genes that are indicators of clinical stage. We ranked candidate genes by their regression coefficient and level of support from multiple assay modalities.
RESULTS: A fit of the elastic-net regularized regression to 197 samples and integrated analysis of four genomic platforms identified the set of top gene predictors of advanced clinical stage, including: WRN, SYK, DDX5 and ADRA2C. These genetic features were identified robustly in bootstrap resampling analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: We conducted an analysis integrating multiple genomic features including mutations, copy number alterations, gene expression and methylation. This integrated approach in which one considers all of these genomic features performs better than any individual genomic assay. We identified multiple genes that robustly delineate advanced clinical stage, suggesting their possible role in colorectal cancer metastatic progression.

Haselmann V, Kurz A, Bertsch U, et al.
Nuclear death receptor TRAIL-R2 inhibits maturation of let-7 and promotes proliferation of pancreatic and other tumor cells.
Gastroenterology. 2014; 146(1):278-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL-R1) (TNFRSF10A) and TRAIL-R2 (TNFRSF10B) on the plasma membrane bind ligands that activate apoptotic and other signaling pathways. Cancer cells also might have TRAIL-R2 in the cytoplasm or nucleus, although little is known about its activities in these locations. We investigated the functions of nuclear TRAIL-R2 in cancer cell lines.
METHODS: Proteins that interact with TRAIL-R2 initially were identified in pancreatic cancer cells by immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and immunofluorescence analyses. Findings were validated in colon, renal, lung, and breast cancer cells. Functions of TRAIL-R2 were determined from small interfering RNA knockdown, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Drosha-activity, microRNA array, proliferation, differentiation, and immunoblot experiments. We assessed the effects of TRAIL-R2 overexpression or knockdown in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells and their ability to form tumors in mice. We also analyzed levels of TRAIL-R2 in sections of PDACs and non-neoplastic peritumoral ducts from patients.
RESULTS: TRAIL-R2 was found to interact with the core microprocessor components Drosha and DGCR8 and the associated regulatory proteins p68, hnRNPA1, NF45, and NF90 in nuclei of PDAC and other tumor cells. Knockdown of TRAIL-R2 increased Drosha-mediated processing of the let-7 microRNA precursor primary let-7 (resulting in increased levels of mature let-7), reduced levels of the let-7 targets (LIN28B and HMGA2), and inhibited cell proliferation. PDAC tissues from patients had higher levels of nuclear TRAIL-R2 than non-neoplastic pancreatic tissue, which correlated with increased nuclear levels of HMGA2 and poor outcomes. Knockdown of TRAIL-R2 in PDAC cells slowed their growth as orthotopic tumors in mice. Reduced nuclear levels of TRAIL-R2 in cultured pancreatic epithelial cells promoted their differentiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Nuclear TRAIL-R2 inhibits maturation of the microRNA let-7 in pancreatic cancer cell lines and increases their proliferation. Pancreatic tumor samples have increased levels of nuclear TRAIL-R2, which correlate with poor outcome of patients. These findings indicate that in the nucleus, death receptors can function as tumor promoters and might be therapeutic targets.

Hammoudi A, Song F, Reed KR, et al.
Proteomic profiling of a mouse model of acute intestinal Apc deletion leads to identification of potential novel biomarkers of human colorectal cancer (CRC).
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 440(3):364-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Accurate non-invasive screening for CRC would greatly enhance a population's health. Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene mutations commonly occur in human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, leading to Wnt signalling pathway activation. Acute conditional transgenic deletion of Apc in murine intestinal epithelium (AhCre(+)Apc(fl)(/)(fl)) causes phenotypic changes similar to those found during colorectal tumourigenesis. This study comprised a proteomic analysis of murine small intestinal epithelial cells following acute Apc deletion to identify proteins that show altered expression during human colorectal carcinogenesis, thus identifying proteins that may prove clinically useful as blood/serum biomarkers of colorectal neoplasia. Eighty-one proteins showed significantly increased expression following iTRAQ analysis, and validation of nine of these by Ingenuity Pathaway Analysis showed they could be detected in blood or serum. Expression was assessed in AhCre(+)Apc(fl)(/)(fl) small intestinal epithelium by immunohistochemistry, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR; increased nucelolin concentrations were also detected in the serum of AhCre(+)Apc(fl)(/)(fl) and Apc(Min)(/)(+) mice by ELISA. Six proteins; heat shock 60kDa protein 1, Nucleolin, Prohibitin, Cytokeratin 18, Ribosomal protein L6 and DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 5,were selected for further investigation. Increased expression of 4 of these was confirmed in human CRC by qPCR. In conclusion, several novel candidate biomarkers have been identified from analysis of transgenic mice in which the Apc gene was deleted in the intestinal epithelium that also showed increased expression in human CRC. Some of these warrant further investigation as potential serum-based biomarkers of human CRC.

