Gene Summary

Gene:NR5A2; nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 2
Aliases: B1F, CPF, FTF, B1F2, LRH1, LRH-1, FTZ-F1, hB1F-2, FTZ-F1beta
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a DNA-binding zinc finger transcription factor and is a member of the fushi tarazu factor-1 subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors. The encoded protein is involved in the expression of genes for hepatitis B virus and cholesterol biosynthesis, and may be an important regulator of embryonic development. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NR5A2 (cancer-related)

Meinsohn MC, Smith OE, Bertolin K, Murphy BD
The Orphan Nuclear Receptors Steroidogenic Factor-1 and Liver Receptor Homolog-1: Structure, Regulation, and Essential Roles in Mammalian Reproduction.
Physiol Rev. 2019; 99(2):1249-1279 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear receptors are intracellular proteins that act as transcription factors. Proteins with classic nuclear receptor domain structure lacking identified signaling ligands are designated orphan nuclear receptors. Two of these, steroidogenic factor-1 (NR5A1, also known as SF-1) and liver receptor homolog-1 (NR5A2, also known as LRH-1), bind to the same DNA sequences, with different and nonoverlapping effects on targets. Endogenous regulation of both is achieved predominantly by cofactor interactions. SF-1 is expressed primarily in steroidogenic tissues, LRH-1 in tissues of endodermal origin and the gonads. Both receptors modulate cholesterol homeostasis, steroidogenesis, tissue-specific cell proliferation, and stem cell pluripotency. LRH-1 is essential for development beyond gastrulation and SF-1 for genesis of the adrenal, sexual differentiation, and Leydig cell function. Ovary-specific depletion of SF-1 disrupts follicle development, while LRH-1 depletion prevents ovulation, cumulus expansion, and luteinization. Uterine depletion of LRH-1 compromises decidualization and pregnancy. In humans, SF-1 is present in endometriotic tissue, where it regulates estrogen synthesis. SF-1 is underexpressed in ovarian cancer cells and overexpressed in Leydig cell tumors. In breast cancer cells, proliferation, migration and invasion, and chemotherapy resistance are regulated by LRH-1. In conclusion, the NR5A orphan nuclear receptors are nonredundant factors that are crucial regulators of a panoply of biological processes, across multiple reproductive tissues.

Long NP, Park S, Anh NH, et al.
High-Throughput Omics and Statistical Learning Integration for the Discovery and Validation of Novel Diagnostic Signatures in Colorectal Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The advancement of bioinformatics and machine learning has facilitated the discovery and validation of omics-based biomarkers. This study employed a novel approach combining multi-platform transcriptomics and cutting-edge algorithms to introduce novel signatures for accurate diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Different random forests (RF)-based feature selection methods including the area under the curve (AUC)-RF, Boruta, and Vita were used and the diagnostic performance of the proposed biosignatures was benchmarked using RF, logistic regression, naïve Bayes, and k-nearest neighbors models. All models showed satisfactory performance in which RF appeared to be the best. For instance, regarding the RF model, the following were observed: mean accuracy 0.998 (standard deviation (SD) < 0.003), mean specificity 0.999 (SD < 0.003), and mean sensitivity 0.998 (SD < 0.004). Moreover, proposed biomarker signatures were highly associated with multifaceted hallmarks in cancer. Some biomarkers were found to be enriched in epithelial cell signaling in

Zhang X, Xu Y, Fu L, et al.
Identification of mRNAs related to endometrium function regulated by lncRNA CD36-005 in rat endometrial stromal cells.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018; 16(1):96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and is commonly complicated by adverse endometrial outcomes. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding transcripts that are more than 200 nucleotides in length. Accumulating evidence indicates that lncRNAs are involved in the development of various human diseases. Among these lncRNAs, lncRNA CD36-005 (CD36-005) is indicated to be associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS. However, the mechanisms of action of CD36-005 have not yet been elucidated.
METHODS: This study determined the CD36-005 expression level in the uteri of PCOS rat model and its effect on the proliferation activity of rat primary endometrial stromal cells. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and bioinformatics analysis were performed to detect the mRNA expression profiles and the biological pathways in which these differentially expressed mRNAs involved, after CD36-005 overexpression in the primary endometrial stromal cells. The differential expression of Hmgn5, Nr5a2, Dll4, Entpd1, Fam50a, and Brms1 were further validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
RESULTS: CD36-005 is highly expressed in the uteri of PCOS rat model and promotes the proliferation of rat primary endometrial stromal cells. A total of fifty-five mRNAs differentially expressed were identified in CD36-005 overexpressed stromal cells. Further analyses identified that these differentially expressed mRNAs participate in many biological processes and are associated with various human diseases. The results of qRT-PCR validation were consistent with the RNA-seq data.
CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a list of potential target mRNA genes of CD36-005 in endometrial stromal cells and laid a foundation for further studies on the molecular function and mechanism of CD36-005 in the endometrium.

