Gene Summary

Gene:HRAS; Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog
Summary:This gene belongs to the Ras oncogene family, whose members are related to the transforming genes of mammalian sarcoma retroviruses. The products encoded by these genes function in signal transduction pathways. These proteins can bind GTP and GDP, and they have intrinsic GTPase activity. This protein undergoes a continuous cycle of de- and re-palmitoylation, which regulates its rapid exchange between the plasma membrane and the Golgi apparatus. Mutations in this gene cause Costello syndrome, a disease characterized by increased growth at the prenatal stage, growth deficiency at the postnatal stage, predisposition to tumor formation, mental retardation, skin and musculoskeletal abnormalities, distinctive facial appearance and cardiovascular abnormalities. Defects in this gene are implicated in a variety of cancers, including bladder cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Multiple transcript variants, which encode different isoforms, have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:GTPase HRas
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 February, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 15 February 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 15 February, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Breast CancerHRAS and Breast Cancer View Publications64
Skin CancerHRAS and Skin Cancer View Publications62
Thyroid CancerHRAS and Thyroid Cancer View Publications60
MelanomaHRAS and Melanoma View Publications41
Costello SyndromeHRAS germline mutation in Costello Syndrome
Costello Syndrome is a rare congenital disorder with multiple anomalies; characterised by dysmorphic craniofacial features, musculoskeletal abnormalities, neurocognitive delay, and increased risk of cancers including rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, childhood onset bladder carcinoma.
View Publications41
Eye CancerHRAS and Uveal Neoplasms View Publications2

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HRAS (cancer-related)

Radkay LA, Chiosea SI, Seethala RR, et al.
Thyroid nodules with KRAS mutations are different from nodules with NRAS and HRAS mutations with regard to cytopathologic and histopathologic outcome characteristics.
Cancer Cytopathol. 2014; 122(12):873-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the RAS gene in the thyroid gland result in the activation of signaling pathways and are associated with a follicular growth pattern and the probability of a carcinoma outcome ranging from 74% to 87%. In the current study, the authors investigated the cytopathologic and histopathologic features of common RAS mutation subtypes.
METHODS: Malignant, indeterminate, and selected benign thyroid cytology cases were tested prospectively for the presence of NRAS61, HRAS61, and KRAS12/13 mutations. For each case, the Bethesda System for thyroid cytopathology diagnosis, additional cytologic descriptors, and surgical pathology outcomes were documented. The Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon 2-sample test were used for statistical comparison between the groups.
RESULTS: A total of 204 thyroid fine-needle aspiration cases with RAS mutations (93.6% of which were associated with indeterminate cytopathology diagnoses) and corresponding surgical pathology resection specimens were identified. The KRAS12/13 mutation was associated with a significantly lower carcinoma outcome (41.7%) when compared with HRAS61 (95.5%) and NRAS61 (86.8%) mutations (P<.0001). Furthermore, oncocytic change was observed in a significantly higher percentage of cytology and resection specimens with KRAS12/13 mutations (66.7% and 75.0%, respectively) in comparison with those with HRAS61 (4.5% and 4.5%, respectively) and NRAS61 (15.4% and 14.7%, respectively) mutations (P<.0001). RAS mutations also were identified in cases of poorly differentiated carcinoma (NRAS61), anaplastic carcinoma (HRAS61), and medullary thyroid carcinoma (HRAS61 and KRAS12/13).
CONCLUSIONS: Subclassification of RAS mutations in conjunction with cytopathologic evaluation improves presurgical risk stratification, provides better insight into lesional characteristics, and may influence patient management. In particular, KRAS12/13-mutated thyroid nodules were found to be different from HRAS61-mutated and NRAS61-mutated nodules with regard to cytopathologic and surgical outcome characteristics.

McDaniel AS, Zhai Y, Cho KR, et al.
HRAS mutations are frequent in inverted urothelial neoplasms.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(9):1957-65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2015 Related Publications
Inverted urothelial papilloma (IUP) is an uncommon neoplasm of the urinary bladder with distinct morphologic features. Studies regarding the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the etiology of IUP have provided conflicting evidence of HPV infection. In addition, little is known regarding the molecular alterations present in IUP or other urothelial neoplasms, which might demonstrate inverted growth pattern like low-grade or high-grade urothelial carcinoma (UCA). Here, we evaluated for the presence of common driving somatic mutations and HPV within a cohort of IUPs, (n = 7) noninvasive low-grade papillary UCAs with inverted growth pattern (n = 5), and noninvasive high-grade papillary UCAs with inverted growth pattern (n = 8). HPV was not detected in any case of IUP or inverted UCA by either in situ hybridization or by polymerase chain reaction. Next-generation sequencing identified recurrent mutations in HRAS (Q61R) in 3 of 5 IUPs, described for the first time in this neoplasm. Additional mutations of Ras pathway members were detected including HRAS, KRAS, and BRAF. The presence of Ras pathway member mutations at a relatively high rate suggests this pathway may contribute to pathogenesis of inverted urothelial neoplasms. In addition, we did not find any evidence supporting a role for HPV in the etiology of IUP.

