Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: KIAA1549 (cancer-related)
KIAA1549-BRAF is the most frequently identified genetic mutation in sporadic pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), creating a fusion BRAF (f-BRAF) protein with increased BRAF activity. Fusion-BRAF-expressing neural stem cells (NSCs) exhibit increased cell growth and can generate glioma-like lesions following injection into the cerebella of naïve mice. Increased Iba1
Ishida Y, Tsuda M, Sawamura Y, et al."Integrated diagnosis" of pilocytic astrocytoma: Molecular diagnostic procedure for an unusual case.
Pathol Int. 2018; 68(12):694-699 [PubMed
] Related Publications
A 24 year-old female presented with a mass lesion in the right temporal lobe. This case was difficult to diagnose using histological and immunological methods and therefore molecular analyses were applied to provide a definitive diagnosis. The tumor was well-demarcated, partially cystic, and irregularly-enhanced on gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Pathologically, a large part of the tumor consisted of cells with fine cytoplasmic processes on a myxoid and mucinous background. Cells formed a microcystic structure around the mucinous tissue. Numerous eosinophilic granular bodies, but not Rosenthal fibers, were present. The solid and compact regions of the tumor were composed of fasciculation of dense fibrous glial tissues and occasional multinucleated giant cells. Tumor cells and their fragmented cytoplasmic processes were positively stained with GFAP, while eosinophilic granular bodies were both positive and negative. Xanthomatous changes were not detected and the reticulin fibers were restricted to vascular tissues. The MIB1 index was scored as approximately 10%. In molecular analyses of BRAF, the KIAA1549-BRAF (K16-B9) fusion gene was detected in all tumor regions, whereas BRAF V600E mutation was not detected by either conventional Sanger sequencing or the Eprobe-PCR method. Based on the results of the molecular analyses, this case was diagnosed as pilocytic astrocytoma.
Primary brain tumors can harbor v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) gene alterations. BRAF is a serine/threonine kinase protein and is a downstream effector of the Ras-Raf-MEK extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, which is responsible for cell division and differentiation. BRAF-V600E mutations are most commonly found in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, ganglioglioma, epithelioid glioblastoma, and gliomas diagnosed at a younger age; BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion is the most common BRAF alteration in pilocytic astrocytoma. First-generation BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) have shown effectiveness in the treatment of melanoma patients with brain metastases and are currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of pediatric primary brain tumors with the BRAF-V600E mutation. Numerous case reports in adult primary brain tumors with BRAF-V600E mutations demonstrate signals of BRAFi activity in the brain. BRAFi are commonly combined with other inhibitors of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway for the avoidance of BRAFi resistance, while second-generation BRAFi have been developed with safer side-effect profiles and decreased resistance. Primary brain tumors with KIAA1549-BRAF fusion should not be treated with first-generation BRAFi due to paradoxical activation of the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway.
BACKGROUND: Fusion genes driving tumourigenesis have drawn the attention of researchers and oncologists. Despite the importance of such molecular alterations, there are no comprehensive reproducible methods for detecting fusion genes.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen paediatric brain tumours of five types, namely pilocytic astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma and, ganglioglioma, were examined to detect fusion genes using a pyrosequencing-based method following RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis and real-time polymerase chain reaction.
RESULTS: Our method successfully detected KIAA1549-v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) fusion in 14 out of 19 patients suffering from five types of paediatric brain tumours providing information on fusion breakpoints within 2 h.
CONCLUSION: A comprehensive method for detecting fusion genes in paediatric brain tumours was evaluated. This method identified KIAA1549-BRAF fusion variants quickly. Our results may help researchers interested in the role of fusion genes in tumourigenesis.
Appay R, Fina F, Macagno N, et al.Duplications of KIAA1549 and BRAF screening by Droplet Digital PCR from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded DNA is an accurate alternative for KIAA1549-BRAF fusion detection in pilocytic astrocytomas.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(10):1490-1501 [PubMed
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Pilocytic astrocytomas represent the most common glioma subtype in young patients and account for 5.4% of all gliomas. They are characterized by alterations in the RAS-MAP kinase pathway, the most frequent being a tandem duplication on chromosome 7q34 involving the BRAF gene, resulting in oncogenic BRAF fusion proteins. BRAF fusion involving the KIAA1549 gene is a hallmark of pilocytic astrocytoma, but it has also been recorded in rare cases of gangliogliomas, 1p/19q co-deleted oligodendroglial tumors, and it is also a common feature of disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal neoplasm. In some difficult cases, evidence for KIAA1549-BRAF fusion is of utmost importance for the diagnosis. Moreover, because the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion constitutively activates the MAP kinase pathway, it represents a target for drugs such as MEK inhibitors, and therefore, the detection of this genetic abnormality is highly relevant in the context of clinical trials applying such new approaches. In the present study, we aimed to use the high sensitivity of Droplet Digital PCR (DDPCR™) to predict KIAA1549-BRAF fusion on very small amounts of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue in routine practice. Therefore, we analyzed a training cohort of 55 pilocytic astrocytomas in which the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion status was known by RNA sequencing used as our gold standard technique. Then, we analyzed a prospective cohort of 40 pilocytic astrocytomas, 27 neuroepithelial tumors remaining difficult to classify (pilocytic astrocytoma versus ganglioglioma or diffuse glioma), 15 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, and 18 gangliogliomas. We could demonstrate the usefulness and high accuracy (100% sensitivity and specificity when compared to RNA sequencing) of DDPCR™ to assess the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion from very low amounts of DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. BRAF duplication is both necessary and sufficient to predict this fusion in most cases and we propose that this single analysis could be used in routine practice to save time, money, and precious tissue.
