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Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours (Islet Cell Tumours)

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours originate in islet cells of the endocrine pancreas. They account for approximately 5% of cancers of the pancreas.

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Endocrine Cancers

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Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Thavaraputta S, Graham S, Rivas Mejia AM, Lado-Abeal J
Duodenal somatostatinoma presenting as obstructive jaundice with the coexistence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour in neurofibromatosis type 1: a case with review of the literature.
BMJ Case Rep. 2019; 12(1) [PubMed] Related Publications
Somatostatinomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours, mostly located in the pancreas or duodenum, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 40 million. Duodenal somatostatinomas (DSs) are usually found in association with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), tuberous sclerosis and Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) have also been described in NF1, but the association with somatostatinoma is very uncommon. We report the case of a patient with NF1 who presented with obstructive jaundice due to multiple firm nodules around the ampulla of Vater. A pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed and revealed a 1 cm duodenal/ampullary mass which stained positive for somatostatin, together with a GIST also found on the duodenal wall. Despite its rarity, ampullary somatostatinomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of biliary tract dilation in patients with NF1.

Chen WC, Warner RRP, Harpaz N, et al.
Gastric Neuroendocrine Tumor and Duodenal Gastrinoma With Chronic Autoimmune Atrophic Gastritis.
Pancreas. 2019; 48(1):131-134 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our group observed the first case of synchronous gastric neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and duodenal gastrinoma with autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), in the absence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and pathologic data were abstracted from the electronic medical record at Mount Sinai Hospital from 2013 to 2015. The patient's anonymity was carefully protected, and informed consent was obtained for publication of protected health information. A 53-year-old woman with hypertension presented to Mount Sinai Hospital in June 2013 for a second opinion for management of gastric and duodenal NETs. After evaluation by gastroenterology and surgery, repeat upper endoscopy with ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration revealed multiple diminutive type I gastric NETs and 2 duodenal NETs, against a background of autoimmune CAG, with biopsy pathology negative for H. pylori. She subsequently underwent a transduodenal resection of the duodenal NETs, confirming low-grade, gastrin-positive, stage T2 duodenal NET. On routine follow-up over the next 2 years, clinical, radiographic, and endoscopic surveillance revealed no recurrent or metastatic gastric or duodenal disease. This first report of synchronous duodenal gastrinoma and gastric NET in the setting of autoimmune CAG can broaden our understanding of gastric NET pathophysiology.

Przybylik-Mazurek E, Palen J, Pasternak-Pietrzak K, et al.
Coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 with multiple malignant neoplasia.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2018; 39(3):149-155 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, von Recklinghausen disease) is inherited in autosomal dominant way genetic disorder, with an incidence at birth 1:3000. It is one of the most common congenital disorders. It is characterized by café-au-lait spots, neurofibromas, and less common MPTST and gliomas of the optic nerve. It is caused by germline mutations of the NF1 gene, which acts as tumor suppressor. Inactivation of the gene leads to increased activation of the kinase pathways, and in consequence, uncontrolled proliferation of cells. The disease predisposes to the development of both benign and malignant tumors. Malignant tumors, but not related to the nervous system occur in neurofibromatosis quite rare. The aim of the study is a literature review of NF1, with presentation of a patient with NF1 and coexisting numerous tumors: synchronous somatostatinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor with metachronous prostate adenocarcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. And attempt to answer the question if there is a common pathway for oncogenesis of these four tumors.

Singh D, Lal SB, Sood A, et al.
Management of Primary Lymph Nodal Gastrinoma With Liver Metastases Resulting in Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome.
Clin Nucl Med. 2019; 44(1):e36-e39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary lymph node gastrinoma has been defined as gastrin-producing tumor present in lymph nodes and predominantly found in well-defined anatomical region known as gastrinoma triangle. They are usually localized preoperatively with imaging, and their surgical resection results in long-term relief. The authors report a case of unresectable primary lymph nodal gastrinoma with liver metastases in a 14-year-old adolescent boy with proven histopathology detected on Ga-DOTANOC whole-body PET/CT scan followed by preoperative multiple Lu-DOTATATE cycles for cytoreduction. Subsequent surgical resection of residual mass resulted in complete response with a follow-up of around 4 years in this unusual case of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.

