Research IndicatorsGraph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: TMEM127 (cancer-related)
Dénes J, Swords F, Rattenberry E, et al.Heterogeneous genetic background of the association of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and pituitary adenoma: results from a large patient cohort.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015; 100(3):E531-41 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CONTEXT: Pituitary adenomas and pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (pheo/PGL) can occur in the same patient or in the same family. Coexistence of the two diseases could be due to either a common pathogenic mechanism or a coincidence.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the investigation was to study the possible coexistence of pituitary adenoma and pheo/PGL.
DESIGN: Thirty-nine cases of sporadic or familial pheo/PGL and pituitary adenomas were investigated. Known pheo/PGL genes (SDHA-D, SDHAF2, RET, VHL, TMEM127, MAX, FH) and pituitary adenoma genes (MEN1, AIP, CDKN1B) were sequenced using next generation or Sanger sequencing. Loss of heterozygosity study and pathological studies were performed on the available tumor samples.
SETTING: The study was conducted at university hospitals.
PATIENTS: Thirty-nine patients with sporadic of familial pituitary adenoma and pheo/PGL participated in the study.
OUTCOME: Outcomes included genetic screening and clinical characteristics.
RESULTS: Eleven germline mutations (five SDHB, one SDHC, one SDHD, two VHL, and two MEN1) and four variants of unknown significance (two SDHA, one SDHB, and one SDHAF2) were identified in the studied genes in our patient cohort. Tumor tissue analysis identified LOH at the SDHB locus in three pituitary adenomas and loss of heterozygosity at the MEN1 locus in two pheochromocytomas. All the pituitary adenomas of patients affected by SDHX alterations have a unique histological feature not previously described in this context.
CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in the genes known to cause pheo/PGL can rarely be associated with pituitary adenomas, whereas mutation in a gene predisposing to pituitary adenomas (MEN1) can be associated with pheo/PGL. Our findings suggest that genetic testing should be considered in all patients or families with the constellation of pheo/PGL and a pituitary adenoma.
Casey R, Garrahy A, Tuthill A, et al.Universal genetic screening uncovers a novel presentation of an SDHAF2 mutation.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(7):E1392-6 [PubMed
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CONTEXT: Hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PC/PGL) accounts for up to 60% of previously considered sporadic tumors. Guidelines suggest that phenotype should guide genetic testing. Next-generation sequencing technology can simultaneously sequence 9 of the 18 known susceptibility genes in a timely, cost-efficient manner.
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to confirm that universal screening is superior to targeted testing in patients with histologically confirmed PC and PGL.
METHODS: In two tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland, NGS was carried out on all histologically confirmed cases of PC/PGL diagnosed between 2004 and 2013. The following susceptibility genes were sequenced: VHL, RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, TMEM127, and MAX. A multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was performed in VHL, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and SDHAF2 genes to detect deletions and duplications.
RESULTS: A total of 31 patients were tested, 31% (n = 10) of whom were found to have a genetic mutation. Of those patients with a positive genotype, phenotype predicted genotype in only 50% (n = 5). Significant genetic mutations that would have been missed in our cohort by phenotypic evaluation alone include a mutation in TMEM127, two mutations in SDHAF2, and two mutations in RET. Target testing would have identified three of the latter mutations based on age criteria. However, 20% of patients (n = 2) would not have satisfied any criteria for targeted testing including one patient with a novel presentation of an SDHAF2 mutation.
CONCLUSION: This study supports the value of universal genetic screening for all patients with PC/PGL.
Welander J, Andreasson A, Juhlin CC, et al.Rare germline mutations identified by targeted next-generation sequencing of susceptibility genes in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(7):E1352-60 [PubMed
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CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas have a highly diverse genetic background, with a third of the cases carrying a germline mutation in 1 of 14 identified genes.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate next-generation sequencing for more efficient genetic testing of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma and to establish germline and somatic mutation frequencies for all known susceptibility genes.
DESIGN: A targeted next-generation sequencing approach on an Illumina MiSeq instrument was used for a mutation analysis in 86 unselected pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumor samples. The study included the genes EGLN1, EPAS1, KIF1Bβ, MAX, MEN1, NF1, RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, TMEM127, and VHL. RESULTS were verified in tumor and constitutional DNA with Sanger sequencing.
RESULTS: In all cases with clinical syndromes or known germline mutations, a mutation was detected in the expected gene. Among 68 nonfamilial tumors, 32 mutations were identified in 28 of the samples (41%), including germline mutations in EGLN1, KIF1Bβ, SDHA, SDHB, and TMEM127 and somatic mutations in EPAS1, KIF1Bβ, MAX, NF1, RET, and VHL, including one double monoallelic EPAS1 mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: Targeted next-generation sequencing proved to be fast and cost effective for the genetic analysis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. More than half of the tumors harbored mutations in the investigated genes. Notably, 7% of the apparently sporadic cases carried germline mutations, highlighting the importance of comprehensive genetic testing. KIF1Bβ, which previously has not been investigated in a large cohort, appears to be an equally important tumor suppressor as MAX and TMEM127 and could be considered for genetic testing of these patients.
BACKGROUND: About 60% of Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and Paraganglioma (PGL) patients have either germline or somatic mutations in one of the 12 proposed disease causing genes; SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, EPAS1, RET, NF1, TMEM127, MAX and H-RAS. Selective screening for germline mutations is routinely performed in clinical management of these diseases. Testing for somatic alterations is not performed on a regular basis because of limitations in interpreting the results.
AIM: The purpose of the study was to investigate genetic events and phenotype correlations in a large cohort of PCC and PGL tumours.
METHODS: A total of 101 tumours from 89 patients with PCC and PGL were re-sequenced for a panel of 10 disease causing genes using automated Sanger sequencing. Selected samples were analysed with Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and/or SNParray.