RATIONALE: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) typically shows biphasic pattern with a mixture of loose microcystic and compact regions, in which it is not uncommon to see heterogeneous morphology. However, there has not been reported in the literatures of the PA type that shows similarity to dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT) in both histological morphology and immunophenotype.
PATIENT CONCERNS: The present study described a case of PA affecting the right temporal-occipital lobe in a 22-year-old male patient. Morphologically, it composed of totally distinctive microcystic pattern. The classical biphasic pattern of PA was not observed. Immunohistochemically, neuronal marker NeuN was expressed in tumor cells scattered in the background which simulated its expression morphology in DNT. However, KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), supporting for the diagnosis of PA.
DIAGNOSES: DNT-like PA (WHO grade I).
INTERVENTIONS: The tumor was totally removed via a right temporal-occipital craniotomy.
OUTCOMES: The patient is free of local recurrence and dissemination eleven months after surgical resection of the lesion.
LESSONS: We herein report a rare case of DNT-like PA. For diagnosis, KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene should be detected under similar situation.
BACKGROUND: KIAA1549-BRAF fusion is the most common genetic event in pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), and leads to activation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Fusions of BRAF with other partner genes, as well as other genetic alterations not involving BRAF but also leading to MAPK pathway activation have been described rarely.
CASE PRESENTATION: We present a new fusion partner in the low-grade glioma of a 10-year-old male, who presented with headaches and recent episodes of seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a right temporal lobe tumor. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation, and a next generation sequencing assay (Oncopanel, Illumina, 500 genes) including breaKmer analysis for chromosomal rearrangements were performed. Histology was remarkable for a low-grade glioma composed of mildly atypical astrocytes with piloid processes, in a focally microcystic background. Mitoses were not seen; unequivocal Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies were absent. The tumor was positive for OLIG2 and GFAP and negative for BRAF V600E and IDH1 R132H mutant protein immunostains. Oncopanel showed low SOX2 (3q26.33) copy number gain, and no gains at 7q34. There were no significant single nucleotide variants. BreaKmer detected a GIT2-BRAF fusion with loss of BRAF exons 1-8. The integrated diagnosis was low-grade glioma with piloid features, most consistent with pilocytic astrocytoma, WHO grade I.
CONCLUSION: GIT2-BRAF fusion has not been reported in the literature in any tumor. Given that the BRAF sequence deleted is identical to that seen in other fusion events in PA, it most likely acts as tumor driver by activation of the MAPK pathway.
Johnson A, Severson E, Gay L, et al.Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of 282 Pediatric Low- and High-Grade Gliomas Reveals Genomic Drivers, Tumor Mutational Burden, and Hypermutation Signatures.
Oncologist. 2017; 22(12):1478-1490 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death for children with cancer in the U.S. Incorporating next-generation sequencing data for both pediatric low-grade (pLGGs) and high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) can inform diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic decision-making.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed comprehensive genomic profiling on 282 pediatric gliomas (157 pHGGs, 125 pLGGs), sequencing 315 cancer-related genes and calculating the tumor mutational burden (TMB; mutations per megabase [Mb]).
RESULTS: In pLGGs, we detected genomic alterations (GA) in 95.2% (119/125) of tumors.
CONCLUSION: Comprehensive genomic profiling of pediatric gliomas provides objective data that promote diagnostic accuracy and enhance clinical decision-making. Additionally, TMB could be a biomarker to identify pediatric glioblastoma (GBM) patients who may benefit from immunotherapy.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: By providing objective data to support diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic decision-making, comprehensive genomic profiling is necessary for advancing care for pediatric neuro-oncology patients. This article presents the largest cohort of pediatric low- and high-grade gliomas profiled by next-generation sequencing. Reportable alterations were detected in 95% of patients, including diagnostically relevant lesions as well as novel oncogenic fusions and mutations. Additionally, tumor mutational burden (TMB) is reported, which identifies a subpopulation of hypermutated glioblastomas that harbor deleterious mutations in DNA repair genes. This provides support for TMB as a potential biomarker to identify patients who may preferentially benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Ryall S, Arnoldo A, Krishnatry R, et al.Multiplex Detection of Pediatric Low-Grade Glioma Signature Fusion Transcripts and Duplications Using the NanoString nCounter System.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2017; 76(7):562-570 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Previous studies identified recurrent fusion and duplication events in pediatric low-grade glioma (pLGG). In addition to their role in diagnosis, the presence of these events aid in dictating therapy and predicting patient survival. Clinically, BRAF alterations are most commonly identified using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). However, this method is costly, labor-intensive and does not identify nonBRAF events. Here, we evaluated the NanoString nCounter gene expression system for detecting 32 of the most commonly reported fusion/duplication events in pLGG. The assay was validated on 90 pLGG samples using FISH as the gold standard and showed sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 98%, respectively. We next profiled formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded preserved biopsy specimens from 429 pLGG cases. 171 (40%) of the cases within our cohort tested positive for a fusion or duplication event contained within our panel. These events, in order of prevalence, were KIAA1549-BRAF 16;9 (89/171, 52.0%), KIAA1549-BRAF 15;9 (42/171, 24.6%), KIAA1549-BRAF 16;11 (14/171, 8.2%), FGFR1-TACC1 17;7 (13/171, 7.6%), MYBL1 duplication (5/171, 2.9%), KIAA1549-BRAF 18;10 (4/171, 2.3%), KIAA1549-BRAF 15;11 (2/171, 1.2%), FAM131B-BRAF 2;9 (1/171, 0.6%), and RNF130-BRAF 3;9 (1/171, 0.6%). This work introduces NanoString as a viable clinical replacement for the detection of fusion and duplication events in pLGG.
