Gene Summary

Gene:IFT88; intraflagellar transport 88
Aliases: DAF19, TG737, TTC10, hTg737, D13S1056E
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the tetratrico peptide repeat (TPR) family. The encoded protein is involved in cilium biogenesis. Mutations of a similar gene in mouse can cause polycystic kidney disease. Several transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2017]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:intraflagellar transport protein 88 homolog
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (25)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Biological Models
  • Hep G2 Cells
  • Cysts
  • Systems Biology
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Base Sequence
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Young Adult
  • MicroRNAs
  • Phenotype
  • alpha-Fetoproteins
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cilia
  • Transcription Factors
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Peptides
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Cell Movement
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Gene Ontology
  • Mice, Inbred C3H
  • Apoptosis
  • IFT88
  • Cell Cycle
  • Exons
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Xenograft Models
  • Chromosome 13
  • RT-PCR
  • Body Patterning
  • CRISPR-Cas Systems
  • Bardet-Biedl Syndrome
  • Proteins
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cell Division
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Liver Cancer
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IFT88 (cancer-related)

Lee J, Yi S, Won M, et al.
Loss-of-function of IFT88 determines metabolic phenotypes in thyroid cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(32):4455-4474 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary cilia are microtubule-based, dynamic organelles characterized by continuous assembly and disassembly. The intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery, including IFT88 in cilia, is involved in the maintenance of bidirectional motility along the axonemes, which is required for ciliogenesis and functional competence. Cancer cells are frequently associated with loss of primary cilia and IFT functions. However, there is little information on the role of IFT88 or primary cilia in the metabolic remodeling of cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated the cellular and metabolic effects of the loss-of-function (LOF) mutations of IFT88/primary cilia in thyroid cancer cells. IFT88-deficient 8505C thyroid cancer cells were generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and RNA-sequencing analysis was performed. LOF of the IFT88 gene resulted in a marked defect in ciliogenesis and mitochondrial oxidative function. Gene expression patterns in IFT88-deficient thyroid cancer cells favored glycolysis and lipid biosynthesis. However, LOF of IFT88/primary cilia did not promote thyroid cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. The results suggest that IFT88/primary cilia play a role in metabolic reprogramming in thyroid cancer cells.

Deng YZ, Cai Z, Shi S, et al.
Cilia loss sensitizes cells to transformation by activating the mevalonate pathway.
J Exp Med. 2018; 215(1):177-195 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although cilia loss and cell transformation are frequently observed in the early stage of tumorigenesis, the roles of cilia in cell transformation are unknown. In this study, disrupted ciliogenesis was observed in cancer cells and pancreatic cancer tissues, which facilitated oncogene-induced transformation of normal pancreatic cells (HPDE6C7) and NIH3T3 cells through activating the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. Disruption of ciliogenesis up-regulated MVA enzymes through β catenin-T cell factor (TCF) signaling, which synchronized with sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 (SREBP2), and the regulation of MVA by β-catenin-TCF signaling was recapitulated in a mouse model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and human PDAC samples. Moreover, disruption of ciliogenesis by depleting

Gencer S, Oleinik N, Kim J, et al.
TGF-β receptor I/II trafficking and signaling at primary cilia are inhibited by ceramide to attenuate cell migration and tumor metastasis.
Sci Signal. 2017; 10(502) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Signaling by the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptors I and II (TβRI/II) and the primary cilia-localized sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway promote cell migration and, consequently, tumor metastasis. In contrast, the sphingolipid ceramide inhibits cell proliferation and tumor metastasis. We investigated whether ceramide metabolism inhibited TβRI/II trafficking to primary cilia to attenuate cross-talk between TβRI/II and the Shh pathway. We found that ceramide synthase 4 (CerS4)-generated ceramide stabilized the association between TβRI and the inhibitory factor Smad7, which limited the trafficking of TβRI/II to primary cilia. Expression of a mutant TβRI that signals but does not interact with Smad7 prevented the CerS4-mediated inhibition of migration in various cancer cells. Genetic deletion or knockdown of CerS4 prevented the formation of the Smad7-TβRI inhibitory complex and increased the association between TβRI and the transporter Arl6 through a previously unknown cilia-targeting signal (Ala