Lee TH, Chennakrishnaiah S, Audemard E, et al.
Oncogenic ras-driven cancer cell vesiculation leads to emission of double-stranded DNA capable of interacting with target cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 451(2):295-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell free DNA is often regarded as a source of genetic cancer biomarkers, but the related mechanisms of DNA release, composition and biological activity remain unclear. Here we show that rat epithelial cell transformation by the human H-ras oncogene leads to an increase in production of small, exosomal-like extracellular vesicles by viable cancer cells. These EVs contain chromatin-associated double-stranded DNA fragments covering the entire host genome, including full-length H-ras. Oncogenic N-ras and SV40LT sequences were also found in EVs emitted from spontaneous mouse brain tumor cells. Disruption of acidic sphingomyelinase and the p53/Rb pathway did not block emission of EV-related oncogenic DNA. Exposure of non-transformed RAT-1 cells to EVs containing mutant H-ras DNA led to the uptake and retention of this material for an extended (30days) but transient period of time, and stimulated cell proliferation. Thus, our study suggests that H-ras-mediated transformation stimulates vesicular emission of this histone-bound oncogene, which may interact with non-transformed cells.

Trietsch MD, Spaans VM, ter Haar NT, et al.
CDKN2A(p16) and HRAS are frequently mutated in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 135(1):149-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Two etiologic pathways of vulvar cancer are known, a human papillomavirus (HPV)- and a TP53-associated route, respectively, but other genetic changes may also play a role. Studies on somatic mutations in vulvar cancer other than TP53 are limited in number and size. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of genetic mutations in 107 vulvar squamous cell carcinomas (VSCCs).
METHODS: A total of 107 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of primarily surgically treated VSCCs were tested for HPV infection and screened for mutations in 14 genes (BRAF, CDKN2A(p16), CTNNB1, FBXW7, FGFR2, FGFR3, FOXL2, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, PIK3CA, PPP2R1A, PTEN, and TP53) using Sanger sequencing and mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: Mutations were detected in 7 genes. Of 107 VSCCs, 66 tumors (62%) contained at least one mutation (TP53=58, CDKN2A(p16)=14, HRAS=10, PIK3CA=7, PPP2R1A=3, KRAS=1, PTEN=1). Mutations occurred most frequently in HPV-negative samples. Five-year survival was significantly worse for patients with a mutation (47% vs 59%, P=.035), with a large effect from patients carrying HRAS-mutations.
CONCLUSION: Somatic mutations were detected in 62% of VSCCs. As expected, HPV infection and TP53-mutations play a key role in the development of VSCC, but CDKN2A(p16), HRAS, and PIK3CA-mutations were also frequently seen in HPV-negative patients. Patients with somatic mutations, especially HRAS-mutations, have a significantly worse prognosis than patients lacking these changes, which could be of importance for the development of targeted therapy.

Milinkovic VP, Skender Gazibara MK, Manojlovic Gacic EM, et al.
The impact of TP53 and RAS mutations on cerebellar glioblastomas.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 97(2):202-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cerebellar glioblastoma (cGBM) is a rare, inadequately characterized disease, without detailed information on its molecular basis. This is the first report analyzing both TP53 and RAS alterations in cGBM. TP53 mutations were detected in more than half of the samples from our cohort, mainly in hotspot codons. There were no activating mutations in hotspot codons 12/13 and 61 of KRAS and HRAS genes in cGBM samples but we detected alterations in other parts of exons 2 and 3 of these genes, including premature induction of STOP codon. This mutation was present in 3 out of 5 patients. High incidence of RAS mutations, as well as significantly longer survival of cGBM patients compared to those with supratentorial GBM suggest that cGBM may have different mechanisms of occurrence. Our results suggest that inactivation of TP53 and RAS may play an important role in the progression of cerebellar GBM.

Malaguarnera R, Chen KY, Kim TY, et al.
Switch in signaling control of mTORC1 activity after oncoprotein expression in thyroid cancer cell lines.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(10):E1976-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Thyroid growth is regulated by TSH and requires mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Thyroid cancers frequently exhibit mutations in MAPK and/or phosphoinositol-3-kinase-related kinase effectors.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore the contribution of RET/PTC, RAS, and BRAF to mTOR regulation and response to mTOR inhibitors.
METHODS: PCCL3 cells conditionally expressing RET/PTC3, HRAS(G12V), or BRAF(V600E) and human thyroid cancer cells harboring mutations of these genes were used to test pathways controlling mTOR and its requirement for growth.
RESULTS: TSH/cAMP-induced growth of PCCL3 cells requires mTOR, which is stimulated via protein kinase A in a MAPK kinase (MEK)- and AKT-independent manner. Expression of RET/PTC3, HRAS(G12V), or BRAF(V600E) in PCCL3 cells induces mTOR but does not entirely abrogate the cAMP-mediated control of its activity. Acute oncoprotein-induced mTOR activity is regulated by MEK and AKT, albeit to differing degrees. By contrast, mTOR was not activated by TSH/cAMP in human thyroid cancer cells. Tumor genotype did not predict the effects of rapamycin or the mTOR kinase inhibitor AZD8055 on growth, with the exception of a PTEN-null cell line. Selective blockade of MEK did not influence mTOR activity of BRAF or RAS mutant cells. Combined MEK and mTOR kinase inhibition was synergistic on growth of BRAF- and RAS-mutant thyroid cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Thyroid cancer cells lose TSH/cAMP dependency of mTOR signaling and cell growth. mTOR activity is not decreased by the MEK or AKT inhibitors in the RAS or BRAF human thyroid cancer cell lines. This may account for the augmented effects of combining the mTOR inhibitors with selective antagonists of these oncogenic drivers.

