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Endocrine Malignancies

Adrenocortical Cancer
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia /Familial Thyroid Ca.
Pancreas Cancer
Parathyroid Cancer
Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma
Pituitary Cancer
Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma
Thyroid Cancer
Medical Terminology for Cancer: The Endocrine System
Endocrinology / General Resources
Latest Research Publications

Endocrinology / General Resources (5 links)

Latest Research Publications

This list of publications is regularly updated (Source: PubMed).

Vega-Vázquez MA, Gonzalez-Rodriguez L, Santiago-Rodríguez EJ, et al.
Quality of life-in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer at the general endocrinology clinics of the University Hospital of Puerto Rico.
Bol Asoc Med P R. 2015 Jan-Mar; 107(1):25-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) can compromise the quality of life of patients. Our purpose is to investigate if the quality of life, in a cohort of patients in Puerto Rico, is affected by the diagnosis and/or treatment modalities received for DTC.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 75 subjects with DTC. A Spanish version of the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire was used, including multiple aspects of physical and social functioning. Descriptive and bivariate analysis between domain scores and variables of interest were performed.
RESULTS: 82.7% of the patients reported that their health was the same or better than it was before treatment. The mean composite score obtained was 82.3, reflecting an overall little effect on quality of life. Patients diagnosed with DTC at an age of > or =45 years reported a significantly better score on the pain domain when compared with those diagnosed earlier (p < 0.05). Patient who received >150 mCi of radioiodine had a tendency towards a worse score on the same domain (p = 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our cohort reported an overall minimal effect on the quality of life of patients with DTC. Future treatment strategies should include periodic quality of life evaluations, in order to tailor therapy in this growing population.

Patch AM, Christie EL, Etemadmoghadam D, et al.
Whole-genome characterization of chemoresistant ovarian cancer.
Nature. 2015; 521(7553):489-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) have experienced little improvement in overall survival, and standard treatment has not advanced beyond platinum-based combination chemotherapy, during the past 30 years. To understand the drivers of clinical phenotypes better, here we use whole-genome sequencing of tumour and germline DNA samples from 92 patients with primary refractory, resistant, sensitive and matched acquired resistant disease. We show that gene breakage commonly inactivates the tumour suppressors RB1, NF1, RAD51B and PTEN in HGSC, and contributes to acquired chemotherapy resistance. CCNE1 amplification was common in primary resistant and refractory disease. We observed several molecular events associated with acquired resistance, including multiple independent reversions of germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in individual patients, loss of BRCA1 promoter methylation, an alteration in molecular subtype, and recurrent promoter fusion associated with overexpression of the drug efflux pump MDR1.

Khare V, Alam N, Saneja A, et al.
Targeted drug delivery systems for pancreatic cancer.
J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2014; 10(12):3462-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed at the advanced stages, responds poorly to the available chemotherapeutics and constitutes the major factor for high mortality rate. Selective delivery of therapeutics to their cellular targets, without side effects is the foremost objective of the current investigations for effective treatment of pancreatic cancer. The development of the drugs which can selectively target pancreatic cancer along with carriers that can deliver drugs specifically to the rapidly dividing cells is considered as magic bullet for the efficient treatment of this fatal disease. This review describes various factors hampering the efficacy of drug targeting to pancreatic cancer including stromal fortress, hypocascularity, hyaluronan and interstitial fluid pressure, and exploration of various cellular targets for the site specific drug delivery. An account of burgeoning applications of novel drug delivery systems including nanoparticles, liposomes, quantum dots, micelles and drug conjugates in the management of pancreatic cancer is also provided. Additionally, potential of target based therapeutic agents and nanomedicines in clinical trials for the pancreatic cancer therapy are highlighted.

Buzdugă CM, Găleşanu C, Vulpoi C, et al.
Thyroid fine-needle biopsy: aspiration versus capillary.
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2015 Jan-Mar; 119(1):45-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Thyroid nodules are a common pathology of the thyroid gland. Thyroid fine-needle biopsy (FNB) is a technique used as the first step in the assessment of thyroid nodules. Some au- thors have demonstrated the superiority of nonaspiration compared with aspiration biopsy.
AIM: The objective was to assess whether there are significant differences between the two thyroid biopsy techniques.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group comprised 309 patients with thyroid nodules admitted to the Endocrinology Clinic of the Iasi "St. Spiridon "Hospital between 2005 and 2008 in which fine-needle nonaspiration or aspiration biopsy was performed. The slides were read by one pathologist. The smears were stained using the May-Grunwald-Giemsa method (MGG). The quality of smears obtained by the two sampling techniques was evaluated by using the scoring system developed by Mair.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: No differences in smear quality between the two sampling techniques in terms of blood contamination, amount of cellular material, degree of cellular degeneration, degree of cellular trauma, and preservation of appropriate architecture were found.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that the sensitivity and specificity of both techniques allow their use as standard screening methods for thyroid nodular lesions.