You N, Tan Y, Zhou L, et al.
Tg737 acts as a key driver of invasion and migration in liver cancer stem cells and correlates with poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Exp Cell Res. 2017; 358(2):217-226 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously demonstrated that the Tg737 gene plays a critical role in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, few systematic investigations have focused on the biological function of Tg737 in the invasion and migration of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) and on its clinical significance. In this study, Tg737 overexpression was achieved via gene transfection in MHCC97-H side population (SP) cells, which are considered a model for LCSCs in scientific studies. Tg737 overexpression significantly inhibited the invasion and migration of SP cells in an extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2)/matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-dependent manner. Furthermore, Tg737 expression was frequently decreased in HCC tissues relative to that in adjacent noncancerous liver tissues. This decreased expression was significantly associated with tumor differentiation, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, metastasis, tumor size, vascular invasion, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and tumor number. Moreover, multivariate Cox regression analyses demonstrated that Tg737 expression was an independent factor for predicting the overall survival of HCC patients. Notably, Kaplan-Meier analysis further showed that overall survival was significantly worse among patients with low Tg737 expression. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that Tg737 is a poor prognostic marker in patients with HCC, which may be due to its ability to promote LCSCs invasion and migration. These results provide a basis for investigating of Tg737 as a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target.

Huang Y, Zheng J, Chen D, et al.
Transcriptome profiling identifies a recurrent CRYL1-IFT88 chimeric transcript in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(25):40693-40704 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We performed transcriptome sequencing for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and adjacent non-tumorous tissues to investigate the molecular basis of HCC. Nine HCC patients were recruited and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Candidate fusion transcripts were also identified. A total of 1943 DEGs were detected, including 690 up-regulated and 1253 down-regulated genes, and enriched in ten pathways including cell cycle, DNA replication, p53, complement and coagulation cascades, etc. Seven candidate fusion genes were detected and CRYL1-IFT88 was successfully validated in the discovery sequencing sample and another 5 tumor samples with the recurrent rate of about 9.52% (6/63). The full length of CRYL1-IFT88 was obtained by 3' and 5' RACE. The function of the fusion transcript is closed to CRYL1 because it contained most of domain of CRYL1. According to the bioinformatics analysis, IFT88, reported as a tumor suppressor, might be seriously depressed in the tumor cell with this fusion because the transcript structure of IFT88 was totally changed. The function depression of IFT88 caused by gene fusion CRYL1-IFT88 might be associated with tumorigenesis or development of HCC.

Zhao G, Wang T, Huang QK, et al.
MicroRNA-548a-5p promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting Tg737.
World J Gastroenterol. 2016; 22(23):5364-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate whether Tg737 is regulated by microRNA-548a-5p (miR-548a-5p), and correlates with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation and apoptosis.
METHODS: Assays of loss of function of Tg737 were performed by the colony formation assay, CCK assay and cell cycle assay in HCC cell lines. The interaction between miR-548a-5p and its downstream target, Tg737, was evaluated by a dual-luciferase reporter assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Tg737 was then up-regulated in HCC cells to evaluate its effect on miR-548a-5p regulation. HepG2 cells stably overexpressing miR-548a-5p or miR-control were also subcutaneously inoculated into nude mice to evaluate the effect of miR-548a-5p up-regulation on in vivo tumor growth. As the final step, the effect of miR-548a-5p on the apoptosis induced by cisplatin was evaluated by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: Down-regulation of Tg737, which is a target gene of miR-548a-5p, accelerated HCC cell proliferation, and miR-548a-5p promoted HCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Like the down-regulation of Tg737, overexpression of miR-548a-5p in HCC cell lines promoted cell proliferation, increased colony forming ability and hampered cell apoptosis. In addition, miR-548a-5p overexpression increased HCC cell growth in vivo. MiR-548a-5p down-regulated Tg737 expression through direct contact with its 3' untranslated region (UTR), and miR-548a-5p expression was negatively correlated with Tg737 levels in HCC specimens. Restoring Tg737 (without the 3'UTR) significantly hampered miR-548a-5p induced cell proliferation, and rescued the miR-548a-5p induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induced by cisplatin.
CONCLUSION: MiR-548a-5p negatively regulates the tumor inhibitor gene Tg737 and promotes tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo, indicating its potential as a novel therapeutic target for HCC.

