Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: NUTM2B (cancer-related)
Santiago T, Clay MR, Azzato E, et al.Clear cell sarcoma of kidney involving a horseshoe kidney and harboring EGFR internal tandem duplication.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017; 64(11) [PubMed
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Clear cell sarcoma of kidney (CCSK) is a rare renal malignancy, previously unreported in horseshoe kidney (HSK). B-cell lymphoma 6 corepressor (BCOR) gene internal tandem duplication (ITD) was identified as a recurrent somatic alteration in approximately 85% of CCSKs. This and the YWHAE-NUTM2B/E fusion, the second most common recurrent molecular alteration in CCSK (10%), are considered to be mutually exclusive. However, there is a subset of CCSKs that do not harbor either the BCOR-ITD or YWHAE-NUTM2 translocation and lack known molecular alterations. Herein, we report the first case of CCSK arising in HSK and harboring epidermal growth factor receptor ITD.
BACKGROUND: Uterine sarcoma is a rare tumor that is often difficult to classify based on morphological and immunohistochemical analysis alone. Limited access to molecular biological analysis in routine practice would hinder making a definitive diagnosis.
CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we describe a case of a mesenchymal tumor arising from the uterine cervix in a 52-year-old woman. From microscopic morphology of the resected specimen, epithelioid leiomyosarcoma, high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, or uterine gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) were considered as differential diagnoses. The immunophenotype of the tumor featured smooth muscle differentiation and hormone receptor expression. The cell membrane and cytoplasm were positive for c-kit, although no mutation was found in the c-kit or PDGFRA gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed a relatively low frequency of YWHAE rearrangement, whereas there were few NUTM2A and NUTM2B split signals.
CONCLUSIONS: In this case, the tumor was not typical of any three of the differential diagnoses mentioned above. However, insufficient frequency of YWHAE, NUTM2A, and NUTM2B gene rearrangement and absence of mutation in both the c-kit and PDGFRA genes suggested that this tumor should be categorized as epithelioid leiomyosarcoma. This is an instructive case showing a potential diagnostic pitfall of uterine sarcoma. Comprehensive approaches including molecular biological techniques are required for definitive diagnosis.
With the advent of next-generation sequencing, an increasing number of novel gene fusions and other abnormalities have emerged recently in the spectrum of EWSR1-negative small blue round cell tumors (SBRCTs). In this regard, a subset of SBRCTs harboring either BCOR gene fusions (BCOR-CCNB3, BCOR-MAML3), BCOR internal tandem duplications (ITD), or YWHAE-NUTM2B share a transcriptional signature including high BCOR mRNA expression, as well as similar histologic features. Furthermore, other tumors such as clear cell sarcoma of kidney (CCSK) and primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy also demonstrate BCOR ITDs and high BCOR gene expression. The molecular diagnosis of these various BCOR genetic alterations requires an elaborate methodology including custom BAC fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. As these tumors show high level of BCOR overexpression regardless of the genetic mechanism involved, either conventional gene fusion or ITD, we sought to investigate the performance of an anti-BCOR monoclonal antibody clone C-10 (sc-514576) as an immunohistochemical marker for sarcomas with BCOR gene abnormalities. Thus we assessed the BCOR expression in a pathologically and genetically well-characterized cohort of 25 SBRCTs, spanning various BCOR-related fusions and ITDs and YWHAE-NUTM2B fusion. In addition, we included related pathologic entities such as 8 CCSKs and other sarcomas with BCOR gene fusions. As a control group we included 20 SBRCTs with various (non-BCOR) genetic abnormalities, 10 fusion-negative SBRCTs, 74 synovial sarcomas, 29 rhabdomyosarcomas, and other sarcoma types. In addition, we evaluated the same study group for SATB2 immunoreactivity, as these tumors also showed SATB2 mRNA upregulation. All SBRCTs with BCOR-MAML3 and BCOR-CCNB3 fusions, as well as most with BCOR ITD (93%), and all CCSKs showed strong and diffuse nuclear BCOR immunoreactivity. Furthermore, all SBRCTs with YWHAE-NUTM2B also were positive. SATB2 stain was also positive in tumors with YWHAE-NUTM2B, BCOR-MAML3, BCOR ITD (75%), BCOR-CCNB3 (71%), and a subset of CCSKs (33%). In conclusion, BCOR immunohistochemical stain is a highly sensitive marker for SBRCTs and CCSKs with BCOR abnormalities and YWHAE-rearrangements and can be used as a useful diagnostic marker in these various molecular subsets. SATB2 immunoreactivity is also present in the majority of this group of tumors.
Li X, Anand M, Haimes JD, et al.The application of next-generation sequencing-based molecular diagnostics in endometrial stromal sarcoma.