Iio A, Takagi T, Miki K, et al.
DDX6 post-transcriptionally down-regulates miR-143/145 expression through host gene NCR143/145 in cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1829(10):1102-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
In various human malignancies, widespread dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression is reported to occur and affects various cell growth programs. Recent studies suggest that the expression levels of miRNAs that act as tumor suppressors are frequently reduced in cancers because of chromosome deletions, epigenetical changes, aberrant transcription, and disturbances in miRNA processing. MiR-143 and -145 are well-recognized miRNAs that are highly expressed in several tissues, but down-regulated in most types of cancers. However, the mechanism of this down-regulation has not been investigated in detail. Here, we show that DEAD-box RNA helicase 6, DDX6 (p54/RCK), post-transcriptionally down-regulated miR-143/145 expression by prompting the degradation of its host gene product, NCR143/145 RNA. In human gastric cancer cell line MKN45, DDX6 protein was abundantly expressed and accumulated in processing bodies (P-bodies). DDX6 preferentially increased the instability of non-coding RNA, NCR143/145, which encompasses the miR-143/145 cluster, and down-regulated the expression of mature miR-143/145. In human monocytic cell line THP-1, lipopolysaccharide treatment promoted the assembly of P-bodies and down-regulated the expression of NCR143/145 and its miR-143/145 rapidly. In these cells, cycloheximide treatment led to a loss of P-bodies and to an increase in NCR143/145 RNA stability, thus resulting in up-regulation of miR-143/145 expression. These data demonstrate that DDX6 contributed to the control of NCR143/145 RNA stability in P-bodies and post-transcriptionally regulated miR-143/145 expression in cancer cells.

Weng Y, Chen Y, Chen J, et al.
Common genetic variants in the microRNA biogenesis pathway are associated with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor risk in a Chinese population.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2013; 37(6):913-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in tumorigenesis has been well established. Genetic variants in the miRNA biogenesis pathway genes may modify cancer development and survival by affecting the miRNA biogenesis. Our aim is to investigate the association of polymorphisms in the miRNA biogenesis pathway genes and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) risk among neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients.
METHODS: A case-control study was performed to analyze 53 SNPs in 11 miRNA biogenesis pathway genes in 356 patients (200 patients with NF1 and 156 patients with both NF1 and MPNST) in China. Association analysis was performed in an additive genetic model by logistics regression.
RESULTS: Four SNPs (DDX5 rs1991401, OR=1.79, 95% CI, 1.34-2.38, P=7.90 × 10(-5); DROSHA rs10719, OR=1.64, 95% CI, 1.23-2.20, P=8.76 × 10(-4); AGO2 rs7005286, OR=0.48, 95% CI, 0.32-0.72, P=3.46 × 10(-4); GEMIN4 rs7813, OR=0.50, 95% CI, 0.34-0.72, P=2.65 × 10(-4)) were significantly associated with MPNST risk. A strong gene-dose effect with increased MPNST risk (P for trend<0.001) was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants in the miRNA biogenesis pathway genes may modify MPNST risk both individually and jointly.

