FCRL4

Gene Summary

Gene:FCRL4; Fc receptor-like 4
Aliases: FCRH4, IGFP2, IRTA1, CD307d
Location:1q21
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin receptor superfamily and is one of several Fc receptor-like glycoproteins clustered on the long arm of chromosome 1. The encoded protein has four extracellular C2-type immunoglobulin domains, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic domain that contains three immune-receptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. This protein may play a role in the function of memory B-cells in the epithelia. Aberrations in the chromosomal region encoding this gene are associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:Fc receptor-like protein 4
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • RTPCR
  • Spleen
  • Base Sequence
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Immunoglobulins
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Myeloma Proteins
  • B cell linker protein
  • Lymph Nodes
  • Iran
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Cell Surface Receptors
  • BANK1
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Cell Line
  • Flow Cytometry
  • MicroRNAs
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Chromosome 14
  • Tumor Markers
  • Receptors, Fc
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Introns
  • CD22
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
  • Signal Transduction
  • Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Calcium
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Translocation
  • B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • Immunophenotyping
  • FCRL2
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Chromosome 1
Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FCRL4 (cancer-related)

Psathas JN, Doonan PJ, Raman P, et al.
The Myc-miR-17-92 axis amplifies B-cell receptor signaling via inhibition of ITIM proteins: a novel lymphomagenic feed-forward loop.
Blood. 2013; 122(26):4220-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The c-Myc oncoprotein regulates >15% of the human transcriptome and a limited number of microRNAs (miRNAs). Here, we establish that in a human B-lymphoid cell line, Myc-repressed, but not Myc-stimulated, genes are significantly enriched for predicted binding sites of Myc-regulated miRNAs, primarily those comprising the Myc-activated miR-17~92 cluster. Notably, gene set enrichment analysis demonstrates that miR-17∼92 is a major regulator of B-cell receptor (BCR) pathway components. Many of them are immunoreceptor tyrosine inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing proteins, and ITIM proteins CD22 and FCGR2B were found to be direct targets of miR-17∼92. Consistent with the propensity of ITIM proteins to recruit phosphatases, either MYC or miR-17~92 expression was necessary to sustain phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and the B-cell linker protein (BLNK) upon ligation of the BCR. Further downstream, stimulation of the BCR response by miR-17-92 resulted in the enhanced calcium flux and elevated levels of Myc itself. Notably, inhibition of the miR-17~92 cluster in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines diminished the BCR response as measured by SYK and BLNK phosphorylation. Conversely, human DLBCLs of the BCR subtype express higher Myc and mir17hg transcript levels than other subtypes. Hence, the Myc-miR-17-92-BCR axis, frequently affected by genomic rearrangements, constitutes a novel lymphomagenic feed-forward loop.

Bob R, Falini B, Marafioti T, et al.
Nodal reactive and neoplastic proliferation of monocytoid and marginal zone B cells: an immunoarchitectural and molecular study highlighting the relevance of IRTA1 and T-bet as positive markers.
Histopathology. 2013; 63(4):482-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Marginal zone B cells (MZCs) and monocytoid B cells (MBCs) appear to be related lymphoid cells that take part in reactive and neoplastic marginal zone proliferations. These lesions are not yet well characterized, and the aim of this study was to find better diagnostic criteria for them.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed 60 nodal lesions with MBC and/or MZC proliferation for their morphological, immunophenotypic, molecular genetic and IG gene rearrangement features. On the basis of the results of the rearrangement assay and immunoglobulin light chain restriction, the lesions were divided into reactive and neoplastic groups. Among the neoplastic lesions, polymorphic and monomorphic subgroups emerged. All reactive lesions had morphological features of the polymorphic subgroup. By immunohistochemistry, IRTA1 and/or T-bet expression was found in all reactive lesions and in 90% of neoplastic lesions.
CONCLUSIONS: IRTA1 and T-bet are positive markers for the identification of MZC/MBC proliferations, and thus for the diagnosis of nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL). Polymorphic and monomorphic subgroups of NMZL could be distinguished. Most morphological and immunophenotypic patterns in reactive and neoplastic nodal expansions of MZCs and MBCs overlapped. Therefore, PCR clonality assay of the immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene loci is the most reliable method for their differentiation.