Histopathology. 2016; 69(4):551-9 [PubMed
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AIMS: Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESSs) are divided into low-grade and high-grade subtypes, with the latter showing more aggressive clinical behaviour. Although histology and immunophenotype can aid in the diagnosis of these tumours, genetic studies can provide additional diagnostic insights, as low-grade ESSs frequently harbour fusions involving JAZF1/SUZ12 and/or JAZF1/PHF1, whereas high-grade ESSs are defined by YWHAE-NUTM2A/B fusions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assay in identifying ESS fusions in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour samples.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We applied an NGS-based fusion transcript detection assay (Archer FusionPlex Sarcoma Panel) that targets YWHAE and JAZF1 fusions in a series of low-grade ESSs (n = 11) and high-grade ESSs (n = 5) that were previously confirmed to harbour genetic rearrangements by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and/or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses. The fusion assay identified junctional fusion transcript sequences that corresponded to the known FISH/RT-PCR results in all cases. Four low-grade ESSs harboured JAZF1-PHF1 fusions with different junctional sequences, and all were correctly identified because of the open-ended nature of the assay design, using anchored multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Seven non-ESS sarcomas were also included as negative controls, and no strong ESS fusion candidates were identified in these cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate good sensitivity and specificity of an NGS-based gene fusion assay in the detection of ESS fusion transcripts.
Kao YC, Sung YS, Zhang L, et al.Recurrent BCOR Internal Tandem Duplication and YWHAE-NUTM2B Fusions in Soft Tissue Undifferentiated Round Cell Sarcoma of Infancy: Overlapping Genetic Features With Clear Cell Sarcoma of Kidney.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2016; 40(8):1009-20 [PubMed
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Soft tissue undifferentiated round cell sarcoma (URCS) occurring in infants is a heterogenous group of tumors, often lacking known genetic abnormalities. On the basis of a t(10;17;14) karyotype in a pelvic URCS of a 4-month-old boy showing similar breakpoints with clear cell sarcoma of kidney (CCSK), we have investigated the possibility of shared genetic abnormalities in CCSK and soft tissue URCS. Most CCSKs are characterized by BCOR exon 16 internal tandem duplications (ITDs), whereas a smaller subset shows YWHAE-NUTM2B/E fusions. Because of overlapping clinicopathologic features, we have also investigated these genetic alterations in the so-called primitive myxoid mesenchymal tumor of infancy (PMMTI). Among the 22 infantile URCSs and 7 PMMTIs selected, RNA sequencing was performed in 5 and 2 cases, with frozen tissue, respectively. The remaining cases with archival material were tested for YWHAE-NUTM2B/E by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and BCOR ITD by PCR. A control group of 4 CCSKs and 14 URCSs in older children or adults without known gene fusion and 20 other sarcomas with similar histomorphology or age at presentation were also tested. A YWHAE-NUTM2B fusion was confirmed in the index case by FISH and RT-PCR, whereas BCOR ITD was lacking. An identical YWHAE-NUTM2B fusion was found in another URCS case of a 5-month-old girl with a back lesion. The remaining cases and control group lacked YWHAE gene rearrangements; instead, consistent BCOR ITDs, similar to CCSK, were found in 15/29 (52%) infantile sarcoma cases (9/22 infantile URCS and 6/7 PMMTI). In the control cohort, BCOR ITD was found only in 3 CCSK cases but not in the other sarcomas. Histologically, URCS with both genotypes and PMMTI shared significant histologic overlap, with uniform small blue round cells with fine chromatin and indistinct nucleoli. A prominent capillary network similar to CCSK, rosette structures, and varying degree of myxoid change were occasionally seen. BCOR ITD-positive tumors occurred preferentially in the somatic soft tissue of the trunk, abdomen, and head and neck, sparing the extremities. RNAseq showed high BCOR mRNA levels in BCOR ITD-positive cases, compared with other URCSs. In summary, we report recurrent BCOR exon 16 ITD and YWHAE-NUTM2B fusions in half of infantile soft tissue URCS and most PMMTI cases, but not in other pediatric sarcomas. These findings suggest a significant overlap between infantile URCS and CCSK, such as age at presentation, histologic features, and genetic signature, thus raising the possibility of a soft tissue counterpart to CCSK.