Busse TM, Roth JJ, Wilmoth D, et al.Copy number alterations determined by single nucleotide polymorphism array testing in the clinical laboratory are indicative of gene fusions in pediatric cancer patients.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(10):730-749 [PubMed
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Gene fusions resulting from structural rearrangements are an established mechanism of tumorigenesis in pediatric cancer. In this clinical cohort, 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based chromosomal microarrays from 1,211 pediatric cancer patients were evaluated for copy number alterations (CNAs) associated with gene fusions. Karyotype or fluorescence in situ hybridization studies were performed in 42% of the patients. Ten percent of the bone marrow or solid tumor specimens had SNP array-associated CNAs suggestive of a gene fusion. Alterations involving ETV6, ABL1-NUP214, EBF1-PDGFRB, KMT2A(MLL), LMO2-RAG, MYH11-CBFB, NSD1-NUP98, PBX1, STIL-TAL1, ZNF384-TCF3, P2RY8-CRLF2, and RUNX1T1-RUNX1 fusions were detected in the bone marrow samples. The most common alteration among the low-grade gliomas was a 7q34 tandem duplication resulting in a KIAA1549-BRAF fusion. Additional fusions identified in the pediatric brain tumors included FAM131B-BRAF and RAF1-QKI. COL1A1-PDGFB, CRTC1-MAML2, EWSR1, HEY1, PAX3- and PAX7-FOXO1, and PLAG1 fusions were determined in a variety of solid tumors and a novel potential gene fusion, FGFR1-USP6, was detected in an aneurysmal bone cyst. The identification of these gene fusions was instrumental in tumor diagnosis. In contrast to hematologic and solid tumors in adults that are predominantly driven by mutations, the majority of hematologic and solid tumors in children are characterized by CNAs and gene fusions. Chromosomal microarray analysis is therefore a robust platform to identify diagnostic and prognostic markers in the clinical setting.
Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common pediatric brain tumor. A recurrent feature of PA is deregulation of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway most often through KIAA1549-BRAF fusion, but also by other BRAF- or RAF1-gene fusions and point mutations (e.g. BRAFV600E). These features may serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers, and also facilitate development of targeted therapy. The aims of this study were to characterize the genetic alterations underlying the development of PA in six tumor cases, and evaluate methods for fusion oncogene detection. Using a combined analysis of RNA sequencing and copy number variation data we identified a new BRAF fusion involving the 5' gene fusion partner GTF2I (7q11.23), not previously described in PA. The new GTF2I-BRAF 19-10 fusion was found in one case, while the other five cases harbored the frequent KIAA1549-BRAF 16-9 fusion gene. Similar to other BRAF fusions, the GTF2I-BRAF fusion retains an intact BRAF kinase domain while the inhibitory N-terminal domain is lost. Functional studies on GTF2I-BRAF showed elevated MAPK pathway activation compared to BRAFWT. Comparing fusion detection methods, we found Fluorescence in situ hybridization with BRAF break apart probe as the most sensitive method for detection of different BRAF rearrangements (GTF2I-BRAF and KIAA1549-BRAF). Our finding of a new BRAF fusion in PA further emphasis the important role of B-Raf in tumorigenesis of these tumor types. Moreover, the consistency and growing list of BRAF/RAF gene fusions suggests these rearrangements to be informative tumor markers in molecular diagnostics, which could guide future treatment strategies.
Nozad S, Sheehan CE, Gay LM, et al.Comprehensive genomic profiling of malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017; 162(3):597-602 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Malignant phyllodes tumors (MPT) are exceptionally rare, and the genomic drivers of these tumors are still being elucidated. We performed comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of MPT to identify genomic alterations that will inform approaches to targeted therapy for patients with MPT, including relapsed, refractory, and metastatic disease.
METHODS: DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from 24 consecutive patient cases of MPT. CGP was performed using a hybrid capture, adaptor ligation-based next generation sequencing assay to a high, uniform coverage (mean, 582×). Tumor mutational burden (TMB) was calculated from a minimum of 1.14 Mb of sequenced DNA as previously described and reported as mutations/Mb. The results were analyzed for all classes of genomic alterations, including short variants (SV; base substitutions, small insertions, and deletions), rearrangements, and copy number changes, including amplifications and homozygous deletions.
RESULTS: The 24 cases of MPT included 15 patients with localized and 9 with metastatic disease. The median TMB was 2.7 mut/Mb, and no cases had a TMB > 10 mut/Mb. 20 out of 24 cases were evaluable for microsatellite status, and all were microsatellite stable. The most commonly mutated genes were TP53 (58.3%), TERT-promoter (57.9%), NF1 (45.8%), MED12 (45.8%), CDKN2A/B (33.3%), and MLL2 (33.3%). Targetable kinase fusions including KIAA1549-BRAF or FGFR3-TACC3 were identified in 2/24 (8.3%) tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies clinically relevant genomic alterations that suggest novel targeted therapy approaches for patients with MPT.
