Gene Summary

Gene:MGEA5; meningioma expressed antigen 5 (hyaluronidase)
Aliases: OGA, MEA5, NCOAT
Summary:The dynamic modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) addition and removal on serine and threonine residues is catalyzed by OGT (MIM 300255), which adds O-GlcNAc, and MGEA5, a glycosidase that removes O-GlcNAc modifications (Gao et al., 2001 [PubMed 11148210]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein O-GlcNAcase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (22)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcriptional Activation
  • beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases
  • Proteoglycans
  • Lipoma
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Messenger RNA
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • FISH
  • Chromosome 10
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Young Adult
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Glycosylation
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Hemosiderosis
  • MGEA5
  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Hyaluronoglucosaminidase
  • Transcription Factors
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Hyaluronic Acid
  • Karyotyping
  • N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases
  • Hyalin
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta Receptors
  • Acetylglucosamine
  • Tumor Antigens
  • Soft Tissue Cancers
  • Up-Regulation
  • Urine
  • Translocation
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Fibrosarcoma
  • DNA Methylation
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chromosome 1
Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MGEA5 (cancer-related)

Morency E, Laskin W, Lin X
Cytologic and Histologic Features of Pleomorphic Undifferentiated Sarcoma Arising in a Hybrid Hemosiderotic Fibrolipomatous Tumor and Pleomorphic Hyalinizing Angiectatic Tumor: Report of an Unusual Case with a Literature Review.
Acta Cytol. 2015; 59(6):493-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) and hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT) are low-grade neoplasms that share clinicopathologic features and recurring translocation t(1;10)(p22;q24) involving the TGFBR3 and MGEA5 genes. Coexistence of these tumors with a high-grade sarcoma is exceedingly rare and the cytologic features have not been widely described in the literature.
CASE: A 55-year-old female presented with a soft tissue tumor on the dorsum of the foot. Cytologic smears and corresponding core biopsies were composed of a population of markedly pleomorphic spindle cells seen singly and in loose clusters within a myxofibrous matrix and infiltrating fat, with coarse chromatin, prominent nucleoli, irregular nuclear contours and delicate to vacuolated cytoplasm. Intracytoplasmic hemosiderin granules and rare intranuclear cytoplasmic pseudoinclusions were identified. The histologic features of the excisional biopsy mirrored those of the cytologic preparations, but also demonstrated cellular foci of higher-grade sarcoma composed of markedly pleomorphic tumor cells with large vesicular nuclei and prominent nucleoli, exhibiting a mitotic index of 12 mitotic figures per 10 high-powered fields.
CONCLUSION: While HFLT/PHAT generally can be managed by wide local excision, it is important to be aware of their capacity to harbor higher-grade lesions with metastatic potential which may require more radical surgical excision.

Michal M, Kazakov DV, Hadravský L, et al.
Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor revisited: all tumors manifest typical morphologic features of myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma, further suggesting 2 morphologic variants of a single entity.
Ann Diagn Pathol. 2016; 20:40-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe 9 cases of pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT). Recently described TGFBR3 and MGEA5 gene rearrangements in these tumors have confirmed the long-hypothesized link between PHAT and another soft tissue entity, the myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS). Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma and PHAT share the same translocation and in addition have a very similar clinical presentation. However, to our best knowledge, no study has ever addressed the striking morphologic similarities between MIFS and PHAT. Our findings based on histological criteria suggest that most, if not all, tumors diagnosed as PHAT might, in fact, represent examples of MIFS that, in addition to a conventional MIFS morphology, manifest aberrant angiectatic hyalinized vessels.

Zhang N, Chen X
Potential role of O-GlcNAcylation and involvement of PI3K/Akt1 pathway in the expression of oncogenic phenotypes of gastric cancer cells in vitro.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2016; 63(6):841-851 [PubMed] Related Publications
O-GlcNAcylation is a monosaccharide modification by a residue of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) attached to serine or threonine moieties on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. O-GlcNAcylation is dynamically regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Increasing evidence suggests that O-GlcNAcylation is involved in a variety of human cancers. However, the exact role of O-GlcNAcylation in tumor progression remains unclear. Here, we show that O-GlcNAcylation accelerates oncogenic phenotypes of gastric cancer. First, cell models with increased or decreased O-GlcNAcylation were constructed by OGT overexpression, downregulation of OGA activity with specific inhibitor Thiamet-G, or silence of OGT. MTT assays indicated that O-GlcNAcylation increased proliferation of gastric cancer cells. Soft agar assay and Transwell assays showed that O-GlcNAcylation significantly enhanced cellular colony formation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Akt1 activity was stimulated by upregulation of phosphorylation at Ser473 mediated by elevated O-GlcNAcylation. The enhanced cell invasion by Thiamet-G treatment was suppressed by PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Although the cell invasion induced by Thiamet-G was reduced by Akt1 shRNA, it was still higher in comparison with that to the control (cells with Akt1 shRNA alone). And Akt1 overexpression promoted Thiamet-G-induced cell invasion. These results suggested that O-GlcNAcylation enhanced oncogenic phenotypes possibly partially involving PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