Kazemi T, Asgarian-Omran H, Memarian A, et al.
Low representation of Fc receptor-like 1-5 molecules in leukemic cells from Iranian patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2009; 58(6):989-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have demonstrated expression of Fc receptor-like (FCRL) molecules, a newly identified family with preferential B-cell lineage expression, in some chronic B-cell leukemias with possible implication for classification and/or targeted immunotherapy. In this study, the expression pattern of FCRL1-5 genes was studied in 73 Iranian ALL patients and 35 normal subjects using semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. FCRL protein expression was also investigated by flow cytometry. Our results indicate significant down-regulation of all FCRL genes in ALL compared to normal subjects. Although, FCRL mRNA expression was almost exclusively confined to normal isolated B-cells compared to T-cells, but these genes were similarly expressed in B-ALL, T-ALL and different B-ALL immunophenotypic subtypes. Surface protein expression of FCRL1, 2, 4, and 5 molecules in 10 ALL and 5 normal samples confirmed the PCR results. Expression profile of FCRL molecules in different subtypes of ALL argues against their potential implication as suitable targets for classification and/or immunotherapy of ALL.

Sáez B, Martín-Subero JI, Odero MD, et al.
Multicolor interphase cytogenetics for the study of plasma cell dyscrasias.
Oncol Rep. 2007; 18(5):1099-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
Specific chromosomal abnormalities such as chromosome 13 deletions and some translocations affecting the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene, namely t(4;14)(p16;q32) and t(14;16)(q32;q23) have been associated with an adverse prognosis in multiple myeloma. Conventional cytogenetic techniques fail to detect these aberrations in the majority of cases. Thus, we have developed a novel set of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) assays targeting those regions frequently lost on chromosome 13 as well as those oncogenes most recurrently involved in translocations with the IGH locus in multiple myeloma, i.e. IRTA1/2 (1q21), FGFR3/MMSET (4p16), CCND3 (6p21), IRF4 (6p25), CCND1 (11q13), MAF (16q23), and MAFB (20q12). The probes were combined in a multicolor fashion to develop novel multicolor I-FISH (MI-FISH) assays, whose validity and applicability was evaluated in negative controls and in a series of 13 plasma cell neoplasias. Additionally, a combination of the novel MI-FISH assays with staining for the plasma cell-specific antigen VS38c by means of multicolor FICTION (M-FICTION, fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics as a tool for the investigation of neoplasms) allowed us to selectively analyze the plasma cell compartment, and thereby to increase the assay sensitivity.

Shaknovich R, Basso K, Bhagat G, et al.
Identification of rare Epstein-Barr virus infected memory B cells and plasma cells in non-monomorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders and the signature of viral signaling.
Haematologica. 2006; 91(10):1313-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In early and polymorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), through its latency proteins, drives the proliferation of B lymphocytes, a process which in immunocompetent individuals leads to the establishment of latently infected memory B cells.
DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed 11 cases, which included early and polymorphic PTLD, and 12 controls for latency of EBV infection and their antigenic profile.
RESULTS: We identified a minority of terminally differentiated EBER+ IRTA1+ memory B cells and EBER+ CD138+ PRDM1+ plasma cells in these samples. These elements were identified both in PTLD and in tumor-free tonsils from post-transplant patients but not in EBV- control tonsils. The expression of EBV latency proteins is heterogeneous, and is associated with activation of the NF-kB pathway. EBV signaling (through EBNA2, LMP1 and LMP2A) and NF-kB activation correlated with upregulation of target proteins: cMYC, JunB, CCL22, TRAF1 and IRF4. EBV-infected lymphocytes in early and polymorphic PTLDs represent a mixture of latencies II, III and, in at least 1/3 of infected cells, of latency 0.
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: EBV infection correlates with NF-kB activation, with EBV-dependent cell signaling, and lastly, with the presence of EBV-infected plasma cells and memory cells.