Degnim AC, Nassar A, Stallings-Mann M, et al.
Gene signature model for breast cancer risk prediction for women with sclerosing adenosis.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015; 152(3):687-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Benign breast disease (BBD) is diagnosed in 1-2 million women/year in the US, and while these patients are known to be at substantially increased risk for subsequent development of breast cancer, existing models for risk assessment perform poorly at the individual level. Here, we describe a DNA-microarray-based transcriptional model for breast cancer risk prediction for patients with sclerosing adenosis (SA), which represent ¼ of all BBD patients. A training set was developed from 86 patients diagnosed with SA, of which 27 subsequently developed cancer within 10 years (cases) and 59 remained cancer-free at 10 years (controls). An diagonal linear discriminate analysis-prediction model for prediction of cancer within 10 years (SA TTC10) was generated from transcriptional profiles of FFPE biopsy-derived RNA. This model was tested on a separate validation case-control set composed of 65 SA patients. The SA TTC10 gene signature model, composed of 35 gene features, achieved a clear and significant separation between case and control with receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.913 in the training set and 0.836 in the validation set. Our results provide the first demonstration that benign breast tissue contains transcriptional alterations that indicate risk of breast cancer development, demonstrating that essential precursor biomarkers of malignancy are present many years prior to cancer development. Furthermore, the SA TTC10 gene signature model, which can be assessed on FFPE biopsies, constitutes a novel prognostic biomarker for patients with SA.

You N, Liu W, Tang L, et al.
Tg737 signaling is required for hypoxia-enhanced invasion and migration of hepatoma cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 31:75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although hypoxia is known to promote hepatoma cell invasion and migration, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of this process. Our previous research showed that loss of Tg737 is associated with hepatoma cell invasion and migration; therefore, we hypothesized that the Tg737 signal might be required for hypoxia-enhanced invasion and migration.
METHODS: We established in vitro normoxic or hypoxic models to investigate the role of Tg737 in the hypoxia-enhanced invasion and migration of hepatoma cells. The hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and MHCC97-H were subjected to normoxic or hypoxic conditions, and the cell adhesion, invasion, and migration capabilities were tested. The expression of Tg737 under normoxia or hypoxia was detected using western blot assays; cell viability was determined using flow cytometry. Furthermore, we created HepG2 and MHCC97-H cells that over expressed Tg737 prior to incubation under hypoxia and investigated their metastatic characteristics. Finally, we analyzed the involvement of critical molecular events known to regulate invasion and migration.
RESULTS: In this study, Tg737 expression was significantly inhibited in HepG2 and MHCC97-H cells following exposure to hypoxia. The down regulation of Tg737 expression corresponded to significantly decreased adhesion and increased invasion and migration. Hypoxia also decreased the expression/secretion of polycystin-1, increased the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and increased the levels of active and total transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β1), critical regulators of cell invasion and migration. Moreover, the decrease in adhesiveness and the increase in the invasive and migratory capacities of hypoxia-treated hepatoma cells were attenuated by pcDNA3.1-Tg737 transfection prior to hypoxia. Finally, following the up regulation of Tg737, the expression/secretion of polycystin-1 increased, and the secretion of IL-8 and the levels of active and total TGF-β1 decreased correspondingly.
CONCLUSIONS: These data provide evidence that Tg737 contributes to hypoxia-induced invasion and migration, partially through the polycystin-1, IL-8, and TGF-β1 pathway. Taken together, this work suggests that Tg737 is involved in the invasion and migration of hepatoma cells under hypoxia, with the involvement of the polycystin-1, IL-8, and TGF-β1 signaling pathway. Tg737 is a potential therapeutic target for inhibiting the high invasion and migration potential of hepatoma cells in hypoxic regions.