RESULTS: Pathogenic genetic variants were found in tumours from 33 individual patients (37%), 14 (16%) were discovered in constitutional DNA and 16 (18%) were confirmed as somatic. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was observed in 1/1 SDHB, 11/11 VHL and 3/3 NF1-associated tumours. In patients with somatic mutations there were no recurrences in contrast to carriers of germline mutations (P = 0.022). SDHx/VHL/EPAS1 associated cases had higher norepinephrine output (P = 0.03) and lower epinephrine output (P<0.001) compared to RET/NF1/H-RAS cases.
CONCLUSION: Somatic mutations are frequent events in PCC and PGL tumours. Tumour genotype may be further investigated as prognostic factors in these diseases. Growing evidence suggest that analysis of tumour DNA could have an impact on the management of these patients.
BACKGROUND: Hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) account for at least 35% of all HNPGLs, most commonly due to germline mutations in SDHx susceptibility genes. Several studies about sympathetic paragangliomas have shown that (18)F-FDG PET/CT was not only able to detect and localize tumours, but also to characterize tumours ((18)F-FDG uptake being linked to SDHx mutations). However, the data concerning (18)F-FDG uptake specifically in HNPGLs have not been addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between (18)F-FDG uptake and the SDHx mutation status in HNPGL patients.
METHODS: (18)F-FDG PET/CT from sixty HNPGL patients were evaluated. For all lesions, we measured the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax), and the uptake ratio defined as HNPGL-SUVmax over pulmonary artery trunk SUVmean (SUVratio). Tumour sizes were assessed on radiological studies.
RESULTS: Sixty patients (53.3% with SDHx mutations) were evaluated for a total of 106 HNPGLs. HNPGLs-SUVmax and SUVratio were highly dispersed (1.2-30.5 and 1.0-17.0, respectively). The HNPGL (18)F-FDG uptake was significantly higher in SDHx versus sporadic tumours on both univariate and multivariate analysis (P = 0.002). We developed two models for calculating the probability of a germline SDHx mutation. The first one, based on a per-lesion analysis, had an accuracy of 75.5%. The second model, based on a per-patient analysis, had an accuracy of 80.0%.
CONCLUSIONS: (18)F-FDG uptake in HNPGL is strongly dependent on patient genotype. Thus, the degree of (18)F-FDG uptake in these tumours can be used clinically to help identify patients in whom SDHx mutations should be suspected.
TMEM127 is an endosome-associated tumor suppressor gene in pheochromocytomas, neuroendocrine tumors that can co-occur with renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). TMEM127 loss leads to increased mTOR signaling. However, the spectrum of tumors with TMEM127 mutation and how TMEM127 and mTOR interact in tumorigenesis remains unknown. Here, we report that germline TMEM127 mutations occur in RCCs and that some mutant proteins, unlike wild-type (WT) TMEM127, fail to cooperate with activated early endosomal GTPase, Rab5, to inhibit mTOR signaling. Tmem127-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are deficient in generating early-to-late hybrid endosomes upon constitutive Rab5 activation, a defect rescued by WT, but not mutant, TMEM127. This endosomal dysfunction results in diminished mTOR colocalization with Rab5-positive vesicles. Conversely, active, lysosomal-bound mTOR is increased in Tmem127-null MEFs, which also display enhanced lysosomal biogenesis. Our data map the tumor-suppressive properties of TMEM127 to modulation of mTOR function in the endolysosome, a feature that may contribute to both pheochromocytoma and RCC pathogenesis.
Bacca A, Chiacchio S, Zampa V, et al.Role of 18F-DOPA PET/CT in diagnosis and follow-up of adrenal and extra-adrenal paragangliomas.
Clin Nucl Med. 2014; 39(1):14-20 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to establish the clinical value of F-DOPA PET/CT in patients with adrenal and extra-adrenal paragangliomas (PGLs).
METHODS: Twenty-six consecutive patients with suspected or recurrent PGL underwent MR (and/or CT) and F-DOPA PET/CT. Histopathology confirmation was obtained in 20 cases. Genetic analysis on known susceptibility genes for PGL (VHL, RET, SDHx, TMEM127) was available in 13 patients.
RESULTS: Fourteen patients were affected by PGL (8 with head/neck location, 6 with abdominal/thoracic location), whereas 12 showed masses of other origin. Three patients proved to be SDHD, 1 SDHB, 2 SDHC, and 1 TMEM127 mutation carriers. F-DOPA PET/CT showed pathological uptake in 13 of 26 patients. The procedure identified all PGLs except one with bone metastases (previous malignant adrenal PGL). No uptake was found in patients without proven PGL. Thus, in the whole group, F-DOPA PET/CT sensitivity was 92.8%, and specificity was 100% with positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 92.3%, respectively. Total diagnostic accuracy was 96.2%. In the head/neck subgroup, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and diagnostic accuracy were 100%. In the abdominal location, sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 100%, and positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 91.7%, respectively. Abdominal diagnostic accuracy was 93.7%. Radiotracer uptake was superimposable in head/neck PGLs versus abdominal PGLs and in mutated versus wild-type patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The high diagnostic performance of F-DOPA PET/CT showed this technique to be a useful tool in detecting PGLs, above all those located at the head/neck site, regardless of the genetic pattern.
Hussain I, Husain Q, Baredes S, et al.Molecular genetics of paragangliomas of the skull base and head and neck region: implications for medical and surgical management.