Chaiyawat P, Chokchaichamnankit D, Lirdprapamongkol K, et al.
Alteration of O-GlcNAcylation affects serine phosphorylation and regulates gene expression and activity of pyruvate kinase M2 in colorectal cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(4):1933-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational modification that has extensive crosstalk with phosphorylation either at the same or adjacent sites of various proteins. We have previously reported that O-GlcNAcylation level was increased in primary breast and colorectal cancer, but the interplay of the two modifications remains unclear. Therefore, we explored crosstalk of the modifications by RNA interference against O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) in colorectal cancer cells. Two-dimensional immunoblotting and mass spectrometric analysis showed that the levels of O-GlcNAc and serine phosphorylation of many proteins including serine hydroxymethyltransferase, cytokeratin-8, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L, and lamin-B1, were reduced in siOGT cells compared to siScramble cells. In HT29 cells, immunoprecipitated PKM2 revealed decreased O-GlcNAc and serine phosphorylation levels after siOGT knockdown, but increased levels after treatment with Thiamet-G, an inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase (OGA). In addition, when global O-GlcNAcylation was enhanced by treating cells with Thiamet-G, PKM2 expression level was upregulated, but PKM2-specific activity was decreased. On the other hand, in OGT knockdown cells, PKM2 expression level was downregulated, but PKM2-specific activity was increased. Moreover, the metastatic colorectal cancer cells, SW620, had more O-GlcNAc-PKM2 and showed lower PKM2-specific activity compared to the non-metastatic colorectal cancer SW480 cells. These results suggested roles of O-GlcNAcylation in modulating serine phosphorylation, as well as in regulating PKM2 activity and expression. Interfering levels of O-GlcNAcylation of PKM2 may be a novel target in controlling cancer metabolism and tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer.

Yang YR, Kim DH, Seo YK, et al.
Elevated O-GlcNAcylation promotes colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis by modulating NF-κB signaling.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(14):12529-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible post-translational modification. O-GlcNAc addition and removal is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), respectively. More recent evidence indicates that regulation of O-GlcNAcylation is important for inflammatory diseases and tumorigenesis. In this study, we revealed that O-GlcNAcylation was increased in the colonic tissues of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis and azoxymethane (AOM)/DSS-induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC) animal models. Moreover, the O-GlcNAcylation level was elevated in human CAC tissues compared with matched normal counterparts. To investigate the functional role of O-GlcNAcylation in colitis, we used OGA heterozygote mice, which have an increased level of O-GlcNAcylation. OGA(+/-) mice have higher susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis than OGA(+/+) mice. OGA(+/-) mice exhibited a higher incidence of colon tumors than OGA(+/+) mice. In molecular studies, elevated O-GlcNAc levels were shown to enhance the activation of NF-κB signaling through increasing the binding of RelA/p65 to its target promoters. We also found that Thr-322 and Thr352 in the p65-O-GlcNAcylation sites are critical for p65 promoter binding. These results suggest that the elevated O-GlcNAcylation level in colonic tissues contributes to the development of colitis and CAC by disrupting regulation of NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity.

Starska K, Forma E, Brzezińska-Błaszczyk E, et al.
Gene and protein expression of O-GlcNAc-cycling enzymes in human laryngeal cancer.
Clin Exp Med. 2015; 15(4):455-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant protein O-GlcNAcylation may contribute to the development and malignant behavior of many cancers. This modification is controlled by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). The aim of this study was to determine the expression of O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes mRNA/protein and to investigate their relationship with clinicopathological parameters in laryngeal cancer. The mRNA levels of OGT and MGEA5 genes were determined in 106 squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCLC) cases and 73 non-cancerous adjacent laryngeal mucosa (NCLM) controls using quantitative real-time PCR. The level of OGT and OGA proteins was analyzed by Western blot. A positive expression of OGT and MGEA5 transcripts and OGT and OGA proteins was confirmed in 75.5 and 68.9 % and in 43.7 and 59.4 % samples of SCLC, respectively. Higher levels of mRNA/protein for both OGT and OGA as well as significant increases of 60 % in total protein O-GlcNAcylation levels were noted in SCLC compared with NCLM (p < 0.05). As a result, an increased level of OGT and MGEA5 mRNA was related to larger tumor size, nodal metastases, higher grade and tumor behavior according to TFG scale, as well as incidence of disease recurrence (p < 0.05). An inverse association between OGT and MGEA5 transcripts was determined with regard to prognosis (p < 0.05). In addition, the highest OGT and OGA protein levels were observed in poorly differentiated tumors (p < 0.05). No correlations with other parameters were noted, but the results showed a trend of more advanced tumors to be more frequently OGT and OGA positive. The results suggest that increased O-GlcNAcylation may have an effect on tumor aggressiveness and prognosis in laryngeal cancer.

Ieremia E, Thway K
Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma: morphologic and genetic updates.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014; 138(10):1406-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm most frequently arising in the distal extremities of adults, which usually behaves in a low-grade manner but is capable of metastasizing to local and distant sites, rarely leading to death. It is a rare tumor whose unusual morphology can lead to erroneous histologic diagnosis, either as a nonneoplastic (infectious or inflammatory) process or as a variety of neoplastic diseases. While its exact origin is uncertain, ultrastructural studies have shown at least some of the constituent cells to be modified fibroblasts. Distinct and reproducible genetic abnormalities identified in MIFS are translocation t(1;10)(p22:q24), with rearrangements of the TGFBR3 and MGEA5 genes associated with increased levels of FGF8, and formation of marker/ring chromosome 3, with amplification of the VGLL3 locus. Because these genetic abnormalities are shared by both MIFS and hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous tumor, it is thought that these 2 morphologically distinct neoplasms may comprise a spectrum of disease defined by these genetics. We review the literature on MIFS and discuss morphology (including that of MIFS/hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous tumor hybrid lesions), immunohistochemistry, the differential diagnosis, and recent molecular genetic developments.