Jin J, Jin J, Woodfield SE, et al.
Targeting LRH‑1 in hepatoblastoma cell lines causes decreased proliferation.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(1):143-153 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant liver tumor in children. Since it is often unresectable and exhibits drug resistance, the treatment of advanced hepatoblastoma is challenging. The orphan nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog‑1 (LRH‑1) serves prominent roles in malignancy; however, to the best of our knowledge, the role of LRH‑1 in hepatoblastoma remains unknown. In the present study, human hepatoblastoma cell lines were analyzed; the mRNA and protein expression levels of LRH‑1 were significantly higher in HepG2 and HuH6 cells compared with those in HepT1 cells and control THLE‑2 cells. Knockdown of LRH‑1 resulted in decreased HepG2 and HuH6 cell proliferation via downregulation of cyclin D1 (CCND1) and c‑Myc. Furthermore, treatment with an LRH‑1 antagonist (LRA) inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of cell lines in a dose‑dependent manner, and induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through inhibition of CCND1 expression. Finally, LRA treatment enhanced the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin on hepatoblastoma cells. Collectively, these findings suggested that LRH‑1 may have an important role in the progression of hepatoblastoma and implicated LRA as a novel, potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatoblastoma.

Ventura C, Zappia CD, Lasagna M, et al.
Effects of the pesticide chlorpyrifos on breast cancer disease. Implication of epigenetic mechanisms.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019; 186:96-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus pesticide used for agricultural pest control all over the world. We have previously demonstrated that environmental concentrations of this pesticide alter mammary gland histological structure and hormonal balance in rats chronically exposed. In this work, we analyzed the effects of CPF on mammary tumors development. Our results demonstrated that CPF increases tumor incidence and reduces latency of NMU-induced mammary tumors. Although no changes were observed in tumor growth rate, we found a reduced steroid hormone receptor expression in the tumors of animals exposed to the pesticide. Moreover, we analyzed the role of epigenetic mechanisms in CPF effects. Our results indicated that CPF alters HDAC1 mRNA expression in mammary gland, although no changes were observed in DNA methylation. In summary, we demonstrate that the exposure to CPF promotes mammary tumors development with a reduced steroid receptors expression. It has also been found that CPF affects HDAC1 mRNA levels in mammary tissue pointing that CPF may act as a breast cancer risk factor.

Wang S, Zou Z, Luo X, et al.
LRH1 enhances cell resistance to chemotherapy by transcriptionally activating MDC1 expression and attenuating DNA damage in human breast cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(24):3243-3259 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH1) has been shown to promote tumor proliferation and development. However, the functions of LRH1 in mediating cancer cells chemoresistance are still not clear. Here, we found LRH1 levels were significantly elevated in primary breast cancer tissues in patients who developed early recurrence. Similarly, adriamycin (ADR)-resistant breast cancer cell lines also exerted high LRH1 expression. Indeed, overexpression of LRH1 attenuated cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs ADR and cisplatin (DDP) in breast cancer cells in vitro and in nude mice tumor model. Comet and BrdU assays showed overexpression of LRH1 blocked breast cancer cells DNA damage by chemotherapeutic drug, whereas depletion of LRH1 enhanced DNA damage. Remarkably, knockdown of LRH1 decreased the levels and foci of DNA damage marker γH2AX induced by ADR and DDP. Furthermore, plasmid end-joining assay indicated that knockdown of LRH1 significantly decreased non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated double-strand break (DSB) repair efficiencies. Afterwards, we provided evidences that LRH1 promoted MDC1 transcription by directly activating MDC1 promoter and therefore increased γH2AX levels. Importantly, a LRH1-binding site mapped between -1812 and -1804 bp of the proximal MDC1 promoter was identified. Moreover, LRH1 and MDC1 mRNA levels were positively correlated in recurrent breast cancer samples. These results implied LRH1 enhanced breast cancer cell chemoresistance by upregulating MDC1 and attenuating DNA damage. Additionally, we elucidated the coactivator NCOA3 acted synergistically with LRH1 to promote MDC1 expression and chemoresistance. Altogether, LRH1-MDC1 signaling might be considered as a novel molecular target for designing novel therapeutic regimen in chemotherapy resistance breast cancer.

Xiao L, Wang Y, Xu K, et al.
Nuclear Receptor LRH-1 Functions to Promote Castration-Resistant Growth of Prostate Cancer via Its Promotion of Intratumoral Androgen Biosynthesis.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(9):2205-2218 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeting of steroidogenic enzymes (e.g., abiraterone acetate targeting CYP17A1) has been developed as a novel therapeutic strategy against metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, resistance to steroidal inhibitors inevitably develops in patients, the mechanisms of which remain largely unknown. Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1,

Naqvi AAT, Hasan GM, Hassan MI
Investigating the role of transcription factors of pancreas development in pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatology. 2018; 18(2):184-190 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the seventh most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide that kills more than 300,000 people every year. Prognosis of PC is very poor with a five-year survival rate about 5%. The most common and highly observed type of PC is pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). It is preceded by the progression of precursor lesions such as Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PanIN), Intraductal Papillary Neoplasm (IPMN) and Mucinous Cystic Neoplasm (MCN). PanIN is the most common among these premalignant lesions. Genes orchestrating the origin and differentiation of cells during organogenesis have the tendency to produce tumor cells in response to activating or inactivating mutations. Based on the following premise, we discuss the role of transcription factors (TFs) of pancreas development and cell fate differentiation in PC. Pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1 (PDX1), Pancreas transcription factor 1 subunit alpha (PTF1A), Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 2 (NR5A2), Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha (HNF1A) and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1B) play vital role in the development and differentiation of pancreatic precursor cells. Mutated KRAS induces abnormalities in the regular function of these TFs which in turn cause abnormal cell growth and proliferation that leads to cancer. Thus, these TFs are highly susceptible for the origin of PC. Therefore, we propose that these TFs can be treated as therapeutic targets for the development of anticancer drugs.