Kitagawa N, Ojima H, Shirakihara T, et al.
Downregulation of the microRNA biogenesis components and its association with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Sci. 2013; 104(5):543-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic alterations and deregulation of the miRNA biogenesis pathway components have been reported in human tumors. Tissue-specific deletion of the Dicer gene, which encodes an essential miRNA processing enzyme, promotes carcinogenesis in animal models. These features indicate that aberrant miRNA biogenesis components are directly associated with cancer. For the present study, we conducted quantitative RT-PCR of 14 genes that are related to the miRNA biogenesis pathway in 47 paired samples of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and matched non-cancerous liver. Expression of seven genes (Dgcr8, p68, p72, Dicer, Ago3, Ago4 and Piwil4) was significantly decreased in primary HCC, especially in non-viral HCC subtypes, compared to the non-cancerous liver. Combinations of decreased expression of the miRNA biogenesis components in non-cancerous liver were related to cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and diabetes, which are known to be risk factors for HCC, and were also associated with the occurrence of multicentric tumors. Reduction of two of these genes (Dicer and p68) in HCC was associated with poor prognosis. Trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 in the promoters is implicated in the deregulation of these miRNA-biogenesis-related genes in non-HBV genome integrated HCC cell lines. In conclusion, deregulation of the miRNA biogenesis pathway components is frequently observed in non-viral-associated HCC and is linked to etiological risk factors and poor prognosis. Our study further showed that epigenetic regulation could be implicated in the deregulation of these genes during hepatocarcinogenesis.

Clark EL, Hadjimichael C, Temperley R, et al.
p68/DdX5 supports β-catenin & RNAP II during androgen receptor mediated transcription in prostate cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54150 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The DEAD box RNA helicase p68 (Ddx5) is an important androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional co-activator in prostate cancer (PCa) and is over-expressed in late stage disease. β-Catenin is a multifunctional protein with important structural and signalling functions which is up-regulated in PCa and similar to p68, interacts with the AR to co-activate expression of AR target genes. Importantly, p68 forms complexes with nuclear β-Catenin and promotes gene transcription in colon cancer indicating a functional interplay between these two proteins in cancer progression. In this study, we explore the relationship of p68 and β-Catenin in PCa to assess their potential co-operation in AR-dependent gene expression, which may be of importance in the development of castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPCa). We use immunoprecipitation to demonstrate a novel interaction between p68 and β-Catenin in the nucleus of PCa cells, which is androgen dependent in LNCaP cells but androgen independent in a hormone refractory derivative of the same cell line (representative of the CRPCa disease type). Enhanced AR activity is seen in androgen-dependent luciferase reporter assays upon transient co-transfection of p68 and β-Catenin as an additive effect, and p68-depleted Chromatin-Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) showed a decrease in the recruitment of the AR and β-Catenin to androgen responsive promoter regions. In addition, we found p68 immunoprecipitated with the processive and non-processive form of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and show p68 recruited to elongating regions of the AR mediated PSA gene, suggesting a role for p68 in facilitating RNAP II transcription of AR mediated genes. These results suggest p68 is important in facilitating β-Catenin and AR transcriptional activity in PCa cells.

Wang H, Gao X, Yang JJ, Liu ZR
Interaction between p68 RNA helicase and Ca2+-calmodulin promotes cell migration and metastasis.
Nat Commun. 2013; 4:1354 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
p68 RNA helicase is a prototypical RNA helicase. Here we present evidence to show that, by interacting with Ca-calmodulin, p68 has a role in cancer metastasis and cell migration. A peptide fragment that spans the IQ motif of p68 strongly inhibits cancer metastasis in two different animal models. The peptide interrupts p68 and Ca-calmodulin interaction and inhibits cell migration. Our results demonstrate that the p68-Ca-calmodulin interaction is essential for the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia in migrating cells. p68 interacts with microtubules in the presence of Ca-calmodulin. Our experiments show that interaction with microtubules stimulates p68 ATPase activity. Further, microtubule gliding assays demonstrate that p68, in the presence of Ca-calmodulin, can function as a microtubule motor. This motor activity may allow p68 to transport Ca-calmodulin to the leading edge of migrating cells.