Forma E, Jóźwiak P, Bryś M, Krześlak A
The potential role of O-GlcNAc modification in cancer epigenetics.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2014; 19(3):438-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is no doubt that cancer is not only a genetic disease but that it can also occur due to epigenetic abnormalities. Diet and environmental factors can alter the scope of epigenetic regulation. The results of recent studies suggest that O-GlcNAcylation, which involves the addition of N-acetylglucosamine on the serine or threonine residues of proteins, may play a key role in the regulation of the epigenome in response to the metabolic status of the cell. Two enzymes are responsible for cyclic O-GlcNAcylation: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which catalyzes the addition of the GlcNAc moiety to target proteins; and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), which removes the sugar moiety from proteins. Aberrant expression of O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes, especially OGT, has been found in all studied human cancers. OGT can link the cellular metabolic state and the epigenetic status of cancer cells by interacting with and modifying many epigenetic factors, such as HCF-1, TET, mSin3A, HDAC, and BAP1. A growing body of evidence from animal model systems also suggests an important role for OGT in polycomb-dependent repression of genes activity. Moreover, O-GlcNAcylation may be a part of the histone code: O-GlcNAc residues are found on all core histones.

Carter JM, Sukov WR, Montgomery E, et al.
TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements in pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors and the spectrum of related neoplasms.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(9):1182-992 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT) is a rare, locally aggressive tumor of the distal extremities with a proclivity for local recurrence. PHATs contain characteristic ectatic, thin-walled vessels, lined by fibrin, and are surrounded by groups of variably pleomorphic spindled to epithelioid neoplastic cells. The putative precursor lesion of PHAT, originally termed "early PHAT" shares many clinicopathologic features with hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT). HFLT, myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS), and tumors showing hybrid features of HFLT and MIFS often show TGFBR3 and MGEA5 gene rearrangements. To date, only a small number of PHATs has been tested for either rearrangement; all have been negative. We hypothesized that PHATs contain TGFBR3 and/or MGEA5 rearrangements. Cases of PHAT (all containing areas of HFLT) (N=10), HFLT (N=7), MIFS (N=6), hybrid HFLT/MIFS (N=3), and PHAT-like undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (N=7) were retrieved from our institutional and consultation archives and analyzed for TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements using a break-apart probe strategy for FISH. Six of 10 PHATs harbored TGFBR3 and/or MGEA5 gene rearrangements: 4 cases had both TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements, and 2 cases contained MGEA5 rearrangements. Two of 7 HFLTs were positive: 1 case had a TGFBR3 rearrangement, and 1 case had an MGEA5 rearrangement. One of 6 MIFSs had an MGEA5 rearrangement. All 3 hybrid HFLT/MIFS cases were positive: 2 cases had both TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements, and 1 case had a TGFBR3 rearrangement. All PHAT-like undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas were negative. We report, for the first time, the presence of TGFBR3 and/or MGEA5 rearrangements in tumors showing mixed features of HFLT and PHAT. The presence of such rearrangements strongly suggests that HFLT is related to both PHAT and MIFS and that the latter 2 tumors may represent morphologic variants of a single, genetically defined entity in which only MIFS has acquired the capacity to metastasize.

Vaidyanathan K, Durning S, Wells L
Functional O-GlcNAc modifications: implications in molecular regulation and pathophysiology.
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2014 Mar-Apr; 49(2):140-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a regulatory post-translational modification of intracellular proteins. The dynamic and inducible cycling of the modification is governed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) in response to UDP-GlcNAc levels in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). Due to its reliance on glucose flux and substrate availability, a major focus in the field has been on how O-GlcNAc contributes to metabolic disease. For years this post-translational modification has been known to modify thousands of proteins implicated in various disorders, but direct functional connections have until recently remained elusive. New research is beginning to reveal the specific mechanisms through which O-GlcNAc influences cell dynamics and disease pathology including clear examples of O-GlcNAc modification at a specific site on a given protein altering its biological functions. The following review intends to focus primarily on studies in the last half decade linking O-GlcNAc modification of proteins with chromatin-directed gene regulation, developmental processes, and several metabolically related disorders including Alzheimer's, heart disease and cancer. These studies illustrate the emerging importance of this post-translational modification in biological processes and multiple pathophysiologies.

Phueaouan T, Chaiyawat P, Netsirisawan P, et al.
Aberrant O-GlcNAc-modified proteins expressed in primary colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2929-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
O-GlcNAcylation is a post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues which is dynamically regulated by 2 enzymes; O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) that catalyze the addition and removal of a single N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) molecule, respectively. This modification is thought to be a nutrient sensor in highly proliferating cells via the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, a minor branch of glycolysis. Although emerging evidence suggests that O-GlcNAc modification is associated with many types of cancer, identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins and their role in cancer remain unexplored. In the present study, we demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation is increased in primary colorectal cancer tissues, and that this augmentation is associated with an increased expression of OGT levels. Using 2-dimensional O-GlcNAc immunoblotting and LC-MS/MS analysis, 16 proteins were successfully identified and 8 proteins showed an increase in O-GlcNAcylation, including cytokeratin 18, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1), hnRNP H, annexin A2, annexin A7, laminin-binding protein, α-tubulin and protein DJ-1. Among these identified proteins, annexin A2 was further confirmed to show overexpression of O-GlcNAc in all cancer samples. The results, therefore, indicate that aberrant O-GlcNAcylation of proteins is associated with colorectal cancer and that identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins may provide novel biomarkers of cancer.