Wang Y, Sun S, Xu J, et al.
MicroRNA-381 suppresses the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells through LRH-1/Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(2):589-596 [PubMed] Related Publications
We explored the function of microRNA-381 on osteosarcoma cell growth and anticancer mechanism for clinic treatment. MicroRNA-381 of osteosarcoma patients was decreased, microRNA-381 levels were more downregulated at stages III/IV than those at stage I/II in osteosarcoma patients. Downregulation of microRNA-381 using anti-microRNA-381 mimics increased cell proliferation, decreased LDH activity and apoptosis, and inhibited caspase‑3/9 activities, Bax/Bcl-2 and p53 protein expression in vitro osteosarcoma cells through upregulation of LRH-1/Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Overexpression of microRNA-381 using microRNA-381 mimics inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and increased LDH activity, caspase‑3/9 activities, expression of Bax/Bcl-2 and p53 protein in osteosarcoma of in vitro model through downregulation of LRH-1/Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Si‑LRH‑1 promoted the anticancer effects of microRNA-381 on osteosarcoma cell growth through Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway. Thus, our data suggested that microRNA-381 suppresses the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells through upregulation of LRH-1/Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Qu R, Hao S, Jin X, et al.
MicroRNA-374b reduces the proliferation and invasion of colon cancer cells by regulation of LRH-1/Wnt signaling.
Gene. 2018; 642:354-361 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) has been suggested as a critical event in colon cancer development and progression. Recent studies have suggested that miR-374b is a novel cancer-related miRNA involved in several cancer types. Thus far, very little is known about the role of miR-374b in colon cancer; therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the potential role of miR-374b in colon cancer. Here, we showed that miR-374b expression was significantly downregulated in colon cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-374b inhibited the proliferation and invasion of colon cancer cells, while miR-374b suppression promoted colon cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) was identified as a target of miR-374b in colon cancer cells. Both the mRNA and protein expression of LRH-1 were regulated by miR-374b. In addition, an inverse correlation between LRH-1 mRNA and miR-374b expression was evidenced in colon cancer specimens. Notably, overexpression of miR-374b also downregulated the Wnt signaling in colon cancer cells. Furthermore, restoration of LRH-1 expression significantly abolished the antitumor effect of miR-374b in colon cancer cells. These findings suggest that miR-374b inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation and invasion through downregulation of LRH-1 expression. Inhibiting LRH-1 by miR-374b may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colon cancer.

Tian C, Li J, Ren L, et al.
MicroRNA-381 serves as a prognostic factor and inhibits migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer by targeting LRH-1.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(5):3071-3077 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that aberrant miRNAs were involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression by regulating oncogenes or tumor suppressor expression. Dysregulation of miR-381 has been reported in different tumors. However, the clinical roles and underlying mechanism in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains to be elucidated. We found the expression of miR-381 was significantly downregulated in both NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Clinical analysis revealed the reduced miR-381 was obviously associated with advanced TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, we disclosed that miR-381 was a novel independent prognostic marker for predicting 5-year survival of NSCLC patients. The ectopic overexpression of miR-381 inhibited cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Notably, miR-381 could modulate LRH-1 by directly binding to its 3'-UTR. In clinical samples of NSCLC, miR-381 inversely correlated with LRH-1 expression, which performed positive roles in NSCLC migration and invasion. Alteration of LRH-1 expression at least partially abolished the migration and invasion of miR-381 on NSCLC cells. Here, we identified LRH-1 as a functional target of miR-381 in NSCLC. In conclusion, our data indicated that miR-381 inhibited migration and invasion of NSCLC by targeting LRH-1, and may represent a novel potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker for NSCLC.

Wang Z, Wu D, Ng CF, et al.
Nuclear receptor profiling in prostatospheroids and castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2018; 25(1):35-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear receptors (NRs), which belong to a superfamily of transcription factors and consist of a total of 48 members in humans, govern the expression of genes involved in a board range of developmental, reproductive, metabolic and immunological programs. Given the significant importance of androgen receptor and a few known NRs in the progression of prostate cancer, we surveyed the expression profiles of the entire NR superfamily in three-dimensional cultured prostatospheroids derived from different prostate cancer cell lines and a tumor xenograft model of castration-resistant prostate cancer VCaP-CRPC by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our results revealed that prostatospheroids and castration-relapse VCaP-CRPC xenografts, both contained enriched populations of prostate cancer stem/progenitor-like cells (PCSCs), displayed distinct expression patterns of NRs. Intriguingly, most of these differentially expressed NRs were orphan NRs and showed upregulation. Pairwise analysis identified five orphan NRs (including RORβ, TLX, COUP-TFII, NURR1 and LRH-1) that showed common upregulation in both mRNA and protein levels in the prostatospheroids and castration-relapse VCaP-CRPC xenografts, and overexpression of these orphan NRs could increase cancer stem cell marker expressions and enhance spheroid formation capacity in prostate cancer cells, suggesting that these orphan NRs might perform positive roles in the growth regulation of PCSCs and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Together, our NR expression dataset not only revealed the distinct physiologic status and regulatory roles governed by the networks of specific NRs but also some of these identified orphan NRs could be the potential therapeutic targets for PCSCs or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Kondratyeva LG, Didych DA, Chernov IP, et al.
Dependence of expression of regulatory master genes of embryonic development in pancreatic cancer cells on the intracellular concentration of the master regulator PDX1.
Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2017; 475(1):259-263 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exogenous expression of the gene encoding the pancreatic master regulator PDX1 in cell lines with different degrees of differentiation of pancreatic cancer cells is accompanied by changes in the expression of known master genes involved in cancer progression. In BxPC3