Cogoi S, Shchekotikhin AE, Xodo LE
HRAS is silenced by two neighboring G-quadruplexes and activated by MAZ, a zinc-finger transcription factor with DNA unfolding property.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(13):8379-88 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
The HRAS promoter contains immediately upstream of the transcription start site two neighboring G-elements, each capable of folding into a G-quadruplex structure. We have previously found that these G-quadruplexes bind to the zinc-finger transcription factors MAZ and Sp1. In the present study we have examined the interaction between the HRAS promoter and MAZ, demonstrating for the first time that the protein unfolds the G-quadruplex structures. We also demonstrate that MAZ-GST, in the presence of the complementary strands, promotes a rapid transformation of the two HRAS quadruplexes into duplexes. By a mutational analysis of the HRAS G-elements, we dissected the MAZ-binding sites from the quadruplex-forming motifs, finding that the two neighboring G-quadruplexes bring about a dramatic repression of transcription, in a synergistic manner. We also discovered that the two G-quadruplexes are strong targets for small anticancer molecules. We found that a cell-penetrating anthratiophenedione (ATPD-1), which binds tightly to the G-quadruplexes (ΔT > 15°C), promotes the total extinction of HRAS transcription. In contrast, when one of the two G-quadruplexes was abrogated by point mutations, ATPD-1 repressed transcription by only 50%. Our study provides relevant information for the rationale design of targeted therapy drugs specific for the HRAS oncogene.

Yadav DS, Chattopadhyay I, Verma A, et al.
A pilot study evaluating genetic alterations that drive tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer in Northeast India.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9317-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The susceptibility of an individual to oral cancer is mediated by genetic factors and carcinogen-exposure behaviors such as betel quid chewing, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption. This pilot study was aimed to identify the genetic alteration in 100 bp upstream and downstream flanking regions in addition to the exonic regions of 169 cancer-associated genes by using Next Generation sequencing with aim to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer of Northeast India. To understand the role of chemical compounds present in tobacco and betel quid associated with the progression of oral cancer, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (Indels) found in this study were analyzed for their association with chemical compounds found in tobacco and betel quid using Comparative Toxogenomic Database. Genes (AR, BRCA1, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with arecoline which is the major component of areca nut. Genes (BARD1, BRCA2, CCND2, IGF1R, MSH6, and RASSF1) with novel deletion and genes (APC, BRMS1, CDK2AP1, CDKN2B, GAS1, IGF1R, and RB1) with novel insertion were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1 which is produced by fermented areca nut. Genes (ADH6, APC, AR, BARD1, BRMS1, CDKN1A, E2F1, FGFR4, FLNC, HRAS, IGF1R, IL12B, IL8, NBL1, STAT5B, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1. Genes (ATM, BRCA1, CDKN1A, EGFR, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with tobacco specific nitrosamines.

Chang YS, Hsu HT, Ko YC, et al.
Combined mutational analysis of RAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 genes in Taiwanese patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2014; 118(1):110-116.e1 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Many genetic factors have been implicated in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Although mutations associated with OSCC have been well documented, the rate of these mutations is known to vary by location. The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of RAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 mutations in OSCC within the Taiwanese population.
STUDY DESIGN: A total of 79 OSCC tissue specimens were screened for the presence of RAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 mutations.
RESULTS: Missense mutations in HRAS were found in 10 of 79 cases (12.66%), and were significantly associated with tumor grade. PIK3CA mutations were observed in 11 of 79 cases (13.92%), including a rare mutation, Q546 P, that had not previously been reported in OSCC. TP53 mutations were observed in 26 of 79 patients (32.91%) and were significantly correlated with poor survival.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that HRAS, PIK3CA, and TP53 may play a role in OSCC tumorigenesis.

Giordano TJ, Beaudenon-Huibregtse S, Shinde R, et al.
Molecular testing for oncogenic gene mutations in thyroid lesions: a case-control validation study in 413 postsurgical specimens.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(7):1339-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular testing for oncogenic gene alterations provides clinically actionable information essential for the optimal management of follicular cell thyroid cancer. We aimed to establish the distribution and frequency of common oncogenic gene mutations and chromosomal rearrangements in a comprehensive set of benign and malignant thyroid lesions. A case-control study was conducted in 413 surgical cases comprising 17 distinct histopathologic categories, 244 malignant, 169 benign, and 304 double-blinded specimens. Seventeen alterations of BRAF, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, PAX8, and RET genes were evaluated using a single validated technology platform. Following verification of analytical sensitivity, accuracy, and precision in model and surgical specimens, 152 molecular positive results were generated in lesions representing multiple stages of progression and epithelial differentiation as well as rare subtypes of primary, secondary, or recurring tumors. Single mutations were found in 58% of primary malignant lesions and 12% of benign (P < .001). In the blinded validation set, mutation distribution and frequency were distinct across variants of follicular and papillary carcinomas. BRAF or RET-PTC was detected exclusively in malignant lesions but not in follicular carcinomas (P < .001). RAS or PAX8-PPARG were present in 23% of adenomas, and NRAS was found in a single nonneoplastic lesion (P = .0014). These data substantiate the diagnostic utility of molecular testing for oncogenic mutations and validate its performance in a variety of surgical specimens. Standardized and validated multianalyte molecular panels can complement the preoperative and postoperative assessment of thyroid nodules and support a growing number of clinical and translational applications with potential diagnostic, prognostic, or theranostic utility.