Chen C, Zheng Z, Li B, et al.
Pancreatic VIPomas from China: Case reports and literature review.
Pancreatology. 2019; 19(1):44-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-secreting tumors (VIPomas) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that often present as watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria. In this study, we present our institutional experience of diagnosis and treatment of VIPomas, along with a review of the Chinese literature since 1980. Patient #1, diagnosed in 1984 and with intact clinical records, shows the natural history of this disease. Patient #2, diagnosed in 2015, shows the results of evaluation by nuclear medicine techniques and the outcomes of standardized treatment. Comprehensive review of 41 cases allows evaluation of clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes of pancreatic VIPoma patients. All patients presented with watery diarrhea. The average stool volume reached 3247 mL per day. Average serum VIP level was 839.3 ng/L. Twelve of the 41 cases were reported to have metastases at diagnosis. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and

Toberer F, Hartschuh W, Wiedemeyer K
Glucagonoma-Associated Necrolytic Migratory Erythema: The Broad Spectrum of the Clinical and Histopathological Findings and Clues to the Diagnosis.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2019; 41(3):e29-e32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Necrolytic migratory erythema (NEM) is associated with glucagonoma, an endocrine malignancy of the pancreas. It is a rare and a likely underrecognized paraneoplastic dermatitis. A 38-year-old woman presented to our clinic with a 3-year history of reocurring pruritic skin rashes with increasing intensity. The skin lesions presented with active annular borders, central scaling, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, but also with erosions, pustules, and crusted lesions. Multiple skin biopsies were taken. The workup of the patient revealed a tumor localized in the head of the pancreas, and glucagon serum levels were elevated. Clues to the diagnosis of NEM were the waxing and waning of serpiginous erythemas with active borders localized on extremities, intertriginous areas, and face. On histopathology, dyskeratosis in all layers of the epidermis were an early feature of NEM, and long-standing lesions typically showed psoriasiform hyperplasia with pallor and necrosis of upper epidermal layers. Clinicians and histopathologists need to be aware of the wide spectrum of skin manifestations in glucagonoma. Early diagnosis of the tumor is crucial for patients.

Norton JA, Foster DS, Ito T, Jensen RT
Gastrinomas: Medical or Surgical Treatment.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2018; 47(3):577-601 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This article reviews the role of surgical and medical management in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) due to a gastrin-secreting neuroendocrine tumor (gastrinoma). It concentrates on the status at present but also briefly reviews the changes over time in treatment approaches. Generally, surgical and medical therapy are complementary today; however, in some cases, such as patients with ZES and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, the treatment approach remains controversial.

Rossi RE, Rausa E, Cavalcoli F, et al.
Duodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms: a still poorly recognized clinical entity.
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2018 Jun - Jul; 53(7):835-842 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Duodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms (dNENs) are rare tumors, which usually show good prognosis. The optimal management of these tumors is still far from being clearly understood because of their rarity and the poor level of knowledge about their natural history. Herein, we have reviewed the literature on dNENs to collect and analyze the current data on epidemiology, diagnosis and management of these rare tumors.
METHODS: Bibliographical searches were performed in PubMed, using the following keywords: duodenal neuroendocrine neoplasm; duodenum; gastrinoma; diagnosis; therapy; guidelines. We searched for all relevant articles published over the last 15 years. Non-English language papers were excluded.
RESULTS: We reviewed the pertinent articles about dNENs. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy is the cornerstone of the dNENs diagnostic process. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration/biopsy should be performed in order to locally stage the disease and in all cases of non-diagnostic endoscopy. Endoscopic or complete surgical removal of the primary lesion is the recommended treatment and is generally achievable for the majority of the patients. A less aggressive approach may be suggested for well-differentiated low-stage tumors. After NEN removal, patients should be closely followed-up especially during the first 3 years by endoscopic examination, imaging tests and CgA measurements.
CONCLUSIONS: The multi-disciplinary approach and the preservation of the quality of life of the patients play a key role in the therapeutic process for dNENs. Further studies are needed to better define standardized guidelines specific to dNENs, including optimal management approaches and follow-up intervals.

Tamura A, Ogasawara T, Fujii Y, et al.
Glucagonoma With Necrolytic Migratory Erythema: Metabolic Profile and Detection of Biallelic Inactivation of DAXX Gene.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018; 103(7):2417-2423 [PubMed] Related Publications
Context: Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) occurs in approximately 70% of patients with glucagonoma syndrome. Excessive stimulation of metabolic pathways by hyperglucagonemia, which leads to hypoaminoacidemia, contributes to NME pathogenesis. However, the molecular pathogenesis of glucagonoma and relationships between metabolic abnormalities and clinical symptoms remain unclear.
Patient: A 53-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a generalized rash and weight loss. NME was diagnosed by histopathological examination of skin biopsy tissue. Laboratory tests revealed diabetes, hyperglucagonemia, marked insulin resistance, severe hypoaminoacidemia, ketosis, and anemia. Enhanced computed tomography scans detected a 29-mm pancreatic hypervascular tumor, which was eventually diagnosed as glucagonoma. Preoperative treatment with octreotide long-acting release reduced the glucagon level, improved the amino acid profile, and produced NME remission. Surgical tumor excision normalized the metabolic status and led to remission of symptoms, including NME.
Interventions: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and subsequent targeted capture sequencing, followed by Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing, identified biallelic alteration of death-domain associated protein (DAXX) with a combination of loss of heterozygosity and frameshift mutations (c.553_554del:p.R185fs and c.1884dupC:p.C629fs) in the glucagonoma. Consistently, immunohistochemistry confirmed near-absence of DAXX staining in the tumor cells. Tumor expression of glucagon and somatostatin receptor subtype 2 and 3 messenger RNA was markedly upregulated.
Conclusions: This is a report of glucagonoma with biallelic inactivation of DAXX determined by WES. The tumor manifested as glucagonoma syndrome with generalized NME. This case showed the relationship between hypoaminoacidemia and NME status. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of NME onset and glucagonoma tumorigenesis.