Kanwal S, Fardini Y, Pagesy P, et al.
O-GlcNAcylation-inducing treatments inhibit estrogen receptor α expression and confer resistance to 4-OH-tamoxifen in human breast cancer-derived MCF-7 cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69150 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
O-GlcNAcylation (addition of N-acetyl-glucosamine on serine or threonine residues) is a post-translational modification that regulates stability, activity or localization of cytosolic and nuclear proteins. O-linked N-acetylgluocosmaine transferase (OGT) uses UDP-GlcNAc, produced in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway to O-GlcNacylate proteins. Removal of O-GlcNAc from proteins is catalyzed by the β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase (OGA). Recent evidences suggest that O-GlcNAcylation may affect the growth of cancer cells. However, the consequences of O-GlcNAcylation on anti-cancer therapy have not been evaluated. In this work, we studied the effects of O-GlcNAcylation on tamoxifen-induced cell death in the breast cancer-derived MCF-7 cells. Treatments that increase O-GlcNAcylation (PUGNAc and/or glucosoamine) protected MCF-7 cells from death induced by tamoxifen. In contrast, inhibition of OGT expression by siRNA potentiated the effect of tamoxifen on cell death. Since the PI-3 kinase/Akt pathway is a major regulator of cell survival, we used BRET to evaluate the effect of PUGNAc+glucosamine on PIP3 production. We observed that these treatments stimulated PIP3 production in MCF-7 cells. This effect was associated with an increase in Akt phosphorylation. However, the PI-3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, which abolished the effect of PUGNAc+glucosamine on Akt phosphorylation, did not impair the protective effects of PUGNAc+glucosamine against tamoxifen-induced cell death. These results suggest that the protective effects of O-GlcNAcylation are independent of the PI-3 kinase/Akt pathway. As tamoxifen sensitivity depends on the estrogen receptor (ERα) expression level, we evaluated the effect of PUGNAc+glucosamine on the expression of this receptor. We observed that O-GlcNAcylation-inducing treatment significantly reduced the expression of ERα mRNA and protein, suggesting a potential mechanism for the decreased tamoxifen sensitivity induced by these treatments. Therefore, our results suggest that inhibition of O-GlcNAcylation may constitute an interesting approach to improve the sensitivity of breast cancer to anti-estrogen therapy.

Okada T, Nakamura M, Nishikawa J, et al.
Identification of genes specifically methylated in Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinomas.
Cancer Sci. 2013; 104(10):1309-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
We studied the comprehensive DNA methylation status in the naturally derived gastric adenocarcinoma cell line SNU-719, which was infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by methylated CpG island recovery on chip assay. To identify genes specifically methylated in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas (EBVaGC), we focused on seven genes, TP73, BLU, FSD1, BCL7A, MARK1, SCRN1, and NKX3.1, based on the results of methylated CpG island recovery on chip assay. We confirmed DNA methylation of the genes by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing in SNU-719. The expression of the genes, except for BCL7A, was upregulated by a combination of 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A treatment in SNU-719. After the treatment, unmethylated DNA became detectable in all seven genes by methylation-specific PCR. We verified DNA methylation of the genes in 75 primary gastric cancer tissues from 25 patients with EBVaGC and 50 EBV-negative patients who were controls. The methylation frequencies of TP73, BLU, FSD1, BCL7A, MARK1, SCRN1, and NKX3.1 were significantly higher in EBVaGC than in EBV-negative gastric carcinoma. We identified seven genes with promoter regions that were specifically methylated in EBVaGC. Inactivation of these genes may suppress their function as tumor suppressor genes or tumor-associated antigens and help to develop and maintain EBVaGC.

Ma Z, Vocadlo DJ, Vosseller K
Hyper-O-GlcNAcylation is anti-apoptotic and maintains constitutive NF-κB activity in pancreatic cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(21):15121-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cell metabolic reprogramming includes a shift in energy production from oxidative phosphorylation to less efficient glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen (Warburg effect) and use of glutamine for increased biosynthetic needs. This necessitates greatly increased glucose and glutamine uptake, both of which enter the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). The HBP end product UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) is used in enzymatic post-translational modification of many cytosolic and nuclear proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). Here, we observed increased HBP flux and hyper-O-GlcNAcylation in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PDAC hyper-O-GlcNAcylation was associated with elevation of OGT and reduction of the enzyme that removes O-GlcNAc (OGA). Reducing hyper-O-GlcNAcylation had no effect on non-transformed pancreatic epithelial cell growth, but inhibited PDAC cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, orthotopic tumor growth, and triggered apoptosis. PDAC is supported by oncogenic NF-κB transcriptional activity. The NF-κB p65 subunit and upstream kinases IKKα/IKKβ were O-GlcNAcylated in PDAC. Reducing hyper-O-GlcNAcylation decreased PDAC cell p65 activating phosphorylation (S536), nuclear translocation, NF-κB transcriptional activity, and target gene expression. Conversely, mimicking PDAC hyper-O-GlcNAcylation through pharmacological inhibition of OGA suppressed suspension culture-induced apoptosis and increased IKKα and p65 O-GlcNAcylation, accompanied by activation of NF-κB signaling. Finally, reducing p65 O-GlcNAcylation specifically by mutating two p65 O-GlcNAc sites (T322A and T352A) attenuated the induction of PDAC cell anchorage-independent growth. Our data indicate that hyper-O-GlcNAcylation is anti-apoptotic and contributes to NF-κB oncogenic activation in PDAC.

