Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: THRAP3 (cancer-related)
Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, accounting for <1% of all cases of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and up to 15% in the hereditary hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Genomic alterations identified in PC are mostly represented by CDC73 gene mutations, codifying for a loss-of-function protein termed parafibromin. Whole exome sequencing identified mutations in other genes, such as mTOR, KMT2D, CDKN2C, THRAP3, PIK3CA, and EZH2 genes, CCND1 gene amplification. The diagnosis of PC is quite difficult due to the lack of reliable clinical diagnostic criteria, and in the majority of cases is made postoperatively at histological examination. The clinical manifestations of PC are primarily due to the excessive secretion of PTH by the tumor rather than spread to local or distant organs. En bloc resection of the parathyroid tumor represents the initial mainstay treatment of patients with PC. Multiple surgical procedures may be required, although surgical morbidity should be taken into account. A 5- and 10-year survival between 77-100 and 49-91%, respectively, has been reported. When the tumor is no more resectable, medical treatment of hypercalcemia has a pivotal role in the management of these patients.
Šekoranja D, Boštjančič E, Salapura V, et al.Primary aneurysmal bone cyst with a novel SPARC-USP6 translocation identified by next-generation sequencing.
Cancer Genet. 2018; 228-229:12-16 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign but locally aggressive, mostly pediatric neoplasm, with characteristic USP6 gene rearrangement that distinguishes it from a secondary ABC and other primary bone tumors. With the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, several hitherto unknown USP6 fusion partners have been identified in ABC. Accordingly, we present a case of an 18-year-old male with a solid sub-periosteal primary ABC in the diaphysis of the left femur. Using an NGS-based assay, we identified SPARC-USP6 fusion, which has not previously been described in ABC. Including our case, the list of currently known USP6 fusion partners in primary ABC include: CDH11, CNBP, COL1A1, CTNNB1, EIF1, FOSL2, OMD, PAFAH1B1, RUNX2, SEC31A, SPARC, STAT3 and THRAP3.
Ayoubian H, Fröhlich T, Pogodski D, et al.Antibodies against the mono-methylated arginine-glycine repeat (MMA-RG) of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) identify potential cellular proteins targeted in viral transformation.
J Gen Virol. 2017; 98(8):2128-2142 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The Epstein-Barr virus is a human herpes virus with oncogenic potential. The virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) is a key mediator of viral tumorigenesis. EBNA2 features an arginine-glycine (RG) repeat at amino acids (aa)339-354 that is essential for the transformation of lymphocytes and contains symmetrically (SDMA) and asymmetrically (ADMA) di-methylated arginine residues. The SDMA-modified EBNA2 binds the survival motor neuron protein (SMN), thus mimicking SMD3, a cellular SDMA-containing protein that interacts with SMN. Accordingly, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for the SDMA-modified RG repeat of EBNA2 also binds to SMD3. With the novel mAb 19D4 we now show that EBNA2 contains mono-methylated arginine (MMA) residues within the RG repeat. Using 19D4, we immune-precipitated and analysed by mass spectrometry cellular proteins in EBV-transformed B-cells that feature MMA motifs that are similar to the one in EBNA2. Among the cellular proteins identified, we confirmed by immunoprecipitation and/or Western blot analyses Aly/REF, Coilin, DDX5, FXR1, HNRNPK, LSM4, MRE11, NRIP, nucleolin, PRPF8, RBM26, SMD1 (SNRDP1) and THRAP3 proteins that are either known to contain MMA residues or feature RG repeat sequences that probably serve as methylation substrates. The identified proteins are involved in splicing, tumorigenesis, transcriptional activation, DNA stability and RNA processing or export. Furthermore, we found that several proteins involved in energy metabolism are associated with MMA-modified proteins. Interestingly, the viral EBNA1 protein that features methylated RG repeat motifs also reacted with the antibodies. Our results indicate that the region between aa 34-52 of EBNA1 contains ADMA or SDMA residues, while the region between aa 328-377 mainly contains MMA residues.
Warren M, Xu D, Li XGene fusions PAFAH1B1-USP6 and RUNX2-USP6 in aneurysmal bone cysts identified by next generation sequencing.