Jin XF, Spampatti MP, Spitzweg C, Auernhammer CJ
Supportive therapy in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: Often forgotten but important.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2018; 19(2):145-158 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a group of rare and heterogeneous malignancies that can develop in various organs. A significant number of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs) is functionally active and presents with symptoms related to the secretion of biologically active substances, leading to the development of distinct clinical syndromes. There are various therapeutic approaches for GEP-NETs, including curative surgery, palliative surgery, local-ablative and loco-regional therapies as well as systemic therapeutic options including peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, cytotoxic therapy, and molecularly targeted therapies. Specific supportive therapy of patients with NETs includes management or prevention of hormone-related clinical syndromes and paraneoplastic states. Supportive therapy plays a key role in NET treatment. Supportive therapy includes debulking surgery and interventional radiologic techniques to reduce tumour bulk or load, as well as systemic medical treatment options to manage or prevent hypersecretion syndromes and treatment-related side effects. Supportive therapies are a type of of comprehensive treatment addressing the patient as a whole person throughout the process of NET treatment. Therefore, supportive therapy also encompasses psychosocial support, expert nursing, nutritional support and management of cancer related pain.

Tolliver S, Graham J, Kaffenberger BH
A review of cutaneous manifestations within glucagonoma syndrome: necrolytic migratory erythema.
Int J Dermatol. 2018; 57(6):642-645 [PubMed] Related Publications
Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) is a rare skin disorder that is a cutaneous manifestation of the glucagonoma syndrome. It presents with annular eruptions of migrating erythematous papules and plaques with superficial epidermal necrosis, central flaccid bullae, and crusted erosions located primarily in the intertriginous areas. Treatment with the long-acting somatostatin analog Octreotide is a potential therapy to help ameliorate skin symptoms. We present a case of a patient with a 1-year history of a pancreatic glucagonoma that developed an ulcerated, plaque-like, weeping rash over multiple areas of their body despite current treatment with Octreotide and stable pancreatic tumor staging. The patient had a similar rash when initially diagnosed with a glucagonoma, and it quickly improved after Octreotide treatment. Clinical examination and biopsy were consistent with necrolytic migratory erythema due to an underlying glucagonoma. This rare case adds to our understanding of the clinical presentation of NME, as well as highlights the relapsing and remitting course, even if the underlying pancreatic tumor is stable and the patient is undergoing treatment.

Rottenburger C, Papantoniou D, Mandair D, et al.
A Case Series of Molecular Imaging of Glucagonoma After Initial Therapy-68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT Reveals Similar Results as in Neuroendocrine Tumors of Other Origin in Follow-up and Re-evaluation.
Clin Nucl Med. 2018; 43(4):252-255 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glucagonoma is an extremely rare, glucagon-secreting neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas. Only sparse data are available about the characteristics of this tumor in somatostatin receptor imaging and only for the situation of initial diagnosis. We present a series of 3 glucagonoma patients who underwent at least 1 Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT scan. All patients were diagnosed by either histology and/or elevated serum levels of glucagon. The presented cases suggest that somatostatin receptor-based imaging can probably be used for re-evaluation of disease status in patients with glucagonoma in a similar way as it is already established for neuroendocrine tumors of other origin.