Jin FZ, Yu C, Zhao DZ, et al.
A correlation between altered O-GlcNAcylation, migration and with changes in E-cadherin levels in ovarian cancer cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2013; 319(10):1482-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic and reversible posttranslational modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. In recent years, the roles of O-GlcNAcylation in several human malignant tumors have been investigated, and O-GlcNAcylation was found to be linked to cellular features relevant to metastasis. In this study, we modeled four diverse ovarian cancer cells and investigated the effects of O-GlcNAcylation on ovarian cancer cell migration. We found that total O-GlcNAcylation level was elevated in HO-8910PM cells compared to OVCAR3 cells. Additionally, through altering the total O-GlcNAcylation level by OGT silencing or OGA inhibition, we found that the migration of OVCAR3 cells was dramatically enhanced by PUGNAc and Thiamet G treatment, and the migration ability of HO-8910PM cells was significantly inhibited by OGT silencing. Furthermore, we also found that the expression of E-cadherin, an O-GlcNAcylated protein in ovarian cancer cells, was reduced by OGA inhibition in OVCAR3 cells and elevated by OGT silencing in HO-8910PM cells. These results indicate that O-GlcNAcylation could enhance ovarian cancer cell migration and decrease the expression of E-cadherin. Our studies also suggest that O-GlcNAcylation might become another potential target for the therapy of ovarian cancer.

Saito M, Nishikawa J, Okada T, et al.
Role of DNA methylation in the development of Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma.
J Med Virol. 2013; 85(1):121-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The frequencies of DNA methylation of certain tumor-related genes are higher in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric carcinomas than in EBV-negative gastric carcinomas. EBV-associated gastric carcinomas have distinct clinicopathological features; however, there are no case-control studies comparing methylation frequency between EBV-associated gastric carcinomas and controls that have been adjusted according to the clinicopathological features of EBV-associated gastric carcinomas. This study evaluated 25 EBV-associated gastric carcinomas that were positive for EBV-encoded small RNA 1 (EBER-1) by in situ hybridization and 50 EBV-negative gastric carcinomas that were matched with the EBV-associated gastric carcinomas by age, sex, histology, depth of tumor invasion, and stage. Methylation status of 16 loci associated with tumor-related genes was analyzed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify genes in which DNA methylation specifically occurred in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas. Methylation frequencies of 12 of the 16 genes were higher in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas than in EBV-negative controls, and the frequency of methylation of 6 specific loci (MINT2, MINT31, p14, p16, p73, and RUNX3) was significantly higher in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas than in EBV-negative controls. There were no significant differences in the methylation frequencies of the other genes. The mean methylation index in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas was significantly higher than that in EBV-negative controls. DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes that regulate the cell cycle and apoptosis specifically occurred in EBV-associated gastric carcinomas. Aberrant DNA methylation might lead to the development and progression of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma.

Rozanski W, Krzeslak A, Forma E, et al.
Prediction of bladder cancer based on urinary content of MGEA5 and OGT mRNA level.
Clin Lab. 2012; 58(5-6):579-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The mRNA expression of genes coding enzymes involved in O-GlcNAcylation were analyzed in urine obtained from 176 bladder cancer (BC) patients and 143 healthy persons.
METHODS: MGEA5 and OGT expression was measured by a real-time PCR assay.
RESULTS: OGT expression was not detected in urine of healthy persons but it was found in 51.7% of BC samples. Positive expression of MGEA5 was found in urine of both healthy persons (47.1%) and BC patients (52.3%). Poorly differentiated BC (grade III) showed significantly lower MGEA5 expression than grade I tumors. Contrary, OGT transcript level was significantly higher in grade II and III in comparison to grade I BC. Moreover, there was significant difference in OGT expression between early bladder cancers and invasive or advanced bladder cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that analysis of urinary content of MGEA5 and OGT may be useful for bladder cancer diagnostics.

Yehezkel G, Cohen L, Kliger A, et al.
O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) in primary and metastatic colorectal cancer clones and effect of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase silencing on cell phenotype and transcriptome.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(34):28755-69 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation is a regulatory post-translational modification occurring on the serine or threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins. O-GlcNAcylation is dynamically regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), which are responsible for O-GlcNAc addition and removal, respectively. Although O-GlcNAcylation was found to play a significant role in several pathologies such as type II diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, the role of O-GlcNAcylation in the etiology and progression of cancer remains vague. Here, we followed O-GlcNAcylation and its catalytic machinery in metastatic clones of human colorectal cancer and the effect of OGA knockdown on cellular phenotype and on the transcriptome. The colorectal cancer SW620 metastatic clone exhibited increased O-GlcNAcylation and decreased OGA expression compared with its primary clone, SW480. O-GlcNAcylation elevation in SW620 cells, through RNA interference of OGA, resulted in phenotypic alterations that included acquisition of a fibroblast-like morphology, which coincides with epithelial metastatic progression and growth retardation. Microarray analysis revealed that OGA silencing altered the expression of about 1300 genes, mostly involved in cell movement and growth, and specifically affected metabolic pathways of lipids and carbohydrates. These findings support the involvement of O-GlcNAcylation in various aspects of tumor cell physiology and suggest that this modification may serve as a link between metabolic changes and cancer.