Gooskens SL, Kenny C, Lazaro A, et al.The clinical phenotype of YWHAE-NUTM2B/E positive pediatric clear cell sarcoma of the kidney.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(2):143-7 [PubMed
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Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) although uncommon, is the second most frequent renal malignancy of childhood. Until now, the sole recurrent genetic aberration identified in CCSKs is t(10;17)(q22;p13), which gives rise to a fusion transcript of YWHAE and NUTM2B/E. So far, the clinical relevance of this fusion transcript is unknown. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the clinical phenotype of t(10;17)(q22;p13) positive CCSKs. Snap-frozen tissues, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues or RNA previously extracted from CCSK samples throughout European, North-American and Japanese study groups were screened by RT-PCR for the YWHAE-NUTM2B/E transcript. Clinical characteristics, tumor characteristics, and outcome of patients with and without the fusion transcript were studied. The cohort comprised 51 previously published cases to which were added 139 internationally collected CCSK samples. RNA from 57 of these additionally collected cases was of sufficient quality to be successfully screened for the YWHAE-NUTM2B/E transcript. In total, seven of the 108 cases harbored the fusion transcript. Patients with tumors containing the fusion transcript were relatively young (median age 10 months), had associated low median tumor volumes and stage I disease was not observed in these patients. Two of seven patients relapsed and one of seven patients died of disease. Ranges of values were not overtly different between patients with and without the fusion transcript; however, the number of fusion transcript positive cases turned out to be too small to permit reliable statistical analysis. The current study did not identify an explicit clinical phenotype of CCSK cases harboring the YWHAE-NUTM2B/E fusion transcript.
Karlsson J, Valind A, Gisselsson DBCOR internal tandem duplication and YWHAE-NUTM2B/E fusion are mutually exclusive events in clear cell sarcoma of the kidney.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(2):120-3 [PubMed
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Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is the second most common pediatric renal tumor. Two recurrent genetic aberrations have been described in CCSK. One is a fusion of YWHAE and NUTM2B/E, the other is an internal tandem duplication (ITD) in the BCOR gene. Here it is shown that YWHAE-NUTM2B/E fusion and the BCOR ITD are mutually exclusive events and activated different downstream signaling systems. This has important diagnostic implications and opens up for further mechanistic studies of CCSK pathogenesis.
Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney (CCSK) is a rare childhood tumor whose molecular pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We analyzed a discovery set of 13 CCSKs for changes in chromosome copy number, mutations, rearrangements, global gene expression and global DNA methylation. No recurrent segmental chromosomal copy number changes or somatic variants (single nucleotide or small insertion/deletion) were identified. One tumor with t(10;17)(q22;p13) involving fusion of YHWAE with NUTM2B was identified. Integrated analysis of expression and methylation data identified promoter hypermethylation and low expression of the tumor suppressor gene TCF21 (Pod-1/capsulin/epicardin) in all CCSKs except the case with t(10;17)(q22;p13). TARID, the long noncoding RNA responsible for demethylating TCF21, was virtually undetectable in most CCSKs. TCF21 hypermethylation and decreased TARID expression were validated in an independent set of CCSK tumor samples. The presence of significant hypermethylation of TCF21, a transcription factor known to be active early in renal development, supports the hypothesis that hypermethylation of TCF21 and/or decreased TARID expression lies within the pathogenic pathway of most CCSKs. Future studies are needed to functionally verify a tumorigenic role of TCF21 down-regulation and to tie this to the unique gene expression pattern of CCSK.
Karlsson J, Lilljebjörn H, Holmquist Mengelbier L, et al.Activation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase through gene fusion in clear cell sarcoma of the kidney.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 357(2):498-501 [PubMed
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Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is a rare tumor type affecting infants and young children. Most CCSKs display few genomic aberrations, and no general underlying mechanism for tumor initiation has yet been identified, although a YWHAE-NUTM2B/NUTM2E fusion gene has been observed in a minority of cases. We performed RNA-sequencing of 22 CCSKs to investigate the presence of additional fusion transcripts. The presence of the YWHAE-NUTM2B/NUTM2E fusion was confirmed in two cases. In addition, a novel IRX2-TERT fusion transcript was identified in one case. SNP-array analyses revealed the underlying event to be an interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p15.33). TERT was dramatically upregulated under the influence of the IRX2 promoter. In line with TERT expression being driven by active IRX2 regulatory elements, we found a high expression of IRX2 in CCSKs irrespective of fusion gene status. IRX2 was also expressed in human fetal kidney - the presumed tissue of origin for CCSK. We conclude that in addition to promoter mutations and epigenetic events, TERT can also be activated in tumors via formation of fusion transcripts.
Suzuki S, Tanioka F, Minato H, et al.Breakages at YWHAE, FAM22A, and FAM22B loci in uterine angiosarcoma: a case report with immunohistochemical and genetic analysis.