Simbolo M, Mian C, Barollo S, et al.
High-throughput mutation profiling improves diagnostic stratification of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 465(1):73-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) harbors RET gene somatic mutations in up to 50 % of cases, and RAS family gene mutations occur in about 10 %. A timely and comprehensive characterization of molecular alterations is needed to improve MTC diagnostic stratification and design-tailored therapeutic approaches. Twenty surgically resected sporadic MTCs, previously analyzed for RET mutations by Sanger sequencing using DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, were investigated for intragenic mutations in 50 cancer-associated genes applying a multigene Ion AmpliSeq next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Thirteen (65 %) MTCs harbored a RET mutation; 10 were detected at both Sanger and NGS sequencing, while 3 undetected by Sanger were revealed by NGS. One of the 13 RET-mutated cases also showed an F354L germline mutation in STK11. Of the seven RET wild-type MTCs, four cases (57.1 %) harbored a RAS mutation: three in HRAS (all Q61R) and one in KRAS (G12R). The three remaining MTCs (15 %) resulted as wild-type for all the 50 cancer-related genes. Follow-up was available in all but one RET-mutated case. At the end of follow-up, 7 of 12 (58 %) RET-mutated patients had relapsed, while the 4 RAS-mutated MTC patients were disease-free. Two of the three patients with MTC wild-type for all 50 genes relapsed during the follow-up period. Detection of mutations by NGS has the potential to improve the diagnostic stratification of sporadic MTC.

Loganathan J, Jiang J, Smith A, et al.
The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum suppresses breast-to-lung cancer metastasis through the inhibition of pro-invasive genes.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(6):2009-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer metastasis is one of the major reasons for the high morbidity and mortality of breast cancer patients. In spite of surgical interventions, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and targeted therapy, some patients are considering alternative therapies with herbal/natural products. In the present study, we evaluated a well-characterized extract from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLE) for its affects on tumor growth and breast-to-lung cancer metastasis. MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were implanted into the mammary fat pads of nude mice. GLE (100 mg/kg/every other day) was administered to the mice by an oral gavage for 4 weeks, and tumor size was measured using microcalipers. Lung metastases were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Gene expression in MDA-MB-231 cells was determined by DNA microarray analysis and confirmed by quantitative PCR. Identified genes were silenced by siRNA, and cell migration was determined in Boyden chambers and by wound-healing assay. Although an oral administration of GLE only slightly suppressed the growth of large tumors, the same treatment significantly inhibited the number of breast-to-lung cancer metastases. GLE also downregulated the expression of genes associated with invasive behavior (HRAS, VIL2, S100A4, MCAM, I2PP2A and FN1) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Gene silencing of HRAS, VIL2, S100A4, I2PP2A and FN1 by siRNA suppressed migration of MDA-MB‑231 cells. Our study suggests that an oral administration of GLE can inhibit breast-to-lung cancer metastases through the downregulation of genes responsible for cell invasiveness. The anti-metastatic benefits of GLE warrant further clinical studies.

Rampias T, Giagini A, Siolos S, et al.
RAS/PI3K crosstalk and cetuximab resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(11):2933-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Cetuximab, an antibody directed against the EGF receptor, is an effective clinical therapy for patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Despite great clinical promise, intrinsic or acquired cetuximab resistance hinders successful treatment outcomes but little is known about the underlying mechanism.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To study the role of oncogenic HRAS in cetuximab resistance in HNSCC, the frequency of oncogenic HRAS mutations was determined in a cohort of 180 genomic DNAs from head and neck cancer specimens. We also used a combination of cetuximab-resistant cell lines and a transgenic mouse model of RAS-driven oral cancer to identify an oncogenic RAS-specific gene expression signature that promotes cetuximab resistance.
RESULTS: Here, we show that activation of RAS signaling leads to persistent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling and consequently to cetuximab resistance. HRAS depletion in cells containing oncogenic HRAS or PIK3CA restored cetuximab sensitivity. In our study, the gene expression signature of c-MYC, BCL-2, BCL-XL, and cyclin D1 upon activation of MAPK signaling was not altered by cetuximab treatment, suggesting that this signature may have a pivotal role in cetuximab resistance of RAS-activated HNSCC. Finally, a subset of patients with head and neck cancer with oncogenic HRAS mutations was found to exhibit de novo resistance to cetuximab-based therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these findings identify a distinct cetuximab resistance mechanism. Oncogenic HRAS in HNSCC promotes activation of ERK signaling, which in turn mediates cetuximab resistance through a specific gene expression signature. Clin Cancer Res; 20(11); 2933-46. ©2014 AACR.

Wang Y, Li G, Mao F, et al.
Ras-induced epigenetic inactivation of the RRAD (Ras-related associated with diabetes) gene promotes glucose uptake in a human ovarian cancer model.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(20):14225-38 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/05/2015 Related Publications
RRAD (Ras-related associated with diabetes) is a small Ras-related GTPase that is frequently inactivated by DNA methylation of the CpG island in its promoter region in cancer tissues. However, the role of the methylation-induced RRAD inactivation in tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study, the Ras-regulated transcriptome and epigenome were profiled by comparing T29H (a Ras(V12)-transformed human ovarian epithelial cell line) with T29 (an immortalized but non-transformed cell line) through reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and digital gene expression. We found that Ras(V12)-mediated oncogenic transformation was accompanied by RRAD promoter hypermethylation and a concomitant loss of RRAD expression. In addition, we found that the RRAD promoter was hypermethylated, and its transcription was reduced in ovarian cancer versus normal ovarian tissues. Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in demethylation in the RRAD promoter and restored RRAD expression in T29H cells. Additionally, treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitor FTI277 resulted in restored RRAD expression and inhibited DNA methytransferase expression and activity in T29H cells. By employing knockdown and overexpression techniques in T29 and T29H, respectively, we found that RRAD inhibited glucose uptake and lactate production by repressing the expression of glucose transporters. Finally, RRAD overexpression in T29H cells inhibited tumor formation in nude mice, suggesting that RRAD is a tumor suppressor gene. Our results indicate that Ras(V12)-mediated oncogenic transformation induces RRAD epigenetic inactivation, which in turn promotes glucose uptake and may contribute to ovarian cancer tumorigenesis.