Schulte I, Batty EM, Pole JC, et al.
Structural analysis of the genome of breast cancer cell line ZR-75-30 identifies twelve expressed fusion genes.
BMC Genomics. 2012; 13:719 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It has recently emerged that common epithelial cancers such as breast cancers have fusion genes like those in leukaemias. In a representative breast cancer cell line, ZR-75-30, we searched for fusion genes, by analysing genome rearrangements.
RESULTS: We first analysed rearrangements of the ZR-75-30 genome, to around 10kb resolution, by molecular cytogenetic approaches, combining array painting and array CGH. We then compared this map with genomic junctions determined by paired-end sequencing. Most of the breakpoints found by array painting and array CGH were identified in the paired end sequencing-55% of the unamplified breakpoints and 97% of the amplified breakpoints (as these are represented by more sequence reads). From this analysis we identified 9 expressed fusion genes: APPBP2-PHF20L1, BCAS3-HOXB9, COL14A1-SKAP1, TAOK1-PCGF2, TIAM1-NRIP1, TIMM23-ARHGAP32, TRPS1-LASP1, USP32-CCDC49 and ZMYM4-OPRD1. We also determined the genomic junctions of a further three expressed fusion genes that had been described by others, BCAS3-ERBB2, DDX5-DEPDC6/DEPTOR and PLEC1-ENPP2. Of this total of 12 expressed fusion genes, 9 were in the coamplification. Due to the sensitivity of the technologies used, we estimate these 12 fusion genes to be around two-thirds of the true total. Many of the fusions seem likely to be driver mutations. For example, PHF20L1, BCAS3, TAOK1, PCGF2, and TRPS1 are fused in other breast cancers. HOXB9 and PHF20L1 are members of gene families that are fused in other neoplasms. Several of the other genes are relevant to cancer-in addition to ERBB2, SKAP1 is an adaptor for Src, DEPTOR regulates the mTOR pathway and NRIP1 is an estrogen-receptor coregulator.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first structural analysis of a breast cancer genome that combines classical molecular cytogenetic approaches with sequencing. Paired-end sequencing was able to detect almost all breakpoints, where there was adequate read depth. It supports the view that gene breakage and gene fusion are important classes of mutation in breast cancer, with a typical breast cancer expressing many fusion genes.

Lin S, Tian L, Shen H, et al.
DDX5 is a positive regulator of oncogenic NOTCH1 signaling in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(40):4845-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Notch signaling is a highly conserved cell-cell communication pathway regulating normal development and tissue homeostasis. Aberrant Notch signaling represents an important oncogenic mechanism for T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), an aggressive subset of the most common malignant childhood cancer ALL. Therefore, understanding the molecular regulation of Notch signaling is critical to identify new approaches to block aberrant Notch oncogenic activity. The family of three MAML transcriptional coactivators is crucial for Notch signaling activation. The prototypic member MAML1 is the major coactivator that regulates Notch oncogenic activities in leukemic cells. However, the molecular basis underlying MAML1 coactivator function that contributes to Notch signaling remains unclear. In this study, we performed proteomic studies and identified DDX5, an ATP-dependent DEAD-box RNA helicase, as a component of the MAML1 protein complex. DDX5 interacts with MAML1 in vitro and in vivo, and is associated with the endogenous NOTCH1 transcription activation complex in human T-ALL leukemic cells. Lentivirus-mediated short-hairpin RNA knock-down of DDX5 resulted in decreased expression of Notch target genes, reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in cultured human leukemic cells with constitutive activation of Notch signaling. Also, DDX5 depletion inhibited the growth of human leukemia xenograft in nude mice. Moreover, DDX5 is highly expressed in primary human T-ALL leukemic cells based on the analyses of Oncomine and GEO databases, and Immunohistochemical staining. Our overall findings revealed a critical role of DDX5 in promoting efficient Notch-mediated transcription in leukemic cells, suggesting that DDX5 might be critical for NOTCH1-mediated T-ALL pathogenesis and thus is a potential new target for modulating the Notch signaling in leukemia.

Dardenne E, Pierredon S, Driouch K, et al.
Splicing switch of an epigenetic regulator by RNA helicases promotes tumor-cell invasiveness.
Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012; 19(11):1139-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both epigenetic and splicing regulation contribute to tumor progression, but the potential links between these two levels of gene-expression regulation in pathogenesis are not well understood. Here, we report that the mouse and human RNA helicases Ddx17 and Ddx5 contribute to tumor-cell invasiveness by regulating alternative splicing of several DNA- and chromatin-binding factors, including the macroH2A1 histone. We show that macroH2A1 splicing isoforms differentially regulate the transcription of a set of genes involved in redox metabolism. In particular, the SOD3 gene that encodes the extracellular superoxide dismutase and plays a part in cell migration is regulated in an opposite manner by macroH2A1 splicing isoforms. These findings reveal a new regulatory pathway in which splicing factors control the expression of histone variant isoforms that in turn drive a transcription program to switch tumor cells to an invasive phenotype.

