Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (3)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: VTI1A (cancer-related)
Davidsen J, Larsen S, Coskun M, et al.The VTI1A-TCF4 colon cancer fusion protein is a dominant negative regulator of Wnt signaling and is transcriptionally regulated by intestinal homeodomain factor CDX2.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0200215 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sequencing of primary colorectal tumors has identified a gene fusion in approximately 3% of colorectal cancer patients of the VTI1A and TCF7L2 genes, encoding a VTI1A-TCF4 fusion protein containing a truncated TCF4. As dysregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway is associated with colorectal cancer development and progression, the functional properties and transcriptional regulation of the VTI1A-TCF4 fusion protein may also play a role in these processes. Functional characteristics of the VTI1A-TCF4 fusion protein in Wnt signaling were analyzed in NCI-H508 and LS174T colon cancer cell lines. The NCI-H508 cell line, containing the VTI1A-TCF7L2 fusion gene, showed no active Wnt signaling, and overexpression of the VTI1A-TCF4 fusion protein in LS174T cells along with a Wnt signaling luciferase reporter plasmid showed inhibition of activity. The transcriptional regulation of the VTI1A-TCF4 fusion gene was investigated in LS174T cells where the activity of the VTI1A promoter was compared to that of the TCF7L2 promoter, and the transcription factor CDX2 was analyzed for gene regulatory activity of the VTI1A promoter through luciferase reporter gene assay using colon cancer cell lines as a model. Transfection of LS174T cells showed that the VTI1A promoter is highly active compared to the TCF7L2 promoter, and that CDX2 activates transcription of VTI1A. These results suggest that the VTI1A-TCF4 fusion protein is a dominant negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway, and that transcription of VTI1A is activated by CDX2.
Zhang M, Tang M, Fang Y, et al.Cumulative evidence for relationships between multiple variants in the VTI1A and TCF7L2 genes and cancer incidence.
Int J Cancer. 2018; 142(3):498-513 [PubMed
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Genetic studies have linked the VTI1A-TCF7L2 region with risk of multiple cancers. However, findings from these studies were generally inconclusive. We aimed to provide a synopsis of current understanding of associations between variants in the VTI1A-TCF7L2 region and cancer susceptibility. We conducted a comprehensive research synopsis and meta-analysis to evaluate associations between 17 variants in this region and risk of seven cancers using data from 32 eligible articles totaling 224,656 cancer cases and 324,845 controls. We graded cumulative evidence of significant associations using Venice criteria and false-positive report probability tests. We also conducted analyses to evaluate potential function of these variants using data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project. Eight variants showed a nominally significant association with risk of individual cancer (p < 0.05). Cumulative epidemiological evidence of an association was graded as strong for rs7903146 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.05, p = 4.13 × 10
Wang N, Deng Z, Wang M, et al.Additional evidence supports association of common genetic variants in VTI1A and ETFA with increased risk of glioma susceptibility.
J Neurol Sci. 2017; 375:282-288 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: VTI1A and ETFA were identified recently as susceptibility genes for non-glioblastoma (GBM) of glioma risk in European populations, but the genetic etiology and pathogenesis of glioma have not been fully elucidated. Here, we aimed to investigate whether common genetic variants in VTI1A and ETFA predispose Han Chinese individuals to glioma.
METHODS: The association of thirteen common tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VTI1A and ETFA genes with glioma were assessed in a hospital-based case-control study including 473 non-GBM of glioma patients and 1046 cancer-free controls.
RESULTS: Two SNPs (rs11196067 in VTI1A and rs1801591 in ETFA) were found to be significantly associated with non-GBM of glioma risk (rs11196067, adjusted P=0.00018, adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.16-1.61; rs1801591, adjusted P=0.000022, adjusted OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.34-2.20). In further stratified analysis, they were both more pronounced in the adult subgroup. In haplotype-based analysis, two haplotypes were identified to be significant association with glioma. The haplotype "TGA" (P=0.002) in VTI1A and the haplotype "ACA" (P<0.001) in ETFA had a 1.5-fold and 3-fold increased glioma risk respectively, compared with corresponding non-carriers.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our results indicate that genetic variants in VTI1A and ETFA may modify individual susceptibility to non-GBM of glioma in the Han Chinese population and support the role of the VTI1A and ETFA genes in the occurrence of glioma.