Ilić MB, Jovanović DV, Milosavljević MZ, et al.
Hypercalcemic type of small cell carcinoma of the ovary.
Vojnosanit Pregl. 2015; 72(3):295-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is a rare, prognostically bad tumor category. Primary, it can be localized in every organ, even in the ovary, where, due to its clinical specificities, it represents a challenge in diagnosis, as well as in therapy. Small cell ovarian carcinoma (SCOC) is biologically very aggressive malignant tumor of unknown histogenesis. We presented a rare case of SCOC with hypercalcemia of aggressive course and fatal outcome in a postmenopausal woman at International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Ia stage.
CASE REPORT: A 60-year-old woman, Caucasian, came to the doctor because of discomfort in the lower abdomen and pain of greater intensity in last few days. Ultrasound examination and CT scan of the abdomen confirmed the presence of large adnexal masses of cystic-solid appearance with the largest diameter of 13 cm, regular structure of the other gynecological organs, without verifying the existence of metastatic deposits. All the results of laboratory analysis gave normal values, except for calcium, which was elevated. Explorative laparotomy with complete hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, dissection of lymph nodes and omentectomy were conducted. Based on pathohistological analysis of the operative material, SCOC at FIGO Ia stage was diag- nosed. No complications were observed in a postsurgery period and after 10 days the patient was discharged in a good condition and with normal calcemia. The treatment was continued with concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, in spite of overall treatment, the disease progressed, and the patient died of disseminated metastatic disease, 26 months after the diagnosis.
CONCLUSION: Small cell carcinoma localized in the ovary is generally a tumor category with bad prognosis depending on the stage of the disease.

Doron O, Carmon E
An incidental suprasellar mass in a military flying cadet: implications for aircrew.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(5):477-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Incidental findings pose a dilemma in aviation medicine, where every finding must be carefully considered in order to ensure the well-being of the aircrew for flight and mission safety. Since suprasellar masses are not uncommon, their possible effects should be addressed.
CASE REPORT: We present an incidental finding of 11.5 mm × 14.4 mm, hyper-intense on T2 and iso-intense on T1-weighted images, of a suprasellar mass in a 19-yr-old man. This finding led to the re-evaluation of his position as a military flight cadet, followed by his later disqualification.
DISCUSSION: No medical waiver regarding asymptomatic suprasellar mass exists. We have carefully examined the differential diagnosis and generated a profile for each possible diagnosis consisting of risks for sudden incapacitation, progression likelihood, and the effect of an aerial environment on a brain lesion. We were able to draw up a medical waiver for some of the possible diagnoses (namely, Rathke's cyst or craniopharyngioma) for nonhigh performance aircraft.

Moore JL, Jackson CR, Ellis JC, Norrid C
You're the flight surgeon: myelolipoma.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(4):421-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
Moore JL, Jackson CR, Ellis JC, Norrid C. You're the flight surgeon: myelolipoma. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(4):421-423.

Xia D
Ovarian cancer HO-8910 cell apoptosis induced by crocin in vitro.
Nat Prod Commun. 2015; 10(2):249-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
The effect and mechanism of ovarian cancer HO-8910 cell apoptosis induced by crocin.MTT assay was performed to detect the inhibitory action of crocin on the proliferation of HO-8910 cells. Flow cytometry was used to test the cell cycle distribution and apoptosis rate of ovarian cancer HO-8910 cells. Western blot analysis was utilized to measure the levels of apoptotic proteins such as p53, Fas/APO-1, and Caspase-3. MTT analysis revealed that crocin significantly inhibited the growth of HO-8910 cells. Additionally, flow cytometry illustrated that crocin raised the proportion of HO-8910 cells in the G0/G1 phase and increased their apoptosis rate. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that crocin up-regulated the expression of p53, Fas/APO-1, and Caspase-3. The results of this study showed that crocin can significantly inhibit the growth of HO-8910 cells and arrest them in the G0/G1 phase. Crocin can also promote ovarian cancer HO-8910 cell apoptosis, most likely by increasing p53 and Fas/APO-1 expression, and then activating the apoptotic pathway regulated by Caspase-3.

