Gene Summary

Gene:CYP17A1; cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A member 1
Aliases: CPT7, CYP17, S17AH, P450C17
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. It has both 17alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities and is a key enzyme in the steroidogenic pathway that produces progestins, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. Mutations in this gene are associated with isolated steroid-17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, pseudohermaphroditism, and adrenal hyperplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (41)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Sweden
  • Estrogens
  • Genotype
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Weight Loss
  • Taiwan
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
  • Aromatase
  • Odds Ratio
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Washington
  • Adolescents
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Risk Factors
  • Catechol O-Methyltransferase
  • Polymorphism
  • CYP17A1
  • Messenger RNA
  • Case-Control Studies
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme
  • Chromosome 10
  • Postmenopause
  • Alleles
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Promoter Regions
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Uterine Cancer
  • Mutation
  • Steroid 21-Hydroxylase
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Androgens
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Signal Transduction
  • Adrenocortical Cancer
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Testosterone
  • Breast Cancer
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CYP17A1 (cancer-related)

Niu WX, Zhou CX, Cheng CD, et al.
Effects of lentivirus-mediated CYP17A1 gene silencing on the biological activity of glioma.
Neurosci Lett. 2019; 692:210-215 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gliomas are the most common malignant primary brain tumors with poor prognosis. We attempted to explore the role of CYP17A1 in glioma progression. We demonstrated that the expression of CYP17A1 was significantly higher in the glioma tissues than the normal brain tissues, especially in malignant glioma. Moreover, the expression of CYP17A1 gene was positively correlative with glioma pathological grades. In vitro, CYP17A1 gene silence inhibited the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells and promoted the apoptosis in glioma cells. Also, the subcutaneously transplanted tumour in BALB/C-nu showed that CYP17A1 gene silence inhibited glioma growth. These results reveal that CYP17A1 plays a major role in the progress of glioma.

Kakuta H, Iguchi T, Sato T
The Involvement of Granulosa Cells in the Regulation by Gonadotropins of
In Vivo. 2018 Nov-Dec; 32(6):1387-1401 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Theca cells produce androgen by 17α-hydroxylase-17,20-lyase encoded by Cyp17a1, and conversion of androgen to estrogen in granulosa cells is regulated by gonadotropins. Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) exhibit elevated levels of androgens due to high Cyp17a1 expression and alterations in gene expression in granulosa cells. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction between theca and granulosa cells in PCOS-model mice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To produce PCOS-model mice, neonatal mice were injected with 1 μg TP for 3 days from the day of birth. Gonadotropins were injected according to the superovulation protocol to 3-month-old control mice and PCOS-model mice. Histological changes and expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis, ovulation and luteinization were investigated by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR, respectively.
RESULTS: Pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) induced the expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis in control prepubertal mice, whereas human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) reduced Cyp17a1 expression and induced phospho-ERK1/2 in granulosa cells. Cyp17a1 was reduced in PMSG-primed PCOS-model mice regardless of hCG injection, and PMSG induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in granulosa cells.
CONCLUSION: Phospho-ERK1/2 in granulosa cells can be correlated with reduced Cyp17a1 expression in theca cells, and the interaction between granulosa and theca cells may be impaired in PCOS-model mice.

Cheng L, Li L, Wang L, et al.
A random forest classifier predicts recurrence risk in patients with ovarian cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 18(3):3289-3297 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with a poor prognosis due to difficulties in early detection. The aims of the present study were to construct a recurrence risk prediction model and to reveal important OC genes or pathways. RNA sequencing data was obtained for 307 OC samples, and the corresponding clinical data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Additionally, two validation datasets, GSE44104 (20 recurrent and 40 non‑recurrent OC samples) and GSE49997 (204 OC samples), were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes were screened using the differential expression via distance synthesis algorithm, followed by gene ontology enrichment analysis and weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). Furthermore, subnetwork analysis was conducted for the protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network using the BioNet package. Finally, a random forest classifier was constructed based on the subnetwork nodes, and its reliability was validated using the GSE44104 and GSE49997 validation datasets. A total of 44 upregulated and 117 downregulated genes were identified in the recurrent samples. Enrichment analysis indicated that cytochrome P450 family 17 subfamily A member 1 (CYP17A1) was associated with 'positive regulation of steroid hormone biosynthetic processes'. WGCNA identified turquoise and grey modules that were significantly correlated with status and prognosis. A significant PPI subnetwork containing 16 nodes was also identified, including: Transcription factor GATA‑4; fibroblast growth factor 9; aromatase; 3β‑hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/δ5‑4‑isomerase type 2; corticosteroid 11β‑dehydrogenase isozyme 1; CYP17A1; pituitary homeobox 2; left‑right determination factor 1; homeobox protein ARX; estrogen receptor β; steroidogenic factor 1; forkhead box protein L2; myocardin; steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mitochondrial; vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter; and twist‑related protein 1. A random forest classifier was constructed using the subnetwork nodes as feature genes, which exhibited a 92% true positive rate when classifying recurrent and non‑recurrent OC samples. The classifying efficiency of the random forest classifier was validated using the two other independent datasets. Overall, 44 upregulated and 117 downregulated genes associated with OC recurrence were identified. Furthermore, the 16 subnetwork node genes that were identified may be important molecules in OC recurrence.