J Neurosurg. 2014; 120(2):321-30 [PubMed
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Paragangliomas are rare, slow-growing tumors that frequently arise in the head and neck, with the carotid bodies and temporal bone of the skull base being the most common sites. These neoplasms are histologically similar to pheochromocytomas that form in the adrenal medulla and are divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic subtypes based on functionality. Skull base and head and neck region paragangliomas (SHN-PGs) are almost always derived from parasympathetic tissue and rarely secrete catecholamines. However, they can cause significant morbidity by mass effect on various cranial nerves and major blood vessels. While surgery for SHN-PG can be curative, postoperative deficits and recurrences make these lesions challenging to manage. Multiple familial syndromes predisposing individuals to development of paragangliomas have been identified, all involving mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex of mitochondria. Mutations in this enzyme lead to a state of "pseudohypoxia" that upregulates various angiogenic, survival, and proliferation factors. Moreover, familial paraganglioma syndromes are among the rare inherited diseases in which genomic imprinting occurs. Recent advances in gene arrays and transcriptome/exome sequencing have identified an alternate mutation in sporadic SHN-PG, which regulates proto-oncogenic pathways independent of pseudohypoxia-induced factors. Collectively these findings demonstrate that paragangliomas of the skull base and head and neck region have a distinct genetic signature from sympathetic-based paragangliomas occurring below the neck, such as pheochromocytomas. Paragangliomas serve as a unique model of primarily surgically treated neoplasms whose future will be altered by the elucidation of their genomic complexities. In this review, the authors present an analysis of the molecular genetics of SHN-PG and provide future directions in patient care and the development of novel therapies.
Bausch B, Wellner U, Bausch D, et al.Long-term prognosis of patients with pediatric pheochromocytoma.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014; 21(1):17-25 [PubMed
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A third of patients with paraganglial tumors, pheochromocytoma, and paraganglioma, carry germline mutations in one of the susceptibility genes, RET, VHL, NF1, SDHAF2, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, TMEM127, and MAX. Despite increasing importance, data for long-term prognosis are scarce in pediatric presentations. The European-American-Pheochromocytoma-Paraganglioma-Registry, with a total of 2001 patients with confirmed paraganglial tumors, was the platform for this study. Molecular genetic and phenotypic classification and assessment of gene-specific long-term outcome with second and/or malignant paraganglial tumors and life expectancy were performed in patients diagnosed at <18 years. Of 177 eligible registrants, 80% had mutations, 49% VHL, 15% SDHB, 10% SDHD, 4% NF1, and one patient each in RET, SDHA, and SDHC. A second primary paraganglial tumor developed in 38% with increasing frequency over time, reaching 50% at 30 years after initial diagnosis. Their prevalence was associated with hereditary disease (P=0.001), particularly in VHL and SDHD mutation carriers (VHL vs others, P=0.001 and SDHD vs others, P=0.042). A total of 16 (9%) patients with hereditary disease had malignant tumors, ten at initial diagnosis and another six during follow-up. The highest prevalence was associated with SDHB (SDHB vs others, P<0.001). Eight patients died (5%), all of whom had germline mutations. Mean life expectancy was 62 years with hereditary disease. Hereditary disease and the underlying germline mutation define the long-term prognosis of pediatric patients in terms of prevalence and time of second primaries, malignant transformation, and survival. Based on these data, gene-adjusted, specific surveillance guidelines can help effective preventive medicine.
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and abdominal paraganglioma (PGL) are neuroendocrine tumors that present with clinical symptoms related to increased catecholamine levels. About a third of the cases are associated with constitutional mutations in pre-disposing genes, of which some may also be somatically mutated in sporadic cases. However, little is known about inactivating epigenetic events through promoter methylation in these very genes. Using bisulphite pyrosequencing we assessed the methylation density of 11 PCC/PGL disease genes in 96 tumors (83 PCCs and 13 PGLs) and 34 normal adrenal references. Gene expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Both tumors and normal adrenal samples exhibited low methylation index (MetI) in the EGLN1 (PDH2), MAX, MEN1, NF1, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2 (SDH5), and TMEM127 promoters, not exceeding 10% in any of the samples investigated. Aberrant RET promoter methylation was observed in two cases only. For the VHL gene we found increased MetI in tumors as compared with normal adrenals (57% vs. 27%; P<0.001), in malignant vs. benign tumors (63% vs. 55%; P<0.05), and in PGL vs. PCC (66% vs. 55%; P<0.0005). Decreased expression of the VHL gene was observed in all tumors compared with normal adrenals (P<0.001). VHL MetI and gene expressions were inversely correlated (R = -0.359, P<0.0001). Our results show that the VHL gene promoter has increased methylation compared with normal adrenals (MetI>50%) in approximately 75% of PCCs and PGLs investigated, highlighting the role of VHL in the development of these tumors.
McInerney-Leo AM, Marshall MS, Gardiner B, et al.Whole exome sequencing is an efficient and sensitive method for detection of germline mutations in patients with phaeochromcytomas and paragangliomas.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014; 80(1):25-33 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Genetic testing is recommended when the probability of a disease-associated germline mutation exceeds 10%. Germline mutations are found in approximately 25% of individuals with phaeochromcytoma (PCC) or paraganglioma (PGL); however, genetic heterogeneity for PCC/PGL means many genes may require sequencing. A phenotype-directed iterative approach may limit costs but may also delay diagnosis, and will not detect mutations in genes not previously associated with PCC/PGL.
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether whole exome sequencing (WES) was efficient and sensitive for mutation detection in PCC/PGL.
METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on blinded samples from eleven individuals with PCC/PGL and known mutations. Illumina TruSeq (Illumina Inc, San Diego, CA, USA) was used for exome capture of seven samples, and NimbleGen SeqCap EZ v3.0 (Roche NimbleGen Inc, Basel, Switzerland) for five samples (one sample was repeated). Massive parallel sequencing was performed on multiplexed samples. Sequencing data were called using Genome Analysis Toolkit and annotated using annovar. Data were assessed for coding variants in RET, NF1, VHL, SDHD, SDHB, SDHC, SDHA, SDHAF2, KIF1B, TMEM127, EGLN1 and MAX. Target capture of five exome capture platforms was compared.