Ghali F, Hyams ES
Heterotopic pancreatic tail appearing as adrenal mass in a patient with left pelvic kidney.
Urology. 2015; 85(5):e37-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
A computed tomography scan of a 30-year-old male patient with hematuria incidentally revealed a left pelvic kidney and a lobulated mass in the left adrenal gland concerning for neoplasm. Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy was considered, serial imaging revealed the mass to be the pancreatic tail within the vacant renal fossa. This case demonstrates that ectopia of the kidney can lead to anatomic distortions that may confound the interpretation of radiologic examinations.

Kurihara T, Kogo M, Ishii M, et al.
Practical prognostic index for survival in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer treated with gemcitabine or S-1.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):478-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We performed this retrospective cohort study to identify prognostic factors for unresectable pancreatic cancer treated with current standard therapy using gemcitabine (GEM) or S-1 and to stratify patients prior to treatment using a prognostic index (PI).
METHODOLOGY: We analyzed 182 patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer, who had received GEM or S-1 as first-line chemotherapy. Factors that contributed to the prognosis were identified by univariate and multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model. The PI was constructed using the factors identified in the multivariate analysis.
RESULTS: By multivariate analysis, performance status (PS), stage, and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) were identified as factors that independently contributed to the prognosis of unresectable pancreatic cancer (P < 0.05). The hazard ratios were 1.69, 3.33, and 1.18, respectively. In addition, PI was calculated using these three factors. Patients were classified into three groups according to the PI values. A significant difference was observed among the survival curves of these three groups (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: We identified three prognostic factors in the population after the introduction of S-1, and have created a simple and useful PI. This index demonstrates the ability to accurately classify advanced pancreatic cancer patients before the start of treatment.

Aoyama T, Murakawa M, Katayama Y, et al.
Lymphatic invasion is an independent prognostic factor in pancreatic cancer patients undergoing curative resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine or S-1.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):472-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The objective of this retrospective study was to clarify prognostic factors in pancreatic cancer patients undergoing curative resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine or S-1.
METHODOLOGY: Both overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were examined in 122 pancreatic cancer patients who underwent curative surgery and received adjuvant gemcitabine or S-1 after surgery between 2005 and 2014.
RESULTS: When the length of OS was evaluated according to the log-rank test, significant differences were observed in lymphatic invasion and the T status. Univariate and multivariate Cox's proportional hazard analyses demonstrated that lymphatic invasion was the only significant independent prognostic factor for both OS and RFS. The 5-year OS was 30.1% in the lymphatic invasion-negative group and 12.1% in the lymphatic invasion-positive group (p < 0.001). Moreover, the 5-year RFS was 20.5% in the lymphatic invasion-negative group and 10.4% in the lymphatic invasion- positive group (p = 0.006).
CONCLUSIONS: Lymphatic invasion is the most important prognostic factor for OS and RFS in patients with pancreatic cancer who undergo curative resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. The present results suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy is not sufficient, especially in patients with risk factors. Such patients should be evaluated as a target group for clinical trials of novel treatments.

Tomizawa M, Shinozaki F, Motoyoshi Y, et al.
Diffusion-weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression/T2 image fusion is negative for patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):463-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: One major problem with Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is the appearance of pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma. Diffusion-weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) provides hyperintense signals in cases of cancer. DWIBS and T2 image fusion (DWIBS/T2) provides functional information in anatomical settings, and is useful for the detection of cancer with strong contrast against surrounding tissues. DWIBS/T2 signals were analyzed in patients with IPMN to investigate positive or negative results.
METHODOLOGY: Patient records were analyzed retrospectively regarding IPMN. None showed high-risk stigmata or worrisome features. To rule out T2 shine-through or differentiate malignant lesions from non-malignant causes of restricted diffusion, positive ADC maps were produced from the recorded ADC values.
RESULTS: None of the patients with IPMN had features of malignant progression. No mural nodules were detected by endoscopic ultrasonography. IPMN was hyperintense with DWIBS/T2 and the ADC map. This finding suggested that the hyperintense values of IPMN were T2 shine-through. These results showed that none of the IPMNs were positive with DWIBS/T2.
CONCLUSION: DWIBS/T2 was negative for patients with IPMN. DWIBS/T2 might be useful for the evaluation of malignant progression, in addition to observation.