Yuan Q, Cao G, Li J, et al.
MicroRNA-136 inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation and invasion through targeting liver receptor homolog-1/Wnt signaling.
Gene. 2017; 628:48-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
An increasing number of studies have reported that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the malignant behavior of colon cancer cells through directly targeting multiple tumor suppressors or oncogenes. The expression and role of miR-136 has been reported in several types of human cancer. However, the role of miR-136 in colon cancer remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression and function of miR-136 in colon cancer and the potential underlying mechanism. Here, we found that miR-136 was decreased in colon cancer cell lines and tissues. Overexpression of miR-136 inhibited the proliferation and invasion in SW480 and HCT116 cell lines while suppression of miR-136 exhibited the opposite effect. Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) was identified as a direct target gene of miR-136. Notably, miR-136 overexpression suppressed LRH-1 expression as well as Wnt signaling in SW480 and HCT116 cell lines. The miR-136 expression level inversely correlated with LRH-1 mRNA expression in colon cancer specimens. Moreover, overexpression of LRH-1 partially reversed the miR-136-induced antitumor effect in SW480 and HCT116 cell lines. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-136 functions as a negative regulator in colon cancer progression by targeting LRH-1 and that miR-136 downregulation contributes to high expression of LRH-1 and aberrant activation of Wnt signaling, leaving open the possibility that miR-136 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for colon cancer.

Matsuda Y, Tanaka M, Sawabe M, et al.
Relationship between pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in autopsied elderly patients.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(1):12-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
We comparatively analyzed serially autopsied, elderly Japanese patients (n = 2205) with pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) on the basis of their pancreatic lesions, clinical information, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The incidence of PanIN-1, -2, -3, and PDACs in these patients was 55%, 12%, 1.4%, and 2.4%, respectively. The occurrence of PanINs was associated with female sex, increasing age, and lower body mass index. We did not identify any common SNPs between PanINs and PDACs. There were no common SNPs associated with PanINs and PDACs between men and women. In previously reported pancreatic cancer-associated SNPs, rs3790844 (NR5A2) showed a significant correlation with PDAC in our cohort. Six SNPs (rs7016880, rs10096633, rs10503669, rs12678919, rs17482753, rs328) that were correlated with blood lipid levels were associated with the risk for PDACs. Our data suggest that different clinicopathological characteristics and predispositions may affect pancreatic carcinogenesis in elderly Japanese patients.

Fukuyama M, Sato Y, Yamazaki Y, Ohyama M
Immunohistochemical dissection of cystic panfolliculoma focusing on the expression of multiple hair follicle lineage markers with an insight into the pathogenesis.
J Cutan Pathol. 2017; 44(10):861-866 [PubMed] Related Publications
Panfolliculoma (PF) is a rare benign tumor with signs of differentiation toward all components of the hair follicle (HF). Cystic panfolliculoma (CPF) is a subset of PF with histological similarity to trichofolliculoma making the differential diagnosis difficult in some cases. Immunohistopathological investigations of PF have been reported; however, previous studies focused mostly on the expression profile of the outer root sheath markers. Herein, we report a case of CPF. A panel of antibodies was developed and used for the detection of the expression of cytokeratin (CK) 10, CK13, CK14, CK15, hair-hard keratin (AE13) and EpCAM within the lesion, supporting the differentiation of all epithelial lineages of the HF and the diagnosis of CPF. Immunohistopathological examinations clearly showed the spatial distribution pattern of each subset of tumor cells with distinct HF differentiation marker expression. Intriguingly, fibroblastic dermal cells were distributed preferentially near CK15-negative epithelium or CK13-positive HF-like structures, suggesting a role for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) in CPF pathogenesis. Further characterization of EMIs between the tumor and surrounding mesenchymal cells in CPF may provide an explanation for immature HF differentiation. These findings suggest that the more intense and coordinated EMI in the analogous tumorigenesis gives rise to mature HF structures, resulting in trichofolliculoma, which may explain their histological resemblance.