Selt F, Hohloch J, Hielscher T, et al.Establishment and application of a novel patient-derived KIAA1549:BRAF-driven pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma model for preclinical drug testing.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(7):11460-11479 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most frequent pediatric brain tumor. Activation of the MAPK pathway is well established as the oncogenic driver of the disease. It is most frequently caused by KIAA1549:BRAF fusions, and leads to oncogene induced senescence (OIS). OIS is thought to be a major reason for growth arrest of PA cells in vitro and in vivo, preventing establishment of PA cultures. Hence, valid preclinical models are currently very limited, but preclinical testing of new compounds is urgently needed. We transduced the PA short-term culture DKFZ-BT66 derived from the PA of a 2-year old patient with a doxycycline-inducible system coding for Simian Vacuolating Virus 40 Large T Antigen (SV40-TAg). SV40-TAg inhibits TP53/CDKN1A and CDKN2A/RB1, two pathways critical for OIS induction and maintenance. DNA methylation array and KIAA1549:BRAF fusion analysis confirmed pilocytic astrocytoma identity of DKFZ-BT66 cells after establishment. Readouts were analyzed in proliferating as well as senescent states, including cell counts, viability, cell cycle analysis, expression of SV40-Tag, CDKN2A (p16), CDKN1A (p21), and TP53 (p53) protein, and gene-expression profiling. Selected MAPK inhibitors (MAPKi) including clinically available MEK inhibitors (MEKi) were tested in vitro. Expression of SV40-TAg enabled the cells to bypass OIS and to resume proliferation with a mean doubling time of 45h allowing for propagation and long-term culture. Withdrawal of doxycycline led to an immediate decrease of SV40-TAg expression, appearance of senescent morphology, upregulation of CDKI proteins and a subsequent G1 growth arrest in line with the re-induction of senescence. DKFZ-BT66 cells still underwent replicative senescence that was overcome by TERT expression. Testing of a set of MAPKi revealed differential responses in DKFZ-BT66. MEKi efficiently inhibited MAPK signaling at clinically achievable concentrations, while BRAF V600E- and RAF Type II inhibitors showed paradoxical activation. Taken together, we have established the first patient-derived long term expandable PA cell line expressing the KIAA1549:BRAF-fusion suitable for preclinical drug testing.
Pathak P, Kumar A, Jha P, et al.Genetic alterations related to BRAF-FGFR genes and dysregulated MAPK/ERK/mTOR signaling in adult pilocytic astrocytoma.
Brain Pathol. 2017; 27(5):580-589 [PubMed
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Pilocytic astrocytomas occur rarely in adults and show aggressive tumor behavior. However, their underlying molecular-genetic events are largely uncharacterized. Hence, 59 adult pilocytic astrocytoma (APA) cases of classical histology were studied (MIB-1 LI: 1%-5%). Analysis of BRAF alterations using qRT-PCR, confirmed KIAA1549-BRAF fusion in 11 (19%) and BRAF-gain in 2 (3.4%) cases. BRAF-V600E mutation was noted in 1 (1.7%) case by sequencing. FGFR1-mutation and FGFR-TKD duplication were seen in 7/59 (11.9%) and 3/59 (5%) cases, respectively. Overall 36% of APAs harbored BRAF and/or FGFR genetic alterations. Notably, FGFR related genetic alterations were enriched in tumors of supratentorial region (8/25, 32%) as compared with other locations (P = 0.01). The difference in age of cases with FGFR1-mutation (Mean age ± SD: 37.2 ± 15 years) vs. KIAA1549-BRAF fusion (Mean age ± SD: 25.1 ± 4.1 years) was statistically significant (P = 0.03). Combined BRAF and FGFR alterations were identified in 3 (5%) cases. Notably, the cases with more than one genetic alteration were in higher age group (Mean age ± SD: 50 ± 12 years) as compared with cases with single genetic alteration (Mean age ± SD: 29 ± 10; P = 0.003). Immunopositivity of p-MAPK/p-MEK1 was found in all the cases examined. The pS6-immunoreactivity, a marker of mTOR activation was observed in 34/39 (87%) cases. Interestingly, cases with BRAF and/or FGFR related alteration showed significantly lower pS6-immunostatining (3/12; 25%) as compared with those with wild-type BRAF and/or FGFR (16/27; 59%) (P = 0.04). Further, analysis of seven IDH wild-type adult diffuse astrocytomas (DA) showed FGFR related genetic alterations in 43% cases. These and previous results suggest that APAs are genetically similar to IDH wild-type adult DAs. APAs harbor infrequent BRAF alterations but more frequent FGFR alterations as compared with pediatric cases. KIAA1549-BRAF fusion inversely correlates with increasing age whereas FGFR1-mutation associates with older age. Activation of MAPK/ERK/mTOR signaling appears to be an important oncogenic event in APAs and may be underlying event of aggressive tumor behavior. The findings provided a rationale for potential therapeutic advantage of targeting MAPK/ERK/mTOR pathway in APAs.