Tsuchikawa T, Hirano S, Nakamura T, et al.
Detailed analysis of extra-pancreatic nerve plexus invasion in pancreatic body carcinoma analyzed by 50 consecutive series of distal pancreatectomy with en-bloc celiac axis resection.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):455-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Advanced pancreatic body carcinoma frequently accompany extra-pancreatic nerve plexus (PL) invasion, one of the poor indicator of patient prognosis. The present study aimed to reveal the progress of the PL invasion from cancer of the pancreas body toward the root of the celiac artery (CA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) followed by investigation of the relevance of diagnostic accuracy.
METHODOLOGY: Resected specimens from 50 consecutive patients who underwent distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection (DP-CAR) were pathologically analyzed for the direction of PL invasion. Diagnostic accuracy on CT imaging were also investigated.
RESULTS: Thirty seven of the 50 patients (74%) were positive for PL invasion around the CHA, SPA, CA and SMA. In terms of the diagnostic accuracy, positive predictive values for the PL invasion were 35%, 36%, 43% and 81% for the SPA, CHA, CA and SMA, respectively. Among 21 patients and 23 patients with PL invasion around CHA and SPA, 13 and 6 patients also accompanied PL invasion around CA, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoma of the pancreatic body is found to frequently accompany PL invasion around CA. Under the limitation of low diagnostic accuracy, DP-CAR might be feasible operation that increases the possibility of R0 resection.

Utsumi M, Umeda Y, Takagi K, et al.
Correlation of computed tomography imaging features and pathological features of 41 patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):441-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) are relatively rare. Here, we present clinical and pathological characteristics of PNETs to show a relationship between computed tomography (CT) imaging and the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification.
METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 41 PNET patients who were treated between 2002 and 2012. All tumors were classified as neuroendocrine tumor (NET) grade 1 (G1), NET grade 2 (G2), or neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) grade 3 (G3) on the basis of the 2010 WHO classification system.
RESULTS: Twenty-five tumors were classified as G1, 11 as G2, and five as G3. Mean sizes of the G1, G2 and G3 tumors were 1.84 ± 0.54, 4.90 ± 0.84, and 5.62 ± 1.18 cm, respectively, (P < 0.01). A PNET is typically hypervascular and exhibits contrast enhancement on enhanced CT. Higher percentage of G1 tumors demonstrated typical imaging and showed a significantly greater distinct mass compared with G2 and G3 tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: Although PNET has many imaging features that appear on CT, G2 and G3 tumors often show atypical imaging features, particularly with large sizes and/or ill-defined features, when compared with G1 tumors. If a PNET has atypical imaging features, possibility of malignancy should be considered.

Cao J, Xia C, Cui T, et al.
Correlations between serum trypsinogen-2 and pancreatic cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):435-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate associations be- tween serum trypsinogen-2, pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) and determine cutoff values for PC diagnosis.
METHODOLOGY: We recruited 88 patients from Internal Medicine/Surgical Departments of General Military Hospital of Beijing PLA between 12/2009 and 6/2010. Serum samples were collected preoperatively from 23 PC patients, 30 pancreatitis patients and 35 healthy controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect trypsinogen-2 semiquantitatively.
RESULTS: Serum trypsinogen-2 levels of PC and pancreatitis patients were significantly higher than those of controls (51.2 ± 80.3, 107.7 ± 98.1 vs. 1.0 ± 0.5, p = 0.03, p < 0.001) and significantly higher in pancreatitis vs. PC patients (107.7 ± 98.1 vs. 51.2 ± 80.3, p = 0.01). Higher Balthazar CT grades correlated with higher trypsinogen-2 in pancreatitis group. ROC curves for trypsinogen-2 revealed optimal cutoff value 1.8 as lower PC detection limit with 95.7% sensitivity and 91.4% specificity, and optimal cutoff value 19.9 for upper PC detection limit with 87.0% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity. Trypsinogen-2 levels correlated with pancreatic injury level. An AUC of 0.73 (95% Cl: 0.59-0.84, p = 0.002) distinguished PC from pancreatitis.
CONCLUSION: Serum trypsinogen-2 is associated with PC and pancreatitis. Levels between 1.8 μg/L and 19.9 μg/L strongly suggest PC. Detection of serum trypsinogen-2 may provide simple, sensitive, specific non-invasive initial screening for early PC diagnosis.