Yan L, Qiu J, Yao J
Downregulation of microRNA-30d promotes cell proliferation and invasion by targeting LRH-1 in colorectal carcinoma.
Int J Mol Med. 2017; 39(6):1371-1380 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aberrant expression of miR-30d has been reported in several types of human malignancies. However, its biological function in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified that miR‑30d was significantly downregulated in CRC tissues compared to that observed in normal controls as detected by RT‑qPCR analysis. Downregulation of miR‑30d was significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathological parameters including tumor differentiation, invasive depth, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and poor prognosis. Furthermore, functional analysis revealed that overexpression of miR‑30d significantly inhibited cell proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, suppressed cell migration and invasion, induced cell apoptosis in vitro, and decreased tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model. Bioinformatic analysis and dual‑luciferase reporter assay revealed that liver receptor homologue‑1 (LRH‑1) is a direct target of miR‑30d in CRC cells. Rescue assay showed that LRH‑1 overexpression could restore the inhibitory effect of miR‑30d on CRC cells. In addition, miR‑30d overexpression suppressed the activation of key components of the Wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway, β‑catenin, c‑Myc and cyclin D1, which contributed to the inhibition of CRC development. Thus, our findings suggest that miR‑30d functions as a tumor suppressor against CRC development and miR‑30d/LRH‑1/Wnt signaling may be novel potential targets for CRC treatment.

Sun Z, Ke X, Salzberg SL, et al.
The novel fusion transcript NR5A2-KLHL29FT is generated by an insertion at the KLHL29 locus.
Cancer. 2017; 123(9):1507-1515 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Novel fusion transcripts (FTs) caused by chromosomal rearrangement are common factors in the development of cancers. In the current study, the authors used massively parallel RNA sequencing to identify new FTs in colon cancers.
METHODS: RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and TopHat-Fusion were used to identify new FTs in colon cancers. The authors then investigated whether the novel FT nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 (NR5A2)-Kelch-like family member 29 FT (KLHL29FT) was transcribed from a genomic chromosomal rearrangement. Next, the expression of NR5A2-KLHL29FT was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in colon cancers and matched corresponding normal epithelia.
RESULTS: The authors identified the FT NR5A2-KLHL29FT in normal and cancerous epithelia. While investigating this transcript, it was unexpectedly found that it was due to an uncharacterized polymorphic germline insertion of the NR5A2 sequence from chromosome 1 into the KLHL29 locus at chromosome 2, rather than a chromosomal rearrangement. This germline insertion, which occurred at a population frequency of 0.40, appeared to bear no relationship to cancer development. Moreover, expression of NR5A2-KLHL29FT was validated in RNA specimens from samples with insertions of NR5A2 at the KLHL29 gene locus, but not from samples without this insertion. It is interesting to note that NR5A2-KLH29FT expression levels were significantly lower in colon cancers than in matched normal colonic epithelia (P =.029), suggesting the potential participation of NR5A2-KLHL29FT in the origin or progression of this tumor type.
CONCLUSIONS: NR5A2-KLHL29FT was generated from a polymorphism insertion of the NR5A2 sequence into the KLHL29 locus. NR5A2-KLHL29FT may influence the origin or progression of colon cancer. Moreover, researchers should be aware that similar FTs may occur due to transchromosomal insertions that are not correctly annotated in genome databases, especially with current assembly algorithms. Cancer 2017;123:1507-1515. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

Luo Z, Li Y, Zuo M, et al.
Effect of NR5A2 inhibition on pancreatic cancer stem cell (CSC) properties and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(5):1438-1448 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NR5A2 (aka LRH-1) has been identified as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene with missing biological link. This study aims to demonstrate expression and potential role of NR5A2 in pancreatic cancer. NR5A2 expression was quantified in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and the normal adjacent tissues of 134 patients by immunohistochemistry. The intensity and extent of NR5A2 staining was quantified and analyzed in association with overall survival (OS). The impact of NR5A2 knockdown on pancreatic cancer stem cell (CSC) properties and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers was examined in cancer cells using RT-PCR and Western Blot. NR5A2 was overexpressed in pancreatic tumors, the IHC-staining H score (mean ± SE) was 96.4 ± 8.3 in normal versus 137.9 ± 8.2 in tumor tissues (P < 0.0001). Patients with a higher NR5A2 expression had a median survival time 18.4 months compared to 23.7 months for those with low IHC H scores (P = 0.019). The hazard ratio of death (95% confidence interval) was 1.60 (1.07-2.41) after adjusting for disease stage and tumor grade (P = 0.023). NR5A2 was highly expressed in pancreatic cancer sphere forming cells. NR5A2-inhibition by siRNA was associated with reduced sphere formation and decreased levels of CSCs markers NANOG, OCT4, LIN28B, and NOTCH1. NR5A2 knockdown also resulted in reduced expression of FGB, MMP2, MMP3, MMMP9, SNAIL, and TWIST, increased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin and β-catenin, and a lower expression of mesenchymal marker Vimentin. Taken together, our findings suggest that NR5A2 could play a role in CSC stemness and EMT in pancreatic cancer, which may contribute to the worse clinical outcome.