Takaoka Y, Shimizu Y, Hasegawa H, et al.
Forced expression of miR-143 represses ERK5/c-Myc and p68/p72 signaling in concert with miR-145 in gut tumors of Apc(Min) mice.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e42137 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recently, miR-143 and miR-145 have been shown to belong to a subset of microRNAs whose expression is controlled by a complex of a tumor suppressor p53 and DEAD-box RNA helicase subunits p68/p72. While accumulating studies have acknowledged that both miRNAs function as tumor suppressors and are similarly regulated, evidence of their coordinated action against tumorigenesis has been poorly presented. Herein, we establish transgenic mice that express miR-143 under the control of the CAG regulatory unit. When crossbred with Apc(Min/+) mice, the development of tumors in the small intestines is significantly attenuated. In the transgenic small intestine tumors, the endogenous miR-145 is also enhanced and the expression of c-Myc and p68/p72, both of which have been reported to be pivotal for gut tumor development, is suppressed, corresponding to the downregulation of ERK5. We demonstrate that the combination of miR-143 and miR-145 inhibits the expression of c-Myc in human colon cancer cells, whereas miR-145 retards that of p72. Moreover, we show the possibilities that miR-145 modulates p72 expression through its 3' untranslated region and that c-Myc downregulation is involved in both p68 suppression and miR-145 induction. These findings suggest that forced expression of miR-143, probably interacting with endogenous miR-145, inhibits ERK5/c-Myc and p68/p72/β-catenin signaling and hampers small intestine tumor development in Apc(Min/+) mice. This unique cascade, in turn, may prevent overproduction of a subset of tumor suppressive miRNAs by repressing their own modulators, p68/p72.

Wang R, Jiao Z, Li R, et al.
p68 RNA helicase promotes glioma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo via direct regulation of NF-κB transcription factor p50.
Neuro Oncol. 2012; 14(9):1116-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The DEAD-box RNA helicase p68 plays a very important role in early organ development and maturation. However, the role of p68 in glioma is unclear. In this study, we showed that p68 protein levels were significantly elevated in high-grade gliomas compared to low-grade gliomas and normal adjacent brain tissues. Importantly, the expression of p68 was significantly associated with poorer overall survival and enhanced resistance to treatment with radiotherapy plus temozolomide for glioma patients. Ectopic expression of p68 enhanced glioma cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous p68 prevented glioma cell proliferation. Using a tandem affinity purification assay, we found a new p68-binding protein, nuclear factor (NF)-κB p50. We found that p68 bound with the N-terminal of NF-κB p50, and the mutant of p68 lacking the p50-interaction domain failed to stimulate glioma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Moreover, p68 induced NF-κB p50 accumulation in the nucleus through release of NF-κB p50 from IκBα and increased NF-κB p50 target luciferase transcription activity. Knockdown of NF-κB p50 rescued the phenotypes induced by p68 both in vitro and in vivo. We concluded that p68 induces glioma tumor growth through binding with NF-κB p50, regulating NF-κB p50 nucleus accumulation and transcription activity.

Mazurek A, Luo W, Krasnitz A, et al.
DDX5 regulates DNA replication and is required for cell proliferation in a subset of breast cancer cells.
Cancer Discov. 2012; 2(9):812-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Understanding factors required for DNA replication will enrich our knowledge of this important process and potentially identify vulnerabilities that can be exploited in cancer therapy. We applied an assay that measures the stability of maintenance of an episomal plasmid in human tissue culture cells to screen for new DNA replication factors. We identify an important role for DDX5 in G(1)-S-phase progression where it directly regulates DNA replication factor expression by promoting the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to E2F-regulated gene promoters. We find that the DDX5 locus is frequently amplified in breast cancer and that breast cancer-derived cells with amplification of DDX5 are much more sensitive to its depletion than breast cancer cells and a breast epithelial cell line that lacks DDX5 amplification. Our results show a novel role for DDX5 in cancer cell proliferation and suggest DDX5 as a therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment.
SIGNIFICANCE: DDX5 is required for cell proliferation by controlling the transcription of genes expressing DNA replication proteins in cancer cells in which the DDX5 locus is amplified, and this has uncovered a dependence on DDX5 for cell proliferation. Given the high frequency of DDX5 amplification in breast cancer, our results highlight DDX5 as a promising candidate for targeted therapy of breast tumors with DDX5 amplification, and indeed we show that DDX5 inhibition sensitizes a subset of breast cancer cells to trastuzumab.

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