SRGAP3

Gene Summary

Gene:SRGAP3; SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 3
Aliases: WRP, MEGAP, SRGAP2, ARHGAP14
Location:3p25.3
Summary:-
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase-activating protein 3
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (4)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SRGAP3 (cancer-related)

Ma Y, Mi YJ, Dai YK, et al.
The inverse F-BAR domain protein srGAP2 acts through srGAP3 to modulate neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth of mouse neuroblastoma cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e57865 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The inverse F-BAR (IF-BAR) domain proteins srGAP1, srGAP2 and srGAP3 are implicated in neuronal development and may be linked to mental retardation, schizophrenia and seizure. A partially overlapping expression pattern and highly similar protein structures indicate a functional redundancy of srGAPs in neuronal development. Our previous study suggests that srGAP3 negatively regulates neuronal differentiation in a Rac1-dependent manner in mouse Neuro2a cells. Here we show that exogenously expressed srGAP1 and srGAP2 are sufficient to inhibit valporic acid (VPA)-induced neurite initiation and growth in the mouse Neuro2a cells. While ectopic- or over-expression of RhoGAP-defective mutants, srGAP1(R542A) and srGAP2(R527A) exert a visible inhibitory effect on neuronal differentiation. Unexpectedly, knockdown of endogenous srGAP2 fails to facilitate the neuronal differentiation induced by VPA, but promotes neurite outgrowth of differentiated cells. All three IF-BAR domains from srGAP1-3 can induce filopodia formation in Neuro2a, but the isolated IF-BAR domain from srGAP2, not from srGAP1 and srGAP3, can promote VPA-induced neurite initiation and neuronal differentiation. We identify biochemical and functional interactions of the three srGAPs family members. We propose that srGAP3-Rac1 signaling may be required for the effect of srGAP1 and srGAP2 on attenuating neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, inhibition of Slit-Robo interaction can phenocopy a loss-of-function of srGAP3, indicating that srGAP3 may be dedicated to the Slit-Robo pathway. Our results demonstrate the interplay between srGAP1, srGAP2 and srGAP3 regulates neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth. These findings may provide us new insights into the possible roles of srGAPs in neuronal development and a potential mechanism for neurodevelopmental diseases.

Lahoz A, Hall A
A tumor suppressor role for srGAP3 in mammary epithelial cells.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(40):4854-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
srGAP3, a member of the Slit-Robo sub-family of Rho GTPase-activating proteins (Rho GAPs), controls actin and microtubule dynamics through negative regulation of Rac. Here, we describe a potential role for srGAP3 as a tumor suppressor in mammary epithelial cells. We show that RNAi-mediated depletion of srGAP3 promotes Rac dependent, anchorage-independent growth of partially transformed human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Furthermore, srGAP3 expression is absent, or significantly reduced in 7/10 breast cancer cell lines compared with normal HMECs. Re-expression of srGAP3 in a subset of these cell lines inhibits both anchorage-independent growth and cell invasion in a GAP-dependent manner, and this is accompanied by an increase in phosphorylation of the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family proteins and myosin light chain 2 (MLC2). Inhibition of the Rho regulated kinase, ROCK, reduces ERM and MLC2 phosphorylation and restores invasion. We conclude that srGAP3 has tumor suppressor-like activity in HMECs, likely through its activity as a negative regulator of Rac1.

Dennis MY, Nuttle X, Sudmant PH, et al.
Evolution of human-specific neural SRGAP2 genes by incomplete segmental duplication.
Cell. 2012; 149(4):912-22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gene duplication is an important source of phenotypic change and adaptive evolution. We leverage a haploid hydatidiform mole to identify highly identical sequences missing from the reference genome, confirming that the cortical development gene Slit-Robo Rho GTPase-activating protein 2 (SRGAP2) duplicated three times exclusively in humans. We show that the promoter and first nine exons of SRGAP2 duplicated from 1q32.1 (SRGAP2A) to 1q21.1 (SRGAP2B) ∼3.4 million years ago (mya). Two larger duplications later copied SRGAP2B to chromosome 1p12 (SRGAP2C) and to proximal 1q21.1 (SRGAP2D) ∼2.4 and ∼1 mya, respectively. Sequence and expression analyses show that SRGAP2C is the most likely duplicate to encode a functional protein and is among the most fixed human-specific duplicate genes. Our data suggest a mechanism where incomplete duplication created a novel gene function-antagonizing parental SRGAP2 function-immediately "at birth" 2-3 mya, which is a time corresponding to the transition from Australopithecus to Homo and the beginning of neocortex expansion.

Forshew T, Tatevossian RG, Lawson AR, et al.
Activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway: a signature genetic defect in posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas.
J Pathol. 2009; 218(2):172-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report genetic aberrations that activate the ERK/MAP kinase pathway in 100% of posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas, with a high frequency of gene fusions between KIAA1549 and BRAF among these tumours. These fusions were identified from analysis of focal copy number gains at 7q34, detected using Affymetrix 250K and 6.0 SNP arrays. PCR and sequencing confirmed the presence of five KIAA1549-BRAF fusion variants, along with a single fusion between SRGAP3 and RAF1. The resulting fusion genes lack the auto-inhibitory domains of BRAF and RAF1, which are replaced in-frame by the beginning of KIAA1549 and SRGAP3, respectively, conferring constitutive kinase activity. An activating mutation of KRAS was identified in the single pilocytic astrocytoma without a BRAF or RAF1 fusion. Further fusions and activating mutations in BRAF were identified in 28% of grade II astrocytomas, highlighting the importance of the ERK/MAP kinase pathway in the development of paediatric low-grade gliomas.

Jones DT, Kocialkowski S, Liu L, et al.
Oncogenic RAF1 rearrangement and a novel BRAF mutation as alternatives to KIAA1549:BRAF fusion in activating the MAPK pathway in pilocytic astrocytoma.
Oncogene. 2009; 28(20):2119-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs), WHO malignancy grade I, are the most frequently occurring central nervous system tumour in 5- to 19-year-olds. Recent reports have highlighted the importance of MAPK pathway activation in PAs, particularly through a tandem duplication leading to an oncogenic BRAF fusion gene. Here, we report two alternative mechanisms resulting in MAPK activation in PAs. Firstly, in striking similarity to the common BRAF fusion, tandem duplication at 3p25 was observed, which produces an in-frame oncogenic fusion between SRGAP3 and RAF1. This fusion includes the Raf1 kinase domain, and shows elevated kinase activity when compared with wild-type Raf1. Secondly, a novel 3 bp insertion at codon 598 in BRAF mimics the hotspot V600E mutation to produce a transforming, constitutively active BRaf kinase. Although these two alterations are not common, they bring the number of cases with an identified 'hit' on the Ras/Raf-signalling pathway to 36 from our series of 44 (82%), confirming its central importance to the development of pilocytic astrocytomas.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. SRGAP3, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/SRGAP3.htm Accessed:

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This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
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