Mesturoux L, Durand K, Pommepuy I, et al.Molecular Analysis of Tumor Cell Components in Pilocytic Astrocytomas, Gangliogliomas, and Oligodendrogliomas.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2016; 24(7):496-500 [PubMed
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Gliomas and glioneuronal tumors are histologically polymorphous tumors. They can harbor a clear cell "oligodendroglial-like" component that can be difficult to distinguish from tumor cells of oligodendrogliomas or neurons, particularly on small samples. Thus, knowledge of the pattern of molecular markers in different tumor cell components is essential to ensure reliable diagnosis. Here, we screened 14 pilocytic astrocytomas (PA), 12 gangliogliomas, and 13 oligodendrogliomas for the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene, IDH1/2 mutations, and 1p19q losses in various areas of interest representative of the different tumor cell components. Molecular patterns were analyzed according to histologic type, tumor cell components, and clinical data. The KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene was detected only in 8 out of 11 PAs (73%) and in 3 out of 9 gangliogliomas (33%) (P=0.003). Interestingly, all of the studied areas of interest within the same tumor exhibited the same KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene status. IDH1-R132H and 1p19q loss were found only in 12 out of the 13 oligodendrogliomas (P<0.0001). Our study shows that cellular polymorphism in PAs and gangliogliomas does not affect the results of molecular analysis investigating the status of the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene. Thus, this molecular analysis can be reliably used even if the sample size is limited and the selection of different tumor areas is not possible.
Helfferich J, Nijmeijer R, Brouwer OF, et al.Neurofibromatosis type 1 associated low grade gliomas: A comparison with sporadic low grade gliomas.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2016; 104:30-41 [PubMed
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Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disorder, associated with a variable clinical phenotype including café-au-lait spots, intertriginous freckling, Lisch nodules, neurofibromas, optic pathway gliomas and distinctive bony lesions. NF1 is caused by a mutation in the NF1 gene, which codes for neurofibromin, a large protein involved in the MAPK- and the mTOR-pathway through RAS-RAF signalling. NF1 is a known tumour predisposition syndrome, associated with different tumours of the nervous system including low grade gliomas (LGGs) in the paediatric population. The focus of this review is on grade I pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs), the most commonly observed histologic subtype of low grade gliomas in NF1. Clinically, these PAs have a better prognosis and show different localisation patterns than their sporadic counterparts, which are most commonly associated with a KIAA1549:BRAF fusion. In this review, possible mechanisms of tumourigenesis in LGGs with and without NF1 will be discussed, including the contribution of different signalling pathways and tumour microenvironment. Furthermore we will discuss how increased understanding of tumourigenesis may lead to new potential targets for treatment.
Roth JJ, Fierst TM, Waanders AJ, et al.Whole Chromosome 7 Gain Predicts Higher Risk of Recurrence in Pediatric Pilocytic Astrocytomas Independently From KIAA1549-BRAF Fusion Status.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2016; 75(4):306-15 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The most frequent genetic alteration identified in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas and pilomyxoid variant is the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion, which typically results from a 2.0 Mb tandem duplication in chromosome band 7q34. Less frequent abnormalities include fusion genes,BRAF, FGFR, KRAS, and NF1 point mutations, and whole chromosome gains. To correlate genetic alterations with clinical course data, we retrospectively analyzed the tumors with pilocytic and pilomyxoid histology of a cohort of 116 pediatric patients, aged 5 months to 23 years. Gross total resection was associated with a decreased risk of recurrence (p = 0.001), supporting previous findings that complete tumor excision correlates with long-term and disease-free survival. We found no significant association between recurrence rate and the presence of the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion or BRAF mutation (p = 0.167). Interestingly, gain of whole chromosome 7 (WC7) was associated with a 4.7-fold increased risk of tumor recurrence, even after adjusting for surgical status (p = 0.025), and other genetic alterations. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that when WC7 gain accompanies the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion, the fusion likely arises first. This study highlights the utility of genetic studies for risk assessment of pilocytic and pilomyxoid astrocytomas, which may impact treatment selections.
BACKGROUND: Identification of genetic changes in CNS tumors is important for the appropriate clinical management of patients. Our objective was to develop a next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay for simultaneously detecting the various types of genetic alterations characteristic for adult and pediatric CNS tumors that can be applied to small brain biopsies.
METHODS: We report an amplification-based targeted NGS assay (GlioSeq) that analyzes 30 genes for single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and indels, 24 genes for copy number variations (CNVs), and 14 types of structural alterations in BRAF, EGFR, and FGFR3 genes in a single workflow. GlioSeq performance was evaluated in 54 adult and pediatric CNS tumors, and the results were compared with fluorescence in-situ hybridization, Sanger sequencing, and reverse transcription PCR.
RESULTS: GlioSeq correctly identified 71/71 (100%) genetic alterations known to be present by conventional techniques, including 56 SNVs/indels, 9 CNVs, 3 EGFRvIII, and 3 KIAA1549-BRAF fusions. Only 20 ng of DNA and 10 ng of RNA were required for successful sequencing of 100% frozen and 96% formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. The assay sensitivity was 3%-5% of mutant alleles for SNVs and 1%-5% for gene fusions. The most commonly detected alterations were IDH1, TP53, TERT, ATRX. CDKN2A, and PTEN in high-grade gliomas, followed by BRAF fusions in low-grade gliomas and H3F3A mutations in pediatric gliomas.
CONCLUSIONS: GlioSeq NGS assay offers accurate and sensitive detection of a wide range of genetic alterations in a single workflow. It allows rapid and cost-effective profiling of brain tumor specimens and thus provides valuable information for patient management.
Trabelsi S, Mama N, Ladib M, et al.Adult recurrent pilocytic astrocytoma: Clinical, histopathological and molecular study.