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and cigarette smoking is the major environmental hazard for its development. This study intended to examine whether smoking could alter methylation of genes at lung cancer risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs). By systematic literature review, we selected 75 genomic candidate regions based on 120 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DNA methylation levels of 2854 corresponding cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) candidates in whole blood samples were measured by the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 Beadchip array in two independent subsamples of the ESTHER study. After correction for multiple testing, we successfully confirmed associations with smoking for one previously identified CpG site within the KLF6 gene and identified 12 novel sites located in 7 genes: STK32A, TERT, MSH5, ACTA2, GATA3, VTI1A and CHRNA5 (FDR <0.05). Current smoking was linked to a 0.74% to 2.4% decrease of DNA methylation compared to never smoking in 11 loci, and all but one showed significant associations (FDR <0.05) with life-time cumulative smoking (pack-years). In conclusion, our study demonstrates the impact of tobacco smoking on DNA methylation of lung cancer related genes, which may indicate that lung cancer susceptibility genes might be regulated by methylation changes in response to smoking. Nevertheless, this mechanism warrants further exploration in future epigenetic and biomarker studies.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Known genetic factors explain only a small fraction of genetic variation in colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a genome-wide association study to identify risk loci for CRC.
METHODS: This discovery stage included 8027 cases and 22,577 controls of East-Asian ancestry. Promising variants were evaluated in studies including as many as 11,044 cases and 12,047 controls. Tumor-adjacent normal tissues from 188 patients were analyzed to evaluate correlations of risk variants with expression levels of nearby genes. Potential functionality of risk variants were evaluated using public genomic and epigenomic databases.
RESULTS: We identified 4 loci associated with CRC risk; P values for the most significant variant in each locus ranged from 3.92 × 10(-8) to 1.24 × 10(-12): 6p21.1 (rs4711689), 8q23.3 (rs2450115, rs6469656), 10q24.3 (rs4919687), and 12p13.3 (rs11064437). We also identified 2 risk variants at loci previously associated with CRC: 10q25.2 (rs10506868) and 20q13.3 (rs6061231). These risk variants, conferring an approximate 10%-18% increase in risk per allele, are located either inside or near protein-coding genes that include transcription factor EB (lysosome biogenesis and autophagy), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit H (initiation of translation), cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (steroidogenesis), splA/ryanodine receptor domain and SOCS box containing 2 (proteasome degradation), and ribosomal protein S2 (ribosome biogenesis). Gene expression analyses showed a significant association (P < .05) for rs4711689 with transcription factor EB, rs6469656 with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit H, rs11064437 with splA/ryanodine receptor domain and SOCS box containing 2, and rs6061231 with ribosomal protein S2.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified susceptibility loci and genes associated with CRC risk, linking CRC predisposition to steroid hormone, protein synthesis and degradation, and autophagy pathways and providing added insight into the mechanism of CRC pathogenesis.
Su WM, Chen ZH, Zhang XC, et al.Single nucleotide polymorphisms in VTI1A gene contribute to the susceptibility of Chinese population to non-small cell lung cancer.
Int J Biol Markers. 2015; 30(3):e286-93 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have determined a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) called VTI1A (rs7086803) that induces lung cancer susceptibility in nonsmoking women in Asia. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the VTI1A gene and the susceptibility of Chinese patients to lung cancer; it was also conducted to investigate the relationship between VTI1A SNP and adiponectin receptor 1 expression.
METHODS: A total of 887 subjects were enrolled in this study. VTI1A (rs7086803) genotypes were determined by genotyping. Overall survival (OS) was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis with a log-rank test.
RESULTS: Multivariate regression analysis results indicated that the AA genotype of VTI1A (rs7086803) polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of developing non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) compared with the GG genotype (AA vs. GG: odds ratio [OR] = 2.020; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.033-3.949, p = 0.037). The AA genotype of VTI1A (rs7086803) in smokers predicted significantly shorter OS (median survival time [MST]: AA 9.8 months, AG 19.3 months, GG 12.2 months, p = 0.017). Adiponectin receptor 1 expression in tumor tissues with the AA genotype was significantly lower than that for other genotypes (mean rank: AA 18.55, AG 25, GG 45.76, p = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the allele A of VTI1A (rs7086803) may be the allele contributing to the risk of lung cancer susceptibility in Chinese population. Smoking lung cancer patients with the AA genotype of VTI1A gene (rs7086803) had a poor survival rate. Adiponectin receptor 1 expression may be correlated with the susceptibility of the allele A of VTI1A.