Li C, Dong J, Han Z, Zhang K
MicroRNA-219-5p Represses the Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Gastric Cancer Cells by Targeting the LRH-1/Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.
Oncol Res. 2017; 25(4):617-627 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are reportedly involved in gastric cancer development and progression. In particular, miR-219-5p has been reported to be a tumor-associated miRNA in human cancer. However, the role of miR-219-5p in gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential role and underlying mechanism of miR-219-5p in the proliferation, migration, and invasion of human gastric cancer cells. miR-219-5p was found to be markedly decreased in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines compared with adjacent tissues and normal gastric epithelial cells. miR-219-5p mimics or anti-miR-219-5p was transfected into gastric cancer cell lines to overexpress or suppress miR-219-5p expression, respectively. Results showed that miR-219-5p overexpression significantly decreased the proliferation, migration, and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Conversely, miR-219-5p suppression demonstrated a completely opposite effect. Bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays indicated that miR-219-5p targeted the 3'-untranslated region of the liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), a well-characterized oncogene. Furthermore, miR-219-5p inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of LRH-1. LRH-1 mRNA expression was inversely correlated with miR-219-5p expression in gastric cancer tissues. miR-219-5p overexpression significantly decreased the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells. Additionally, LRH-1 restoration can markedly reverse miR-219-5p-mediated tumor suppressive effects. Our study suggests that miR-219-5p regulated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of human gastric cancer cells by suppressing LRH-1. miR-219-5p may be a potential target for gastric cancer therapy.

Zhu J, Zou Z, Nie P, et al.
Downregulation of microRNA-27b-3p enhances tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer by increasing NR5A2 and CREB1 expression.
Cell Death Dis. 2016; 7(11):e2454 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Estrogen-dependent breast cancer is often treated with the aromatase inhibitors or estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists. Tamoxifen as a major ER antagonist is usually used to treat those patients with ERα-positive breast cancer. However, a majority of patients with ERα positive fail to respond to tamoxifen due to the presence of intrinsic or acquired resistance to the drug. Altered expression and functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reportedly associated with tamoxifen resistance. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-27b-3p in resistance of breast cancer to tamoxifen. MiR-27b-3p levels were remarkably reduced in the tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells compared with their parental cells. In addition, miR-27b-3p was also significantly downregulated in breast tumor tissues relative to adjacent non-tumor tissues. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-27b-3p were lower in the breast cancer tissues from tamoxifen-resistant patients compared with that from untreated-tamoxifen patients. Notably, tamoxifen repressed miR-27b-3p expression, whereas estrogen induced miR-27b-3p expression in breast cancer cells. Besides, we provided experimental evidences that miR-27b-3p enhances the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to tamoxifen in vitro and in vivo models. More importantly, we validated that miR-27b-3p directly targeted and inhibited the expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 2 (NR5A2) and cAMP-response element binding protein 1 (CREB1) and therefore augmented tamoxifen-induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer. Lastly, miR-27b-3p levels were found to be significantly negatively correlated with both NR5A2 and CREB1 levels in breast cancer tissues. Our findings provided further evidence that miR-27b-3p might be considered as a novel and potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer.

Kondratyeva LG, Sveshnikova AA, Grankina EV, et al.
Downregulation of expression of mater genes SOX9, FOXA2, and GATA4 in pancreatic cancer cells stimulated with TGFβ1 epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2016; 469(1):257-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We show characteristic morphological changes corresponding to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program fulfillment in PANC1 cell line stimulated with TGFβ1. Our results support downregulation of E-cadherin protein. We show 5- and 28-fold increase in SNAI1 and SNAI2 expression levels and 25- and 15-fold decrease in CDH1 and KRT8 expression levels, respectively, which confirms the EMT-program fulfillment. We demonstrate downregulation of expression of pancreatic master genes SOX9, FOXA2, and GATA4 (2-, 5-, and 4-fold, respectively) and absence of significant changes in HES1, NR5A2, and GATA6 expression levels in the cells stimulated with TGFβ1. Our results indicate the absence of induction of expression of PTF1A, PDX1, HNF1b, NEUROG3, RPBJL, NKX6.1, and ONECUT1 genes, which are inactive in PANC1 cell line after the EMT stimulated by TGFβ1.

Duggan SP, Behan FM, Kirca M, et al.
The characterization of an intestine-like genomic signature maintained during Barrett's-associated adenocarcinogenesis reveals an NR5A2-mediated promotion of cancer cell survival.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:32638 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Barrett's oesophagus (BO), an intestinal-type metaplasia (IM), typically arising in conjunction with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, is a prominent risk factor for the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). The molecular similarities between IM and normal intestinal tissues are ill-defined. Consequently, the contribution of intestine-enriched factors expressed within BO to oncogenesis is unclear. Herein, using transcriptomics we define the intestine-enriched genes expressed in meta-profiles of BO and OAC. Interestingly, 77% of the genes differentially expressed in a meta-profile of BO were similarly expressed in intestinal tissues. Furthermore, 85% of this intestine-like signature was maintained upon transition to OAC. Gene networking analysis of transcription factors within this signature revealed a network centred upon NR5A2, GATA6 and FOXA2, whose over-expression was determined in a cohort of BO and OAC patients. Simulated acid reflux was observed to induce the expression of both NR5A2 and GATA6. Using siRNA-mediated silencing and an NR5A2 antagonist we demonstrate that NR5A2-mediated cancer cell survival is facilitated through augmentation of GATA6 and anti-apoptotic factor BCL-XL levels. Abrogation of NR5A2-GATA6 expression in conjunction with BCL-XL co-silencing resulted in synergistically increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutics and photo-dynamic therapeutics. These findings characterize the intestine-like signature associated with IM which may have important consequences to adenocarcinogenesis.