RESULTS: Six of seven mutations were detected using Illumina TruSeq exome capture. All five mutations were detected using NimbleGen SeqCap EZ v3.0 platform, including the mutation missed using Illumina TruSeq capture. Target capture for exons in known PCC/PGL genes differs substantially between platforms. Exome sequencing was inexpensive (<$A800 per sample for reagents) and rapid (results <5 weeks from sample reception).
CONCLUSION: Whole exome sequencing is sensitive, rapid and efficient for detection of PCC/PGL germline mutations. However, capture platform selection is critical to maximize sensitivity.
Boedeker CC, Hensen EF, Neumann HP, et al.Genetics of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas.
Head Neck. 2014; 36(6):907-16 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to give an overview on hereditary syndromes associated with head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGs).
METHODS: Our methods were the review and discussion of the pertinent literature.
RESULTS: About one third of all patients with HNPGs are carriers of germline mutations. Hereditary HNPGs have been described in association with mutations of 10 different genes. Mutations of the genes succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD), succinate dehydrogenase complex assembly factor 2 gene (SDHAF2), succinate dehydrogenase subunit C (SDHC), and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) are the cause of paraganglioma syndromes (PGLs) 1, 2, 3, and 4. Succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), and transmembrane protein 127 (TMEM127) gene mutations also harbor the risk for HNPG development. HNPGs in patients with rearranged during transfection (RET), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), and MYC-associated factor X (MAX) gene mutations have been described very infrequently.
CONCLUSION: All patients with HNPGs should be offered a molecular genetic screening. This screening may usually be restricted to mutations of the genes SDHD, SDHB, and SDHC. Certain clinical parameters can help to set up the order in which those genes should be tested.
Ghayee HK, Giubellino A, Click A, et al.Phospho-mTOR is not upregulated in metastatic SDHB paragangliomas.
Eur J Clin Invest. 2013; 43(9):970-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytomas (PCCs)/paragangliomas (PGLs) are neuroendocrine tumours that may cause arrhythmia and death if untreated. Treatment for patients with metastatic tumours is lacking. As new PCC/PGL susceptibility genes are discovered that are associated with the mTOR pathway, treatment targets focusing on this pathway are being intensively explored.
DESIGN: Twenty-one human PCC/PGLs were analysed from two tertiary care centres. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis was performed for phospho-mTOR (pmTOR), phospho-S6K (pS6K), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phospho-4EBP1 (p4EBP1), HIF1α and MIB-1 in 6 metastatic SDHB PCC/PGLs, 15 nonmetastatic PCC/PGLs, (including 1 TMEM127 PCC and 1 nonmetastatic SDHB PGL) and 6 normal adrenal medullas. The product of the intensity of stain and percentage of cells stained was calculated as an H score.
RESULTS: Using a two-sample t-test and paired t-test, pmTOR and pS6K had significantly higher H scores in nonmetastatic PCC/PGLs than in metastatic SDHB PCC/PGLs. HIF1α had significantly higher H scores in metastatic SDHB PCC/PGLs compared with nonmetastatic PCC/PGLs and normal adrenal medulla. No difference in H scores was seen with p4EBP1, PI3K and MIB-1 when comparing metastatic SDHB PCC/PGLs and nonmetastatic PCC/PGLs. Significantly higher difference in pS6K was seen in normal adrenal medullas compared to nonmetastatic PCC/PGLs and metastatic SDHB PCC/PGLs.
CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that the use of mTOR inhibitors alone for metastatic SDHB PCC/PGLs may not achieve good therapeutic efficacy in patients.
Germline mutations of the MEN1 gene cause multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by tumors of the parathyroids, the pancreas, and the anterior pituitary. Paraganglioma (PGL) is a rare endocrine tumor, which can be sporadic or genetically determined. To date, PGL has never been reported as a feature of MEN1.We report here a patient presenting three features of MEN1 syndrome (hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and adrenocortical adenoma) associated with PGL. Genetic analysis of MEN1 gene revealed a new missense mutation in exon 5 (AGGAAG), causing the substitution of arginine by lysine at codon 275. Screening for other genetic disorders (SDHx, TMEM127, MAX, CDKN1B) causing PGL was negative. Immunohistochemical analyses showed normal levels of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)A and SDHB in the PGL. The proband's sister, bearing the mutation, had primary hyperparathyroidism. It was the first typical MEN1 syndrome reported with an extra-adrenal PGL.
Crona J, Maharjan R, Delgado Verdugo A, et al.MAX mutations status in Swedish patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumours.
Fam Cancer. 2014; 13(1):121-5 [PubMed
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Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and Paraganglioma are rare tumours originating from neuroendocrine cells. Up to 60% of cases have either germline or somatic mutation in one of eleven described susceptibility loci, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, EPAS1, RET, NF1, TMEM127 and MYC associated factor-X (MAX). Recently, germline mutations in MAX were found to confer susceptibility to PCC and paraganglioma (PGL). A subsequent multicentre study found about 1% of PCCs and PGLs to have germline or somatic mutations in MAX. However, there has been no study investigating the frequency of MAX mutations in a Scandinavian cohort. We analysed tumour specimens from 63 patients with PCC and PGL treated at Uppsala University hospital, Sweden, for re-sequencing of MAX using automated Sanger sequencing. Our results show that 0% (0/63) of tumours had mutations in MAX. Allele frequencies of known single nucleotide polymorphisms rs4902359, rs45440292, rs1957948 and rs1957949 corresponded to those available in the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database. We conclude that MAX mutations remain unusual events and targeted genetic screening should be considered after more common genetic events have been excluded.