Penning TM
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-SO
Vitam Horm. 2018; 108:309-331 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-SO

Inoue K, Yamazaki Y, Kitamoto T, et al.
Aldosterone Suppression by Dexamethasone in Patients With KCNJ5-Mutated Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018; 103(9):3477-3485 [PubMed] Related Publications
Context: Aldosterone biosynthesis is regulated principally by ACTH and gene mutations as well as by angiotensin II and serum potassium. In addition, previous studies have reported the potential effects of KCNJ5 mutations in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) on cardiovascular diseases. However, responsiveness to ACTH in APAs according to potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 5 (KCNJ5) mutations remains unknown.
Objective: To investigate KCNJ5 genotype-specific differences in aldosterone biosynthesis in response to ACTH stimulation.
Design and Setting: A cross-sectional study through retrieval of clinical records.
Participants: One hundred forty-one patients aged ≥20 years with APA were examined.
Main Outcome Measures: Associations between KCNJ5 mutations and clinical parameters reflecting the renin-angiotensin system [saline infusion test (SIT)] and ACTH pathways [dexamethasone suppression test (DST)].
Results: KCNJ5 mutations were detected in 107 cases. In the crude comparison, patients with mutations in KCNJ5 had higher plasma aldosterone concentrations (PACs) both at baseline and after the SIT. PAC after the DST showed a significant inverse association with KCNJ5 genotypes after controlling for age, sex, tumor size, and PAC after the SIT. Immunohistochemical analysis of 101 cases revealed more abundant immunoreactivity of CYP11B1 and CYP17 in the KCNJ5-mutated group than in the KCNJ5 wild-type group.
Conclusion: This report of marked suppression of PAC by dexamethasone in patients with KCNJ5-mutated APAs indicates that such APAs respond to endogenous ACTH more readily than APAs in nonmutated cases. Further molecular and epidemiologic studies are required to validate our results and clarify the clinical effectiveness of the DST for predicting KCNJ5 mutations before adrenalectomy.

Simigdala N, Pancholi S, Ribas R, et al.
Abiraterone shows alternate activity in models of endocrine resistant and sensitive disease.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 119(3):313-322 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Resistance to endocrine therapy remains a major clinical problem in the treatment of oestrogen-receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Studies show androgen-receptor (AR) remains present in 80-90% of metastatic breast cancers providing support for blockade of AR-signalling. However, clinical studies with abiraterone, which blocks cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) showed limited benefit.
METHODS: In order to address this, we assessed the impact of abiraterone on cell-viability, cell-death, ER-mediated transactivation and recruitment to target promoters. together with ligand-binding assays in a panel of ER+ breast cancer cell lines that were either oestrogen-dependent, modelling endocrine-sensitive disease, or oestrogen-independent modelling relapse on an aromatase inhibitor. The latter, harboured wild-type (wt) or naturally occurring ESR1 mutations.
RESULTS: Similar to oestrogen, abiraterone showed paradoxical impact on proliferation by stimulating cell growth or death, depending on whether the cells are hormone-dependent or have undergone prolonged oestrogen-deprivation, respectively. Abiraterone increased ER-turnover, induced ER-mediated transactivation and ER-degradation via the proteasome.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the oestrogenic activity of abiraterone and highlights its differential impact on cells dependent on oestrogen for their proliferation vs. those that are ligand-independent and harbour wt or mutant ESR1. These properties could impact the clinical efficacy of abiraterone in breast cancer.

Kaur R, Kaur T, Kaur A
Genetic association study from North India to analyze association of CYP19A1 and CYP17A1 with polycystic ovary syndrome.
J Assist Reprod Genet. 2018; 35(6):1123-1129 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex multifactorial endocrine disorder affecting approximately 5-10% of women of reproductive age. Affected women have menstrual disturbances due to anovulation, infertility, and hyperandrogenism. Ovarian androgen overproduction is the key physiopathologic feature of PCOS. A number of genes encoding major enzymes of the androgen metabolic pathways, such as HSD17B6, CYP19A1, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, and INSR, have been examined. Very few studies have been done in North India. There is an increasing prevalence of PCOS in women in Punjab and it is the leading cause of female infertility. In view of the strong evidence implicating the importance of CYP19A1 and CYP17A1 in androgen metabolic pathways, we investigated the association of rs700519, rs2414096, and rs743572 (- 34T>C) polymorphisms on susceptibility of developing PCOS, in North India.
METHODS: A total of 500 subjects (women of reproductive age) including 250 PCOS cases and 250 healthy age-matched controls were included in the present study. DNA was extracted from venous blood for all samples, and association analysis for rs2414096, rs700519, and rs743572 was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Lipid profile was done using a biochemical analyzer and body mass index (BMI) was measured for all cases. Statistical analysis was performed.
RESULTS: Significant association of - 34T>C polymorphism of CYP17A1 was found with PCOS (p = 0.0005). BMI was statistically different between PCOS cases and controls (p = 0.000). Triglycerides were high in PCOS women. Variations of CYP19A1 were not statistically significant with PCOS.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that - 34T>C polymorphism in CYP17A1 is associated with PCOS in North India. No polymorphism of CYP19A1 was found to be associated.