The genetic basis of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well explained by known risk polymorphisms. Here we perform a meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies in 2,627 cases and 3,797 controls of Japanese ancestry and 1,894 cases and 4,703 controls of African ancestry, to identify genetic variants that contribute to CRC susceptibility. We replicate genome-wide statistically significant associations (P<5 × 10(-8)) in 16,823 cases and 18,211 controls of European ancestry. This study reveals a new pan-ethnic CRC risk locus at 10q25 (rs12241008, intronic to VTI1A; P=1.4 × 10(-9)), providing additional insight into the aetiology of CRC and highlighting the value of association mapping in diverse populations.
Shanmugam V, Ramanathan RK, Lavender NA, et al.Whole genome sequencing reveals potential targets for therapy in patients with refractory KRAS mutated metastatic colorectal cancer.
BMC Med Genomics. 2014; 7:36 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) following first line therapy is poor, with median survival of less than one year. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate therapeutically targetable somatic events in mCRC patient samples by whole genome sequencing (WGS), so as to obtain targeted treatment strategies for individual patients.
METHODS: Four patients were recruited, all of whom had received > 2 prior therapy regimens. Percutaneous needle biopsies of metastases were performed with whole blood collection for the extraction of constitutional DNA. One tumor was not included in this study as the quality of tumor tissue was not sufficient for further analysis. WGS was performed using Illumina paired end chemistry on HiSeq2000 sequencing systems, which yielded coverage of greater than 30X for all samples. NGS data were processed and analyzed to detect somatic genomic alterations including point mutations, indels, copy number alterations, translocations and rearrangements.
RESULTS: All 3 tumor samples had KRAS mutations, while 2 tumors contained mutations in the APC gene and the PIK3CA gene. Although we did not identify a TCF7L2-VTI1A translocation, we did detect a TCF7L2 mutation in one tumor. Among the other interesting mutated genes was INPPL1, an important gene involved in PI3 kinase signaling. Functional studies demonstrated that inhibition of INPPL1 reduced growth of CRC cells, suggesting that INPPL1 may promote growth in CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study further supports potential molecularly defined therapeutic contexts that might provide insights into treatment strategies for refractory mCRC. New insights into the role of INPPL1 in colon tumor cell growth have also been identified. Continued development of appropriate targeted agents towards specific events may be warranted to help improve outcomes in CRC.
VTI1A-TCF7L2 was reported as a recurrent fusion gene in colorectal cancer (CRC), found to be expressed in three out of 97 primary cancers, and one cell line, NCI-H508, where a genomic deletion joins the two genes . To investigate this fusion further, we analyzed high-throughput DNA and RNA sequencing data from seven CRC cell lines, and identified the gene RP11-57H14.3 (ENSG00000225292) as a novel fusion partner for TCF7L2. The fusion was discovered from both genome and transcriptome data in the HCT116 cell line. By triplicate nested RT-PCR, we tested both the novel fusion transcript and VTI1A-TCF7L2 for expression in a series of 106 CRC tissues, 21 CRC cell lines, 14 normal colonic mucosa, and 20 normal tissues from miscellaneous anatomical sites. Altogether, 42% and 45% of the CRC samples expressed VTI1A-TCF7L2 and TCF7L2-RP11-57H14.3 fusion transcripts, respectively. The fusion transcripts were both seen in 29% of the normal colonic mucosa samples, and in 25% and 75% of the tested normal tissues from other organs, revealing that the TCF7L2 fusion transcripts are neither specific to cancer nor to the colon and rectum. Seven different splice variants were detected for the VTI1A-TCF7L2 fusion, of which three are novel. Four different splice variants were detected for the TCF7L2-RP11-57H14.3 fusion. In conclusion, we have identified novel variants of VTI1A-TCF7L2 fusion transcripts, including a novel fusion partner gene, RP11-57H14.3, and demonstrated detectable levels in a large fraction of CRC samples, as well as in normal colonic mucosa and other tissue types. We suggest that the fusion transcripts observed in a high frequency of samples are transcription induced chimeras that are expressed at low levels in most samples. The similar fusion transcripts induced by genomic rearrangements observed in individual cancer cell lines may yet have oncogenic potential as suggested in the original study by Bass et al.