Bacalbaşa N, Popescu I
Ovarian cancer liver metastases--should we apply the principle of optimal cytoreduction to the liver? A review.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):355-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Advanced stage ovarian cancer is a common situation at presentation and current medical practice lacks efficient methods of prevention and early diagnosis. Primary maximal cytoreductive surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy is currently a generally accepted principle; most patients however undergo recurrence and common therapeutical attitude is secondary cytoreduction based approximately on the same principles as the primary one. Due to the success of liver resections in colorectal metastases and the development of liver surgery in general, different centers worldwide analyzed in the last 20 years liver resections' utility for other primaries, including ovarian tumors.

Kim JC, Kim KT, Park JT, et al.
Expression of vasohibin-2 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma promotes tumor progression and is associated with a poor clinical outcome.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Mar-Apr; 62(138):251-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to assess the expression of vasohibin-2 (VASH2) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) as a marker of tumor aggressiveness and its impact on tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, and clinical outcome. We examined the expression of the VASH2 gene in human pancreatic cell lines PANC-1 and MiaPaCa-2 by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry. Fifty samples from patients with PDAC were immunostained with VASH2, CD34, and Ki-67 antibodies. Further, the immunoreactivity of VASH2 correlated with the pathological features, including microvessel density (MVD), tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67 labeling index), and survival. Forty-seven of the 50 samples from PDAC patients showed immunoreactivity for VASH2 along the tumor cell cytoplasm. Among the VASH2-positive samples, 22 were categorized as high VASH2 expression group, and this group had statistical significance with pN stage (p = 0.006), UICC stage (p = 0.033), tumor proliferation (p < 0.001), and MVD (p = 0.017). Moreover, patients with high VASH2 expression showed worse prognosis compared to those showing low VASH2 expression (overall logrank p = 0.003). Thus, our results suggested that overexpression of VASH2 accelerated the pace of tumor development toward a more serious malignant phenotype and was associated with a poor clinical outcome. VASH2 may be an important novel target for the management of PDAC after surgery.

Aoyama T, Katayama Y, Murakawa M, et al.
Clinical implication of peritoneal cytology in the pancreatic cancer patients who underwent curative resection followed by adjuvant gemcitabine or S-1 chemotherapy.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):200-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The clinical implications of peritoneal lavage cytology (CY) status in the patients who received curative resection and adjuvant chemotherapy have not been established.
METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from 143 consecutive patients who underwent macroscopically curative resection and received adjuvant gemcitabine or S-1 chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer from 2005 to 2014 in our institution. Correlations between CY status and survival and clinicopathological features were investigated.
RESULTS: Of the 143 patients, 21 patients were peritoneal washing cytology positive (CY+) (14.7%). Although significant difference was observed in the tumor size, no other correlation between cytology status and clinicopathological parameter existed. The recurrence free survival (RFS) rates at 3 and 5 years after surgery were 5.1% and 0% in CY+ patients, respectively, and were 21.5% and 16.1% in peritoneal washing cytology negative (CY-) patients, respectively, which were significantly different (p=0.001). The OS rates at 3 and 5 years after surgery were 17.1% and 8.6% in CY+ patients, respectively, and were 26.1% and 16.1% in CY- patients, respectively, which were trend to worse in the CY+ patients (p=0.254).
CONCLUSION: The patients with CY+ are likely to experience recurrence, even after they received curative resection and adjuvant Gemcitabine or S-1 adjuvant chemotherapy.

Ishii M, Kimura Y, Imamura M, et al.
Remnant pancreas reconstruction with duct-to-duct anastomosis after middle pancreatectomy: a report of two cases.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):190-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reconstruction of a remnant pancreas after middle pancreatectomy has generally been performed with a pancreaticoenterostomy. We report here two cases in which physiological reconstructive procedures were performed. The reconstructive procedures included pancreatic duct-to-duct anastomosis and parenchymal sutures with absorbable monofilament interrupted stitches. A pancreatic tube was inserted for decompression at the anastomotic site in both cases. The patients comprised one with pancreatic metastasis from renal cell carcinoma and another with a non-malignant insulinoma. The tumors were located in the pancreatic body. Although an International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula classification grade B-pancreatic fistula was observed in each patient, they both resolved with conservative therapy. The pancreatic duct at the anastomosis site was patent in both cases, and no atrophic changes developed in the remnant pancreas in either patient. These outcomes confirmed that, in selected cases, this reconstructive procedure is safe and feasible for physiological reconstruction without involvement of the digestive tract.