Neurochirurgie. 2015; 61(6):392-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PA is a grade I glial tumor that mostly occurs in children. However, although apparently similar to paediatric PA, adult PA presents a different clinical follow-up that could arise from specific molecular alterations. A variety of genetic alterations have been identified as diagnostic or prognostic glioma molecular markers.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We describe a right infratentorial tumor that occurred in a 58-year-old man. Neuroimaging and neuropathological examination suggested PA as an initial diagnosis. The tumor was completely resected. Unexpectedly, two years later, a rapidly growing tumor on the operative site was observed with a second location in the pineal region. Immunohistochemical reactions (IHC), Multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed in both primary and relapse tumor.
RESULTS: Neuroimaging and neuropathological examinations suggested an unusual diagnosis for adult patients: a recurrent PA. Both MLPA and FISH analysis contribute to diagnostic confirmation by KIAA1549: BRAF fusion detection. Additional genetic results revealed interesting findings that justified the tumor aggressivity.
CONCLUSION: Molecular analysis of adult PA cases should be routinely combined with histopathological and neuroimaging examination to further refine prognostic diagnoses.
Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common brain tumor in children but is rare in adults, and hence poorly studied in this age group. We investigated 222 PA and report increased aneuploidy in older patients. Aneuploid genomes were identified in 45% of adult compared with 17% of pediatric PA. Gains were non-random, favoring chromosomes 5, 7, 6 and 11 in order of frequency, and preferentially affecting non-cerebellar PA and tumors with BRAF V600E mutations and not with KIAA1549-BRAF fusions or FGFR1 mutations. Aneuploid PA differentially expressed genes involved in CNS development, the unfolded protein response, and regulators of genomic stability and the cell cycle (MDM2, PLK2),whose correlated programs were overexpressed specifically in aneuploid PA compared to other glial tumors. Thus, convergence of pathways affecting the cell cycle and genomic stability may favor aneuploidy in PA, possibly representing an additional molecular driver in older patients with this brain tumor.
Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT) of the IV ventricle is a rare and recently recognized brain tumor entity. It is histologically composed by two distinct features: a glial component, resembling pilocytic astrocytoma, and a component forming neurocytic rosettes and/or perivascular rosettes. Herein, we describe a 33-year-old man with RGNT arising in the spinal cord. Following an immunohistochemistry validation, we further performed an extensive genomic analysis, using array-CGH (aCGH), whole exome and cancer-related hotspot sequencing, in order to better understand its underlying biology. We observed the loss of 1p and gain of 1q, as well as gain of the whole chromosomes 7, 9 and 16. Local amplifications in 9q34.2 and 19p13.3 (encompassing the gene SBNO2) were identified. Moreover, we observed focal gains/losses in several chromosomes. Additionally, on chromosome 7, we identified the presence of the KIAA1549:BRAF gene fusion, which was further validated by RT-PCR and FISH. Across all mutational analyses, we detected and validated the somatic mutations of the genes MLL2, CNNM3, PCDHGC4 and SCN1A. Our comprehensive molecular profiling of this RGNT suggests that MAPK pathway and methylome changes, driven by KIAA1549:BRAF fusion and MLL2 mutation, respectively, could be associated with the development of this rare tumor entity.
Faulkner C, Ellis HP, Shaw A, et al.BRAF Fusion Analysis in Pilocytic Astrocytomas: KIAA1549-BRAF 15-9 Fusions Are More Frequent in the Midline Than Within the Cerebellum.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2015; 74(9):867-72 [PubMed
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Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are increasingly tested for KIAA1549-BRAF fusions. We used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the 3 most common KIAA1549-BRAF fusions, together with BRAF V600E and histone H3.3 K27M analyses to identify relationships of these molecular characteristics with clinical features in a cohort of 32 PA patients. In this group, the overall BRAF fusion detection rate was 24 (75%). Ten (42%) of the 24 had the 16-9 fusion, 8 (33%) had only the 15-9 fusion, and 1 (4%) of the patients had only the 16-11 fusion. In the PAs with only the 15-9 fusion, 1 PA was in the cerebellum and 7 were centered in the midline outside of the cerebellum, that is, in the hypothalamus (n = 4), optic pathways (n = 2), and brainstem (n = 1). Tumors within the cerebellum were negatively associated with fusion 15-9. Seven (22%) of the 32 patients had tumor-related deaths and 25 of the patients (78%) were alive between 2 and 14 years after initial biopsy. Age, sex, tumor location, 16-9 fusion, and 15-9 fusion were not associated with overall survival. Thus, in this small cohort, 15-9 KIAA1549-BRAF fusion was associated with midline PAs located outside of the cerebellum; these tumors, which are generally difficult to resect, are prone to recurrence.
Gierke M, Sperveslage J, Schwab D, et al.Analysis of IDH1-R132 mutation, BRAF V600 mutation and KIAA1549-BRAF fusion transcript status in central nervous system tumors supports pediatric tumor classification.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(1):89-100 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Gliomas are the leading cause of cancer-related morbidity in children and comprise a clinical, histological and molecular heterogenous group of CNS tumors. Appropriate treatment of these tumors relies on correct classification into tumor types and malignancy grades.
METHODS: We examined 170 (0-18 years) pediatric and 131 (19-35 years) young adult brain tumors including pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs), pilomyxoid astrocytomas (PMAs), diffuse astrocytomas (DAs), gangliogliomas, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNTs) and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXAs) for IDH1 and BRAF mutation/BRAF fusion gene status. The obtained data were compared to results in 464 (<35 years) adult brain tumors. In 32 tumors with an oligodendroglial or mixed glioma differentiation, additionally the LOH1p/19q status was determined.