Corrias G, Horvat N, Monti S, et al.
Malignant transformation of glucagonoma with SPECT/CT In-111 OctreoScan features: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(50):e9252 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Glucagonoma is an uncommon disease but it has been associated with a pattern of symptoms defined as glucagonoma syndrome. These symptoms, if promptly recognized, could help to speed up the diagnosing process.
PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with a pancreatic glucagonoma. Her symptoms at the onset were typical of the glucagonoma syndrome.
DIAGNOSES: After a significant weight loss, she underwent a computer tomography scan of the abdomen, which showed a hypervascular lesion of the tail of the pancreas and hypervascular lesions of the liver. An ultrasound guided biopsy was performed and pathology was consistent with glucagonoma. Her blood glucagon levels were elevated.
OUTCOMES: She was treated with chemotherapy and somatostatin analogs. After 4 years, the disease had a malignant transformation, and metastases suddenly started to grow up. She stopped being responsive to treatment and eventually passed away.
LESSONS: Due to its rarity, clinical diagnosis is challenging and generally it comes after a long interval since the onset of symptoms. Awareness of physicians and dermatologists of the characteristic necrolytic migratory erythema, and of the other symptoms, often leads to early diagnosis.

Sharma A, Dutta BS, Rasul ES, et al.
Prevalence of
Indian J Med Res. 2017; 146(3):401-408 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Although cholera remains to be an important public health problem, studies on reliable population-based estimates of laboratory confirmed cholera in endemic areas are limited worldwide. The aim of this hospital-based study was to evaluate the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae serogroup in Assam, India, during 2003-2013.
METHODS: Stool samples/rectal swabs were collected from acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) cases during 2003-2013 and processed by standard microbiological procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity test was done following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Year-wise epidemiological trend of cholera was analyzed.
RESULTS: Cholera contributed to 3.93 per cent of AWD cases. In Assam, cholera was found to be more prevalent in the rural areas (6.7%) followed by the tea gardens (5.06%), urban slum (1.9%) and urban areas (1.4%). Highest proportion of cholera (13.7%) was observed in 0-10 yr age group. Of them, 11.5 per cent belonged to 0-5 yr age group. V. cholerae O1 El Tor serotype Ogawa was the predominant isolate. Multiple drug-resistant isolates of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa were reported in the study.
INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Emergence of resistance amongst V. cholerae towards many antibiotics is a matter of concern. Hence, continuous surveillance for diarrhoeal disorders is necessary to control the future outbreaks of cholera in this region.

Gao Y, Wang C, Gao Y, et al.
Glucagonoma syndrome with serous oligocystic adenoma: A rare case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(43):e8448 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Glucagonoma and pancreatic serous oligocystic adenoma (SOA) are rare neuroendocrine and exocrine tumors of the pancreas, respectively. The coexistence of glucagonoma syndrome (GS) and SOA is a rare clinical condition and has not yet been reported. Additionally, necrolytic migratory erythema (NME), a hallmark clinical sign of GS, is often misdiagnosed as other skin lesions by clinicians due to their lack of related knowledge, which delays diagnosis of GS and thus exacerbates the prognosis.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 50-year-old male patient was admitted to our department because he presented with diabetes mellitus and a recurrent ulcerated skin rash. Prior to the accurate diagnosis, the skin manifestation was considered to be diabetic dermopathy.
DIAGNOSES: The patient's fasting serum glucagon level was up to 871.5 pg/mL. A biopsy of the pancreatic tumor revealed a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and immunoperoxidase staining revealed glucagon-positive cells. In addition, the histological examination of the pancreatic cystic lesions showed typical features of SOA.
INTERVENTIONS: The patient received a pancreaticoduodenal resection and radiofrequency ablation for the hepatic nodular lesion.
OUTCOMES: One week after surgery, the glucagon concentration decreased to near normal levels. The cutaneous lesions spontaneously resolved within 4 weeks after surgery.
LESSONS: Because almost all glucagonomas are malignant or have malignant potential, their early recognition and correct diagnosis are very important for a better prognosis, especially in cases with NME as the only manifestation during the development of glucagonomas. It is therefore imperative that clinicians recognize NME early to make an accurate diagnosis.

Guarnotta V, Martini C, Davì MV, et al.
The Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: is there a role for somatostatin analogues in the treatment of the gastrinoma?
Endocrine. 2018; 60(1):15-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Analyze the role of somatostatin analogues (SSAs) in the treatment of sporadic and MEN1-related gastrinomas, trying to define whether recent trials have changed the landscape of gastrinoma therapy.
METHODS: We evaluate the rationale of SSA use in the treatment of gastrinomas, summarize the current literature concerning the effect of SSAs on the control of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) and gastrinomas tumor progression and discuss their role in the most recent guidelines.
RESULTS: The medical treatment of gastrinoma and related ZES is aimed at controlling acid hypersecretion and tumor progression, in inoperable patients. The use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to control the syndrome is a cornerstone in the ZES therapy. SSAs are not usually indicated for antisecretory purpose, because PPIs are considered the treatment of choice, due to their long lasting high efficacy and oral availability. The antiproliferative effect of SSAs has been established by two placebo-controlled trials that have clearly demonstrated a significant increase in progression free survival in patients affected by non-functioning well-differentiated advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The recent ENETS guidelines recommend the use of SSAs in advanced well differentiated NETs as antiproliferative agents.
CONCLUSIONS: The high sstr-expression in gastrinomas make them highly responsive to SSAs and support the use of such drugs to counteract the tumour growth in patients not amenable to surgical cure. Unfortunately, limited data, mainly case reports or small series, support the use of SSAs in advanced gastrinomas, therefore, it is difficult to quantify their ability to control tumour growth and disease progression.