Wielsøe M, Eiberg H, Ghisari M, et al.
Genetic Variations, Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Breast Cancer Risk - A Greenlandic Case-Control Study.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2018; 123(3):335-346 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study investigated the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in xenobiotic and steroid hormone-metabolizing genes in relation to breast cancer risk and explored possible effect modifications on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and breast cancer associations. The study also assessed effects of Greenlandic BRCA1 founder mutations. Greenlandic Inuit women (77 cases and 84 controls) were included. We determined two founder mutations in BRCA1: Cys39Gly (rs80357164) and 4684delCC, and five SNPs in xenobiotic and oestrogen-metabolizing genes: CYP17A1 -34T>C (rs743572), CYP19A1 *19C>T (rs10046), CYP1A1 Ile462Val (rs1048943), CYP1B Leu432Val (rs1056836) and COMT Val158Met (rs4680). We used chi-square test for comparison of categorical variables between groups. Odds ratio (OR) estimates with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were obtained using logistic regression models. The variant allele of BRCA1 Cys39Gly increased breast cancer risk (Gly/Cys versus Cys/Cys, OR: 12.2, 95%CI: 1.53; 98.1), and carriers of the variant allele of CYP17A1 -34T>C had reduced risk (CT+CC versus TT, OR: 0.44, 95%CI: 0.21; 0.93). CYP17A1 -34T>C was an effect modifier on the association between perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and breast cancer risk (∑PFAA, ratio of OR: 0.18, 95%CI: 0.03; 0.97). Non-significant modifying tendencies were seen for the other SNPs on the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and PFAAs. In summary, the BRCA1 Cys39Gly and CYP17A1 -34T>C genetic variations were associated with breast cancer risk. Our results indicate that the evaluated genetic variants modify the effects of POP exposure on breast cancer risk; however, further studies are needed to document the data from the relatively small sample size.

Xiao L, Wang Y, Xu K, et al.
Nuclear Receptor LRH-1 Functions to Promote Castration-Resistant Growth of Prostate Cancer via Its Promotion of Intratumoral Androgen Biosynthesis.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(9):2205-2218 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeting of steroidogenic enzymes (e.g., abiraterone acetate targeting CYP17A1) has been developed as a novel therapeutic strategy against metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, resistance to steroidal inhibitors inevitably develops in patients, the mechanisms of which remain largely unknown. Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1,

Kmeťová Sivoňová M, Jurečeková J, Tatarková Z, et al.
The role of CYP17A1 in prostate cancer development: structure, function, mechanism of action, genetic variations and its inhibition.
Gen Physiol Biophys. 2017; 36(5):487-499 [PubMed] Related Publications
Androgens play an important role during the development of both normal prostate epithelium and prostate cancer and variants of genes involved in androgen metabolism may be related to an increased risk of prostate disease. Cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) is a key regulatory enzyme in the steroidogenic pathway; it catalyses both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities and is essential for the production of both androgens and glucocorticoids. In this review, we focus on the structure and enzymatic activity of CYP17A1 and the mechanism of modulation of CYP17A1 activities. We discuss the relationship between common genetic variations in CYP17A1 gene and prostate cancer risk and the main effects of these variations on the prediction of susceptibility and clinical outcomes of prostate cancer patients. The mechanism of action, the efficacy and the clinical potential of CYP17A1 inhibitors in prostate cancer are also summarized.

Tang L, Platek ME, Yao S, et al.
Associations between polymorphisms in genes related to estrogen metabolism and function and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.
Carcinogenesis. 2018; 39(2):125-133 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Substantial preclinical data suggest estrogen's carcinogenic role in prostate cancer development; however, epidemiological evidence based on circulating estrogen levels is largely null. Compared with circulating estrogen, the intraprostatic estrogen milieu may play a more important role in prostate carcinogenesis. Using a nested case-control design in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), we examined associations of genetic variants of genes that are involved in estrogen synthesis, metabolism and function with prostate cancer risk. A total of 25 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 13 genes (PGR, ESR1, ESR2, CYP17A1, HSD17B1, CYP19A1, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, COMT, UGT1A6, UGT1A10, UGT2B7, UGT2B15) were examined in whites only. Controls (n = 1380) were frequency matched to cases on age, PCPT treatment arm, and family history (n = 1506). Logistic regression models adjusted for age and family history were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) separately in the placebo and finasteride arms. SNPs associated with prostate cancer risk differed by treatment arm. The associations appeared to be modified by circulating estrogen and androgen levels. CYP19A1 was the only gene harboring SNPs that were significantly associated with risk in both the placebo and finasteride arms. Haplotype analysis with all three CYP19A1 SNPs genotyped (rs700518, rs2445765, rs700519) showed that risk-allele haplotypes are associated with the increased prostate cancer risk in both arms when comparing with the non-risk allele haplotype. In conclusion, associations between SNPs in estrogen-related genes and prostate cancer risk are complex and may be modified by circulating hormone levels and finasteride treatment.