Rattenberry E, Vialard L, Yeung A, et al.A comprehensive next generation sequencing-based genetic testing strategy to improve diagnosis of inherited pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; 98(7):E1248-56 [PubMed
] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are notable for a high frequency of inherited cases, many of which present as apparently sporadic tumors.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to establish a comprehensive next generation sequencing (NGS)-based strategy for the diagnosis of patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma by testing simultaneously for mutations in MAX, RET, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, TMEM127, and VHL.
DESIGN: After the methodology for the assay was designed and established, it was validated on DNA samples with known genotype and then patients were studied prospectively.
SETTING: The study was performed in a diagnostic genetics laboratory.
PATIENTS: DNA samples from 205 individuals affected with adrenal or extraadrenal pheochromocytoma/head and neck paraganglioma (PPGL/HNPGL) were analyzed. A proof-of-principle study was performed using 85 samples known to contain a variant in 1 or more of the genes to be tested, followed by prospective analysis of an additional 120 samples.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed the ability to use an NGS-based method to perform comprehensive analysis of genes implicated in inherited PPGL/HNPGL.
RESULTS: The proof-of-principle study showed that the NGS assay and analysis gave a sensitivity of 98.7%. A pathogenic mutation was identified in 16.6% of the prospective analysis cohort of 120 patients.
CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive NGS-based strategy for the analysis of genes associated with predisposition to PPGL and HNPGL was established, validated, and introduced into diagnostic service. The new assay provides simultaneous analysis of 9 genes and allows more rapid and cost-effective mutation detection than the previously used conventional Sanger sequencing-based methodology.
de Cubas AA, Leandro-García LJ, Schiavi F, et al.Integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma identifies genotype-specific markers and potentially regulated pathways.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013; 20(4):477-93 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare neuroendocrine neoplasias of neural crest origin that can be part of several inherited syndromes. Although their mRNA profiles are known to depend on genetic background, a number of questions related to tumor biology and clinical behavior remain unanswered. As microRNAs (miRNAs) are key players in the modulation of gene expression, their comprehensive analysis could resolve some of these issues. Through characterization of miRNA profiles in 69 frozen tumors with germline mutations in the genes SDHD, SDHB, VHL, RET, NF1, TMEM127, and MAX, we identified miRNA signatures specific to, as well as common among, the genetic groups of PCCs/PGLs. miRNA expression profiles were validated in an independent series of 30 composed of VHL-, SDHB-, SDHD-, and RET-related formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded PCC/PGL samples using quantitative real-time PCR. Upregulation of miR-210 in VHL- and SDHB-related PCCs/PGLs was verified, while miR-137 and miR-382 were confirmed as generally upregulated in PCCs/PGLs (except in MAX-related tumors). Also, we confirmed overexpression of miR-133b as VHL-specific miRNAs, miR-488 and miR-885-5p as RET-specific miRNAs, and miR-183 and miR-96 as SDHB-specific miRNAs. To determine the potential roles miRNAs play in PCC/PGL pathogenesis, we performed bioinformatic integration and pathway analysis using matched mRNA profiling data that indicated a common enrichment of pathways associated with neuronal and neuroendocrine-like differentiation. We demonstrated that miR-183 and/or miR-96 impede NGF-induced differentiation in PC12 cells. Finally, global proteomic analysis in SDHB and MAX tumors allowed us to determine that miRNA regulation occurs primarily through mRNA degradation in PCCs/PGLs, which partially confirmed our miRNA-mRNA integration results.
Dahia PLNovel hereditary forms of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.
Front Horm Res. 2013; 41:79-91 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are catecholamine-secreting tumors of neural crest origin that arise from the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal sympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Over the last decade, the extensive genetic heterogeneity of these tumors came to light with the identification of multiple susceptibility genes. These mutations account for at least one-third of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, the highest inheritable proportion of any known human tumor. This chapter will present an overview of genetic and molecular features of the most recently identified hereditary forms of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: those caused by mutations in five genes of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex, the transmembrane-encoding gene TMEM127 and the MYC-binding partner, MAX. Initial genotype-phenotype correlations, as well as emerging functional data, have aligned the new mutants either with defects in hypoxic-angiogenic signaling (SDH-related) or kinase receptor/mTOR pathways (TMEM127 and MAX). These findings, in combination with those of the more well-established syndromes, have been relevant for guiding clinical follow-up. The progress of recent years in understanding the pathogenesis of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas is expected to continue to improve patient screening and to become, in the long term, the catalyst for development of new therapeutic options for surgically untreatable tumors.
Elston MS, Meyer-Rochow GY, Prosser D, et al.Novel mutation in the TMEM127 gene associated with phaeochromocytoma.
Intern Med J. 2013; 43(4):449-51 [PubMed
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Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours that arise from the adrenal glands or paraganglia (paragangliomas) within the abdomen, thorax and neck. Although it was originally suggested that approximately 10% of these tumours were inherited, it is now recognised that up to approximately 30% of these tumours are associated with a germline mutation in one of the phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma susceptibility genes. Of the 12 currently known genes predisposing to these tumours, the TMEM127 gene is one of the more recently identified and appears to be present in approximately 2% of apparently sporadic phaeochromocytomas. We report a 33-year-old man who presented with an apparently sporadic adrenal phaeochromocytoma and was identified as carrying a novel TMEM127 germline mutation, p.Gln139X. Patients harbouring a germline TMEM127 mutation most commonly present with an apparently sporadic solitary adrenal phaeochromocytoma. Testing patients who present with a phaeochromocytoma or paraganglioma for an underlying germline mutation needs to be considered in all patients due to implications for family members, but a strategy based on clinical and immunohistochemical findings would be prudent to limit costs.