Belei OA, Heredea ER, Boeriu E, et al.
Verner-Morrison syndrome. Literature review.
Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2017; 58(2):371-376 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic diarrhea in infants is a common condition for addressability to pediatric gastroenterologists. The causes are multiple and the delay in reaching the final diagnosis can lead to complications in the general condition of the child. The purpose of this review is to present the bio-clinical and histogenetic particularities of a rare clinical entity, characterized by tumoral causes of chronic diarrhea. VIPomas are neuroendocrine tumors that autonomously secrete vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria (WDHA) syndrome caused by VIP-producing tumors only rarely occurs in adult patients with non-pancreatic disease. In pediatric patients, it is extremely rare for a VIPoma to originate in the pancreas; instead, WDHA syndrome is usually associated with VIP-secreting neurogenic tumors involving the retroperitoneum or mediastinum. The majority of VIP secreting tumors in pediatric patients are represented by ganglioneuroblastomas or ganglioneuromas originating in the adrenal medulla or sympathetic neural crest. This syndrome of watery diarrhea associated with hypokalemia and achlorhydria was first described by Verner and Morrison, in 1958, and has been assumed to be due to hypersecretion of VIP. In children, as well as in adult patients, the most likely explanation for persistent secretory diarrhea may be an occult VIPoma. In conclusion, the physicians should be aware that there are some rare tumoral causes of chronic diarrhea, often under-diagnosed. If the diagnosis is not considered, extensive gastrointestinal investigations will be undertaken, delaying the diagnosis and avoidable morbidity will occur.

Chen Y, Deshpande V, Ferrone C, et al.
Primary lymph node gastrinoma: A single institution experience.
Surgery. 2017; 162(5):1088-1094 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastrinomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors that ectopically secrete gastrin and classically originate within the duodenum or pancreas. The presence of primary lymph node gastrinoma is controversial. We report on a single institution's experience with gastrinoma, with focus on primary lymph node tumors.
METHODS: Patients who underwent operative resection of gastrinoma between 1992 and 2016 at a single institution were identified. A diagnosis of primary lymph node gastrinoma was defined as tumor confined to one or more resected peripancreatic lymph nodes, negative localization for any extra-nodal disease and normal gastrin postresection.
RESULTS: In the study, 39 consecutive patients underwent operative resection of gastrinoma. Mean age was 53 years and 49% were male. 93% of patients had successful preoperative localization. Furthermore, 19 patients (49%) underwent enucleation of their tumor and 14 (35.9%) a pancreatic resection. Overall 5- and 10-year survival for all patients was 80.8% and 60.7%, respectively. Primary lymph node gastrinoma was identified in 11 cases (28.2%). The presentation of primary lymph node and non-primary lymph node patients were similar. There was no significant difference in operation type, tumor size, or overall survival. At median follow-up of 59 months, patients with primary lymph node gastrinoma were less likely to have persistent or recurrent disease (9.1% vs 42.9%, P = .04).
CONCLUSION: This series supports the existence of primary lymph node gastrinomas, and indicates that as many as 1 in 4 patients with gastrinoma have this form of the disease. This entity should be considered when an isolated pathologic lymph node is identified, although thorough exploration is still recommended to exclude other occult disease.

Tremblay C, Marcil I
Necrolytic Migratory Erythema: A Forgotten Paraneoplastic Condition.
J Cutan Med Surg. 2017 Nov/Dec; 21(6):559-561 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) is most commonly a paraneoplastic condition. It is the dermatologic manifestation classically associated with glucagonoma pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour. Glucagonoma syndrome has been defined by the constellation of secreting tumour associated with overproduction by the α-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, abnormally elevated blood level of glucagon, and skin findings of NME.
OBJECTIVE: Although rare, all dermatologists must know and recognise NME promptly to request useful investigations for the diagnosis of this characteristic neuroendocrine tumour.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We report a case of a middle-aged woman seen in our dermatology clinic with longstanding skin findings suggestive of NME revealing a glucagonoma. Surgical removal was associated with complete resolution of the cutaneous and systemic features.
CONCLUSION: NME is often the first clinical finding of an occult neuroendocrine pancreatic neoplasia. Dermatologists must be aware of this condition since they can be the first physician to suspect it and allow multidisciplinary management, which influences the prognostic value. Surgical removal is the first-line therapy if early diagnosis is done before liver metastases occur.