Krześlak A, Wójcik-Krowiranda K, Forma E, et al.
Expression of genes encoding for enzymes associated with O-GlcNAcylation in endometrial carcinomas: clinicopathologic correlations.
Ginekol Pol. 2012; 83(1):22-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: O-GlcNAcylation is an abundant modification of cellular proteins which consist of single N-acetylglucosamine residues attached by O-linkage to serine or threonine residues. Abnormal O-GlcNAcylation seems to be a feature of malignant cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the expression of genes encoding O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes (OGT and MGEAS) and clinicopathological parameters of endometrial carcinomas.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA expression levels of O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes in series of 76 samples of endometrial carcinoma were studied by real time RT-PCR method.
RESULTS: The OGT and MGEA5 mRNA expression was significantly higher in tumors of higher histological grade than in well-differentiated tumors. Statistically significant association was found between OGT and MGEA5 mRNA expression and depth of myometrial invasion. Both OGT and MGEA5 expression profiles showed no significant association with the clinical stage of endometrial cancer.
CONCLUSION: O-GlcNAcylation may be an important regulatory modification involved in endometrial cancer pathogenesis but the actual significance of this modification for endometrial cancer progression needs to be investigated further.

Eissa S, Zohny SF, Shehata HH, et al.
Urinary retinoic acid receptor-β2 gene promoter methylation and hyaluronidase activity as noninvasive tests for diagnosis of bladder cancer.
Clin Biochem. 2012; 45(6):402-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the significance of urinary retinoic acid receptor-β2 (RAR-β2) gene promoter methylation and hyaluronidase activity in comparison with voided urine cytology (VUC) in diagnosis of bladder cancer.
DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 100 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer, 65 patients with benign urological disorders and 51 healthy volunteers. Urine supernatant was used for determining hyaluronidase activity by zymography while urine sediment was used for cytology and detection of methylated RAR-β2 gene promoter by methylation specific nested PCR.
RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity were 53% and 90.5% for VUC, 65% and 89.7% for percent methylation fraction of RAR-β2 gene promoter, and 89% and 90.5% for hyaluronidase activity; combination of the three parameters increased sensitivity to 95%. A significant association was observed between investigated markers and advanced grade tumor.
CONCLUSIONS: Combined use of RAR-β2 gene promoter methylation, hyaluronidase activity and VUC is promising non-invasive tool for bladder cancer detection.

Antonescu CR, Zhang L, Nielsen GP, et al.
Consistent t(1;10) with rearrangements of TGFBR3 and MGEA5 in both myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma and hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011; 50(10):757-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite their shared predilection for superficial soft tissue of distal extremities and frequent local recurrences, myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) and hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT) have distinct morphologic appearances. Recent studies have identified an identical t(1;10)(p22;q24) in five cases of MIFS and two of HFLT, as well as common amplifications on 3p11-12. To investigate further their potential relationship and to determine the incidence of t(1;10) in a larger cohort, we subjected seven MIFS, 14 HFLT, and three cases with mixed morphology, to molecular and cytogenetic analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for rearrangements of TGFBR3 on 1p22 and of MGEA5 on 10q24 was performed in all cases, whereas the status of VGLL3 gene amplification on 3p12.1 was investigated in 12 cases. Conventional karyotyping was performed in one HFLT and two cases with mixed MIFS/HFLT histology. Overall 83% of cases showed rearrangements in both TGFBR3 and MGEA5. All three cases with mixed features of MIFS and HFLT were positive. Cytogenetic analysis performed in three cases confirmed an unbalanced der(10)t(1;10)(p22;q24). VGLL3 gene amplification was noted in 10/12 cases of both histologies. The high incidence of t(1;10) in MIFS and HFLT reinforces a shared pathogenetic relationship. Furthermore, the co-existence of both components either synchronously or metachronously in a primary or subsequent recurrence, suggest either different morphologic variants or different levels of tumor progression of a single biologic entity. FISH analysis for TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements can be applied as a reliable diagnostic molecular test when confronted with limited material or a challenging diagnosis.

Uchida K, Oga A, Nakao M, et al.
Loss of 3p26.3 is an independent prognostic factor in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2011; 26(2):463-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignancy worldwide and the prognosis for patients with advanced-stage OSCC is particularly poor. To identify DNA copy number aberrations and candidate genes associated with a poor or favorable outcome, we analyzed the genome profiles of OSCC tumors by array-based comparative genomic hybrid-ization (A-CGH). This technique uses DNA microarray technology to detect genomic copy number variations at a higher resolution level than chromosome-based CGH. Fifty patients with primary OSCCs were included in the study. Of these 50 patients, 37 were treated surgically and 13 were treated without surgery and had received irradiation and/or chemotherapy. All samples were analyzed by A-CGH. Gains were detected frequently (>50%) at chromosomal regions 5p15.33, 7p22.3, 8q21.1-24.3, 9q34.3, 11q13, 16p13.3 and 20q13.3. Losses were frequently detected at 3p22, 3p14 and 4q35.2. High-level gains were recurrently (>10%) detected at each of 5p15, 7p22, 7p11, 8q24, 11q13, 11q22 and 22q11. Gains of 2p25.1, 11p15, 16p13.3, 16q24.3 and 20q13.3 were inversely correlated with nodal metastasis. In 37 of the 50 OSCC patients treated with surgery, gains of 8q12.1-24.22 and losses of 3p26.2-3 were associated with disease-specific survival (p<0.01). Loss of a 0.2 Mb chromosomal region in 3p26.3 was associated with a poor prognostic outcome in the Kaplan-Meier analysis (p<0.01 by the log-rank test). Multivariate analysis revealed that loss of 3p26.3 is an independent prognostic factor (p<0.01) of OSCC. Loss of a 0.2 Mb chromosomal region in 3p26.3 including the CHL1 (cell adhesion molecule with homology to L1CAM1) gene was identified as a novel potential marker for predicting the prognosis of patients with OSCC.