Polson AG, Zheng B, Elkins K, et al.
Expression pattern of the human FcRH/IRTA receptors in normal tissue and in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Int Immunol. 2006; 18(9):1363-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
A new family of Ig domain receptors referred to as the immune receptor translocation-associated (IRTA) proteins, FcR homologs (FcRHs) or FcR-like that are expressed in lymphoid cells has been recently described. RNA expression analysis suggests that FcRH1-5/IRTA1-5 are expressed exclusively in subsets of the B-cell compartment. We generated mAbs to FcRH1-5/IRTA1-5 and examined their protein expression pattern in normal tissue and in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. Our data indicated that FcRH1-5/IRTA1-5 were expressed in B-cell sub-populations; however, in some cases, the protein was not expressed in the same B-cell populations as suggested by the RNA expression analysis. FcRH1/IRTA5 was expressed throughout the B-cell lineage starting at the pro-B-cell stage but was down-regulated in plasma cells. FcRH2/IRTA4 was expressed preferentially in memory B cells. FcRH3/IRTA3 was expressed at low levels in naive, germinal center (GC) and memory B cells but was also expressed in NK cells. FcRH4/IRTA1 was expressed in a sub-population of memory B cells associated with mucosal tissue. FcRH5/IRTA2 was expressed in mature B cells and memory B cells and down-regulated in GC cells and, unlike all other B-cell-specific markers, maintained its expression in plasma cells from tonsil, spleen and bone marrow. We examined the expression of FcRH1-5/IRTA1-5 on the surface of CLL cells and found a similar pattern of expression on CLL cells as in the normal mature B cells, except for FcRH3/IRTA3 which was up-regulated in CLL.

Zinzani PL, Dirnhofer S, Sabattini E, et al.
Identification of outcome predictors in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemical profiling of homogeneously treated de novo tumors with nodal presentation on tissue micro-arrays.
Haematologica. 2005; 90(3):341-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) could benefit from integration of well-established bioclinical prognostic factors with new tools - such as micro-arrays - exploring aberrant gene and/or protein expression.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Tissue micro-arrays (TMA) were constructed for the paraffin blocks of 68 patients with de novo DLBCL with nodal presentation, who underwent MACOP-B and were provided with complete clinical information. TMA were tested with specific antibodies against CD10, CD20, CD30, CD79a, CD138, Bcl-2, Bcl-6, IRF4, and IRTA1.
RESULTS: The following phenotypic subclassification was made: a) CD10 +/Bcl-6 + or Bcl-6+/IRF4 +, but Bcl-2-/CD30-/CD138-- suggesting B-cells gathering/leaving the germinal center (group 1; n=36); b) Bcl-2+/CD10-/Bcl-6- and CD30+ or CD138+ corresponding to putative non-germinal center B-cells with features of activation or plasmablastic/plasmacellular differentiation (group 2; n=17); c) CD30-/CD138- with extensive Bcl-2 positivity and variable CD10, Bcl-6 and IRF4 combinations (group 3; n=15). Mean IPI scores were 0.6, 1.9 and 1.1 for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p= 0.001). Complete remission (CR) rates were 89%, 53% and 73% (p= 0.015). The 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS) rates are 86%, 41% and 63% (p=0.001) and 42-month overall survival (OS) rates are 91%, 38% and 66% (p=0.0002).
INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The present TMA-based study suggests an immunophenotypic profiling system for patients with de novo DLBCL that seems to provide additional prognostic information and contributes to the existing debate on the identification of suitable immunohistochemical surrogates of gene expression profiling results.