Liu CX, Li XY, Li CF, et al.
Compound HRAS/PIK3CA mutations in Chinese patients with alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(4):1771-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
The rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common type of soft tissue tumor in children and adolescents; yet only a few screens for oncogenic mutations have been conducted for RMS. To identify novel mutations and potential therapeutic targets, we conducted a high-throughput Sequenom mass spectrometry-based analysis of 238 known mutations in 19 oncogenes in 17 primary formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded RMS tissue samples and two RMS cell lines. Mutations were detected in 31.6% (6 of 19) of the RMS specimens. Specifically, mutations in the NRAS gene were found in 27.3% (3 of 11) of embryonal RMS cases, while mutations in NRAS, HRAS, and PIK3CA genes were identified in 37.5% (3 of 8) of alveolar RMS (ARMS) cases; moreover, PIK3CA mutations were found in 25% (2 of 8) of ARMS specimens. The results demonstrate that tumor profiling in archival tissue samples is a useful tool for identifying diagnostic markers and potential therapeutic targets and suggests that these HRAS/ PIK3CA mutations play a critical role in the genesis of RMS.

Fu L, Zhang S
RASSF1A promotes apoptosis and suppresses the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells.
Int J Mol Med. 2014; 33(5):1153-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
As the most lethal gynecological malignancy, ovarian cancer has attracted much attention over the past few decades; however, the early detection of this malignancy has been largely unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Ras-association domain family 1, isoform A (RASSF1A) on ovarian cancer and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects. The expression of RASSF1A in different ovarian cancer cells was detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The morphology, structure, apoptosis and proliferation of differently treated SKOV-3 cells were then analyzed using a fluorescence microscope, transmission electron microscope, flow cytometer and by western blot analysis, respectively. Moreover, the GSE14407 affymetrix microarray data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and the expression of RASSF1A was quantified by Spotfire DecisionSite software. A RASSF1A related protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was then constructed using STRING and Cytoscape software. Finally, DAVID was utilized to perform KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of the network. RASSF1A was expressed in the HO8910, HO8910PM cells and the SKOV-3 cells transfected with RASSF1A, whereas it was absent in the other SKOV-3 cells and OVCAR-3 cells. Additionally, compared with the other SKOV-3 cells, the nucleus of SKOV-3 cells transfected with RASSF1A was vacuolated, apoptosis was increased, and the expression of cyclin D1 and survivin was decreased (P<0.05), and that of p27 and caspase-3 was increased (P<0.01). Additionally, 10 genes, including serine/threonine kinase (STK)3, STK4, Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS) and cell division cycle 20 (CDC20), were found to have close interactions with RASSF1A in the PPI network. Finally, a total of 8 enriched pathways, such as bladder cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and pathways in cancer were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the biological functions and the underlying mechanisms of action of RASSF1A in the development of ovarian cancer. Our findings may provide a novel therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

Grabocka E, Pylayeva-Gupta Y, Jones MJ, et al.
Wild-type H- and N-Ras promote mutant K-Ras-driven tumorigenesis by modulating the DNA damage response.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 25(2):243-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/05/2015 Related Publications
Mutations in KRAS are prevalent in human cancers and universally predictive of resistance to anticancer therapeutics. Although it is widely accepted that acquisition of an activating mutation endows RAS genes with functional autonomy, recent studies suggest that the wild-type forms of Ras may contribute to mutant Ras-driven tumorigenesis. Here, we show that downregulation of wild-type H-Ras or N-Ras in mutant K-Ras cancer cells leads to hyperactivation of the Erk/p90RSK and PI3K/Akt pathways and, consequently, the phosphorylation of Chk1 at an inhibitory site, Ser 280. The resulting inhibition of ATR/Chk1 signaling abrogates the activation of the G2 DNA damage checkpoint and confers specific sensitization of mutant K-Ras cancer cells to DNA damage chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo.

Cullis J, Meiri D, Sandi MJ, et al.
The RhoGEF GEF-H1 is required for oncogenic RAS signaling via KSR-1.
Cancer Cell. 2014; 25(2):181-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cellular transformation by oncogenic RAS engages the MAPK pathway under strict regulation by the scaffold protein KSR-1. Here, we report that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1 plays a critical role in a positive feedback loop for the RAS/MAPK pathway independent of its RhoGEF activity. GEF-H1 acts as an adaptor protein linking the PP2A B' subunits to KSR-1, thereby mediating the dephosphorylation of KSR-1 S392 and activation of MAPK signaling. GEF-H1 is important for the growth and survival of HRAS(V12)-transformed cells and pancreatic tumor xenografts. GEF-H1 expression is induced by oncogenic RAS and is correlated with pancreatic neoplastic progression. Our results, therefore, identify GEF-H1 as an amplifier of MAPK signaling and provide mechanistic insight into the progression of RAS mutant tumors.