Krześlak A, Forma E, Bernaciak M, et al.
Gene expression of O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes in human breast cancers.
Clin Exp Med. 2012; 12(1):61-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
O-GlcNAcylation is an abundant, dynamic, and inducible posttranslational modification in which single β-N-acetylglucosamine residues are attached by O-glycosidic linkage to serine or treonine residues. It is suggested that abnormally regulated O-GlcNAcylation may contribute to the pathology of cancer. Cycling of O-GlcNAc residues on intracellular proteins is controlled by two enzymes, O-GlcNAc transferease (OGT), which catalyses the addition of O-GlcNAc residues and nucleocytoplasmic β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase; encoded by MGEA5 gene), an enzyme involved in the removal of O-GlcNAc. In this study, relationship between the mRNA expressions of genes coding O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes in breast ductal carcinomas and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. The results showed that poorly differentiated tumors (grade II and III) had significantly higher OGT expression than grade I tumors. Contrary, MGEA5 transcript levels were significantly lower in grade II and III in comparison with grade I tumors. The Spearman rank correlation showed the expressions of OGT and MGEA5 in breast cancer was negatively correlated (r = -0.430, P = 0.0002). Lymph node metastasis status was significantly associated with decreased MGEA5 mRNA expression. This result suggests that elevation in O-GlcNAc modification of proteins may be implicated in breast tumor progression and metastasis.

Nakao M, Kawauchi S, Uchiyama T, et al.
DNA copy number aberrations associated with the clinicopathological features of colorectal cancers: Identification of genomic biomarkers by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
Oncol Rep. 2011; 25(6):1603-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the chromosomal aberrations that are linked with the crucial clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its prognosis by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Fresh-frozen tumor tissues of 94 cases of CRC were analyzed by using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) CGH slides spotted with 4030 human BAC clones, which covered the whole range of the human genome at an average interval of 0.83 mega base pairs. DNA copy number aberrations (DCNAs) were identified in association with clinicopathological features: a gain of 8q24.3 and losses of 9q33.1 and 20p12.2 were associated with lymph node metastasis, gain of 8q24.3 and loss of 9q33.1 with disease stage, gain of 8q21.11 and loss of 10q21.3 with lymphovascular invasion and losses of 3p25.1, 10p15.3, 12q15 and 17p13.1 for venous invasion. These aberrations can be regarded as genomic biomarkers to predict the clinical outcome of patients with CRC, and are expected to serve to individualize the treatment of CRC patients.

Mi W, Gu Y, Han C, et al.
O-GlcNAcylation is a novel regulator of lung and colon cancer malignancy.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011; 1812(4):514-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
O-GlcNAc is a monosaccharide attached to serine or threonine hydroxyl moieties on numerous nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins; O-GlcNAcylation is dynamically regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Although recent studies have shown that O-GlcNAcylation plays essential roles in breast cancer progression, it is also necessary to know whether O-GlcNAcylation is involved in other types of human cancer. In this study, O-GlcNAcylation levels and the expressions of OGT and OGA in human lung and colon cancer tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry analysis. We found that O-GlcNAcylation as well as OGT expression was significantly elevated in the cancer tissues compared with that in the corresponding adjacent tissues. Additionally, the roles of O-GlcNAcylation in the malignancy of lung and colon cancer were investigated in vitro. The results showed that O-GlcNAcylation markedly enhanced the anchorage-independent growth of lung and colon cancer cells; O-GlcNAcylation could also enhance lung and colon cancer invasion in a context-dependent manner. All together, this study suggests that O-GlcNAcylation might play important roles in lung and colon cancer formation and progression, and may be a valuable target for diagnosis and therapy of cancer.

Uchida K, Oga A, Mano T, et al.
Screening for DNA copy number aberrations in mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from the minor salivary gland: two case reports.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 203(2):324-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mucinous adenocarcinoma (MAC) is a rare malignancy in the minor salivary gland. To our knowledge, genomic alterations in this tumor have not been reported previously. To identify DNA copy number aberrations, we applied comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to four samples of MAC in minor salivary gland derived from two patients: a primary tumor and two cervical metastatic lymph nodes from one patient, and a primary tumor from the other patient. Copy number increases were commonly detected in 1q21∼q31 and 20q13, and these may play an important role in MAC carcinogenesis. Copy number increases in 1q, 12p, 12q, and 20q were commonly detected in all three samples derived from patient 1, and gain of 7p and loss of chromosome 4 were additionally detected in the two samples derived from metastatic lymph nodes. Amplifications were also detected in the chromosomal regions 8q22∼qter, 12p11∼p12, 12q11∼q21, and 20q13. Amplification of MDM2 (12q15) and of AURKA (20q13) was detected with fluorescence in situ hybridization. The DNA copy number aberrations detected in MAC in minor salivary glands were different from those reported for colorectal MAC. The present findings are novel in identifying genomic alterations of MAC arising from the minor salivary gland.