Hu HK, Ke NW, Li A, et al.
Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a single center experience in China.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):178-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are a unique subgroup of tumors in the digestive system but with great clinical heterogeneity. The information on clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of Chinese patients is rather limited.
METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, prognostic factors of this disease in a consecutive cohort (N=294) between January 2007 and December 2012.
RESULTS: Functioning tumors accounted for 9.2%. Rectum was the most predominant GEP-NETs locations. Abdominal pain occurred in 46.5% patients which was the most common initial symptom. G1, G2 and G3 tumors accounted for 41.5%, 34.7% and 23.8%, respectively. Endoscopy provided the highest detection rate of 95.7%. Consistence between endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) and surgically obtained histological Ki-67 index was 36.4%. Serum CgA test showed a 80.0% consistence with the tissue biopsy. The median follow up duration was 2.8 years (0.02-5.90 years), the median survival was 4.8 years, overall 5-year survival rate was 69.6%. We found colonic localization, tumor size larger than 20 mm, G3 tumor and metastasis were associated with worse outcome (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: We found both consistence and differences in GEP-NETs characteristics between our study and previous reports.

Shinkawa H, Uenishi T, Takemura S, et al.
Adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy after surgical resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Hepatogastroenterology. 2015 Jan-Feb; 62(137):169-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was determine the effectiveness of adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy for patients with resected pancreatic cancer.
METHODOLOGY: Patients with pancreatic carcinoma who underwent pancreatic resection without adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy (n = 11) or with adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy (n = 10) were included. S-1 was administered orally at a dose of 40 mg/m2 twice daily for 28 consecutive days followed by a 14-day pause. The cycle was repeated 4 times. Overall and disease-free survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and statistical differences between groups were analyzed using the log-rank test.
RESULTS: The disease-free survival and overall survival were longer among recipients of adjuvant S-1 chemotherapy than among those who received surgery alone (P < 0.05; 5-year disease-free survival rate, 30% versus 0%; 5-year overall survival rate, 65% vs 0%). Although dose reduction was needed in 2 patients because of grade 2 anorexia, only 1 patient with grade 2 hypoalbuminemia discontinued adjuvant chemotherapy because of long-term hospitalization.
CONCLUSIONS: S-1 administered as a single agent showed promise as an adjuvant chemotherapy for resected pancreatic cancer.

Chirindel A, Alluri KC, Chaudhry MA, et al.
Prognostic Value of FDG PET/CT-Derived Parameters in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma at Initial PET/CT Staging.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015; 204(5):1093-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of PET-derived parameters as prognostic markers for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) outcome in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 106 patients (62 men and 44 women) with histologically proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent initial staging FDG PET/CT before treatment. Peak standardized uptake value (SUV), maximum SUV (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume, and tumor glycolytic activity of the primary pancreatic tumor were measured. Two segmentation methods were performed to obtain the metabolic tumor volume and tumor glycolytic activity for all tumors: a gradient-based segmentation model (metabolic tumor volume and tumor glycolytic activity by gradient edge detection) and a fixed-threshold model with a threshold of 50% of the lesion's SUVmax and peak SUV. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were developed including clinical and imaging parameters for OS and PFS.
RESULTS: Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between PFS and age, SUVmax, peak SUV, and tumor glycolytic activity by gradient edge detection. There was a statistically significant difference in PFS for patients with values above and below the median cutoff points for SUVmax (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; p < 0.01), peak SUV (HR, 1.25; p < 0.02), and tumor glycolytic activity measured by gradient edge detection (HR, 1.00; p < 0.02) of the primary tumor. However, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed a statistically significant association only between tumor glycolytic activity by gradient edge detection and OS (p = 0.04), and there was a statistically significant difference in OS between patients with values above and below the median cutoff point for the tumor glycolytic activity by gradient edge detection of the primary tumor (HR, 1.42; p = 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Age, SUVmax, peak SUV, and total lesion glycolysis (i.e., tumor glycolytic activity) of the primary tumor are associated with PFS, and tumor glycolytic activity is associated with OS in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Tipnis SV, Spampinato MV, Hungerford J, Huda W
Thyroid Doses and Risks to Adult Patients Undergoing Neck CT Examinations.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015; 204(5):1064-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate absorbed thyroid dose and consequent cancer risks in adult patients undergoing neck CT examinations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used data from neck CT examinations of 68 consecutive adult patients to calculate the thyroid dose and estimate the corresponding cancer risk. Age and sex were recorded along with the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) that was used to perform the examination. CTDIvol values were used to estimate thyroid doses in the mathematic phantom used in the ImPACT patient CT dosimetry calculator. Corresponding doses in patients were estimated by modeling each patient's neck as an equivalent cylinder of water and applying correction factors for varying neck size and scanning length and the variation of radiation intensity due to automatic exposure control.
RESULTS: The mean (± SD) adult patient age was 59 ± 16 years, and the mean equivalent water cylinder diameter used for modeling the patient neck was 19.4 ± 4.2 cm. The average adult patient neck size was about 3 cm larger than the mathematic anthropomorphic phantom (16.5 cm), decreasing the estimated thyroid doses by 15%. Thyroid doses were independent of age and sex, with an average of 50 ± 23 mGy. The average cancer risk for a 20-year-old woman was six times higher than the corresponding risk for a 20-year-old man. Increasing patient age of either sex from 40 to 60 years reduced the cancer risk by approximately an order of magnitude.
CONCLUSION: Patient sex and age are the most important factors in determining thyroid cancer risk, with the thyroid dose being secondary.