RESULTS: By combining immunohistochemistry and molecular methods, IDH1/2 mutations were observed in 6 pediatric, 35 young adult and 43 adult tumors of the astrocytic/oligodendroglial lineage. BRAF V600E mutations (20 pediatric, 7 young adults and 2 adults) were found mostly in gangliogliomas, PXAs, few astrocytomas and few DNTs. Except for one DA case, BRAF fusions (35 pediatric, 8 young adults and 2 adults) were restricted to PA and PMA and associated with age and infratentorial location. All mutations were mutually exclusive and always present in the primary tumor. Two-thirds of all pediatric samples harbored one of the three examined mutations.
CONCLUSION: Combination of IDH1-R132, BRAF V600 and KIAA1549-BRAF fusion analysis is therefore a useful tool to increase diagnostic accuracy in pediatric gliomas.
Gessi M, Engels AC, Lambert S, et al.Molecular characterization of disseminated pilocytic astrocytomas.
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2016; 42(3):273-8 [PubMed
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AIM: Pilocytic astrocytomas represent the most common paediatric tumours of the central nervous system. Dissemination through the ventricular system occurs rarely in patients with pilocytic astrocytomas; however, it is more common in infants with diencephalic tumours, and is associated with a poor outcome. Despite histological similarities with classic pilocytic astrocytomas, it is still unclear whether disseminated pilocytic astrocytomas may have specific molecular features.
METHODS: Seventeen disseminated pilocytic astrocytomas were investigated using the molecular inversion probe array and screened for the presence of gene fusions (KIAA1549-BRAF) and mutations (BRAF, RAS and FGFR1).
RESULTS: Along with evidence of a constitutive MAPK activation in all cases, the molecular inversion probe array, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis and mutational study revealed KIAA1549-BRAF fusions in 66% and BRAF(V600E) mutations in 5% of cases. No KRAS, HRAS, NRAS or FGFR1 mutations were found.
CONCLUSIONS: disseminated pilocytic astrocytomas showed genetic features similar to classic pilocytic astrocytoma, including a similar incidence of KIAA1549-BRAF fusions, BRAF mutations and a stable genetic profile. Given common activation of the MAPK pathway, the use of specific inhibitors can be hypothesized for the treatment of disseminated pilocytic astrocytomas, along with standard chemo- and/or radiotherapy.
Up to 20% of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) experience a poor outcome. BRAF alterations and Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) point mutations are key molecular alterations in Pas, but their clinical implications are not established. We aimed to determine the frequency and prognostic role of these alterations in a cohort of 69 patients with PAs. We assessed KIAA1549:BRAF fusion by fluorescence in situ hybridization and BRAF (exon 15) mutations by capillary sequencing. In addition, FGFR1 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry, and this was compared with gene amplification and hotspot mutations (exons 12 and 14) assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and capillary sequencing. KIAA1549:BRAF fusion was identified in almost 60% of cases. Two tumors harbored mutated BRAF. Despite high FGFR1 expression overall, no cases had FGFR1 amplifications. Three cases harbored a FGFR1 p.K656E point mutation. No correlation was observed between BRAF and FGFR1 alterations. The cases were predominantly pediatric (87%), and no statistical differences were observed in molecular alterations-related patient ages. In summary, we confirmed the high frequency of KIAA1549:BRAF fusion in PAs and its association with a better outcome. Oncogenic mutations of FGFR1, although rare, occurred in a subset of patients with worse outcome. These molecular alterations may constitute alternative targets for novel clinical approaches, when radical surgical resection is unachievable.
Kumar A, Pathak P, Purkait S, et al.Oncogenic KIAA1549-BRAF fusion with activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway in pediatric oligodendrogliomas.
Cancer Genet. 2015; 208(3):91-5 [PubMed
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Pediatric oligodendrogliomas (pODGs) are rare central nervous system tumors, and comparatively little is known about their molecular pathogenesis. Co-deletion of 1p/19q; and IDH1, CIC, and FUBP1 mutations, which are molecular signatures of adult oligodendrogliomas, are extremely rare in pODGs. In this report, two pODGs, one each of grade II and grade III, were evaluated using clinical, radiological, histopathologic, and follow-up methods. IDH1, TP53, CIC, H3F3A, and BRAF-V600 E mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemical methods, and 1p/19q co-deletion was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. PDGFRA amplification, BRAF gain, intragenic duplication of FGFR-TKD, and KIAA1549-BRAF fusion (validated by Sanger sequencing) were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Notably, both cases showed the oncogenic KIAA1549_Ex15-BRAF_Ex9 fusion transcript. Further, immunohistochemical analysis showed activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway in both of these cases. However, neither 1p/19q co-deletion; IDH1, TP53, CIC, H3F3A, nor BRAF-V600 E mutation; PDGFRA amplification; BRAF gain; nor duplication of FGFR-TKD was identified. Overall, this study highlights that pODGs can harbor the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion with aberrant MAPK/ERK signaling, and there exists an option of targeting these pathways in such patients. These results indicate that pODGs with the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion may represent a subset of this rare tumor that shares molecular and genetic features of pilocytic astrocytomas. These findings will increase our understanding of pODGs and may have clinical implications.