Pinto-Leite R, Carreira I, Melo J, et al.
Genomic characterization of three urinary bladder cancer cell lines: understanding genomic types of urinary bladder cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4599-617 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several genomic regions are frequently altered and associated with the type, stage and progression of urinary bladder cancer (UBC). We present the characterization of 5637, T24 and HT1376 UBC cell lines by karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis. Some cytogenetic anomalies present in UBC were found in the three cell lines, such as chromosome 20 aneuploidy and the loss of 9p21. Some gene loci losses (e.g. CDKN2A) and gains (e.g. HRAS, BCL2L1 and PTPN1) were coincident across all cell lines. Although some significant heterogeneity and complexity were detected between them, their genomic profiles exhibited a similar pattern to UBC. We suggest that 5637 and HT1376 represent the E2F3/RB1 pathway due to amplification of 6p22.3, concomitant with loss of one copy of RB1 and mutation of the remaining copy. The HT1376 presented a 10q deletion involving PTEN region and no alteration of PIK3CA region which, in combination with the inactivation of TP53, bears more invasive and metastatic properties than 5637. The T24 belongs to the alternative pathway of FGFR3/CCND1 by presenting mutated HRAS and over-represented CCND1. These cell lines cover the more frequent subtypes of UBC and are reliable models that can be used, as a group, in preclinical studies.

Richetta AG, Silvestri V, Giancristoforo S, et al.
Mutational profiling in melanocytic tumors: multiple somatic mutations and clinical implications.
Oncology. 2014; 86(2):104-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we analyzed multiple somatic mutations in 10 genes relevant in melanoma tumorigenesis and targeted therapies. Overall, 45% of the tumors showed mutations and, in particular, 33% had multiple mutations. Based on our results, we conclude that the assessment of mutation status of multiple genes, including CDKN2A, could provide a genetic profile that can be useful as a prognostic and therapeutic marker in melanocytic tumors.

Ceccarelli V, Nocentini G, Billi M, et al.
Eicosapentaenoic acid activates RAS/ERK/C/EBPβ pathway through H-Ras intron 1 CpG island demethylation in U937 leukemia cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85025 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 16/05/2015 Related Publications
Epigenetic alterations, including aberrant DNA methylation, contribute to tumor development and progression. Silencing of tumor suppressor genes may be ascribed to promoter DNA hypermethylation, a reversible phenomenon intensely investigated as potential therapeutic target. Previously, we demonstrated that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) exhibits a DNA demethylating action that promotes the re-expression of the tumor suppressor gene CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ (C/EBPδ). The C/EBPβ/C/EBPδ heterodimer formed appears essential for the monocyte differentiation commitment. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of EPA on RAS/extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2)/C/EBPβ pathway, known to be induced during the monocyte differentiation program. We found that EPA conditioning of U937 leukemia cells activated RAS/ERK/C/EBPβ pathway, increasing the C/EBPβ and ERK1/2 active phosphorylated forms. Transcriptional induction of the upstream activator H-Ras gene resulted in increased expression of H-Ras protein in the active pool of non raft membrane fraction. H-Ras gene analysis identified an hypermethylated CpG island in intron 1 that can affect the DNA-protein interaction modifying RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) activity. EPA treatment demethylated almost completely this CpG island, which was associated with an enrichment of active RNAPII. The increased binding of the H-Ras transcriptional regulator p53 to its consensus sequence within the intronic CpG island further confirmed the effect of EPA as demethylating agent. Our results provide the first evidence that an endogenous polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) promotes a DNA demethylation process responsible for the activation of RAS/ERK/C/EBPβ pathway during the monocyte differentiation commitment. The new role of EPA as demethylating agent paves the way for studying PUFA action when aberrant DNA methylation is involved.

Shern JF, Chen L, Chmielecki J, et al.
Comprehensive genomic analysis of rhabdomyosarcoma reveals a landscape of alterations affecting a common genetic axis in fusion-positive and fusion-negative tumors.
Cancer Discov. 2014; 4(2):216-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Despite gains in survival, outcomes for patients with metastatic or recurrent rhabdomyosarcoma remain dismal. In a collaboration between the National Cancer Institute, Children's Oncology Group, and Broad Institute, we performed whole-genome, whole-exome, and transcriptome sequencing to characterize the landscape of somatic alterations in 147 tumor/normal pairs. Two genotypes are evident in rhabdomyosarcoma tumors: those characterized by the PAX3 or PAX7 fusion and those that lack these fusions but harbor mutations in key signaling pathways. The overall burden of somatic mutations in rhabdomyosarcoma is relatively low, especially in tumors that harbor a PAX3/7 gene fusion. In addition to previously reported mutations in NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, FGFR4, PIK3CA, and CTNNB1, we found novel recurrent mutations in FBXW7 and BCOR, providing potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, alteration of the receptor tyrosine kinase/RAS/PIK3CA axis affects 93% of cases, providing a framework for genomics-directed therapies that might improve outcomes for patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.
SIGNIFICANCE: This is the most comprehensive genomic analysis of rhabdomyosarcoma to date. Despite a relatively low mutation rate, multiple genes were recurrently altered, including NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, FGFR4, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, FBXW7, and BCOR. In addition, a majority of rhabdomyosarcoma tumors alter the receptor tyrosine kinase/RAS/PIK3CA axis, providing an opportunity for genomics-guided intervention.