Gogol P, Gogol A, Opuchlik A, Dziewulska D
Paraneoplastic brainstem encephalomyelitis and atypical form of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in patient with testicular germinal tumor-is this an overlap syndrome? a case report.
Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2015; 49(2):129-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes are diagnosed when neurologic symptoms are associated with neoplasm and other causative factors are excluded. They may precede or be simultaneous to various types of neoplasms, mainly malignant. In men up to 45-50 years old the most common cancer causing the paraneoplastic syndrome is testicle tumor, manifesting usually as limbic/brain stem encephalitis and myelitis. Usually effective treatment of underlying neoplasm brings resolution of neurologic symptoms. But corticosteroids and intravenuous immunoglobulins are also used. In the presented case a 37-year-old man was primarily diagnosed and treated for progressive tetraparesis with signs of both upper and lower motor neuron dysfunction, associated with bulbar symptoms. Having various diagnostic procedures performed an atypical form of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuronopathy was primarily suspected, but eventually a discovery of endodermal sinus tumor in the testicle enabled to state the diagnosis of possible paraneoplastic syndrome. In spite of chemotherapy the patient died shortly after the diagnosis because of infectious complications. Histopathology displayed intense inflammatory changes in the brain stem as well as in cranial nerves and cervical spinal cord. The same immunological process evoked by various pathogenetic factors (infection vs. neoplasm) may cause similar clinical picture and hinder the diagnosis. Most importantly it may delay the proper way of treatment.

Ondrus D, Kajo K, Stastna V, Ondrusova M
Controversies in the management of clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer.
Klin Onkol. 2015; 28(2):112-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Surveillance after orchiectomy alone has become popular in the management of clinical stage I of nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumors (CSI NSGCTT). Efforts to identify patients at high-risk of relapse led to a search for risk factors in CSI NSGCTT. The aim of the current study was to analyze longterm experiences with risk-adapted therapeutic approaches (active surveillance and adjuvant chemotherapy). From 1/ 1992 to 2/ 2015, a total of 454 CSI NSGCTT patients were included in the study and stratified into two groups according to risk-adapted therapeutic approaches. In Group A (low- risk CSI NSGCTT), which consisted of 287 patients who underwent surveillance, relapse occurred in 48 (16.7%) patients with a median followup of 7.0 months. Six patients (2.1%) of this group died with a median followup of 34.3 months. In Group B (high-risk CSI NSGCTT), which consisted of 167 patients who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, relapse occurred in two (1.2%) patients with a median followup of 56.2 months. One patient (0.6%) died 139.4 months following orchiectomy. Statistically significant difference in progression free survival between these two groups was found, but no significant difference in overall survival.Key words: testicular cancer -  surveillance -  adjuvant chemotherapy -  disease progression.

Lubin J, Pawałowska M, Markowska A, Bielas A
Small cell carcinoma of the ovary of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT)--case report.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):88-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Small cell carcinoma of the ovary of the hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is a very rare malignant disease, seen mostly in young women, with a very poor prognosis. There is no standard treatment for patients with this disease and most literature is limited to short series or case reports. This report describes the case of a 34-year-old woman with aggressive course of SCCOHT and poor outcome. What proved difficult was the process of establishing the diagnosis due to non-specific first symptoms of disease and consequently the combined treatment of surgery and chemotherapy with concurrent side effects.