Zhang M, Wang Z, Obazee O, et al.
Three new pancreatic cancer susceptibility signals identified on chromosomes 1q32.1, 5p15.33 and 8q24.21.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(41):66328-66343 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common pancreatic cancer susceptibility variants at 13 chromosomal loci in individuals of European descent. To identify new susceptibility variants, we performed imputation based on 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project data and association analysis using 5,107 case and 8,845 control subjects from 27 cohort and case-control studies that participated in the PanScan I-III GWAS. This analysis, in combination with a two-staged replication in an additional 6,076 case and 7,555 control subjects from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control (PanC4) Consortia uncovered 3 new pancreatic cancer risk signals marked by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2816938 at chromosome 1q32.1 (per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, P = 4.88x10 -15), rs10094872 at 8q24.21 (OR = 1.15, P = 3.22x10 -9) and rs35226131 at 5p15.33 (OR = 0.71, P = 1.70x10 -8). These SNPs represent independent risk variants at previously identified pancreatic cancer risk loci on chr1q32.1 ( NR5A2), chr8q24.21 ( MYC) and chr5p15.33 ( CLPTM1L- TERT) as per analyses conditioned on previously reported susceptibility variants. We assessed expression of candidate genes at the three risk loci in histologically normal ( n = 10) and tumor ( n = 8) derived pancreatic tissue samples and observed a marked reduction of NR5A2 expression (chr1q32.1) in the tumors (fold change -7.6, P = 5.7x10 -8). This finding was validated in a second set of paired ( n = 20) histologically normal and tumor derived pancreatic tissue samples (average fold change for three NR5A2 isoforms -31.3 to -95.7, P = 7.5x10 -4-2.0x10 -3). Our study has identified new susceptibility variants independently conferring pancreatic cancer risk that merit functional follow-up to identify target genes and explain the underlying biology.

Jiang W, Tian Y, Jiang S, et al.
MicroRNA-376c suppresses non-small-cell lung cancer cell growth and invasion by targeting LRH-1-mediated Wnt signaling pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 473(4):980-986 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) that negatively regulate gene expression have emerged as novel therapeutic tools for cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), a novel oncogene, in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and examined the regulation of LRH-1 by miRNAs. We found that LRH-1 was highly overexpressed in NSCLC cell lines. Knockdown of LRH-1 by small interfering RNA significantly inhibited NSCLC cell growth and invasion. miR-376c directly targeted the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of LRH-1 and negatively regulated LRH-1 expression, as detected by dual-luciferase reporter assay, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Further data showed that miR-376c expression was inversely correlated with LRH-1 expression in clinical cancer samples. Overexpression of miR-376c could inhibit NSCLC cell growth and invasion as well as Wnt signaling. In contrast, depletion of miR-376c exhibited the opposite effects. Moreover, these effects of miR-376c overexpression were partially abrogated by overexpression of LRH-1. Taken together, these results indicate that LRH-1 is involved in regulating the growth and invasion of NSCLC cells and that miR-376c inhibits NSCLC cell growth and invasion by targeting LRH-1, providing a novel insight into the potential for development of anti-cancer drugs for NSCLC.

Shen J, Yao L, Lin YG, et al.
Glucose-regulated protein 94 deficiency induces squamous cell metaplasia and suppresses PTEN-null driven endometrial epithelial tumor development.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(12):14885-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endometrial carcinoma is the most prevalent gynecologic cancer in the United States. The tumor suppressor gene Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is commonly mutated in the more common type 1 (endometrioid) subtype. The glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) is emerging as a novel regulator for cancer development. Here we report that expression profiles from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) showed significantly increased Grp94 mRNA levels in endometrial tumor versus normal tissues, correlating with highly elevated GRP94 protein expression in patient samples and the requirement of GRP94 for maintaining viability of human endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Through generation of uterus-specific knockout mouse models with deletion of Grp94 alone (c94f/f) or in combination with Pten (cPf/f94f/f), we discovered that c94f/f uteri induced squamous cell metaplasia (SCM) and reduced active nuclear β-catenin. The cPf/f94f/f uteri showed accelerated SCM and suppression of PTEN-null driven EAC, with reduced cellular proliferation, attenuated β-catenin signaling and decreased AKT/S6 activation in the SCM. In contrast to single PTEN knockout uteri (cPf/f), cPf/f94f/f uteri showed no decrease in E-cadherin level and no invasive lesion. Collectively, our study implies that GRP94 downregulation induces SCM in EAC and suppresses AKT/S6 signaling, providing a novel mechanism for suppressing EAC progression.