De Mattia E, Cecchin E, Polesel J, et al.
Genetic biomarkers for hepatocellular cancer risk in a caucasian population.
World J Gastroenterol. 2017; 23(36):6674-6684 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To uncover novel genetic markers that could contribute to predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptibility in Caucasians.
METHODS: The present retrospective case-control study compared genotype frequencies between a cohort of HCC cases and two, independent, HCC-free, age/sex-matched control groups. The HCC cohort comprised 192 homogeneous patients that had undergone orthotopic liver transplantation. The first control group comprised 167 patients that were matched to the HCC cohort for the percentage of hepatitis B (HBV) and/or hepatitis C (HCV) infections. A second control group included 192 virus-free, healthy individuals that were used to evaluate the generalizability of the identified predictive markers. All cases and controls were Caucasian. The three study populations were characterized with a panel of 31 markers derived from 21 genes that encoded key proteins involved in hepatocarcinogenesis-related pathways. The study end-point was to assess the association between genetic variants and HCC onset.
RESULTS: Five genetic markers were identified as risk factors for HCC in high-risk patients infected with HBV/HCV. According to a dominant model, reduced HCC risk was associated with three polymorphisms:
CONCLUSION: We identified five polymorphisms and interactions that contributed crucially to predicting HCC risk. These findings represented an important step towards improving HCC diagnosis and management.

Qin S, Liu D, Kohli M, et al.
TSPYL Family Regulates CYP17A1 and CYP3A4 Expression: Potential Mechanism Contributing to Abiraterone Response in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2018; 104(1):201-210 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The testis-specific Y-encoded-like protein (TSPYL) gene family includes TSPYL1 to TSPYL6. We previously reported that TSPYL5 regulates cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19A1 expression. Here we show that TSPYLs, especially TSPYL 1, 2, and 4, can regulate the expression of many CYP genes, including CYP17A1, a key enzyme in androgen biosynthesis, and CYP3A4, an enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of abiraterone, a CYP17 inhibitor. Furthermore, a common TSPYL1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs3828743 (G/A) (Pro62Ser), abolishes TSPYL1's ability to suppress CYP3A4 expression, resulting in reduced abiraterone concentrations and increased cell proliferation. Data from a prospective clinical trial of 87 metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with abiraterone acetate/prednisone showed that the variant SNP genotype (A) was significantly associated with worse response and progression-free survival. In summary, TSPYL genes are novel CYP gene transcription regulators, and genetic alteration within these genes significantly influences response to drug therapy through transcriptional regulation of CYP450 genes.

Robles-Fernandez I, Martinez-Gonzalez LJ, Pascual-Geler M, et al.
Association between polymorphisms in sex hormones synthesis and metabolism and prostate cancer aggressiveness.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0185447 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Novel biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and prognosis are necessary to improve the accuracy of current ones employed in clinic. We performed a retrospective study between the association of several polymorphisms in the main genes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of sex hormones and PCa risk and aggressiveness. A total of 311 Caucasian men (155 controls and 156 patients) were genotyped for 9 SNPs in AR, CYP17A1, LHCGR, ESR1 and ESR2 genes. Diagnostic PSA serum levels, Gleason score, tumor stage, D´Amico risk and data of clinical progression were obtained for patients at the moment of the diagnosis and after 54 months of follow-up. Chi-squared test were used for comparisons between clinical variables groups, logistic regression for clinical variables associations between SNPs; and Kaplan-Meier for the association between SNPs and time to biochemical progression. We found 5 variants (CYP17A1) rs743572, rs6162, rs6163; (LHCGR) rs2293275 and (ESR2) rs1256049 that were statistically significant according to clinical variables (PSA, D´Amico risk and T stage) on a case-case analysis. Moreover, the presence of A and G alleles in rs743572 and rs6162 respectively, increase the risk of higher PSA levels (>10 ng/μl). With respect to D´Amico risk rs743572 (AG-GG), rs6162 (AG-AA) and rs6163 (AC-AA) were associated with an increased risk; and last, AC and AA genotypes for rs6163 were associated with a shorter biochemical recurrence free survival (BRFS) in patients with radical prostatectomy. In multigene analysis, several variants in SNPs rs2293275, rs6152, rs1062577, rs6162, rs6163, rs1256049 and rs1004467 were described to be associated with a more aggressiveness in patients. However, none of the selected SNPs show significant values between patients and controls. In conclusion, this study identified inherited variants in genes CYP17A1, LHCGR and ESR2 related to more aggressiveness and/or a poor progression of the disease. According to this study, new promise PCa biomarkers for clinical management could be included in these previous SNPs.

Masoodi KZ, Eisermann K, Yang Z, et al.
Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Function and Level in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells by 2-[(isoxazol-4-ylmethyl)thio]-1-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)ethanone.
Endocrinology. 2017; 158(10):3152-3161 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) as well as in the resistance to the second-generation AR antagonist enzalutamide and the selective inhibitor of cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) abiraterone. Novel agents targeting AR may inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells resistant to enzalutamide and/or abiraterone. Through a high-throughput/high-content screening of a 220,000-member small molecule library, we have previously identified 2-[(isoxazol-4-ylmethyl)thio]-1-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)ethanone (IMTPPE) (SID 3712502) as a novel small molecule capable of inhibiting AR transcriptional activity and protein level in C4-2 prostate cancer cells. In this study, we show that IMTPPE inhibits AR-target gene expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and luciferase assays. IMTPPE inhibited proliferation of AR-positive, but not AR-negative, prostate cancer cells in culture. IMTPPE inhibited the transcriptional activity of a mutant AR lacking the ligand-binding domain (LBD), indicating that IMTPPE inhibition of AR is independent of the LBD. Furthermore, animal studies showed that IMTPPE inhibited the growth of 22Rv1 xenograft tumor, a model for enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer. These findings suggest that IMTPPE is a potential lead compound for developing clinical candidates for the treatment of CRPC, including those resistant to enzalutamide.