Pęczkowska M, Kowalska A, Sygut J, et al.Testing new susceptibility genes in the cohort of apparently sporadic phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma patients with clinical characteristics of hereditary syndromes.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013; 79(6):817-23 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Phaeochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) can occur sporadically or as a part of familial cancer syndromes. Red flags of hereditary syndromes are young age and multifocal tumours. We hypothesized that such patients are candidates for further molecular diagnosis in case of normal results in 'classical' genes.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected patients with PCC/PGL under the age of 40 and/or with multiple tumours. First, we tested the genes RET, VHL, NF1, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. Patients without mutations in these genes were tested for mutations in MAX, TMEM127 and SDHAF2.
RESULTS: In 153 patients included, mutations were detected in the classical genes in 72 patients (47%) [RET-22 (14%), VHL-13 (9%), NF1-3 (2%), SDHB-13 (9%), SDHC-3 (2%), SDHD-16 (11%), SDHB large deletions- 2 (1%)]. One patient with MAXc.223C>T (p.R75X) mutation was detected. It was a male with bilateral, metachronous phaeochromocytomas diagnosed in 36 and 40 years of age. Remarkably, he showed in the period before the MAX gene was detected, a RET p. Y791F variant. During 10-year follow-up, we did not find any thyroid abnormalities. LOH examination of tumour tissue showed somatic loss of the wild-type allele of MAX.
CONCLUSION: Analysis of the MAX gene should be performed in selected patients, especially those with bilateral adrenal phaeochromocytoma in whom mutations of the classical genes are absent. Our study provides with further support that Y791F RET is a polymorphism.
Vicha A, Musil Z, Pacak KGenetics of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma syndromes: new advances and future treatment options.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2013; 20(3):186-91 [PubMed
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PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent advances in the genetics of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL), focusing on the new susceptibility genes and dividing PHEOs/PGLs into two groups based on their transcription profile.
RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, TMEM127, MYC-associated factor X, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 2α have been described in the pathogenesis of PHEOs/PGLs. Thus, now about 30-40% of these tumors are linked to the germline mutations, which also include mutations in the VHL, RET, NF1, SDHx, and SDHAF2 genes. Furthermore, PHEOs/PGLs have been divided into two groups, cluster 1 (SDHx/VHL) and cluster 2 (RET/NF1), based on the transcription profile revealed by genome-wide expression microarray analysis.
SUMMARY: PHEOs/PGLs are the most inherited tumors among (neuro)endocrine tumors. Future approaches in genetics, including whole-genome sequencing, will allow the discovery of additional PHEO/PGL susceptibility genes. The current division of PHEOs/PGLs into cluster 1 and 2 provides us with additional knowledge related to the pathogenesis of these tumors, including the introduction of new treatment options for patients with metastatic PHEOs/PGLs. New discoveries related to the role of the HIF-1/HIF-2α genes in the pathogenesis of almost all inherited PHEOs/PGLs may call for a new regrouping of these tumors and discoveries of new treatment targets.
Kolačkov K, Tupikowski K, Bednarek-Tupikowska GGenetic aspects of pheochromocytoma.
Adv Clin Exp Med. 2012 Nov-Dec; 21(6):821-9 [PubMed
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Pheochromocytomas are derived from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla which synthesize and secrete catecholamines, thus affecting the cardiovascular system and metabolic processes. Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the following multicarcinoma hereditary syndromes: type 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia, von Hippel-Lindau disease, type 1 neurofibromatosis and the pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas syndrome. Pheochromocytomas are relatively rare, and because of non-specific manifestation of these tumors and the possible lack of signs and symptoms for extended periods of time, the diagnosis may be delayed, which may, in turn, lead to death. Pheochromocytomas may occur sporadically. However, due to the frequent incidence of hereditary forms of these cancers, the presymptomatic genetic testing of family members with a positive family history is indicated, thus allowing for selecting people with higher risk of cancer. Early detection of the syndrome and the coexisting tumors (which may be malignant) may lead to a correct diagnosis, regular surveillance, preventive examinations and implementation of appropriate early treatment. Recent examinations have shown significant involvement of RET, VHL, NF1, SDHB and SDHD as well as the newly discovered KIF1Bβ, TMEM127 and MAX genes in pathogenesis of these tumors. The microarray-gene expression studies, based on the analysis of cellular pathways, have revealed two distinct clusters indicating two different routes of tumorgenesis. The genotype-phenotype correlations are still being studied and future research can give us clearer information about the function of these genes, which may prove crucial from the clinical point of view.
Boguszewski CL, Fighera TM, Bornschein A, et al.Genetic studies in a coexistence of acromegaly, pheochromocytoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and thyroid follicular adenoma.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2012; 56(8):507-12 [PubMed
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We report on an adult woman with rare coexistence of acromegaly, pheochromocytoma (PHEO), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), intestinal polyposis, and thyroid follicular adenoma. At the age of 56, she was diagnosed with acromegaly caused by a pituitary macroadenoma, treated by transsphenoidal surgery, radiotherapy, and octreotide. During routine colonoscopy, multiple polyps were identified as tubular adenomas with high-grade dysplasia on histology. Years later, an abdominal mass of 8.0 x 6.2 cm was detected by routine ultrasound. Surgical exploration revealed an adrenal mass and another tumor adhered to the lesser gastric curvature, which were removed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of PHEO and GIST. PHEO immunohistochemistry was negative for GHRH. During follow-up, nodular goiter was found with normal levels of calcitonin and inconclusive cytology. Near-total thyroidectomy was performed, revealing a follicular adenoma. Her family history was negative for all of these tumor types. Genetic analysis for PHEO/paraganglioma genes (SDH A-D, SDHAF2, RET, VHL, TMEM127, and MAX), and pituitary-related genes (AIP, MEN1, and p27) were negative. Though the finding of PHEO and acromegaly with multiple other tumors could be a fortuitous coexistence, we suggest that this case may represent a new variant of MEN syndrome with a de novo germline mutation in a not yet identified gene.