Nutter F, Holen I, Brown HK, et al.
Different molecular profiles are associated with breast cancer cell homing compared with colonisation of bone: evidence using a novel bone-seeking cell line.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014; 21(2):327-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Advanced breast cancer is associated with the development of incurable bone metastasis. The two key processes involved, tumour cell homing to and subsequent colonisation of bone, remain to be clearly defined. Genetic studies have indicated that different genes facilitate homing and colonisation of secondary sites. To identify specific changes in gene and protein expression associated with bone-homing or colonisation, we have developed a novel bone-seeking clone of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that exclusively forms tumours in long bones following i.v. injection in nude mice. Bone-homing cells were indistinguishable from parental cells in terms of growth rate in vitro and when grown subcutaneously in vivo. Only bone-homing ability differed between the lines; once established in bone, tumours from both lines displayed similar rates of progression and caused the same extent of lytic bone disease. By comparing the molecular profile of a panel of metastasis-associated genes, we have identified differential expression profiles associated with bone-homing or colonisation. Bone-homing cells had decreased expression of the cell adhesion molecule fibronectin and the migration and calcium signal binding protein S100A4, in addition to increased expression of interleukin 1B. Bone colonisation was associated with increased fibronectin and upregulation of molecules influencing signal transduction pathways and breakdown of extracellular matrix, including hRAS and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Our data support the hypothesis that during early stages of breast cancer bone metastasis, a specific set of genes are altered to facilitate bone-homing, and that disruption of these may be required for effective therapeutic targeting of this process.

Dancik GM, Owens CR, Iczkowski KA, Theodorescu D
A cell of origin gene signature indicates human bladder cancer has distinct cellular progenitors.
Stem Cells. 2014; 32(4):974-82 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
There are two distinct forms of urothelial (bladder) cancer: muscle-invasive (MI) and nonmuscle invasive (NMI) disease. Since it is currently believed that bladder cancer arises by transformation of urothelial cells of the basal layer, bladder cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been isolated based on expression markers found in such cells. However, these CSCs have only been identified in MI tumors raising the intriguing hypothesis that NMI tumor progenitors do not arise from the basal compartment. To test this hypothesis, we carried out genome-wide expression profiling of laser capture microdissected basal and umbrella cells, the two most histologically distinct cell types in normal urothelium and developed a cell of origin (COO) gene signature that distinguishes these. The COO signature was a better predictor of stage and survival than other bladder, generic, or breast CSC signatures and bladder cell differentiation markers in multiple patient cohorts. To assess whether NMI and MI tumors arise from a distinct progenitor cell (DPC) or common progenitor cell, we developed a novel statistical framework that predicts COO score as a function of known genetic alterations (TP53, HRAS, KDM6A, and FGFR3) that drive either MI or NMI bladder cancer and compared this to the observed COO score of the tumor. Analysis of 874 patients in five cohorts established the DPC model as the best fit to the available data. This observation supports distinct progenitor cells in NMI and MI tumors and provides a paradigm shift in our understanding of bladder cancer biology that has significant diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

Chiosea SI, Grandis JR, Lui VW, et al.
PIK3CA, HRAS and PTEN in human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:602 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent genomic evidence suggests frequent phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activation in human papillomavirus (HPV) positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Mutations/amplification of the gene encoding p110α catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3CA), loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and HRAS mutations are known to activate PI3K pathway.
METHODS AND RESULTS: PIK3CA mutations were identified by Sanger sequencing in 23 of 75 (31%) HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinomas, including exon 9 (p.E545K [n = 10] and p.E542K [n = 5]) or exon 20 (p.H1047Y, n = 2) mutations. Five rare and one novel (p.R537Q) PIK3CA mutations were identified. HRAS mutation (p.Q61L) was detected in 1 of 62 tested cases. PIK3CA amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was identified in 4 cases (4/21, 20%), while PTEN loss was seen in 7 (7/21, 33%) cases (chromosome 10 monosomy [n = 4], homozygous deletion [n = 3]).
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, genetic alterations that likely lead to PI3K pathway activation were identified in 34 of 75 cases (45%) and did not correlate with disease specific survival. These findings offer a molecular rationale for therapeutic targeting of PI3K pathway in patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma.

Deng BY, Hua YQ, Cai ZD
Establishing an osteosarcoma associated protein-protein interaction network to explore the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma.
Eur J Med Res. 2013; 18:57 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish an osteosarcoma (OS) associated protein-protein interaction network and explore the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma.
METHODS: The gene expression profile GSE9508 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, including five samples of non-malignant bone (the control), seven samples for non-metastatic patients (six of which were analyzed in duplicate), and 11 samples for metastatic patients (10 of which were analyzed in duplicate). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between osteosarcoma and control samples were identified by packages in R with the threshold of |logFC (fold change)| > 1 and false discovery rate < 0.05. Osprey software was used to construct the interaction network of DEGs, and genes at protein-protein interaction (PPI) nodes with high degrees were identified. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery and WebGestalt software were then used to perform functional annotation and pathway enrichment analyses for PPI networks, in which P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
RESULTS: Compared to the control samples, the expressions of 42 and 341 genes were altered in non-metastatic OS and metastatic OS samples, respectively. A total of 15 significantly enriched functions were obtained with Gene Ontology analysis (P < 0.05). The DEGs were classified and significantly enriched in three pathways, including the tricarboxylic acid cycle, lysosome and axon guidance. Genes such as HRAS, IDH3A, ATP6ap1, ATP6V0D2, SEMA3F and SEMA3A were involved in the enriched pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: The hub genes from metastatic OS samples are not only bio-markers of OS, but also help to improve therapies for OS.