Lipiński M, Rydzewska G, Foltyn W, et al.
Gastroduodenal neuroendocrine neoplasms, including gastrinoma - management guidelines (recommended by the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours).
Endokrynol Pol. 2017; 68(2):138-153 [PubMed] Related Publications
This paper presents the updated Polish Neuroendocrine Tumour Network expert panel recommendations on the management of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the stomach and duodenum, including gastrinoma. The recommendations discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation of these tumours as well as their diagnosis, including biochemical, histopathological, and localisation diagnoses. The principles of treatment are discussed, including endoscopic, surgical, pharmacological, and radionuclide treatments. Finally, there are also recommendations on patient monitoring.

Abu Ghanimeh M, Abuamr K, Sadeddin E, Yousef O
Severe chronic diarrhoea secondary to primary lymph node gastrinoma.
BMJ Case Rep. 2017; 2017 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The existence of primary lymph node (LN) gastrinoma is questionable and controversial. In fact, the presence of gastrinoma in such uncommon site raises the possibility of metastasis from another occult primary site. An extensive evaluation and careful follow-up is always warranted. A female aged 48 years presented with chronic abdominal pain and watery diarrhoea. Her serum gastrin and chromogranin were elevated, and an underlying gastrinoma was suspected. Further evaluation with an octreotide scan, an endoscopic ultrasound and a secretin stimulation test confirmed the diagnosis. Further evaluation for multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 syndrome was negative. She underwent a surgical enucleation near the head of the pancreas. No other lesions were found after careful exploration of the gastrinoma triangle. Histology showed a LN with a neuroendocrine tumour that tested positively with gastrin and chromogranin stains. Her symptoms resolved postoperatively, her serum gastrin normalised and a repeated octreotide scan was negative.

Giudici F, Cavalli T, Giusti F, et al.
Natural History of MEN1 GEP-NET: Single-Center Experience After a Long Follow-Up.
World J Surg. 2017; 41(9):2312-2323 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) natural history is poorly evaluated, and few single-institution experiences about hereditary gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) are reported. Our purpose is to analyze the role of GEP-NET in MEN1-related death, as well as the behavior of these lesions during follow-up.
METHODS: The study population consists of 77 patients diagnosed with MEN1 GEP-NET, regularly followed up since 1990. Extensive clinical data were prospectively recorded. Statistical analysis was performed both on the whole population of 77 patients and on two subgroups including patients who, during the long lasting study period, underwent GEP-NET surgery (50 pts) and who did not (27 pts), respectively.
RESULTS: Twenty-five males (32.5%) and 52 females (67.5%) were enrolled. Sixty-four patients had MEN1 family history (83.1%), and genetic mutation was detected in 67 cases (87%). The mean age at GEP-NET diagnosis was 41.4 years (SD = 13.6); 16 patients (20.8%) had GEP-NET diagnosed before age 30 and 12 cases (15.6%) before 1996. The mean interval time between MEN1 diagnosis and GEP-NET detection was 5.7 years (range -11/37; SD = 8.1 years). Overall, the mean follow-up time from MEN1 diagnosis was 15.8 years (SD = 9.7 years) and from GEP-NET diagnosis was 9.6 years (SD = 6.9 years). Gastrinoma was the most frequent functioning GEP-NET and pancreatoduodenectomy the most adopted surgery. GEP-NET progression affected 12 patients within the non-surgical group, while 18 subjects developed progression after surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: Our single-center data provide information on epidemiologic, clinical and pathological features of GEP-NET in MEN1 making possible to clarify their natural history.

Matsubayashi H, Kawata N, Kakushima N, et al.
A case of type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia with esophageal stricture successfully treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and local steroid injection combined with surgical resection of gastrinomas.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2017; 17(1):37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1), esophageal diseases association with excessive gastrin secretion in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) sometimes develop. Here, we reported a case of MEN1/ZES, who developed dysphagia due to reflux esophagitis with severe esophageal stricture. Treatment for his esophageal stricture and ZES was discussed.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old man with progressive dysphagia and diarrhea was referred to the teaching hospital. He had a history of recurrent duodenojejunal perforations despite the anti-secretory medication. Blood examinations revealed elevated serum gastrin, calcium, and parathyroid hormone. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy demonstrated a severe esophageal stricture, multiple gastroduodenal ulcer scars, and a duodenal submucosal tumor. Enhanced computed tomography showed multiple hypervascular tumors within the pancreas and duodenum, suggestive of MEN1. Genetic examination demonstrated a pathogenic MEN1 mutation. Repetitive endoscopic esophageal dilatation with intralesional corticosteroid injection, coupled with pancreatoduodenectomy were performed to improve the patient's symptoms and to treat pancreatic tumors. The histology of multiple tumors in the duodenum and pancreas were all consistent with neuroendocrine tumors. His hypergastrinemia subsided and he remained asymptomatic in his gastrointestinal tract after these treatments.
CONCLUSION: For esophageal stenosis in case of MEN1/ZES, anti-secretory therapy and endoscopic dilatation with corticosteroid injection could be recommended. However, in refractory cases with repetitive and/or severe complications due to high acid secretion, surgical treatment could be considered as an option.