Galan SR, Kann PHGenetics and molecular pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013; 78(2):165-75 [PubMed
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Although most pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are sporadic, molecular genetic medicine has revealed that a considerable number of patients with apparently sporadic PCC actually have a genetic predisposition to the development of these tumors. After decades of intensive research, several genes are now known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCC. At present, these are RET proto-oncogene, von Hippel-Lindau disease tumor suppressor gene (VHL), neurofibromatosis type 1 tumor suppressor gene (NF1), genes encoding the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex subunits SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, but also SDHA, the gene encoding the enzyme responsible for the flavination of SDHA (SDHAF2 or hSDH5), and the newly described TMEM127 and MAX tumor suppressor genes. In addition to these ten PCC susceptibility genes, two other genes, KIF1B and PHD2, have also been associated with PCC. Studying the pathogenesis and the molecular correlation of these mutations has revealed the existence of two main transcription signatures: a pseudohypoxic cluster (VHL and SDH mutations) and a cluster rich in kinase receptor signaling and their downstream pathways (RET, NF1, TMEM127, and MAX mutations). However, the general mechanism in the pathogenesis of a syndrome does not entirely apply in the particular pathogenesis of PCC as a manifestation of that syndrome. A better understanding of the complexity and high genetic diversity of PCC and PGL may lead to more efficient diagnosis and management of the disease.
Welander J, Larsson C, Bäckdahl M, et al.Integrative genomics reveals frequent somatic NF1 mutations in sporadic pheochromocytomas.
Hum Mol Genet. 2012; 21(26):5406-16 [PubMed
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Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal medulla which can occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary tumor syndromes. Whereas the genetic background of hereditary pheochromocytomas is becoming rather well-defined, very little is known about the more common sporadic form of the disease which constitutes ∼70% of all cases. In this study, we elucidate some of the molecular mechanisms behind sporadic pheochromocytoma by performing a comprehensive analysis of copy number alterations, gene expression, promoter methylation and somatic mutations in the genes RET, VHL, NF1, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, KIF1Bβ, TMEM127 and MAX, which have been associated with hereditary pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. Our genomic and genetic analyses of 42 sporadic pheochromocytomas reveal that a large proportion (83%) has an altered copy number in at least one of the known susceptibility genes, often in association with an altered messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. Specifically, 11 sporadic tumors (26%) displayed a loss of one allele of the NF1 gene, which significantly correlated with a reduced NF1 mRNA expression. Subsequent sequencing of NF1 mRNA, followed by confirmation in the corresponding genomic DNA (gDNA), revealed somatic truncating mutations in 10 of the 11 tumors with NF1 loss. Our results thus suggest that the NF1 gene constitutes the most frequent (24%) target of somatic mutations so far known in sporadic pheochromocytomas.
Burnichon N, Buffet A, Parfait B, et al.Somatic NF1 inactivation is a frequent event in sporadic pheochromocytoma.
Hum Mol Genet. 2012; 21(26):5397-405 [PubMed
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Germline mutations in the RET, SDHA, SDHAF2, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, MAX, TMEM127, NF1 or VHL genes are identified in about 30% of patients with pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma and somatic mutations in RET, VHL or MAX genes are reported in 17% of sporadic tumors. In the present study, using mutation screening of the NF1 gene, mapping of chromosome aberrations by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, microarray-based expression profiling and immunohistochemistry (IHC), we addressed the implication of NF1 somatic alterations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. We studied 53 sporadic tumors, selected because of their classification with RET/NF1/TMEM127-related tumors by genome wide expression studies, as well as a second set of 11 independent tumors selected on their low individual levels of NF1 expression evaluated by microarray. Direct sequencing of the NF1 gene in tumor DNA identified the presence of an inactivating NF1 somatic mutation in 41% (25/61) of analyzed sporadic tumors, associated with loss of the wild-type allele in 84% (21/25) of cases. Gene expression signature of NF1-related tumors highlighted the downregulation of NF1 and the major overexpression of SOX9. Among the second set of 11 tumors, two sporadic tumors carried somatic mutations in NF1 as well as in another susceptibility gene. These new findings suggest that NF1 loss of function is a frequent event in the tumorigenesis of sporadic pheochromocytoma and strengthen the new concept of molecular-based targeted therapy for pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma.
Head and neck paragangliomas are tumors arising from specialized neural crest cells. Prominent locations are the carotid body along with the vagal, jugular, and tympanic glomus. Head and neck paragangliomas are slowly growing tumors, with some carotid body tumors being reported to exist for many years as a painless lateral mass on the neck. Symptoms depend on the specific locations. In contrast to paraganglial tumors of the adrenals, abdomen and thorax, head and neck paragangliomas seldom release catecholamines and are hence rarely vasoactive. Petrous bone, jugular, and tympanic head and neck paragangliomas may cause hearing loss. The internationally accepted clinical classifications for carotid body tumors are based on the Shamblin Class I-III stages, which correspond to postoperative permanent side effects. For petrous-bone paragangliomas in the head and neck, the Fisch classification is used. Regarding the molecular genetics, head and neck paragangliomas have been associated with nine susceptibility genes: NF1, RET, VHL, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2 (SDH5), and TMEM127. Hereditary HNPs are mostly caused by mutations of the SDHD gene, but SDHB and SDHC mutations are not uncommon in such patients. Head and neck paragangliomas are rarely associated with mutations of VHL, RET, or NF1. The research on SDHA, SDHAF2 and TMEM127 is ongoing. Multiple head and neck paragangliomas are common in patients with SDHD mutations, while malignant head and neck paraganglioma is mostly seen in patients with SDHB mutations. The treatment of choice is surgical resection. Good postoperative results can be expected in carotid body tumors of Shamblin Class I and II, whereas operations on other carotid body tumors and other head and neck paragangliomas frequently result in deficits of the cranial nerves adjacent to the tumors. Slow growth and the tendency of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas to be multifocal may justify less aggressive treatment strategies.