Song Z, Li R, You N, et al.
Loss of heterozygosity of the tumor suppressor gene Tg737 in the side population cells of hepatocellular carcinomas is associated with poor prognosis.
Mol Biol Rep. 2010; 37(8):4091-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
Analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is a useful method for finding genetic alterations in tumor and precancerous lesion tissues. In this study, we analyzed LOH of the tumor suppressor gene Tg737 in side population cells of human hepatocellular carcinomas. Side population cells were sorted and identification by flow cytometry from suspensions of hepatocarcinoma or normal liver cells generated from 95 hepatocellular carcinoma and normal tissues, respectively. DNA was extracted from the two groups of side population cells and peripheral blood specimens. Five microsatellite markers on the Tg737 gene were used to analyze the frequency of loss of heterozygosity in the side population cells of the hepatocellular carcinoma. Twenty-four (25.30%) tumor samples had a large deletion in more than three microsatellite markers. The highest frequency of loss of heterozygosity was observed with the G64212 marker (78.75%) and the SHGC-57879 marker (75.95%). Statistical analysis of the correlation between loss of heterozygosity of Tg737 and clinicopathological features indicated a strong correlation between the two markers associated with the highest frequency of loss of heterozygosity and survival. The results indicate that loss of heterozygosity of the tumor suppressor gene Tg737 may play an important role in the carcinogenetic mechanism of liver cancer stem cells. In addition, the independent association between loss of heterozygosity at the SHGC-57879 and G64212 markers and worsened short-term survival in patients could be used as a novel prognostic predictor. Further studies of side population cells may contribute to the establishment of novel therapeutic strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Wong SY, Seol AD, So PL, et al.
Primary cilia can both mediate and suppress Hedgehog pathway-dependent tumorigenesis.
Nat Med. 2009; 15(9):1055-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary cilia are present on most mammalian cells and are implicated in transducing Hedgehog (Hh) signals during development; however, the prevalence of cilia on human tumors remains unclear, and the role of cilia in cancer has not been examined. Here we show that human basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are frequently ciliated, and we test the role of cilia in BCC by conditionally deleting Kif3a (encoding kinesin family member 3A) or Ift88 (encoding intraflagellar transport protein 88), genes required for ciliogenesis, in two Hh pathway-dependent mouse tumor models. Ciliary ablation strongly inhibited BCC-like tumors induced by an activated form of Smoothened. In contrast, removal of cilia accelerated tumors induced by activated Gli2, a transcriptional effector of Hh signaling. These seemingly paradoxical effects are consistent with a dual role for cilia in mediating both the activation and the repression of the Hh signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrate that cilia function as unique signaling organelles that can either mediate or suppress tumorigenesis depending on the nature of the oncogenic initiating event.

Song X, Di Giovanni V, He N, et al.
Systems biology of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD): computational identification of gene expression pathways and integrated regulatory networks.
Hum Mol Genet. 2009; 18(13):2328-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
To elucidate the molecular pathways that modulate renal cyst growth in ADPKD, we performed global gene profiling on cysts of different size (<1 ml, n = 5; 10-20 ml, n = 5; >50 ml, n = 3) and minimally cystic tissue (MCT, n = 5) from five PKD1 human polycystic kidneys using Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. We used gene set enrichment analysis to identify overrepresented signaling pathways and key transcription factors (TFs) between cysts and MCT. We found down-regulation of kidney epithelial restricted genes (e.g. nephron segment-specific markers and cilia-associated cystic genes such as HNF1B, PKHD1, IFT88 and CYS1) in the renal cysts. On the other hand, PKD1 cysts displayed a rich profile of gene sets associated with renal development, mitogen-mediated proliferation, cell cycle progression, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, hypoxia, aging and immune/inflammatory responses. Notably, our data suggest that up-regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin, pleiotropic growth factor/receptor tyrosine kinase (e.g. IGF/IGF1R, FGF/FGFR, EGF/EGFR, VEGF/VEGFR), G-protein-coupled receptor (e.g. PTGER2) signaling was associated with renal cystic growth. By integrating these pathways with a number of dysregulated networks of TFs (e.g. SRF, MYC, E2F1, CREB1, LEF1, TCF7, HNF1B/ HNF1A and HNF4A), our data suggest that epithelial dedifferentiation accompanied by aberrant activation and cross-talk of specific signaling pathways may be required for PKD1 cyst growth and disease progression. Pharmacological modulation of some of these signaling pathways may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for ADPKD.