Bonnavion R, Teinturier R, Gherardi S, et al.
Foxa2, a novel protein partner of the tumour suppressor menin, is deregulated in mouse and human MEN1 glucagonomas.
J Pathol. 2017; 242(1):90-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
Foxa2, known as one of the pioneer factors, plays a crucial role in islet development and endocrine functions. Its expression and biological functions are regulated by various factors, including, in particular, insulin and glucagon. However, its expression and biological role in adult pancreatic α-cells remain elusive. In the current study, we showed that Foxa2 was overexpressed in islets from α-cell-specific Men1 mutant mice, at both the transcriptional level and the protein level. More importantly, immunostaining analyses showed its prominent nuclear accumulation, specifically in α-cells, at a very early stage after Men1 disruption. Similar nuclear FOXA2 expression was also detected in a substantial proportion (12/19) of human multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) glucagonomas. Interestingly, our data revealed an interaction between Foxa2 and menin encoded by the Men1 gene. Furthermore, using several approaches, we demonstrated the relevance of this interaction in the regulation of two tested Foxa2 target genes, including the autoregulation of the Foxa2 promoter by Foxa2 itself. The current study establishes menin, a novel protein partner of Foxa2, as a regulator of Foxa2, the biological functions of which extend beyond the pancreatic endocrine cells. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Niu L, Li J, Zeng J, et al.
Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation for Pancreatic VIPoma: A Case Report.
Pancreas. 2017; 46(1):135-137 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of irreversible electroporation (IRE) for the management of unresectable pancreatic vasoactive intestinal peptide tumor (VIPoma) in a 34-year-old male patient. The initial symptom was watery diarrhea, which could not be stopped by fasting. Laboratory tests revealed high vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) hormone levels, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis. Computed tomography examination showed a 6.0 × 5.0-cm, contrast-enhanced lesion in the neck and body of the pancreas and obliteration of the portal vein. Pathological and immunohistochemical findings were indicative of pancreatic VIPoma. The patient was treated with octreotide and IRE, and had no obvious IRE-related complications, except for moderate pain at the puncture sites. The patient reported that the watery diarrhea had decreased gradually; moreover, the VIP hormone level was normalized 15 days after IRE. Computed tomography scans showed a large area of necrosis in the pancreatic lesion. The findings from this case indicated that IRE could be a feasible and safe technique in controlling pancreatic VIPoma; however, additional follow-up and findings from more cases are required to further confirm the efficacy of IRE ablation therapy for pancreatic VIPoma.

Därr R, Nambuba J, Del Rivero J, et al.
Novel insights into the polycythemia-paraganglioma-somatostatinoma syndrome.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2016; 23(12):899-908 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Worldwide, the syndromes of paraganglioma (PGL), somatostatinoma (SOM) and early childhood polycythemia are described in only a few patients with somatic mutations in the hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha (HIF2A). This study provides detailed information about the clinical aspects and course of 7 patients with this syndrome and brings into perspective these experiences with the pertinent literature. Six females and one male presented at a median age of 28 years (range 11-46). Two were found to have HIF2A somatic mosaicism. No relatives were affected. All patients were diagnosed with polycythemia before age 8 and before PGL/SOM developed. PGLs were found at a median age of 17 years (range 8-38) and SOMs at 29 years (range 22-38). PGLs were multiple, recurrent and metastatic in 100, 100 and 29% of all cases, and SOMs in 40, 40 and 60%, respectively. All PGLs were primarily norepinephrine-producing. All patients had abnormal ophthalmologic findings and those with SOMs had gallbladder disease. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed cystic lesions at multiple sites and hemangiomas in 4 patients (57%), previously thought to be pathognomonic for von Hippel-Lindau disease. The most accurate radiopharmaceutical to detect PGL appeared to be [