Cancer Genet. 2017; 212-213:13-18 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a locally aggressive, expansile, typically multilocular cystic bone tumor. ABC was previously thought to be a non-neoplastic lesion; however, it is now considered to be neoplasm that features recurrent chromosomal translocations resulting in gene fusions between ubiquitin specific peptidase 6 (USP6) and multiple partners, including COL1A1, CDH11, TRAP150, ZNF90 and OMD. Using next generation sequencing (NGS), we uncovered two fusion partners of USP6 in two ABCs: platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b regulatory subunit 1 (PAFAH1B1), which is known to contribute to tumorigenesis in lung cancer, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), which is known to regulate osteoblastic differentiation, osteosarcoma tumorigenesis and its metastasis. In our study, the PAFAH1B1-USP6 fusion consisted of the promoter of PAFAH1B1 fused to the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of USP6 and was discovered in a typical ABC. The RUNX2-USP6 fusion had the promoter and a short coding region of RUNX2 fused to the translation start codon of USP6 and was detected in an unusually aggressive ABC with an osteosarcoma-like soft tissue extension. Our findings not only expanded the repertoire of the partner genes of USP6 in ABC but also can serve as a reference for future studies to better understand the correlation between various gene fusions and the progression of ABC.
Shiraishi Y, Fujimoto A, Furuta M, et al.Integrated analysis of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing reveals diverse transcriptomic aberrations driven by somatic genomic changes in liver cancers.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e114263 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent studies applying high-throughput sequencing technologies have identified several recurrently mutated genes and pathways in multiple cancer genomes. However, transcriptional consequences from these genomic alterations in cancer genome remain unclear. In this study, we performed integrated and comparative analyses of whole genomes and transcriptomes of 22 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and their matched controls. Comparison of whole genome sequence (WGS) and RNA-Seq revealed much evidence that various types of genomic mutations triggered diverse transcriptional changes. Not only splice-site mutations, but also silent mutations in coding regions, deep intronic mutations and structural changes caused splicing aberrations. HBV integrations generated diverse patterns of virus-human fusion transcripts depending on affected gene, such as TERT, CDK15, FN1 and MLL4. Structural variations could drive over-expression of genes such as WNT ligands, with/without creating gene fusions. Furthermore, by taking account of genomic mutations causing transcriptional aberrations, we could improve the sensitivity of deleterious mutation detection in known cancer driver genes (TP53, AXIN1, ARID2, RPS6KA3), and identified recurrent disruptions in putative cancer driver genes such as HNF4A, CPS1, TSC1 and THRAP3 in HCCs. These findings indicate genomic alterations in cancer genome have diverse transcriptomic effects, and integrated analysis of WGS and RNA-Seq can facilitate the interpretation of a large number of genomic alterations detected in cancer genome.
Kasaian K, Wiseman SM, Thiessen N, et al.Complete genomic landscape of a recurring sporadic parathyroid carcinoma.
J Pathol. 2013; 230(3):249-60 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy with an estimated incidence of less than 1 per million population. Excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone, extremely high serum calcium level, and the deleterious effects of hypercalcaemia are the clinical manifestations of the disease. Up to 60% of patients develop multiple disease recurrences and although long-term survival is possible with palliative surgery, permanent remission is rarely achieved. Molecular drivers of sporadic parathyroid carcinoma have remained largely unknown. Previous studies, mostly based on familial cases of the disease, suggested potential roles for the tumour suppressor MEN1 and proto-oncogene RET in benign parathyroid tumourigenesis, while the tumour suppressor HRPT2 and proto-oncogene CCND1 may also act as drivers in parathyroid cancer. Here, we report the complete genomic analysis of a sporadic and recurring parathyroid carcinoma. Mutational landscapes of the primary and recurrent tumour specimens were analysed using high-throughput sequencing technologies. Such molecular profiling allowed for identification of somatic mutations never previously identified in this malignancy. These included single nucleotide point mutations in well-characterized cancer genes such as mTOR, MLL2, CDKN2C, and PIK3CA. Comparison of acquired mutations in patient-matched primary and recurrent tumours revealed loss of PIK3CA activating mutation during the evolution of the tumour from the primary to the recurrence. Structural variations leading to gene fusions and regions of copy loss and gain were identified at a single-base resolution. Loss of the short arm of chromosome 1, along with somatic missense and truncating mutations in CDKN2C and THRAP3, respectively, provides new evidence for the potential role of these genes as tumour suppressors in parathyroid cancer. The key somatic mutations identified in this study can serve as novel diagnostic markers as well as therapeutic targets.
Cha JD, Kim HJ, Cha IHGenetic alterations in oral squamous cell carcinoma progression detected by combining array-based comparative genomic hybridization and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011; 111(5):594-607 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most common malignancy of the oral cavity, has been shown to occur via a multistep process driven by the accumulation of carcinogen-induced genetic changes.
STUDY DESIGN: Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were conducted to screen human genomewide alterations on fresh tissues of the cancer area, the dysplastic transitional area, and the resection margin (normal) free of tumor; these samples were obtained from 7 OSCC patients.