Sonoki T, Willis TG, Oscier DG, et al.
Rapid amplification of immunoglobulin heavy chain switch (IGHS) translocation breakpoints using long-distance inverse PCR.
Leukemia. 2004; 18(12):2026-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular cloning of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) translocation breakpoints identifies genes of biological importance in the development of normal and malignant B cells. Long-distance inverse PCR (LDI-PCR) was first applied to amplification of IGH gene translocations targeted to the joining (IGHJ) regions. We report here successful amplification of the breakpoint of IGH translocations targeted to switch (IGHS) regions by LDI-PCR. To detect IGHS translocations, Southern blot assays using 5' and 3' switch probes were performed. Illegitimate Smu rearrangements were amplified from the 5' end (5'Smu LDI-PCR) from the alternative derivative chromosome, and those of Sgamma or Salpha were amplified from the 3' end (3'Sgamma or 3'alpha LDI-PCR) from the derivative chromosome 14. Using a combination of these methods, we have succeeded in amplifying IGHS translocation breakpoints involving FGFR3/MMSET on 4p16, BCL6 on 3q27, MYC on 8q24, IRTA1 on 1q21 and PAX5 on 9p13 as well as BCL11A on 2p13 and CCND3 on 6p21. The combination of LDI-PCR for IGHJ and IGHS allows rapid molecular cloning of almost all IGH gene translocation breakpoints.

Falini B, Tiacci E, Pucciarini A, et al.
Expression of the IRTA1 receptor identifies intraepithelial and subepithelial marginal zone B cells of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT).
Blood. 2003; 102(10):3684-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
IRTA1 (immunoglobulin superfamily receptor translocation-associated 1) is a novel surface B-cell receptor related to Fc receptors, inhibitory receptor superfamily (IRS), and cell adhesion molecule (CAM) family members and we mapped for the first time its distribution in human lymphoid tissues, using newly generated specific antibodies. IRTA1 was selectively and consistently expressed by a B-cell population located underneath and within the tonsil epithelium and dome epithelium of Peyer patches (regarded as the anatomic equivalents of marginal zone). Similarly, in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas IRTA1 was mainly expressed by tumor cells involved in lympho-epithelial lesions. In contrast, no or a low number of IRTA1+ cells was usually observed in the marginal zone of mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. Interestingly, monocytoid B cells in reactive lymph nodes were strongly IRTA1+. Tonsil IRTA1+ cells expressed the memory B-cell marker CD27 but not mantle cell-, germinal center-, and plasma cell-associated molecules. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of single tonsil IRTA1+ cells showed they represent a mixed B-cell population carrying mostly mutated, but also unmutated, IgV genes. The immunohistochemical finding in the tonsil epithelial areas of aggregates of IRTA1+ B cells closely adjacent to plasma cells surrounding small vessels suggests antigen-triggered in situ proliferation/differentiation of memory IRTA1+ cells into plasma cells. Collectively, these results suggest a role of IRTA1 in the immune function of B cells within epithelia.