Tanda ET, Budroni M, Cesaraccio R, et al.
Epidemiology of ovarian cancer in North Sardinia, Italy, during the period 1992-2010.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):69-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to analyze and describe the incidence and mortality trends of ovarian cancer in North Sardinia, Italy, in the period 1992-2010.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the tumor registry of Sassari province which makes part of a wider registry web, coordinated today by the Italian Association for Tumor Registries.
RESULTS: The overall number of ovarian cancer cases registered in the period under investigation was 600. The mean age of the patients was 62 years. The standardized incidence and mortality rates were 11.2/100,000 and 5.1/100,000 respectively. A substantially stable trend in incidence and mortality of ovarian cancer was evidenced. Relative survival at five years from diagnosis was 44.2%.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence and mortality trends of ovarian cancer in North Sardinia remained relatively stable in the last decades, while prognosis remains relatively poor.

Fukuda T, Imai K, Yamauchi M, et al.
Primary peritoneal cancer: study of 14 cases and comparison with epithelial ovarian cancer.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):49-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is histologically similar to ovarian serous carcinoma, but its biochemical features remain obscure. The authors investigated and compared clinical findings, treatments, and outcomes of patients with PPS and those with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed data from 14 patients with PPC and 219 patients with EOC treated at the present hospital from January 2005 to December 2012, including demographic data, pathologic findings, treatments, and outcomes.
RESULTS: Patients with PPC were significantly older (62.6 ± 8.4 years) than those with EOC (56.3 ± 11.3 years) (p = 0.045). There was no significant difference in serum CA-125 levels. The five-year survival rates did not differ significantly between patients with PPC (61.1%) and those with EOC (60.3%; p = 0.78); nor between patients with PPC and those with Stage III serous EOC (43.8%; p = 0.40).
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment strategies for EOC applied to PPC apparently led to similar survival patterns among the two patient groups. Cytoreductive surgery combined with pre/postoperative platinum-containing chemotherapy may be effective for PPC patients.

Machado-Linde F, Sánchez-Ferrer ML, Cascales P, et al.
Prevalence of endometriosis in epithelial ovarian cancer. Analysis of the associated clinical features and study on molecular mechanisms involved in the possible causality.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):21-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: To determine the prevalence of endometriosis in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and explore the differences between women with endometrioid and clear-cell histologic subtypes with and without associated endometriosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical charts of 496 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer at the Hospital Virgin de la Arrixaca (Murcia, Spain) between 1971 and 2010 were reviewed.
RESULTS: Endometriosis was present in 27 (5.4%) of the 496 cases (p < 0001), and was associated with the endometrioid histotype in 13/45 cases (29%) and with the clear cell histotype in 7/22 (32%). The prevalence of an association with endometriosis according to histologic type was 28.8% (13/45) for endometrioid carcinoma and 31.8% (7/22) for clear-cell carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Both endometrioid and clear-cell ovarians tumours are associated with pelvic endometriosis. Patients with endometiosis associated ovarian cancer differ from non-endometiosis associated ovarian cancer in their clinical characteristics.

Ying HC, Xu HY, Lv J, et al.
MicroRNA signatures of platinum-resistance in ovarian cancer.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015; 36(1):16-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The authors utilized a microRNA (miRNA) array to compare the differentially expressed miRNAs in platinum-resistant associated ovarian cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The differential expression of microRNA between COC1 (DDP-sensitive) and platinum-resistant COC1/DDP (DDP-resistant) tumor cell lines was determined using microarray. Expression levels were further validated by real-time quantitive polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
RESULTS: The authors identified that several miRNAs are altered in collected 86 samples of human ovarian cancer cell-lines, with four significantly deregulated miRNAs and 13 upregulated miRNAs. Of which, miR-141-3p was the most differentially expressed miRNA between COC1 group (1.7833 ± 0.7213) and COC1/DDP group (14.0433 ± 4.4895) (p < 0.05). Additionally, the product curve of PCR amplification indicated that miR-141-3p had a significant higher expression level in chemotherapy resistant group (n = 20) rather than in chemotherapy sensitive group (n = 20) (9.56 ± 1.04 vs. 1.59 ± 0.91, p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that miR-141-3p might be used as a therapeutic target to modulate platinum-based chemotherapy and as a biomarker to predict chemotherapy response.

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