Dos Santos EVW, Alves LNR, Louro ID
Steroid metabolism gene polymorphisms and their implications on breast and ovarian cancer prognosis.
Genet Mol Res. 2017; 16(3) [PubMed] Related Publications
A role for estrogen in the etiology of breast and ovarian cancers has been suggested; therefore, genetic polymorphisms in steroid metabolism genes could be involved in the carcinogenesis of these tumors. We have aimed to investigate the role of GSTP1 and CYP17 polymorphisms and their correlation with MSI (microsatellite instability) and LOH (loss of heterozygosity) in AR, ERβ and CYP19 genes in women from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The study population consisted of 107 female breast and 24 ovarian tumors. GSTP1 and CYP17 polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis while MSI and LOH were analyzed by PCR. GSTP1 and CYP17 polymorphisms alone were not associated with an increased risk for breast or ovarian tumors. However, when combined with MSI/LOH in AR, ERβ and CYP19 genes, we were able to detect significant associations with the GSTP1 wild-type genotype in PR (progesterone receptor) negative breast cancers or the CYP17 wild-type genotype in ER (estrogen receptor) and PR-negative breast tumors. No associations with ovarian tumors were detected. Our results suggest that wild-type GSTP1 or CYP17 genes when combined with LOH/MSI in steroid metabolism genes may play a role in ER and/or PR negative breast cancers. These data support the hypothesis that genes related to steroid metabolism are important in the characterization of breast cancer and that the analysis of single polymorphisms may not be sufficient.

Alyamani M, Li Z, Berk M, et al.
Steroidogenic Metabolism of Galeterone Reveals a Diversity of Biochemical Activities.
Cell Chem Biol. 2017; 24(7):825-832.e6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Galeterone is a steroidal CYP17A1 inhibitor, androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, and AR degrader, under evaluation in a phase III clinical trial for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The A/B steroid ring (Δ

Tan GC, Negro G, Pinggera A, et al.
Aldosterone-Producing Adenomas: Histopathology-Genotype Correlation and Identification of a Novel
Hypertension. 2017; 70(1):129-136 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in

Gorsic LK, Kosova G, Werstein B, et al.
Pathogenic Anti-Müllerian Hormone Variants in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017; 102(8):2862-2872 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine condition, is the leading cause of anovulatory infertility.
Objective: Given that common disease-susceptibility variants account for only a small percentage of the estimated PCOS heritability, we tested the hypothesis that rare variants contribute to this deficit in heritability.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Unbiased whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 80 patients with PCOS and 24 reproductively normal control subjects identified potentially deleterious variants in AMH, the gene encoding anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH). Targeted sequencing of AMH of 643 patients with PCOS and 153 control patients was used to replicate WGS findings.
Main Outcome Measures: Dual luciferase reporter assays measured the impact of the variants on downstream AMH signaling.
Results: We found 24 rare (minor allele frequency < 0.01) AMH variants in patients with PCOS and control subjects; 18 variants were specific to women with PCOS. Seventeen of 18 (94%) PCOS-specific variants had significantly reduced AMH signaling, whereas none of 6 variants observed in control subjects showed significant defects in signaling. Thus, we identified rare AMH coding variants that reduced AMH-mediated signaling in a subset of patients with PCOS.
Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study is the first to identify rare genetic variants associated with a common PCOS phenotype. Our findings suggest decreased AMH signaling as a mechanism for the pathogenesis of PCOS. AMH decreases androgen biosynthesis by inhibiting CYP17 activity; a potential mechanism of action for AMH variants in PCOS, therefore, is to increase androgen biosynthesis due to decreased AMH-mediated inhibition of CYP17 activity.

Innocenti F, Cerquetti L, Pezzilli S, et al.
Effect of mitotane on mouse ovarian follicle development and fertility.
J Endocrinol. 2017; 234(1):29-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitotane (MTT) is an adrenolytic drug used in advanced and adjuvant treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma, in Cushing's disease and in ectopic syndrome. However, knowledge about its effects on the ovary is still scarce. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of MTT on the ovary using

Yoo C, Kang J, Kim D, et al.
Multiplexed gene expression profiling identifies the FGFR4 pathway as a novel biomarker in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(24):38592-38601 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) pathway is an essential regulatory component of bile acid synthesis, and its relationship with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been reported. We investigated the gene expression and clinical significance of FGFR4 and related pathways in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA).
RESULTS: The median age was 56 years (range 30-78) and 34 patients (74%) were male. Six patients (13%) had hepatitis B virus infection, with or without liver cirrhosis. Overall survival was significantly associated with FGFR4 (p = 0.004), FGF19 (p = 0.047), FGF21 (p = 0.04), and KLB (p = 0.03) expression. In the multivariate analysis with potential prognostic factors, high expression of FGF19, FGF21, and FGFR4 was significantly associated with better survival. In the analysis using the TCGA iCCA dataset, mRNA overexpression of at least 1 of the FGFR4-related genes was significantly associated with better disease-free survival (p = 0.02).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed the expression of 98 genes in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumor tissue specimens from 46 patients with surgically resected iCCA using a NanoString platform. This included 10 FGF pathway genes (e.g. FGFR1-4, KLB, FGF3, 4, 19, 21, and 23), 19 distal marker genes (e.g. CYP7A1 and CYP17A1), 31 genes relevant to HCC and iCCA (e.g. AFP, TS), 18 copy number variation matched genes, and 20 control genes. Log-transformation of gene expression was performed for normalization and statistical analysis. Overall survival was correlated with gene expression (< median vs. ≥ median) using a log-rank test. The prognostic impact of FGFR4-related genes was validated using the public TCGA dataset for iCCA.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that mRNA expression of FGFR4-related genes may be a biomarker to define the distinctive molecular phenotype of iCCA. Future preclinical and clinical validation is required to define the role of the FGFR4 pathway in iCCA.