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) were recognized as a discrete clinical entity over 70 years ago. They are relatively benign (WHO grade I) and have, as a group, a 10-year survival of over 90%. Many require merely surgical removal and only very infrequently do they progress to more malignant gliomas. While most show classical morphology, they may present a spectrum of morphological patterns, and there are difficult cases that show similarities to other gliomas, some of which are malignant and require aggressive treatment. Until recently, almost nothing was known about the molecular mechanisms involved in their development. The use of high-throughput sequencing techniques interrogating the whole genome has shown that single abnormalities of the mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathway are exclusively found in almost all cases, indicating that PA represents a one-pathway disease. The most common mechanism is a tandem duplication of a ≈2 Mb-fragment of #7q, giving rise to a fusion between two genes, resulting in a transforming fusion protein, consisting of the N-terminus of KIAA1549 and the kinase domain of BRAF. Additional infrequent fusion partners have been identified, along with other abnormalities of the MAP-K pathway, affecting tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors at the cell surface (e.g., FGFR1) as well as BRAF V600E, KRAS, and NF1 mutations among others. However, while the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion occurs in all areas, the incidence of the various other mutations identified differs in PAs that develop in different regions of the brain. Unfortunately, from a diagnostic standpoint, almost all mutations found have been reported in other brain tumor types, although some retain considerable utility. These molecular abnormalities will be reviewed, and the difficulties in their potential use in supporting a diagnosis of PA, when the histopathological findings are equivocal or in the choice of individualized therapy, will be discussed.
PURPOSE: To uncover the genetic events leading to transformation of pediatric low-grade glioma (PLGG) to secondary high-grade glioma (sHGG).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with sHGG from a population-based cohort of 886 patients with PLGG with long clinical follow-up. Exome sequencing and array CGH were performed on available samples followed by detailed genetic analysis of the entire sHGG cohort. Clinical and outcome data of genetically distinct subgroups were obtained.
RESULTS: sHGG was observed in 2.9% of PLGGs (26 of 886 patients). Patients with sHGG had a high frequency of nonsilent somatic mutations compared with patients with primary pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG; median, 25 mutations per exome; P = .0042). Alterations in chromatin-modifying genes and telomere-maintenance pathways were commonly observed, whereas no sHGG harbored the BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion. The most recurrent alterations were BRAF V600E and CDKN2A deletion in 39% and 57% of sHGGs, respectively. Importantly, all BRAF V600E and 80% of CDKN2A alterations could be traced back to their PLGG counterparts. BRAF V600E distinguished sHGG from primary HGG (P = .0023), whereas BRAF and CDKN2A alterations were less commonly observed in PLGG that did not transform (P < .001 and P < .001 respectively). PLGGs with BRAF mutations had longer latency to transformation than wild-type PLGG (median, 6.65 years [range, 3.5 to 20.3 years] v 1.59 years [range, 0.32 to 15.9 years], respectively; P = .0389). Furthermore, 5-year overall survival was 75% ± 15% and 29% ± 12% for children with BRAF mutant and wild-type tumors, respectively (P = .024).
CONCLUSION: BRAF V600E mutations and CDKN2A deletions constitute a clinically distinct subtype of sHGG. The prolonged course to transformation for BRAF V600E PLGGs provides an opportunity for surgical interventions, surveillance, and targeted therapies to mitigate the outcome of sHGG.
Antonelli M, Badiali M, Moi L, et al.KIAA1549:BRAF fusion gene in pediatric brain tumors of various histogenesis.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015; 62(4):724-7 [PubMed
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The KIAA1549:BRAF fusion gene is considered a driver genetic event in pilocytic astrocytoma. We investigated a series of 69 pediatric brain neoplasms of diverse histogenesis and grade using the RT-PCR and sequencing. We detected the KIAA1549:BRAF fusion gene in five of 34 non-PA tumors (14.7%), that is, one glioblastoma, one anaplastic astrocytoma, one anaplastic pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, 1 ependymoma, and 1 Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor. Our study showed that the K-B, although uncommon, it can be detected in non-PA tumors of various histogenesis and grading.
Cruz GR, Dias Oliveira I, Moraes L, et al.Analysis of KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene expression and IDH1/IDH2 mutations in low grade pediatric astrocytomas.
J Neurooncol. 2014; 117(2):235-42 [PubMed
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Low-grade astrocytomas comprise about 30 % of the central nervous system tumors in children. Several investigations have searched a correlation between the BRAF gene fusions alterations and mutations at IDH1 and IDH2 genes in low grade pediatric astrocytomas. This study identified the expression of KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene and BRAF V600E mutation, mutations at exon 4 of the IDH1 and IDH2 genes in samples of pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) and grade-II astrocytomas (A-II) pediatric patients. The correlation between these alterations and the clinical profile of the patients was also evaluated. Eighty-two samples of low-grade astrocytomas (65 PA and 17 A-II) were analyzed by PCR and sequencing for each of the targets identified. We identified the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion transcript in 45 % of the samples. BRAF V600E and BRAFins598T mutations were detected in 7 and 1 % of the samples, respectively. Mutations in the R132/R172 residues of the IDH1/IDH2 genes were detected in only two samples, and the G105G polymorphism (rs11554137:C>T) was identified in ten patients. Additionally, we observed two mutations out of the usual hotspots at IDH1 and IDH2 genes. We observed a smaller frequency of mutations in IDHs genes than previously described, but since the prior studies were composed of adult or mixed (adults and children) samples, we believe that our results represent a relevant contribution to the growing knowledge in low grade childhood astrocytomas.