Mutational landscape of gingivo-buccal oral squamous cell carcinoma reveals new recurrently-mutated genes and molecular subgroups.
Nat Commun. 2013; 4:2873 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
Gingivo-buccal oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC-GB), an anatomical and clinical subtype of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), is prevalent in regions where tobacco-chewing is common. Exome sequencing (n=50) and recurrence testing (n=60) reveals that some significantly and frequently altered genes are specific to OSCC-GB (USP9X, MLL4, ARID2, UNC13C and TRPM3), while some others are shared with HNSCC (for example, TP53, FAT1, CASP8, HRAS and NOTCH1). We also find new genes with recurrent amplifications (for example, DROSHA, YAP1) or homozygous deletions (for example, DDX3X) in OSCC-GB. We find a high proportion of C>G transversions among tobacco users with high numbers of mutations. Many pathways that are enriched for genomic alterations are specific to OSCC-GB. Our work reveals molecular subtypes with distinctive mutational profiles such as patients predominantly harbouring mutations in CASP8 with or without mutations in FAT1. Mean duration of disease-free survival is significantly elevated in some molecular subgroups. These findings open new avenues for biological characterization and exploration of therapies.

Giannoulatou E, McVean G, Taylor IB, et al.
Contributions of intrinsic mutation rate and selfish selection to levels of de novo HRAS mutations in the paternal germline.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013; 110(50):20152-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
The RAS proto-oncogene Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS) encodes a small GTPase that transduces signals from cell surface receptors to intracellular effectors to control cellular behavior. Although somatic HRAS mutations have been described in many cancers, germline mutations cause Costello syndrome (CS), a congenital disorder associated with predisposition to malignancy. Based on the epidemiology of CS and the occurrence of HRAS mutations in spermatocytic seminoma, we proposed that activating HRAS mutations become enriched in sperm through a process akin to tumorigenesis, termed selfish spermatogonial selection. To test this hypothesis, we quantified the levels, in blood and sperm samples, of HRAS mutations at the p.G12 codon and compared the results to changes at the p.A11 codon, at which activating mutations do not occur. The data strongly support the role of selection in determining HRAS mutation levels in sperm, and hence the occurrence of CS, but we also found differences from the mutation pattern in tumorigenesis. First, the relative prevalence of mutations in sperm correlates weakly with their in vitro activating properties and occurrence in cancers. Second, specific tandem base substitutions (predominantly GC>TT/AA) occur in sperm but not in cancers; genomewide analysis showed that this same mutation is also overrepresented in constitutional pathogenic and polymorphic variants, suggesting a heightened vulnerability to these mutations in the germline. We developed a statistical model to show how both intrinsic mutation rate and selfish selection contribute to the mutational burden borne by the paternal germline.

Avitan-Hersh E, Tatur S, Indelman M, et al.
Postzygotic HRAS mutation causing both keratinocytic epidermal nevus and thymoma and associated with bone dysplasia and hypophosphatemia due to elevated FGF23.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 99(1):E132-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Epidermal nevus syndrome is a rare group of disorders characterized by the combination of congenital epidermal nevi and extracutaneous features, including skeletal, neurological, ocular, and other systemic findings. We report a case of keratinocytic epidermal nevus syndrome that includes a thymoma, bone dysplasia, and hypophosphatemia with elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels associated with postzygotic HRAS mutation.
CASE REPORT: A 14-year-old boy was admitted due to recent limping. The physical examination revealed multiple right-sided linear epidermal nevi along Blaschko's lines. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cystic lesions in cervical bones and thymoma, and x-ray examination showed cystic lesions in the hands. Biochemical studies demonstrated severe hypophosphatemia, normocalcemia, high normal PTH, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and low 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. The serum FGF23 C-terminal level was normal, but the intact FGF23 level was found to be elevated. Genetic evaluation revealed a heterozygote mutation in the HRAS gene in both the keratinocytic epidermal nevus and thymoma but not in DNA extracted from blood lymphocytes, thus establishing the mutation as postzygotic.
DISCUSSION: Postzygotic mutations in HRAS lead to elevation of FGF23 levels, as found in mutated PHEX, FGF23, DMP1, and ENPP1 genes, which lead to hypophosphatemia.
CONCLUSION: An identical postzygotic HRAS mutation was shown to be present in both keratinocytic epidermal nevus and thymoma and to be associated with bone lesions and hypophosphatemia due to elevated FGF23 levels. These may all be related to the HRAS mutation.

Zanaruddin SN, Yee PS, Hor SY, et al.
Common oncogenic mutations are infrequent in oral squamous cell carcinoma of Asian origin.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e80229 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2015 Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The frequency of common oncogenic mutations and TP53 was determined in Asian oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The OncoCarta(™) panel v1.0 assay was used to characterize oncogenic mutations. In addition, exons 4-11 of the TP53 gene were sequenced. Statistical analyses were conducted to identify associations between mutations and selected clinico-pathological characteristics and risk habits.
RESULTS: Oncogenic mutations were detected in PIK3CA (5.7%) and HRAS (2.4%). Mutations in TP53 were observed in 27.7% (31/112) of the OSCC specimens. Oncogenic mutations were found more frequently in non-smokers (p = 0.049) and TP53 truncating mutations were more common in patients with no risk habits (p = 0.019). Patients with mutations had worse overall survival compared to those with absence of mutations; and patients who harbored DNA binding domain (DBD) and L2/L3/LSH mutations showed a worse survival probability compared to those patients with wild type TP53. The majority of the oncogenic and TP53 mutations were G:C > A:T and A:T > G:C base transitions, regardless of the different risk habits.
CONCLUSION: Hotspot oncogenic mutations which are frequently present in common solid tumors are exceedingly rare in OSCC. Despite differences in risk habit exposure, the mutation frequency of PIK3CA and HRAS in Asian OSCC were similar to that reported in OSCC among Caucasians, whereas TP53 mutations rates were significantly lower. The lack of actionable hotspot mutations argue strongly for the need to comprehensively characterize gene mutations associated with OSCC for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

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