Eguchi S, Yamamoto Y, Sakano S, et al.
The loss of 8p23.3 is a novel marker for predicting progression and recurrence of bladder tumors without muscle invasion.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 200(1):16-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
There are few reliable markers to distinguish tumors with aggressive characteristics from others at the time of initial diagnosis in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify a genomic marker that allows the prediction of prognosis for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers. We screened the genome-wide copy number in 41 patients with non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder by array-based comparative genomic hybridization using arrays spotted with 4,030 bacterial artificial chromosome clones. A loss of 8p23.3 (clone 923) was correlated significantly with a higher histological grade (P = 0.0026) and advanced pathological stage (P = 0.0148). Both recurrence-free and progression-free survival rates were lower in patients with tumors without 8p23.3, compared with those with 8p23.3 (P = 0.0146 and 0.0473, respectively; log-rank test). These data suggest that the loss of 8p23.3 is a novel genomic marker allowing estimation of biological characteristics of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Yamamoto Y, Eguchi S, Junpei A, et al.
Intercellular centrosome number is correlated with the copy number of chromosomes in bladder cancer.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2009; 191(1):38-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Centrosome amplification, which may accelerate tumor progression through chromosomal instability, is frequently observed in human malignancies. The intercellular relation between the number of centrosomes and chromosomes, however, is poorly understood. Therefore, the relationship between centrosomes and chromosomal copy number in the same cells was investigated in bladder cancer. Centrosomes were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, using anti-gamma-tubulin antibody in eight bladder cancer cell lines. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with centromeric probes for chromosomes 7, 9, and 17 was then performed on the same cells stained with gamma-tubulin. The number of centrosomes was directly proportional to the number of chromosomes in cells with centrosome amplification, while a large intercellular variation in chromosomal copy number was detected in cells with normal numbers of centrosomes. Cancer cells with centrosome amplification of even centrosome numbers had significantly more even numbers of chromosomes. In cancer cells with four centrosomes, even numbers of chromosomes were detected more frequently (87.5%). These bladder cancer cell lines showed Aurora-A and p53 overexpression. These data indicate the occurrence of centrosome amplification with the possible mechanism of cytokinesis failure, resulting in a doubling of the number of centrosomes and chromosomes.

Hallor KH, Sciot R, Staaf J, et al.
Two genetic pathways, t(1;10) and amplification of 3p11-12, in myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma, haemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumour, and morphologically similar lesions.
J Pathol. 2009; 217(5):716-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma (MIFS) is a low-grade malignant neoplasm for which limited genetic information, including a t(1;10)(p22;q24) and amplification of chromosome 3 material, is available. To further characterize these aberrations, we have investigated eight soft tissue sarcomas diagnosed as MIFS, haemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumour (HFT), myxoid spindle cell/pleomorphic sarcoma with MIFS features, and inflammatory malignant fibrous histiocytoma/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma with prominent inflammation (IMFH) harbouring a t(1;10) or variants thereof and/or ring chromosomes with possible involvement of chromosome 3. Using chromosome banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization, array-based comparative genomic hybridization, global gene expression, and real-time quantitative PCR analyses, we identified the breakpoint regions on chromosomes 1 and 10, demonstrated and delineated the commonly amplified region on chromosome 3, and assessed the consequences of these alterations for gene expression. The breakpoints in the t(1;10) mapped to TGFBR3 in 1p22 and in or near MGEA5 in 10q24, resulting in transcriptional up-regulation of NPM3 and particularly FGF8, two consecutive genes located close to MGEA5. The ring chromosomes contained a commonly amplified 1.44 Mb region in 3p11-12, which was associated with increased expression of VGLL3 and CHMP2B. The identified genetic aberrations were not confined to MIFS; an identical t(1;10) was also found in a case of HFT and the amplicon in 3p was seen in an IMFH.

Furuya T, Uchiyama T, Adachi A, et al.
The development of a mini-array for estimating the disease state of gastric adenocarcinoma by array CGH.
BMC Cancer. 2008; 8:393 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The treatment strategy usually depends on the disease state in the individual patient. However, it is difficult to estimate the disease state before treatment in many patients. The purpose of this study was to develop a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) mini-array allowing for the estimation of node metastasis, liver metastasis, peritoneal dissemination and the depth of tumor invasion in gastric cancers.
METHODS: Initially, the DNA copy number aberrations (DCNAs) were analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) in 83 gastric adenocarcinomas as a training-sample set. Next, two independent analytical methods were applied to the aCGH data to identify the BAC clones with DNA copy number aberrations that were linked with the disease states. One of the methods, a decision-tree model classifier, identified 6, 4, 4, 4, and 7 clones for estimating lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, depth of tumor invasion, and histological type, respectively. In the other method, a clone-by-clone comparison of the frequency of the DNA copy number aberrations selected 26 clones to estimate the disease states.
RESULTS: By spotting these 50 clones together with 26 frequently or rarely involved clones and 62 reference clones, a mini-array was made to estimate the above parameters, and the diagnostic performance of the mini-array was evaluated for an independent set of 30 gastric cancers (blinded - sample set). In comparison to the clinicopathological features, the overall accuracy was 66.7% for node metastasis, 86.7% for liver metastasis, 86.7% for peritoneal dissemination, and 96.7% for depth of tumor invasion. The intratumoral heterogeneity barely affected the diagnostic performance of the mini-array.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the mini-array makes it possible to determine an optimal treatment for each of the patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.

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