Wewer Albrechtsen NJ, Kuhre RE, Pedersen J, et al.
The biology of glucagon and the consequences of hyperglucagonemia.
Biomark Med. 2016; 10(11):1141-1151 [PubMed] Related Publications
The proglucagon-derived peptide hormone, glucagon, comprises 29 amino acids. Its secretion from the pancreatic α cells is regulated by several factors. Glucagon increases blood glucose levels through gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Elevated plasma concentrations of glucagon, hyperglucagonemia, may contribute to diabetes. However, hyperglucagonemia is also observed in other clinical conditions than diabetes, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, glucagon-producing tumors and after gastric bypass surgery. Here, we review the current literature on hyperglucagonemia in disease with a particular focus on diabetes, and finally speculate that the primary physiological importance of glucagon may not reside in glucose homeostasis but in regulation of amino acid metabolism exerted via a hitherto unrecognized hepato-pancreatic feedback loop.

Rodríguez G, Vargas E, Abaúnza C, Cáceres S
Necrolytic migratory erythema and pancreatic glucagonoma.
Biomedica. 2016; 36(2):176-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Necrolytic migratory erythema is a rare paraneoplastic dermatosis that may be the first clinical manifestation of the glucagonoma syndrome, a disorder characterized by mucocutaneous rash, glucose intolerance, hypoaminoacidemia, hyperglucagonaemia and pancreatic glucagonoma. The clinical case of a 45-year-old woman is presented. She had been experiencing weight loss, polydipsia, polyphagia, postprandial emesis, excessive hair loss and abdominal pain for two months. Erythematous, scaly and migratory plaques with 20 days of evolution were found on her trunk, perineum, elbows, hands, feet, inframammary and antecubital folds. The skin biopsy revealed noticeable vacuolar changes in high epidermal cells, extensive necrosis and thin orthokeratotic cornified layer. These findings pointed to a diagnosis of necrolytic migratory erythema. A suggestion was made to investigate a pancreatic glucagonoma. Laboratory tests showed moderate anemia, hyperglycemia and marked hyperglucagonaemia. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the tail of the pancreas measuring 6 x 5 x 5 cm which was resected. The histopathological findings were compatible with a diagnosis of glucagonoma, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Skin symptoms disappeared 10 days after the tumor resection. We can conclude that the histological changes defined may be clues that can lead the search for a distant skin disease and allow for its diagnosis. The histological pattern of vacuolation and epidermal necrosis should arouse suspicion of pancreatic glucagonoma.

Nilubol N, Freedman EM, Quezado MM, et al.
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Secreting Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide and Dopamine With Pulmonary Emboli: A Case Report.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016; 101(10):3564-3567 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: The vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting neuroendocrine tumor (VIPoma) is a very rare pancreatic tumor. We report the first case of a patient with VIPoma that co-secreted dopamine and had pulmonary emboli.
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 67-year-old woman presented with 2 months of watery diarrhea, severe generalized weakness,6.8 kg of weight loss, a facial rash, and hypokalemia. Colonoscopy did not reveal the cause of the chronic diarrhea. Initial biochemical testing showed markedly elevated serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pancreatic polypeptide. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a 5.4-cm distal pancreatic mass. Octreoscan showed an intense uptake in the area of the pancreatic mass. Incidental pulmonary emboli were found and treated. Additional biochemical testing revealed a markedly elevated urinary dopamine level. The patient received preoperative α-blockade and octreotide. She underwent a successful laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. Postoperative urinary dopamine and pancreatic polypeptide were within normal limits. Serum VIP decreased by half but remained elevated. Pathology confirmed a grade 1 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor without lymph node metastasis. The patient's symptoms resolved and no longer required octreotide. Metastatic workup including computed tomography, F18-fluorodeoxglucose positron emission tomography, and Ga68-DOTATATE scans were negative during 4 years of follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: VIPoma is a rare subtype of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor that can secrete dopamine and can be associated with thromboembolism.

Kumar T, Gupta B, Das P, et al.
Combined presence of multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors along with duodenal submucosal somatostatinoma in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2016 Jul-Sep; 59(3):359-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF-1) is an autosomal dominant disorder, with increased risk of developing benign and malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, the synchronous presence of multiple GIT stromal tumors and duodenal submucosal somatostatinoma, like in this 50-year-old female NF-1 patient, is very rare. She presented with hematemesis, malena, along with multiple neurofibromas all over the body. Thorough radiological and peroperative work-up revealed multiple ulcerated submucosal and serosal nodules in the proximal small intestine. Histological work-up revealed diagnosis of a duodenal submucosal somatostatinoma with multifocal serosal gastrointestinal stromal tumors. This case is being reported to highlight the rare coincidence of multiple GIT tumors in an NF-1 patient.

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