Ghisari M, Long M, Røge DM, et al.
Polymorphism in xenobiotic and estrogen metabolizing genes, exposure to perfluorinated compounds and subsequent breast cancer risk: A nested case-control study in the Danish National Birth Cohort.
Environ Res. 2017; 154:325-333 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present case-cohort study based on prospective data from Danish women, we aimed to estimate the main effect of polymorphisms in genes known to be involved in the steroid hormone metabolic pathway and xenobiotic metabolism on the risk of developing breast cancer. We also studied a possible effect measure modification between genotypes and levels of serum perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) on the risk to breast cancer. We have previously reported a weak association between serum PFASs levels and the risk of breast cancer for this study population of Danish pregnant nulliparous women as well as in a smaller case-control study of Greenlandic women. The study population consisted of 178 breast cancer cases and 233 controls (tabnulliparous and frequency matched on age) nested within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), which was established in 1996-2002. Blood samples were drawn at the time of enrollment (6-14 week of gestation). Serum levels of 10 perfluorocarboxylated acids (PFCAs), 5 perfluorosulfonated acids (PFSAs) and 1 sulfonamide (perflurooctane-sulfonamide, PFOSA) were measured. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1A1 (Ile462Val; rs1048943), CYP1B1 (Leu432Val; rs1056836), COMT (Val158Met; rs4680), CYP17A1 (A1→ A2; rs743572); CYP19A1 (C→T; rs10046) by the TaqMan allelic discrimination method. In overall, no significant associations were found between the investigated polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer in this study among Danish women. The previously found association between PFOSA and risk of breast cancer did vary between different genotypes, with significantly increased risk confined to homozygous carriers of the following alleles: COMT (Met), CYP17 (A1) and CYP19 (C).
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that polymorphisms in COMT, CYP17 and CYP19 which are involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism can modulate the potential effects of PFOSA exposure on the development of breast cancer.

Han D, Gao S, Valencia K, et al.
A novel nonsense mutation in androgen receptor confers resistance to CYP17 inhibitor treatment in prostate cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(4):6796-6808 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The standard treatment for prostate cancer (PCa) is androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) that blocks transcriptional activity of androgen receptor (AR). However, ADT invariably leads to the development of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) with restored activity of AR. CRPC can be further treated with CYP17 inhibitors to block androgen synthesis pathways, but most patients still relapse after a year of such treatment. The mechanisms that drive this progression are not fully understood, but AR activity, at least in a subset of cancers, appears to be restored again. Importantly, AR mutations are more frequently detected in this type of cancer. By analyzing tumor biopsy mRNA from CRPC patients who had developed resistance to CYP17 inhibitor treatment, we have identified a novel nonsense mutation (Q784*) at the ligand binding domain (LBD) of AR, which produces a C-terminal truncated AR protein that lacks intact LBD. This AR-Q784* mutant is transcriptionally inactive, but it is constitutively expressed in the nucleus and can bind to DNA in the absence of androgen. Significantly, our results show that AR-Q784* can heterodimerize with, and enhance the transcriptional activity of, full-length AR. Moreover, expressing AR-Q784* in an AR positive PCa cell line enhances the chromatin binding of endogenous AR and the recruitment of p300 coactivator under the low androgen condition, leading to increased cell growth. This activity of AR-Q784* mimics the function of some AR splice variants, indicating that CYP17 inhibitor treatment in CRPC may select for LBD-truncated forms of AR to restore AR signaling.

Chang WC, Huang SF, Lee YM, et al.
Cholesterol import and steroidogenesis are biosignatures for gastric cancer patient survival.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(1):692-704 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Androgens, estrogens, progesterone and related signals are reported to be involved in the pathology of gastric cancer. However, varied conclusions exist based on serum hormone levels, receptor expressions, and in vitro or in vivo studies. This report used a web-based gene survival analyzer to evaluate biochemical processes, including cholesterol importing via lipoprotein/receptors (L/R route), steroidogenic enzymes, and steroid receptors, in gastric cancer patients prognosis. The sex hormone receptors (androgen receptor, progesterone receptor, and estrogen receptor ESR1 or ESR2), L/R route (low/high-density lipoprotein receptors, LDLR/LRP6/SR-B1 and lipoprotein lipase, LPL) and steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1, HSD3B1, CYP17, HSD17B1, HSD3B1, CYP19A1 and SRD5A1) were associated with 5-year survival of gastric cancer patients. The AR, PR, ESR1 and ESR2 are progression promoters, as are the L/R route LDLR, LRP6, SR-B1 and LPL. It was found that CYP11A1, HSD3B1, CYP17, HSD17B1 and CYP19A1 promote progression, but dihydrotestosterone (DHT) converting enzyme SRD5A1 suppresses progression. Analyzing steroidogenic lipidome with a hazard ratio score algorithm found that CYP19A1 is the progression confounder in surgery, HER2 positive or negative patients. Finally, in the other patient cohort from TCGA, CYP19A1 was expressed higher in the tumor compared to that in normal counterparts, and also promoted progression. Lastly, exemestrane (type II aromatase inhibitor) dramatically suppress GCa cell growth in pharmacological tolerable doses in vitro. This work depicts a route-specific outside-in delivery of cholesterol to promote disease progression, implicating a host-to-tumor macroenvironmental regulation. The result indicating lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol entry and steroidogenesis are GCa progression biosignatures. And the exemestrane clinical trial in GCa patients of unmet medical needs is suggested.