Lestou VS, Ludkovski O, Connors JM, et al.
Characterization of the recurrent translocation t(1;1)(p36.3;q21.1-2) in non-Hodgkin lymphoma by multicolor banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2003; 36(4):375-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrations of chromosomal bands 1p36 and 1q11-q23 are among the most common chromosomal alterations in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In this study, 16 cases of NHL showing recurrent unbalanced translocation t(1;1)(p36;q11-23) by G-band analysis were selected for further analysis. To delineate the exact breakpoints, multicolor band analysis for chromosome 1 (M-BAND1), and locus-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (LS-FISH) using human genome designated BAC clones were performed. In all but one dicentric case, the breakpoint was determined to involve chromosomal bands 1p36.3 and 1q21.1-2. LS-FISH analysis for the TP73, MEL1, SKI, and CASP9 loci at 1p36, and the loci IRTA1, IRTA2, BCL9, AF1Q, JTB, and MUC1 at 1q21, verified the MBAND1 results and further delineated the breakpoints. In band 1p36, two hybridization patterns were observed, one involving deletions of MEL1, TP73, and SKI, but not CASP9, and the second involving a breakpoint telomeric to TP73. In region 1q21, four hybridization patterns were observed, the first involving duplication/translocation of all five genes; the second involving duplication/translocation of BCL9, AF1Q, JTB, and MUC1; the third involving duplication/translocation of AF1Q, JTB, and MUC1; and the fourth with a breakpoint telomeric to MUC1. Using an alpha-satellite probe for chromosome 1 (D1Z5), centromeric involvement in the unbalanced translocation t(1;1)(p36.3;q21.1-2) was excluded in all but the one dicentric case, that is, dic(1;1)(p36.3;q10). In conclusion, deletion of 1p36 and duplication of 1q21 through formation of an unbalanced translocation t(1;1)(p36.3;q21.1-2) is a non-random event in NHL, suggesting a deletion-duplication mechanism involved in lymphoma progression and justifying further systematic research.

Itoyama T, Nanjungud G, Chen W, et al.
Molecular cytogenetic analysis of genomic instability at the 1q12-22 chromosomal site in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002; 35(4):318-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abnormalities of chromosome arm 1q have frequently been reported in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and correlated with poor outcome. Five genes mapped to this region (BCL9, MUC1, FCGR2B, IRTA1, and RTA2) have been shown to be deregulated by juxtaposition with the IG genes. However, abnormalities of the 1q21-22 region that are not involved in translocations with the IG genes have not been addressed. We performed a molecular cytogenetic analysis of 1q12-22 abnormalities in 24 B-cell NHL cases. The cases analyzed were in two groups: one, composed of 18 cases with the single break in the 1q12-22 region, and another, composed of six cases with multiple breaks in the 1q12-22 region. The involvement of heterochromatin and its vicinity was observed most frequently in the single-break cases (13 of 18 cases). In this group, the recurring partner region was 1q32, which resulted in dup(1)(q12-21q32) or trp(1)(q12q32) in 5 cases. The 6 cases with multiple breaks showed an unexpected level of instability along with complex combinations of abnormalities, especially sequential duplication and inversion, in the 1q12-22 region. The BCL9 locus was deleted by complex aberration in 2 of 6 cases. High-level amplification of the WI-16757 locus was found in 2 cases. Our studies demonstrate a high level of instability of the 1q12-22 region, possibly stemming from its chromatin organization. Chromosome arm 1q is gene-rich, and characterization of aberrations described in this study can be expected to lead to the discovery of additional functionally significant genetic changes.

Hatzivassiliou G, Miller I, Takizawa J, et al.
IRTA1 and IRTA2, novel immunoglobulin superfamily receptors expressed in B cells and involved in chromosome 1q21 abnormalities in B cell malignancy.
Immunity. 2001; 14(3):277-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abnormalities of chromosome 1q21 are common in B cell malignancies, but their target genes are largely unknown. By cloning the breakpoints of a (1;14) (q21;q32) chromosomal translocation in a myeloma cell line, we have identified two novel genes, IRTA1 and IRTA2, encoding cell surface receptors homologous to the Fc and inhibitory receptor families. Both genes are selectively expressed in mature B cells: IRTA1 in marginal zone B cells and IRTA2 in centrocytes, marginal zone B cells, and immunoblasts. As a result of the t(1;14), IRTA1 is fused to the immunoglobulin Calpha domain to produce a chimeric IRTA1/Calpha fusion protein. In tumor cell lines with 1q21 abnormalities, IRTA2 expression is deregulated. Thus, IRTA1 and IRTA2 are novel immunoreceptors implicated in B cell development and lymphomagenesis.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. IRTA1 gene, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/IRTA1.htm Accessed:

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