Quinlan RJ, Tobin JL, Beales PL
Modeling ciliopathies: Primary cilia in development and disease.
Curr Top Dev Biol. 2008; 84:249-310 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary (nonmotile) cilia are currently enjoying a renaissance in light of novel ascribed functions ranging from mechanosensory to signal transduction. Their importance for key developmental pathways such as Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Wnt is beginning to emerge. The function of nodal cilia, for example, is vital for breaking early embryonic symmetry, Shh signaling is important for tissue morphogenesis and successful Wnt signaling for organ growth and differentiation. When ciliary function is perturbed, photoreceptors may die, kidney tubules develop cysts, limb digits multiply and brains form improperly. The etiology of several uncommon disorders has recently been associated with cilia dysfunction. The causative genes are often similar and their cognate proteins certainly share cellular locations and/or pathways. Animal models of ciliary gene ablation such as Ift88, Kif3a, and Bbs have been invaluable for understanding the broad function of the cilium. Herein, we describe the wealth of information derived from the study of the ciliopathies and their animal models.

Chen CF, Yeh SH, Chen DS, et al.
Molecular genetic evidence supporting a novel human hepatocellular carcinoma tumor suppressor locus at 13q12.11.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2005; 44(3):320-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
A novel 1-cM (1.8 Mb) homozygous deletion (HD) on 13q12.11 was identified in a human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line, SK-Hep-1, after high-density genetic marker scan and Southern blotting analysis. A loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis indicated that LOH frequency of the HD region in 48 pairs of HCC tissues was 52%. Interestingly, the occurrence of LOH in the 13q12.11 HD region is significantly associated with early-onset HCC, inferred from Fisher's exact test (P = 0.0047) and Mann-Whitney test (P = 0.023). Since the novel 1-cM (1.8 Mb) HD region is gene-rich with more than 37 predicted transcripts, we used a candidate gene approach by examining down-regulation of known tumor suppressor genes (TSGs), including LATS2, TG737, CRYL1, and GJB2, in HCC tissues. We detected only 14% down-regulation of the LAST2 gene that flanks the outside of the HD, in HCC tissues, by quantitative RT-PCR assays. However, we observed significant down-regulation of the TG737, CRYL1, and GJB2 genes located within the HD in 59, 64, and 71% of HCC tissues, respectively. Together, our results indicated that the identified 13q12.11 HD region contained at least three significant down-regulated TSGs, and preferential LOH in early-onset HCC patients is a putative tumor suppressor locus in HCC.

Bonura C, Paterlini-Brechot P, Brechot C
Structure and expression of Tg737, a putative tumor suppressor gene, in human hepatocellular carcinomas.
Hepatology. 1999; 30(3):677-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deletions of the Tg737 gene, whose product is involved in liver oval cell proliferation, differentiation, and ploidy control, have been recently shown in chemically induced rat liver tumors and in a limited series of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thus, Tg737 has been proposed as a candidate new liver-specific tumor suppressor gene. To investigate this important issue, we analyzed the structure and expression pattern of the Tg737 gene in a group of 23 tumorous and adjacent nontumorous liver tissues, by combining polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern and Northern blot-based analyses. We failed to identify deletions or gross alterations of the Tg737 gene by both PCR and Southern blot analyses. Northern blots showed comparable accumulation of normal Tg737 transcripts in both tumorous and nontumorous tissues. Collectively, therefore, our results do not support the hypothesis of frequent Tg737 genetic alterations in human HCC.

Isfort RJ, Cody DB, Doersen CJ, et al.
The tetratricopeptide repeat containing Tg737 gene is a liver neoplasia tumor suppressor gene.
Oncogene. 1997; 15(15):1797-803 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Tg737 gene was investigated for gross alterations in a series of rodent/human liver tumors and human tumorigenic cell lines. The Tg737 gene was found to be altered in approximately 40% of the rodent chemically-induced liver tumors, 40% of the human liver tumors, and in liver, kidney and pancreatic human tumor cell lines. Ectopic re-expression of the Tg737 gene in a Tg737 deleted mouse liver tumor cell line resulted in suppression of tumorigenic growth, without altering in vitro cell culture growth. Treatment of mice which are either homozygous normal or heterozygous deleted at the Tg737 locus with the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine resulted in an increase in preneoplastic foci formation in the Tg737 heterozygous deleted mice. Ectopic expression of the Tg737 gene results in multinucleated cells, loss of Tg737 gene expression results in the proliferation of liver stem cells (oval cells) without concomitant differentiation, and reexpression of the Tg737 gene reestablished responsiveness to external differentiation factors. We believe this is the first report demonstrating tumor suppression activity for a tetratricopeptide repeat gene family member and provides insights into the function of this family of genes in mammalian cells.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. IFT88, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/IFT88.htm Accessed:

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