Liu C, Armstrong CM, Lou W, et al.
Inhibition of AKR1C3 Activation Overcomes Resistance to Abiraterone in Advanced Prostate Cancer.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(1):35-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Abiraterone suppresses intracrine androgen synthesis via inhibition of CYP17A1. However, clinical evidence suggests that androgen synthesis is not fully inhibited by abiraterone and the sustained androgen production may lead to disease relapse. In the present study, we identified AKR1C3, an important enzyme in the steroidogenesis pathway, as a critical mechanism driving resistance to abiraterone through increasing intracrine androgen synthesis and enhancing androgen signaling. We found that overexpression of AKR1C3 confers resistance to abiraterone while downregulation of AKR1C3 resensitizes resistant cells to abiraterone treatment. In abiraterone-resistant prostate cancer cells, AKR1C3 is overexpressed and the levels of intracrine androgens are elevated. In addition, AKR1C3 activation increases intracrine androgen synthesis and enhances androgen receptor (AR) signaling via activating AR transcriptional activity. Treatment of abiraterone-resistant cells with indomethacin, an AKR1C3 inhibitor, overcomes resistance and enhances abiraterone therapy both in vitro and in vivo by reducing the levels of intracrine androgens and diminishing AR transcriptional activity. These results demonstrate that AKR1C3 activation is a critical mechanism of resistance to abiraterone through increasing intracrine androgen synthesis and enhancing androgen signaling. Furthermore, this study provides a preclinical proof-of-principle for clinical trials investigating the combination of targeting AKR1C3 using indomethacin with abiraterone for advanced prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 35-44. ©2016 AACR.

Yi X, Zhang J, Yan F, et al.
Synthesis of IR-780 dye-conjugated abiraterone for prostate cancer imaging and therapy.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 49(5):1911-1920 [PubMed] Related Publications
Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging is a novel imaging modality that allows for detection and real‑time monitoring of various pathophysiological states. IR-780 iodide has been used as an ideal platform to construct theranostic agents for cancer imaging and therapy. Abiraterone is a 17α‑hydroxylase/C17, 20‑lyase (CYP17) inhibitor that has been approved for use in patients with prostate cancer after androgen deprivation therapy. We report the synthesis and characterization of IR-780 conjugated abiraterone for the dual purpose of prostate cancer imaging and therapy. The new compound Abi-780 retained the excellent photophysical characteristics and NIRF imaging property of IR-780 dye. Abi-780 preferentially accumulated in plasmonic organelles of prostate cancer cells but not in normal prostate epithelial cells. Dose-dependent inhibition of cultured prostate cancer cells by Abi-780 was found. Abi-780 at 20 µM significantly reduced the capabilities of colony formation and migration/invasion potential as well as increasing the apoptosis rate of prostate cancer cells. NIRF imaging using Abi-780 selectively identified the tumors in mice bearing prostate cancer xenografts. Moreover, Abi-780 treatment significantly retarded the tumor growth. No severe systemic toxicity was observed in mice with daily injection of high-dose Abi-780 for one month. In conclusion, biocompatible Abi-780 is highly effective both in prostate cancer imaging and therapy. Constructing theranostic agents using the NIRF dye platform holds great promise in accurate diagnosis and targeted treatment of cancer.

Haznedaroglu IC, Malkan UY
Local bone marrow renin-angiotensin system in the genesis of leukemia and other malignancies.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016; 20(19):4089-4111 [PubMed] Related Publications
The existence of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) specific to the hematopoietic bone marrow (BM) microenvironment had been proposed two decades ago. Most of the RAS molecules including ACE, ACE2, AGT, AGTR1, AGTR2, AKR1C4, AKR1D1, ANPEP, ATP6AP2, CMA1, CPA3, CTSA, CTSD, CTSG, CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, DPP3, EGFR, ENPEP, GPER, HSD11B1, HSD11B2, IGF2R, KLK1, LNPEP, MAS1, MME, NR3C1, NR3C2, PREP, REN, RNPEP, and THOP1 are locally present in the BM microenvironment. Local BM RAS peptides control the hematopoietic niche, myelopoiesis, erythropoiesis, thrombopoiesis and the development of other cellular lineages. Local BM RAS is important in hematopoietic stem cell biology and microenvironment. Angiotensin II regulates the proliferation, differentiation, and engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells. Activation of Mas receptor or ACE2 promotes proliferation of CD34+ cells. BM contains a progenitor that expresses renin throughout development. Angiotensin II attenuates the migration and proliferation of CD34+ Cells and promotes the adhesion of both MNCs and CD34+ cells. Renin cells in hematopoietic organs are precursor B cells. The renin cell requires RBP-J to differentiate. Mutant renin-expressing hematopoietic precursors can cause leukemia. Deletion of RBP-J in the renin-expressing progenitors enriches the precursor B-cell gene programme. Mutant cells undergo a neoplastic transformation, and mice develop a highly penetrant B-cell leukemia with multi-organ infiltration and early death. Many biological conditions during the development and function of blood cells are mediated by RAS, such as apoptosis, cellular proliferation, intracellular signaling, mobilization, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. The aim of this paper is to review recent developments regarding the actions of local BM RAS in the genesis of leukemia and other malignancies molecules.