Petrini S, Minnone G, Coccetti M, et al.Monocytes and macrophages as biomarkers for the diagnosis of megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts.
Mol Cell Neurosci. 2013; 56:307-21 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC) is a rare congenital leukodystrophy characterized by macrocephaly, subcortical cysts and demyelination. The majority of patients harbor mutations in the MLC1 gene encoding for a membrane protein with largely unknown function. Mutations in MLC1 hamper its normal trafficking and distribution in cell membranes, leading to enhanced degradation. MLC1 protein is highly expressed in brain astrocytes and in circulating blood cells, particularly monocytes. We used these easily available cells and monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy donors and MLC1-mutated patients to study MLC1 expression and localization, and to investigate how defective MLC1 mutations may affect macrophage functions. RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence analyses show that MLC1 is expressed in both monocytes and macrophages, and its biosynthesis follows protein trafficking between endoplasmic reticulum and trans-Golgi network and the secretory pathway to the cell surface. MLC1 is transported along the endosomal recycling pathway passing through Rab5+ and Rab11A+vesicles before lysosomal degradation. Alterations in MLC1 trafficking and distribution were observed in macrophages from MLC1-mutated patients, which also showed changes in the expression and localization of several proteins involved in plasma membrane permeability, ion and water homeostasis and ion-regulated exocytosis. As a consequence of these alterations, patient-derived macrophages show abnormal cell morphology and intracellular calcium influx and altered response to hypo-osmotic stress. Our results suggest that blood-derived macrophages may give relevant information on MLC1 function and may be considered as valid biomarkers for MLC diagnosis and for investigating therapeutic strategies aimed to restore MLC1 trafficking in patient cells.
Prior studies have identified recurrent oncogenic mutations in colorectal adenocarcinoma and have surveyed exons of protein-coding genes for mutations in 11 affected individuals. Here we report whole-genome sequencing from nine individuals with colorectal cancer, including primary colorectal tumors and matched adjacent non-tumor tissues, at an average of 30.7× and 31.9× coverage, respectively. We identify an average of 75 somatic rearrangements per tumor, including complex networks of translocations between pairs of chromosomes. Eleven rearrangements encode predicted in-frame fusion proteins, including a fusion of VTI1A and TCF7L2 found in 3 out of 97 colorectal cancers. Although TCF7L2 encodes TCF4, which cooperates with β-catenin in colorectal carcinogenesis, the fusion lacks the TCF4 β-catenin-binding domain. We found a colorectal carcinoma cell line harboring the fusion gene to be dependent on VTI1A-TCF7L2 for anchorage-independent growth using RNA interference-mediated knockdown. This study shows previously unidentified levels of genomic rearrangements in colorectal carcinoma that can lead to essential gene fusions and other oncogenic events.
Li HC, Tahara H, Tsuyama N, Ide TA hVti1 homologue: its expression depends on population doubling levels in both normal and SV40-transformed human fibroblasts.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998; 247(1):70-4 [PubMed
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A cDNA clone was isolated by differential colony hybridization from a cDNA library prepared from life-extended SV40-transformed human fibroblasts. The clone, tentatively named N-10, was 1272 bp in length coding for 232 amino acids. Northern analysis revealed that the expression level of N-10 was increased in normal senescent and life-extended SV40-transformed fibroblasts than in their young counterparts but was not enhanced by growth arrest. The protein fused to GFP (green fluorescent protein) localized in cytoplasmic granule. Enforced expression of N-10 resulted in premature senescence in young fibroblasts. The deduced amino acid sequence of N-10 was identical to the recently reported hVti1 gene except in one amino acid: Asp24(GAC) was ours and Asn24 (AAC) was reported. Additional base differences were found, so we referred to our sequence as the hVti1 homologue. As hVti1 protein was suggested to be involved in the vesicle transport process, the homologue may be concerned with increased secretion of extracellular matrix and various cytokines associated with cellular senescence.