Bailey P, Chang DK, Nones K, et al.
Genomic analyses identify molecular subtypes of pancreatic cancer.
Nature. 2016; 531(7592):47-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Integrated genomic analysis of 456 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identified 32 recurrently mutated genes that aggregate into 10 pathways: KRAS, TGF-β, WNT, NOTCH, ROBO/SLIT signalling, G1/S transition, SWI-SNF, chromatin modification, DNA repair and RNA processing. Expression analysis defined 4 subtypes: (1) squamous; (2) pancreatic progenitor; (3) immunogenic; and (4) aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine (ADEX) that correlate with histopathological characteristics. Squamous tumours are enriched for TP53 and KDM6A mutations, upregulation of the TP63∆N transcriptional network, hypermethylation of pancreatic endodermal cell-fate determining genes and have a poor prognosis. Pancreatic progenitor tumours preferentially express genes involved in early pancreatic development (FOXA2/3, PDX1 and MNX1). ADEX tumours displayed upregulation of genes that regulate networks involved in KRAS activation, exocrine (NR5A2 and RBPJL), and endocrine differentiation (NEUROD1 and NKX2-2). Immunogenic tumours contained upregulated immune networks including pathways involved in acquired immune suppression. These data infer differences in the molecular evolution of pancreatic cancer subtypes and identify opportunities for therapeutic development.

Zhang Q, Zhao S, Pang X, Chi B
MicroRNA-381 suppresses cell growth and invasion by targeting the liver receptor homolog-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(3):1831-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as prospective tools for human cancer therapy, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) therapy. Previous studies have suggested that miR-381 functions as oncogenic or tumor-suppressive miRs in other cancer types. However, the role of miR-381 in HCC remains unknown. The present study investigated the expression and functional role of miR-381 in HCC. miR-381 expression was significantly decreased in HCC tissues and cell lines. miR-381 overexpression significantly inhibited HCC cell proliferation and colony formation, induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and suppressed cell invasion. Conversely, suppression of miR-381 showed the opposite effect in HCC cells. Bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay results showed that miR-381 directly targeted the 3'-untranslated region of liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis results showed that miR-381 negatively modulated LRH-1 expression. Data elucidated that miR-381 directly regulated HCC cell growth and invasion, as well as the Wnt signaling pathways, by targeting LRH-1. Clinical tissue detection data revealed an inverse correlation between miR-381 and LRH-1 expression in HCC tissues, further indicating the functional significance of miR-381-LRH-1 in regulating HCC tumorigenesis. The present study indicates that miR-381 may be a novel tumor suppressor that blocks HCC growth and invasion by targeting LRH-1. The results present novel insights into understanding the molecular mechanism underlying HCC tumorigenesis and provide a future direction to the development of therapeutic interventions for HCC.

Honda M, Shirasaki T, Terashima T, et al.
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Core-Related Antigen During Nucleos(t)ide Analog Therapy Is Related to Intra-hepatic HBV Replication and Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
J Infect Dis. 2016; 213(7):1096-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although nucleos(t)ide analog (NA) therapy effectively reduces the hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA load in the serum of patients with chronic hepatitis B, it does not completely reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 109 patients who had chronic hepatitis B and were receiving NA therapy were analyzed. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age (>60 years had a hazard ratio [HR] of 2.66), FIB-4 index (an index of >2.1 had a HR of 2.57), and the presence of HBV core-related antigen (HBcrAg; HR, 3.53) during treatment were significantly associated with the development of HCC. The amount of HBV DNA and pregenomic RNA in liver were significantly higher in 16 HBcrAg-positive patients, compared with 12 HBcrAg-negative patients, suggesting active HBV replication in HBcrAg-positive livers. Hepatic gene expression profiling showed that HBV-promoting transcriptional factors, including HNF4α, PPARα, and LRH1, were upregulated in HBcrAg-positive livers. HepAD38 cells overexpressing LRH1 increased HBV replication, characterized by higher HBV DNA and pregenomic RNA levels, during long-term exposure to entecavir. Conversely, overexpression of precore/core in HepG2 cells increased levels of these transcriptional factors. Metformin efficiently repressed HBV replication in primary human hepatocytes.
CONCLUSIONS: Modulating HBV transcriptional factors by metformin in combination with NA therapy would potentiate anti-HBV activity and reduce the incidence of HCC in HBcrAg-positive patients.

Ueno M, Ohkawa S, Morimoto M, et al.
Genome-wide association study-identified SNPs (rs3790844, rs3790843) in the NR5A2 gene and risk of pancreatic cancer in Japanese.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:17018 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We genotyped 2 SNPs (rs3790844 T/C and rs3790843 G/A) in the NR5A2 gene that were identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of pancreatic cancer in populations of mainly European ancestry, and we examined their associations with pancreatic cancer risk in a case-control study of 360 patients and 400 control subjects in Japan. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.80). For rs3790843, the multivariable-adjusted OR was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.41-1.36) and 0.60 (95%CI: 0.33-1.08) for subjects with the AG and AA genotype, respectively, compared to subjects with the GG genotype. The per allele OR was 0.78 (0.62-0.99) (P = 0.046). For rs3790844, the multivariable-adjusted OR was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.37-1.14) and 0.47 (95%CI: 0.27-0.83) for subjects with the CT and CC genotype, respectively, compared to subjects with the TT genotype. The per allele OR was 0.70 (0.56-0.89) (P = 0.003). Our case-control study found that rs3790843 and rs3790844 in the NR5A2 gene are associated with pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese subjects. The direction of association is consistent with the prior findings from GWASs.

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