Banerjee U, Dasgupta A, Khan A, et al.
A cross-sectional study to assess any possible linkage of C/T polymorphism in
Indian J Med Res. 2016; 143(6):739-747 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance (IR) is a major confounding factor in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) irrespective of obesity. Its exact mechanism remains elusive till now. C/T polymorphism in the -34 promoter region of the CYP17 gene is inconsistently attributed to elucidate the mechanism of IR and its link to hyperandrogenemia in obese PCOS patients. In the present study we aimed to evaluate any association of this polymorphism with IR in non-obese women with PCOS.
METHODS: Polymorphism study was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the Msp A1 digest of the PCR product of the target gene in 75 PCOS cases against 73 age and BMI matched control women. Serum testosterone, BMI and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model of assessment-insulin resistance) were analyzed by standard techniques. A realistic cut-off value for the HOMA-IR was obtained through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for exploring any possible link between IR and T/C polymorphism in the case group.
RESULTS: Significant increases in serum testosterone and HOMA-IR values were observed among the case group (P<0.001) without any significant elevation in BMI and FBG compared to controls. Cut-off value for IR in the PCOS patients was 1.40 against a maximum sensitivity of 0.83 and a minimum false positivity of 0.13. The analysis revealed an inconclusive link between the C/T polymorphic distribution and insulin resistant case subjects.
INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that CYP17A1 gene was not conclusively linked to either IR or its associated increased androgen secretion in non-obese women with PCOS. We propose that an increased sensitivity of insulin on the ovarian cells may be the predominant reason for the clinical effects and symptoms of androgen excess observed in non-obese PCOS patients in our region.

Okamura T, Nakajima Y, Katano-Toki A, et al.
Characteristics of Japanese aldosterone-producing adenomas with KCNJ5 mutations.
Endocr J. 2017; 64(1):39-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatic mutations in KCNJ5 gene have been identified in patients with adrenal aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs). We previously reported that Japanese patients with APAs had distinct characteristics from patients in Western countries; i.e. they had a high frequency of KCNJ5 mutations and exhibited a frequent association with cortisol co-secretion. Therefore, APAs among Japanese patients may have different features from those in Western countries. We added recent cases, examined 47 cases (43% male) of APAs, including clinicopathological features, KCNJ5 mutations, and the mRNA levels of several steroidogenic enzymes, and compared the results obtained to those reported in other countries. While the prevalence of KCNJ5 mutations is approximately 40% in Western countries, 37 APA cases (78.7%) showed mutations: 26 with p.G151R and 11 with p.L168R. Although a significant gender difference has been reported in the frequency of KCNJ5 mutations in Europe, we did not find any gender difference. However, the phenotypes of Japanese patients with mutations were similar to those of patients in Western countries; patients were younger and had higher plasma aldosterone levels, lower potassium levels, and higher diastolic blood pressure. Reflecting these phenotypes, APAs with mutations had higher CYP11B2 mRNA levels. However, in contrast to APAs in Western countries, Japanese APAs with mutations showed lower CYP11B1, CYP17A1, and CYP11A1 mRNA levels. These findings demonstrated that Japanese APA patients may have distinct features including a higher prevalence of KCNJ5 mutations, no gender difference in the frequency of these mutations, and characteristics similar to the zona glomerulosa.

Antonarakis ES, Chandhasin C, Osbourne E, et al.
Targeting the N-Terminal Domain of the Androgen Receptor: A New Approach for the Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer.
Oncologist. 2016; 21(12):1427-1435 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
: Despite the recent approval and widespread use of abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), this disease still poses significant management challenges because of various tumor escape mechanisms, including those that allow androgen receptor (AR) signaling to remain active. These AR-related resistance mechanisms include AR gene amplification or overexpression, constitutively active ligand-independent AR splice variants, and gain-of-function mutations involving the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD), among others. Therefore, the development of AR-targeted therapies that function independently of the LBD represents an unmet medical need and has the potential to overcome many of these resistance mechanisms. This article discusses N-terminal domain (NTD) inhibition as a novel concept in the field of AR-directed therapies for prostate cancer. AR NTD-targeting agents have the potential to overcome shortcomings of current hormonal therapies by inhibiting all forms of AR-mediated transcriptional activity, and as a result, may affect a broader AR population including mutational and splice variant ARs. Indeed, the first clinical trial of an AR NTD inhibitor is now underway.
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Because of emerging resistance mechanisms that involve the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor (AR), there is currently no effective treatment addressing tumor escape mechanisms related to current AR-targeted therapies. Many patients still demonstrate limited clinical response to current hormonal agents, and castration-resistant prostate cancer remains a lethal disease. Intense research efforts are under way to develop therapies to target resistance mechanisms, including those directed at other parts of the AR molecule. A novel small-molecule agent, EPI-506, represents a new pharmaceutical class, AR N-terminal domain inhibitors, and shows preclinical promise to overcome many known resistance mechanisms related to novel hormonal therapies.

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