RESULTS: The highest amplification frequencies (100%, 7/7) were detected in FAM5B, TIPARP, PIK3CA, NLGN1, FGF10, HDAC9, GRM3, DDEF1, EDNRB, CHRDL1, and HTR2C, and the highest deletion frequencies in THRAP3, CTTNBP2NL, GATAD2B, REL, CKAP2L, RHOA, EIF4E3, PDLIM5, FBXO3, NEUROD4, and ABCA5 in the OSCC. In the dysplasia, amplification (100%, 7/7) was detected in RNF36 and deletion in CKAP2L and TCF8. We could detect large differences with MLPA in the number of alterations between the cancer or dysplasia versus the normal area with P values of <.001.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that these DNA copy number changes on each chromosome in the 3 categories may be associated with OSCC tumorigenesis and/or progression.
Cyclin D1 expression represents one of the key mitogen-regulated events during the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, whereas Cyclin D1 overexpression is frequently associated with human malignancy. Here, we describe a novel mechanism regulating Cyclin D1 levels. We find that SNIP1, previously identified as a regulator of Cyclin D1 expression, does not, as previously thought, primarily function as a transcriptional coactivator for this gene. Rather, SNIP1 plays a critical role in cotranscriptional or posttranscriptional Cyclin D1 mRNA stability. Moreover, we show that the majority of nucleoplasmic SNIP1 is present within a previously undescribed complex containing SkIP, THRAP3, BCLAF1, and Pinin, all proteins with reported roles in RNA processing and transcriptional regulation. We find that this complex, which we have termed the SNIP1/SkIP-associated RNA-processing complex, is coordinately recruited to both the 3' end of the Cyclin D1 gene and Cyclin D1 RNA. Significantly, SNIP1 is required for the further recruitment of the RNA processing factor U2AF65 to both the Cyclin D1 gene and RNA. This study shows a novel mechanism regulating Cyclin D1 expression and offers new insight into the role of SNIP1 and associated proteins as regulators of proliferation and cancer.
Oliveira AM, Perez-Atayde AR, Dal Cin P, et al.Aneurysmal bone cyst variant translocations upregulate USP6 transcription by promoter swapping with the ZNF9, COL1A1, TRAP150, and OMD genes.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(21):3419-26 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are locally aggressive bone tumors that often feature chromosome 17p13 rearrangements. One of the ABC 17p13 rearrangements--t(16;17)(q22;p13)--was recently shown to create a CDH11-USP6 fusion in which the USP6/TRE17 oncogene is overexpressed through juxtaposition with the CDH11 promoter. Herein, we characterize four different ABC translocations involving 17p13, and we show that each is associated with a novel USP6 fusion oncogene. Specifically, we demonstrate that t(1;17), t(3;17), t(9;17), and t(17;17) result in USP6 fusions with TRAP150 (thyroid receptor-associated protein 150), ZNF9 (ZiNc Finger 9), Osteomodulin, and COL1A1 (Collagen 1A1), respectively. The oncogenic mechanism in these fusion genes is akin to CDH11-USP6, with the USP6 coding sequences juxtaposed to the promoter regions in each of the four novel translocation partners. The novel fusion partners appear well suited to drive USP6 transcription in the bone/mesenchymal context: osteomodulin is expressed strongly in osteoblastic lineages, and the COL1A1 promoter has an oncogenic role in the mesenchymal cancer dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. In summary, these studies show that USP6 oncogenic activation results from heterogeneous genomic mechanisms involving USP6 transcriptional upregulation by juxtaposition with ectopic promoters.
Paterlini-Bréchot P, Saigo K, Murakami Y, et al.Hepatitis B virus-related insertional mutagenesis occurs frequently in human liver cancers and recurrently targets human telomerase gene.
Oncogene. 2003; 22(25):3911-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Integration of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) DNA into liver cell DNA has been well established, but its implication in liver carcinogenesis is still being debated. In particular, insertion of the viral genome into cellular genes has been viewed as a rare event. By using HBV-Alu PCR, we have now isolated, from nine hepatocellular carcinomas, nine HBV-DNA integration sites showing that the viral genome mutates key regulatory cellular genes: neurotropic tyrosin receptor kinase 2 (NTRK2) gene, IL-1R-associated kinase 2 (IRAK2) gene, p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (p42MAPK1) gene, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 2 (IP3R2) gene, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) type 1 (IP3R1) gene, alpha 2,3 sialyltransferase (ST3GAL VI or SITA) gene, thyroid hormone uncoupling protein (TRUP) gene, EMX2-like gene, and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. This result brings to 15 the total number of genes targeted by HBV in a study of 22 human liver cancers. Overall, we found that both the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor gene and the telomerase gene were targeted by HBV in two different tumors. Thus, HBV frequently targets cellular genes involved in cell signalling and some of them may be preferential targets of the viral integration.