Pathol Res Pract. 2014; 210(2):130-4 [PubMed
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Described herein is the first reported case of a uterine angiosarcoma with breakages at three loci, YWHAE (17p13), FAM22A (10q23) and FAM22B (10q22). A 62-year-old postmenopausal woman was found to have endometrial thickening of her uterus. An endometrial biopsy indicated a malignant, spindle cell neoplasm. A total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed. Histologic examination of the uterine specimen showed a malignant tumor consisting of irregular rudimentary vascular channels and solid small nests diffusely infiltrating to the middle of the myometrial wall. The tumor cells were epithelioid, and displayed eosinophilic cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei in some areas of the tumor. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed vascular differentiation; they were diffusely positive for CD31 and D2-40 but were negative for factor VIII and CD34. In the course of the procedure of differential diagnoses, we included fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for detection of a FAM22B-YWHAE fusion gene resulting from t(10;17)(q22;p13), recently reported in a series of endometrial stromal sarcoma, and unexpectedly identified breakages at three loci, i.e. YWHAE (17p13), FAM22A (10q23) and FAM22B (10q22). Collectively, these findings suggest that abnormality in the loci of YWHAE, FAM22A and FAM22B, which are known to be associated with oncogenesis of endometrial stromal sarcoma, may contribute to the development of uterine angiosarcoma.
O'Meara E, Stack D, Lee CH, et al.Characterization of the chromosomal translocation t(10;17)(q22;p13) in clear cell sarcoma of kidney.
J Pathol. 2012; 227(1):72-80 [PubMed
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Clear cell sarcoma of kidney (CCSK) is classified as a tumour of unfavourable histology by the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group. It has worse clinical outcomes than Wilms' tumour. Virtually nothing is known about CCSK biology, as there have been very few genetic aberrations identified to act as pointers in this cancer. Three cases of CCSK bearing a chromosomal translocation, t(10;17)(q22;p13), have been individually reported but not further investigated to date. The aim of this research was to characterize t(10;17)(q22;p13) in CCSK to identify the genes involved in the translocation breakpoints. Using fluorescently labelled bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and a chromosome-walking strategy on an index case of CCSK with t(10;17)(q22;p13) by karyotype, we identified the chromosomal breakpoints on 17p13.3 and 10q22.3. The translocation results in rearrangement of YWHAE on chromosome 17 and FAM22 on chromosome 10, producing an in-frame fusion transcript of ∼3 kb, incorporating exons 1-5 of YWHAE and exons 2-7 of FAM22, as determined by RT-PCR using YWHAE- and FAM22-specific primers. The YWHAE-FAM22 transcript was detected in six of 50 further CCSKs tested, therefore showing an overall incidence of 12% in our cohort. No transcript-positive cases presented with stage I disease, despite this being the stage for 31% of our cohort. Tumour cellularity was significantly higher in the cases that were transcript-positive. Based on the chromosome 10 breakpoint identified by FISH and the sequences of the full-length transcripts obtained, the FAM22 members involved in the translocation in these CCSK cases include FAM22B and FAM22E. Elucidation of the role of YWHAE-FAM22 in CCSK will assist development of more efficient and targeted therapies for this childhood cancer, which currently has poor outcomes.
14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed regulators of various cellular functions, including proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation, and altered 14-3-3 expression is associated with development and progression of cancer. We report a transforming 14-3-3 oncoprotein, which we identified through conventional cytogenetics and whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis as a highly recurrent genetic mechanism in a clinically aggressive form of uterine sarcoma: high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). The 14-3-3 oncoprotein results from a t(10;17) genomic rearrangement, leading to fusion between 14-3-3ε (YWHAE) and either of two nearly identical FAM22 family members (FAM22A or FAM22B). Expression of YWHAE-FAM22 fusion oncoproteins was demonstrated by immunoblot in t(10;17)-bearing frozen tumor and cell line samples. YWHAE-FAM22 fusion gene knockdowns were performed with shRNAs and siRNAs targeting various FAM22A exons in an t(10;17)-bearing ESS cell line (ESS1): Fusion protein expression was inhibited, with corresponding reduction in cell growth and migration. YWHAE-FAM22 maintains a structurally and functionally intact 14-3-3ε (YWHAE) protein-binding domain, which is directed to the nucleus by a FAM22 nuclear localization sequence. In contrast to classic ESS, harboring JAZF1 genetic fusions, YWHAE-FAM22 ESS display high-grade histologic features, a distinct gene-expression profile, and a more aggressive clinical course. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated absolute specificity of YWHAE-FAM22A/B genetic rearrangement for high-grade ESS, with no fusions detected in other uterine and nonuterine mesenchymal tumors (55 tumor types, n = 827). These discoveries reveal diagnostically and therapeutically relevant models for characterizing aberrant 14-3-3 oncogenic functions.