Takeichi N, Midorikawa S, Watanabe A, et al.Identical germline mutations in the TMEM127 gene in two unrelated Japanese patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012; 77(5):707-14 [PubMed
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OBJECTIVE: Recently, TMEM127 was shown to be a new pheochromocytoma susceptibility gene; this is consistent with its function as a tumour suppressor gene (Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2009, 94, 2817). Most pheochromocytomas arise from the adrenal medulla, and in approximately half of the cases, the tumours are bilateral (Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2009, 94, 2817; Journal of the American Medical Association, 2004, 292, 943; Human Mutation, 2010, 31, 41; Science, 2009, 325, 1139). The aim of the present study was to determine whether TMEM127 mutations are involved in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas in Japanese subjects.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this study, 74 unrelated patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma who tested negative for mutations and deletions in RET, VHL, SDHB and SDHD were recruited through a multi-institutional collaborative effort in Japan. The TMEM127 gene sequence was determined in their germline DNA, and tumour DNA was analysed for the loss of heterozygosity. In addition, their TMEM127 gene sequences were compared with sequences from 114 normal healthy, ethnically matched controls.
RESULTS: Among the 74 eligible patients, two unrelated patients (2·7%) with bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma were found to have an identical germline TMEM127 mutation (c.116_119delTGTC, p.Ile41ArgfsX39) associated with 2q deletion loss of heterozygosity, which was also previously described in a Brazilian case (Journal of the American Medical Association, 2004, 292, 943). We also determined that none of the 114 normal healthy controls had this deletion mutation.
CONCLUSION: This is the first report showing that TMEM127 mutation plays a pathological role in pheochromocytoma in an Asian population. Although our surveillance is limited, the prevalence and the phenotype of this gene mutation appear to be similar to those reported in previous studies.
Buffet A, Venisse A, Nau V, et al.A decade (2001-2010) of genetic testing for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.
Horm Metab Res. 2012; 44(5):359-66 [PubMed
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The identification of 9 susceptibility genes for paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma between 2001 and 2010 has led to the development of routine genetic tests. To study the evolution in genetic screening for paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma over the past decade, we carried out a retrospective study on the tests performed in our laboratory from January 2001 to December 2010. A genetic test for paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma was assessed for 2 499 subjects, 1 620 index cases, and 879 presymptomatic familial genetic tests. A germline mutation in a PGL/PCC susceptibility gene was identified in 363 index cases (22.4%): 269 in SDHx genes (137 in SDHB, 100 in SDHD, 30 in SDHC, 2 in SDHA), 64 in VHL, 23 in RET, and 7 in TMEM127. A presymptomatic paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma test was positive in 427 subjects. Advances in molecular screening techniques led to an increase in the total number of mutation-carriers diagnosed each year. Overall, during the last decade, our laboratory identified a germline mutation in 44.7% of patients with a suspect hereditary PGL/PCC and in 8% of patients with an apparently sporadic PGL/PCC. During the past decade, the discoveries of new paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma susceptibility genes and the subsequent progress of molecular screening techniques have enabled us to diagnose a hereditary paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma in about 22% of patients tested in routine practice. This genetic testing is of major importance for the follow-up of affected patients and for the genetic counselling of their families.
Lefebvre S, Borson-Chazot F, Boutry-Kryza N, et al.Screening of mutations in genes that predispose to hereditary paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas.
Horm Metab Res. 2012; 44(5):334-8 [PubMed
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Thirty per cent of the paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas reported are hereditary. Mutations in SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and more recently SDHAF2 and TMEM127 genes have been described in these hereditary tumors. We looked for mutations in these 5 genes in a series of 269 patients with paragangliomas and/or pheochromocytomas. The SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD genes were analyzed in a series of 269 unrelated index patients with paragangliomas and/or pheochromocytomas using dHPLC screening of point mutations followed by direct sequencing and Multiplex PCR Liquid Chromatography to detect large rearrangements confirmed by quantitative PCR. In a second phase, we adapted Multiplex PCR Liquid Chromatography to the SDHAF2 and TMEM127 genes. This method and direct sequencing were applied to 230 patients without the SDHB, C, D mutations. Of the 269 patients, 44 carried a mutation (16.3%). Thirty-seven different mutations were identified: 18 in SDHB (including 2 large deletions), 8 in SDHD, 6 in SDHC, 5 in TMEM127, and no mutations in SDHAF2. Thirteen mutations have not been published so far. An exhaustive study of the different genes is needed to make possible a familial genetic diagnosis in paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma hereditary syndromes. Although mutations in SDHC and TMEM127 are less frequent than mutations in SDHB and SDHD, they also have less evident clinical feature indicators. Analyzing SDHAF2 must be restricted to familial extra-adrenal paragangliomas. Multiplex PCR Liquid Chromatography is a sensitive, fast, and inexpensive method for screening large rearrangements, which are infrequent in these syndromes.